Antimicrobial activity of the fruit-seeds Madhuca longifolia (Koenig)

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Abstract
The investigation was carried out to study the antibacterial activity of the Madhuca longifolia(Koenig) in gram positive and gram negative organism.. Antimicrobial activity of the acetone and aqueous extracts of M.longifolia were determined against various pathogenic bacteria. The extracts were tested against various bacteria like Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginos, .E.coli by disk diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of both extracts were determined. It is concluded that acetone extract exhibited significant antimicrobial activity. The study lends scientific support for it’s use in folk medicine.
Chirantan S Chakma IRJP 2011, 2 (9), 192-193
INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF PHARMACY, 2(9), 2011
INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF PHARMACY ISSN 2230 8407
Available online www.irjponline.com Research Article
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE FRUIT-SEEDS MADHUCA LONGIFOLIA (KOENIG)
Chirantan S Chakma*
Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India
Article Received on: 06/07/11 Revised on: 10/08/11 Approved for publication: 14/09/11
*B. Pharmacy College, Rampura Kakanpur Dept Of Pharmacology Ta: Godhra, Gujarat Email: cchirantan@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
The investigation was carried out to study the antibacterial activity of the Madhuca longifolia(Koenig) in gram positive and gram negative organism.. Antimicrobial activity of
the acetone and aqueous extracts of M.longifolia were determined against various pathogenic bacteria. The extracts were tested against various bacteria like Ba cillus subtilis,
Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginos, .E.coli by disk diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) valu es of both extracts were determined. It is
concluded that acetone extract exhibited significant antimicrobial activity. The study lends scientific support for its use in folk medicine.
KEYWORDS: Madhuca longifolia, Antimicrobial.
INTRODUCTION
Madhuca longifolia, commonly known as mahwa or mahua
belonging to family Sapotaceae, is an Indian tropical tree found
largely in the central and north Indian plains and forests. It is a fast
growing tree that grows to approximately 20 meters in height,
possesses evergreen or semi-evergreen. It is adapted to arid
environoments, being a prominent tree in tropical mixed deciduous
forests in India in the states of Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar,
Madhya Pradesh, Kerala, Gujarat. Previous phytochemical studies
reported that presence of terpinoids, saponins ,flavonoids and
glycosides in M.longifolia seeds.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Chemical used
The following chemicals were used in study-Dimethyl formadine,
Ampicillin.
Plant material and extraction
The seeds samples were collected from Tambaram Tamilnadu,
India, during December and January 2009 and authenticated by Dr.
P. Jayraman,Director of PARC . The specimen sampleNo.21 is kept
at Department,B.Pharmacy College, Rampura, Kakanpur, Godhra ,
Gujarat.
Preparation of Extracts
The air-dried seeds of powder material (200 gm) of M. longifolia
were prepared with water and acetone was placed in reflux
condenser and was subjected to extraction by hot percolation method
and were defatted with petroleum ether. The extract was evaporated
to dryness in vacuo.
Antibacterial Screening
Test organism used
Gram positive organisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis
Gram negative organisms: Escheria coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Antibacterial Screening
Antibacterial screening of acetone and aqueous extracts of Madhuca
longifolia was performed against 4 pathogenic bacteria(2 gram
positive and 2 gram negative) by the standard disc diffusion method.
Each Petri dish was inoculated with one of the bacterial cultures
suitably diluted to contain above 106 cells/ml by spreading 0.1 ml
suspension of the organism with a sterile cotton swab. In each plate
cups of 6 mm diameter were made at equal distances using sterile
cork borer. One cup was filled with 0.1 ml of standard drug, another
with 0.1 ml of DMF, and others were filled with 0.1 ml of samples
in sterile DMF. Ampicillin was used as an antibacterial standard.
The Petri dishes were incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. The diameter
of zone of inhibition in mm was recorded after incubation. The
experiment was performed in triplicates and average diameter of
zone of inhibition was obtained.
Determination of MIC
The extracts that showed antibacterial activity were subjected to
minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assayed by serial two fold
dilution method. A positive control and negative control were also
prepared to confirm the nutritive and sterility properties of the
prepared medium respectively. All the tubes were incubated at 37°C
for 24 hours. MIC was interpreted as the lowest concentration of the
sample, which showed clear fluid without development of turbidity.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The antibacterial activity of the different extracts of Madhuca
longifolia showed significant variation as shown in Table 1. Among
the two extracts tested acetone extract had greater antibacterial
potential, followed by aqueous extract.
Antibacterial potency of the different extracts of Madhuca longifolia
against the tested bacterial stains were expressed in MIC as
presented in Table 1. The MIC values against these bacteria, and
fungal strains ranged from 14.47 to 67.5 µg/ml.
CONCLUSION
The present study indicate that Madhuca longifolia extracts have
broad inhibitory activities to pathogenic microorganism and
promising to act as potential antibacterial agent from natural
sources. The development of oedema in the paw of the rat after the
injection of carrageenan is due to release of histamine secretion and
prostaglandins like substances. Significantly high anti-inflammatory
activity of acetone extract Madhuca longifolia may be due to
inhibition of the mediators of inflammation such as histamine,
serotonin and prostaglandins. Further laboratory and clinical studies
of this plant is required in order to understand better antibacterial
and anti-inflammatory principles which will allow scientific
community to recommended their use as an accessible alternative to
synthetic drugs.
REFERENCES
1. Dinesh C: Analgesic effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Madhuca
longifolia (Koenig)Ind J Pharmcol., 2001;33:108-111.
2. Kazuko Yoshikawa, Masami Tanaka, Shigenobu Arihara, Bikas Chandra Pal,
Subodh Kumar ROY, Eiko Matsumura,and Satoshi Katayama, New oleanene
Triterpen Saponin from Madhuca longifolia , J.Nat.Prod.2000;63:1679-1681.
3. Mohamed FR, Sharana basappa G, Parmjyothi S, Seshagiri M, Joerg-Thomas
Moersel Profile and levels of fatty acids and bioactive constituentsin mahua
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A, Latha Kumari KS and Divyashree MS, Ba cterial synthesis of poly
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Chirantan S Chakma IRJP 2011, 2 (9), 192-193
INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL OF PHARMACY, 2(9), 2011
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.Table 1: Antimicrobial activity and MIC values of extracts of Madhuca longifolia
Microorganisms
Zone of Inhibition(mm)
MIC (µg/ml)
Acetone Extract
Aqueous Extract
Ampicillin
Acetone Extract
Aqueous Extract
23
13
26
15.62
33.45
19
14.47
28
15.62
62.5
17
14
23
15.62
29.25
25
16
25
15.62
15.62
Source of support: Nil, Conflict of interest: None Declared
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