Antioxidative mechanism of isolated components from methanol extract of fruit hulls of Garcinia mangostana L

Article · January 1997with 10 Reads

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  • ... The antioxidant properties of α-mangostin which have been studied are summarized inTable 1. These antioxidant properties were demonstrated through the ferric thiocyanate method (Fan and Su, 1997; Yoshikawa et al., 1994). (Williams et al., 1995) discovered that α – mangostin reduces copper-or peroxyl radicals-induced oxidation of the human low density lipoproteins (LDL). ...
    ... Reference α-mangostin showed antioxidant properties using the ferric thiocyanate method (Fan and Su, 1997; Yoshikawa et al., 1994) α-mangostin is acting as a free radical scavenger to protect the LDL from oxidative damage. ...
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    Over the past decades, various studies have highlighted the pure natural compound, α-mangostin as their main topic. The compound’s pre-clinical and pharmacological properties have been recognized and defined in these studies. α-mangostin shows strong pharmacological effects in in vitro and in vivo model systems by targeting a number of vital cellular factors through various mechanisms of action. Despite its important molecular versatility, the α-mangostin still has limited clinical application. In order to optimize the conditions of this compound as a chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive agent, for instance in diseases such as cancer, obesity, diabetes as well as inflammatory disorders, the recent tendency is to limit the range of its pharmacological properties. The present work reviews recent studies on the central and potential pharmacological principles as well as the preclinical applications of the α-mangostin.
  • ... The underlying mechanisms include (i) direct free radical scavenging, (ii) modulation of oxidative stressrelated enzymes, and (iii) attenuation of inflammation. α-MG was firstly proven to have antioxidant activity using the ferric thiocyanate method [42,43]. Thereafter, Williams et al. [44] found that α-MG served as a free radical scavenger to inhibit LDL oxidation induced by copper or peroxyl radical. ...
    Cancer chemoprevention is a promising strategy taken to block, reverse, or retard carcinogenesis. α-Mangostin, a natural xanthone isolated from the pericarps of mangosteen, represents one of the most studied chemopreventive agents. This compound has been reported to interfere with all the major stages of carcinogenesis: initiation, promotion, and progression. A number of mechanisms have been proposed for its anticarcinogenic activities. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the mechanisms that contribute to the observed activity of α-mangostin related to (i) modulation of carcinogenic biotransformation and mitigation of oxidative damage, (ii) induction of growth arrest and apoptosis, (iii) suppression of angiogenesis and metastasis, and (iv) combination with clinical chemotherapy drugs enhancing their efficacy and decreasing the toxic side effects. In addition, pharmacokinetic and toxicological studies of α-mangostin have also been highlighted in this review. Despite an overwhelming amount of knowledge in preclinical studies, there was almost no translation of α-mangostin into the clinic. It is hoped that continuous extensive and profound research will lead to the application of α-mangostin from experimental studies to evidence-based, clinically applicable pharmacotherapy.
  • Book
    This book continues as volume 2 of a multi-compendium on Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants. It covers edible fruits/seeds used fresh or processed, as vegetables, spices, stimulants, pulses, edible oils and beverages. It encompasses species from the following families: Clusiaceae, Combretaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Dilleniaceae, Ebenaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Ericaceae and Fabaceae. This work will be of significant interest to scientists, researchers, medical practitioners, pharmacologists, ethnobotanists, horticulturists, food nutritionists, agriculturists, botanists, herbalogists, conservationists, teachers, lecturers, students and the general public. Topics covered include: taxonomy (botanical name and synonyms); common English and vernacular names; origin and distribution; agro-ecological requirements; edible plant part and uses; botany; nutritive and medicinal/pharmacological properties, medicinal uses and current research findings; non-edible uses; and selected/cited references.
  • Article
    α- and γ-mangostin are natural xanthones isolated from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) and the major constituents responsible for the plant's diverse biological activities. In this study, the effects of α- and γ-mangostin on platelets were investigated based on their possible antiplatelet activity. Treatment of isolated platelets with α-mangostin resulted in attenuation of platelet aggregatory response to collagen, thrombin or ADP. Such antiaggregatory effects were concentration-dependent in ranges of 1-10 μM. Interestingly, α-mangostin alone induced shape changes in platelets at the same concentration, and higher levels, 25 and 50 μM caused platelet lysis. Similarly, γ-mangostin induced shape changes and inhibited aggregation at 2.5-25 μM, while 50 and 100 μM γ-mangostin exhibited cytotoxicity. Platelet shape change induced by α- and γ-mangostin was accompanied by increases in myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation. MLC phosphorylation and subsequent shape changes were prevented by pretreatment with Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y-27632, but not by the intracellular Ca(2+) chelating with BAPTA-AM and extracellular Ca(2+) removal. Cytolysis by both α- and γ-mangostin was abolished in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+). Taken together, α- and γ-mangostin have differential effects on platelets depending on their concentration, which includes inducing shape change, inhibiting aggregation and causing cytolysis. Platelet shape change is attributed to stimulation of the Rho/ROCK signaling pathway, while platelet lysis is presumably mediated by extracellular Ca(2+) influx. These results suggest that mangosteen consumption may have potential platelet effects, although the in vivo or clinical consequences have yet to be assessed.
  • Article
    The flowers, stems, and leaves of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L var italica Plenca) cultivated in Taiwan were freeze-dried and extracted with methanol, water, or acetone. The antioxidant properties, including reducing power, ferrous ion chelating ability, and α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, were tested in this study. The above antioxidant properties of broccoli extracts along with alpha-tocopherol and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) were compared. Results showed that the methanol and water extracts exhibited a higher reducing power in all three parts; while the acetone extract was the least. The stem extracts showed the highest reducing power, which was 1.3 times those alpha-tocopherol and BHA extracts, followed by the leaf extracts, which exhibited similar reducing power to alpha-tocopherol and BHA. The lowest reducing power was observed on flower extracts, which was only three fourth of the reducing power as compared to alpha-tocopherol and BHA. The methanol and water extracts of broccoli also exhibited high chelating ability; while the acetone extracts showed the lowest. The broccoli stem exhibited the highest chelating ability among three parts of broccoli. The acetone extracts from stems hardly showed any chelating ability as compared to alpha-tocopherol and BHA. The methanol extracts of broccoli showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (>90%) among three different solvent extracts. Its DPPH radical scavenging activity was close to BHA and alpha-tocopherol. The water extracts showed only 43% DPPH radical scavenging activity; while the acetone extracts barely showed any DPPH radical scavenging activity.
  • Chapter
    This book continues as volume 2 of a multi-compendium on Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants. It covers edible fruits and seeds used fresh, cooked or processed into other by-products, or used as vegetables, spices, stimulants, edible oils and beverages. It encompasses species from the following families: Clusiaceae, Combretaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Dilleniaceae, Ebenaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Ericaceae and Fabaceae. However, not all the edible species in these families are included for want of coloured illustrations. The edible species dealt with in this work include to a larger extent lesser-known, wild and underutilized crops and also common and widely grown crops.
  • Chapter
    Several plants and their active constituents have attractive biological properties with potential therapeutic applications. The fruits of Garcinia mangostana (family: Guttiferae) or mangosteen are the most valued part of this plant and are famous for the remarkably pleasant flavor. Therefore, mangosteen was even named as the “queen of tropical fruits.” Mangosteen is a fruit found in tropical countries throughout Asia, such as Thailand, India, Malaysia, Vietnam, and the Philippines. It also grows reasonably well in areas such as Hawaii and tropical Northern Australia. People in these countries have used the pericarp of G. mangostana as a traditional medicine for the treatment of various illnesses like abdominal pain, diarrhea, dysentery, infected wound, suppuration, and chronic ulcer. Modern research showed that different extracts of G. mangostana possess antioxidant, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antitumoral, and antiviral activities. The pericarp of G. mangostana is a source of xanthones and other bioactive components. Xanthones have been isolated from pericarp, whole fruit, heartwood, and leaves. α-, β-, and γ-mangostins along with Prenylated xanthones are the most important and studied xanthones. The intention of this chapter is to summarize the beneficial properties of G. mangostana and its bioactive components in prevention of skin disorders.
  • Article
    Obesity has reached epidemic proportion worldwide, both obesity and its related diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, have become major public health challenges. Fruits are important dietary components, and bioactive constituents from fruits are considered to be an excellent source for developing future effective, safe anti-obesity drugs. Garcinia mangostana Linn. (Clusiaceae) is a tropical evergreen tree. Its fruit, mangosteen, is called ‘Queen of Fruit’. The pericarp of G. mangostana has been used for centuries in Southeast Asia as a medical agent for treatment of various diseases. Mangosteen originated products are widely consumed to ameliorate metabolic dysfunction and the resultant metabolic syndrome. However, the chemical principles and underlying mechanisms are remaining unclear. In this review, the recent chemical and pharmacological studies including weigh reduction, anti-adipogenesis, anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation related to G. mangostana were summarized. The aim of this review is to shed light on the role of G. mangostana and its constituents in preventing or treating obesity, which will attract more interest to develop potential therapeutic method.
  • Article
    The α-Mangostin and -Mangostin were mainly isolated from Garcinia Mangostana L. as representative Xanthone's natural products of plant origin, revealed high activity of antitumor, antioxidation and other diverse pharmacological activities. A series of α, γ-Mangostin derivatives LT-1~17 has been synthesized, and confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS(supplement file). Compounds LT-2~17, as novel Xanthone, have been reported for the first time. Their antitumor activities have been investigated by MTT method in cell lines: A549, K562, CNE, KB-3-1, MCF-7 and HepG2. A number of compounds showed potent anti-tumor activity, in some cases even higher (more effective) than Mangostins. Compound 3 with an IC50 value of 1.73 μM in the A549 cell line, which was two-fold, acted more active than ADM (adriamycin) and α, γ-Mangostin, and had the most potent anti-tumor activity (IC50=2.15 μM) for the MCF-7 cell line in all synthetic derivatives. α, γ-Mangostin and ADM showed potent anti-tumor activity (IC50=2.82 μM) for HepG2 cell line, and less potent anti-tumor activity in other cell lines compared with the compound LT-12. It was obtained by esterification of the C-3, C-7 phenolic-OH of the α-Mangostin with acetyl group resulted the potent anti-tumor acvitity, which indicated that the phenolic-OH of the Mangostins had a great impaction on the anti-tumor activity of Mangostins.
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