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Majority World: Challenging the West's Rhetoric of Democracy

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Abstract

In the early 1990s, I began advocating for a new expression "majority world" to represent what has formerly been known as the "Third World." The term highlights the fact that we are indeed the majority of humankind. It also brings to sharp attention the anomaly that the Group of 8 countries—whose decisions affect majority of the world's peoples—represent a tiny fraction of humankind. The term majority world, now increasingly being used, challenges the West's rhetoric of democracy. It also defines the community in terms of what it has, rather than what it lacks. In time, the majority world will reaffirm its place in a world where the earth will again belong to the people who walk on it.

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... Finally, a brief note about terminology: In keeping with previous writing (Hudson, 2012), I will be using Shahidul Alam's (2008) term majority world throughout this paper in place of phrases like "developing world," "underdeveloped nations," and "Third World." Alam (2008) coined this phrase to address the "strong negative connotations" of these latter traditional terms, which, he argues, "reinforce the stereotypes about poor communities and represent them as icons of poverty" (p. ...
... Finally, a brief note about terminology: In keeping with previous writing (Hudson, 2012), I will be using Shahidul Alam's (2008) term majority world throughout this paper in place of phrases like "developing world," "underdeveloped nations," and "Third World." Alam (2008) coined this phrase to address the "strong negative connotations" of these latter traditional terms, which, he argues, "reinforce the stereotypes about poor communities and represent them as icons of poverty" (p. 89). ...
... 89). To again draw on Alam's (2008) words, the use of the phrase majority world (and its counterpart minority world instead of developed world) captures, the fact that we are indeed the majority of humankind. It also brings sharp attention to the anomaly that the Group of 8 countries-whose decisions affect the majority of the world's people-represent a tiny fraction of humankind [...] It also defines the community in terms of what it has, rather than what it lacks. ...
Article
This article presents a critical race analysis of Library and Information Studies (LIS) writing on global information inequality, that body of literature focused on the connection between global suffering and disparities in information access related to available content, technologies, infrastructure, and skills. I argue that global information inequality represents a key site for the reproduction of racialized discourse in the field. In particular, I contend that the construction of information inequality as a sign of marginalization powerfully (if tacitly) extends colonial mythologies of racial Otherness and Western civilizational superiority. My engagement with critical race and anti- colonial scholarship in support of this claim focuses on two key ideas: (a) the construction of racial difference in colonial discourse, particularly its recourse to narratives of intellectual and technological capacity; and (b) the concept of (international) development as an example of the relatively recent shift to racialized discourse largely stripped of explicit racial coding. After sketching these ideas in broad strokes, I turn to a critical analysis of such racially encoded international development discourse in global information inequality literature, with a focus on the dynamics of narratives, imagery, and other systems of meaning. The paper both builds on existing critiques of LIS infor- mation inequality discourse and contributes a global- facing perspective to a small body of LIS critical race work that has tended to focus on domestic (rather than international) contexts.
... Other civilisations emerged, then declined, in various parts of the world: Aztec, Maya and Inca in nowaday Central/South America, Zimbabwe in Africa, for example. Today, there are various conceptions of the globe and civilisations within it, which are derived through different classifications such as income, politics or geography, for example: first world, second world, third world, fourth world (Wolf-Phillips, 1987); developed or developing world; the global north or global south, (Dados & Connell, 2012); the minority or 4 majority world (Alam, 2008). Global hegemony can also be seen in the exclusive dating system of BC/AD which is slowly being replaced with a more inclusive BCE/CE. ...
... The familiar Mercator projection of the world aggrandizes the middle latitude countries, at the expense of their tropical neighbours. (Wolf-Phillips, 1987); developed or developing world; the global north or global south, (Dados & Connell, 2012); the minority or 4 majority world (Alam, 2008). Global hegemony can also be seen in the exclusive dating system of BC/AD which is slowly being replaced with a more inclusive BCE/CE. ...
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A multiplicity of issues demonstrates the relentless shrinking of our planet. From melting ice caps to COVID-19 to BlackLivesMatter, we are immersed in issues both complex and chaotic in nature (Kurtz & Snowden, 2003), resulting in challenges that affect all individuals and communities. The new geographical, economic, political and social connectedness of our worlds has emerged largely through advances in technology (Schwab, 2016) and has also led to interactions with people whose life experiences and backgrounds can be vastly different from our own. For those of us in richer nations, our lives would be probably difficult to have imagined by our forebears just two or three generations ago. While our lives can be immensely rewarding and enriching by comparison, our lifestyles often make hefty and unsustainable demands on the planet. Models of educating our students, to provide a literate workforce for the industrial age and manufacturing empires are no longer adequate for living or working in this complex global society (Takayama, 2013; Facer, 2011; Dede, 2010). Indeed, Montpoint-Galliard (2015) suggests that “our vision of education is tied to our vision of society” (p.105). This raises questions such as, what do our rapidly emerging societies look like and, how do we educate for our future prosperity within these societies? In this article we argue for a need to reframe education so that it is fit for the modern world. Within this context, we revisit the purpose of education and make the case for globally competent educators. It is our contention that we cannot discuss this field without understanding the emerging landscape in which education operates.
... Practitioners in research management in Southern Africa, or who occupy what Alam (2008) describes as part of the Majority world, may be said to identify with the concerns expressed globally. On the side of Southern Africa, many of these concerns are exacerbated by geo-political inequalities. ...
... Upon the collective reflection (Reynolds & Vince, 2004) of the SARIMA membership as they began implementation of the strategic decision, the members decided not to "cut and paste" any existing framework, but instead to use such knowledge as a benchmark. The way forward was therefore to enter the professionalization cycle (Curnow & McGonigle, 2006) and to embark on self-regulation (Lester, 2016) through working collaboratively and co-creating an indigenous framework that could reflect, what some deem, as a global South or Majority World view (Alam, 2008). The project inception included setting up a strongly regional Project Advisory Committee (PAC) as the governance structure, and Project Working Group (PWG), respectively that entailed drawing both from members of SARIMA and external role-players. ...
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Article
In the furtherance of knowledge, researchers and research are supported organizationally, but sometimes organically. Yet the research enterprise needs to be systemically managed. Research managers, however, are still striving to define their functions. Is research management part of the continuum of research itself ? Is it an occupation? Is it a profession? Increasingly scholars are problematizing what the professionalization discourses mean for research management. Alongside other professionalization initiatives, the Southern Africa Research and Innovation Management Association (SARIMA) developed a Professional Competency Framework (PCF) for research management. The article addresses at a micro-to-meta level of analysis, the conceiving of the PCF, and then posits how the developmental journey towards a PCF may fit into a macro impetus towards professionalization. The findings extend theorising around competencies, professionalization and attendant methodologies.
... Yet, the ability for higher education institutions in the Majority and Minority World 1 to work in an equal and collaborative context is often 1 Majority and Minority World refer to two world areas. Majority World refers to areas in which most of the world's population and landmass are located, but are often economically poorer (Alam, 2008). Minority World refers to economically more privileged countries (Alam, 2008). ...
... Majority World refers to areas in which most of the world's population and landmass are located, but are often economically poorer (Alam, 2008). Minority World refers to economically more privileged countries (Alam, 2008). These terms are inherently problematic due to the dichotomy they create, which many countries do not fit within neatly. ...
Article
Scholarship on international higher education partnerships is often framed by strategic management and organization theories. These approaches are useful, but can minimize how power dynamics and positioning of partners impact engagement and outcomes. This study uses qualitative inquiry to examine 60 international higher education partnerships through the lens of mutuality in order to emphasize how partners negotiate and navigate power. Partnerships were comprised of a university in the U.S. and in the Majority World with the goal of addressing international development challenges. Findings emphasize the process of partnership creation, navigating cross-cultural contexts, partner positioning and partnership dynamics, and stakeholder engagement. © 2017 Association for the Study of Higher Education. All rights reserved.
... 5 This is not to say that notable wealth and class disparities do not exist within the class of peasant farmers (Naranjo 2012: 232-235). But condensing all of these groups into the term peasant allows LVC to include millions of farmers in the "Minority World" (the industrialized countries/Global North: see Alam 2008), who may be "far more peasant than most of us know or want to admit" (van der Ploeg 2008: xiv), and many of whom are members of LVC. 6 How can LVC include all of these people, in their economic, cultural, and political variation, under the rubric of "peasant"? Clearly, as a movement, LVC cannot genuinely claim to have sustained integration between its international networks and the social networks of every family farmer, subsistence farmer, sharecropper, agricultural laborer, and landless person in the world (i.e., meet both of Tarrow's requirements for a true transnational movement). ...
... This additionally decreases the sustainability of the food system, as control and uniformity of a heterogeneous world requires significant and continuously growing inputs of energy (Tainter 1988), and is in opposition to the idiosyncrasy, variety, and thus adaptability and stability of peasant farming systems (Di Falco and Perrings 2003, Edelman 2005, Jarvis et al. 2011. Social traditions, diversity, and culture are also lost: "subsistence customs and traditional social 13 As before, this refelcts Alam's (2008) nomenclature of the Minority (Global North) and Majority (Global South) Worlds. 14 "Corporate power is now so great within and between national borders that it is redefining what is meant by a 'market'… corporate policy is becoming more fully engaged in public policy to further its own interests, thus raising questions about accountability," (Lang and Heasman 2004: 127). ...
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This chapter is from the forthcoming Oxford Handbook of Food, Politics, and Society edited by Ronald Herring. This article examines La Vía Campesina (LVC), or the International Peasant Farmers' movement. The LVC, founded by farm leaders in 1993, is currently made up of 148 peasant organizations in sixty-nine countries. LVC claims to represent the interests of at least 200 million farmers and has been touted as the largest and one of the most important social movements in the world. The article describes the LVC's fight for normatively defensible values-for a food system reflecting ideals of ethics and justice-and its quest to develop defensible lifespaces for small farmers in terms of socioeconomic, ecological, and political autonomy. It also examines how their aims and tactics align with current scholarship on the issues of sustainability and autonomy.
... Recently, scholars like Sharon Stein (2017) and resource distribution in the internationalization of education." Articles from critical internationalization scholars regularly ask us to consider the power dynamics between scholars from the Minority World, which refers to economically privileged countries, vs scholars from the Majority World, which refers to the largest land mass and the areas in which most of the world's population, who are mostly Black and Brown, are located (Alam, 2008). The power dynamics between institutions from the Minority world and the Majority world regarding international partnerships should also be considered. ...
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Article
As many of you have been doing over the last two years, I have been giving a lot of thought to the state of international education as we rebuild and reimagine it. My focus is on rebuilding and reimagining international education for the world we want to live in. I believe that historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) offer important lessons on internationalization that have often been overlooked. There is a rich history of international engagement at HBCUs that has been ignored or excluded. Black Internationalism, a term into which I delve deeper in this essay, has been around for a long time; I use this term to guide this essay and to begin to rescue some of that history. The result is an alternative approach to internationalization.
... Despite the breadth of GBV, most studies concerning this issue take place within the minority world with limited evidence focused on sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) (Muluneh et al., 2020). We use the terms 'minority world' and 'majority world' to draw attention to the anomaly that the decisions of countries in the minority high income world affect the majority of people (Alam, 2008). Studies conducted in SSA are small-scale and mostly take place within districts and therefore are not generalizable to the wider population (Abramsky et al., 2011). ...
Chapter
Since 2015, the United Nations call to action about the goals of the Sustainable Development Goals, including targets related to the health and well-being of populations. Indigenous populations in southern Mexico are the most affected by social inequities, making traditional medicine more accessible and affordable for their treatment. This chapter aims to describe traditional medicine practices in the main illness conditions of Mexican indigenous communities. A case study was carried out in Oaxaca (Mexico) between 2017 and 2019. Surveys were applied to retrieve information on these communities’ knowledge and practices regarding traditional medicine. Several traditional practices were recovered to cure diseases cataloged in international classifications and cultural affiliation syndromes among the main results. 70.3% of the participants used homemade remedies, topically, in preparation of tea, and some compositions of medicinal herbs. Mezcal, the typical alcoholic beverage of the region, has also been reported as one of the most widely used. In addition to the conception of biomedical disease, a total of 40 syndromes of cultural filiation or “cultural diseases” were reported; the most frequent were empacho (indigestion), followed by the mal de ojo (the evil eye), and susto (frighten). This chapter brings us closer to knowing how they cope with illness by using traditional medicine in indigenous communities without the use of health services. Contributing to reach the Sustainable Development Goal 3 (SDG3).KeywordsTraditional medicineCultural affiliation syndromesPrimary healthcare
... In addition, it has been criticized for lacking specificity in other respects (e.g. a clear definition of democracy), and not acknowledging race and ethnicity (Syed, 2021), leading some to argue that whiteness is the unifying factor within research from WEIRD countries (Clancy & Davis, 2019). The terminology of Majority World versus the Minority World refers to the countries (combined) in which most of the world's population live (Alam, 2019). While it is not intended to be used in a pejorative sense, it serves as a reminder that Western countries are in the minority (Khan et al., 2022). ...
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Article
It has become increasingly apparent that publishing research on child development from certain countries is especially challenging. These countries have been referred to collectively as the Majority World, the Global South, non-WEIRD (Western, Educated, Industrial, Rich, and Democratic), or low-and middle-income countries. The aim of this paper is to draw attention to these persistent challenges , and provide constructive recommendations to contribute to better representation of children from these countries in child development research. In this paper, we outline the history of publication bias in developmental science , and issues of generalization of research from these countries and hence where it 'fits' in terms of publishing. The importance of explaining context is highlighted, including for research on measurement child development outcomes , and attention is drawn to the vicious publication
... In the Majority World countries (MWC- Alam, 2008), also referred to as countries with low-and middle-income, there are additional challenges in accessing services. These include the stigma of mental illness, caregiver disengagement, lack of contextualized and culturally adapted interventions, and limited specialist resources (Patel et al., 2018;WHO, 2016). ...
... The Majority World denotes those countries combined which hold most of the world's population. 29 The term is often deliberately used to remind the West that these countries outnumber them. While there are no negative connotations, most people in the Western world do not appreciate being referred to as the 'minority' as it implies that they are-or ought to be-less powerful due to being fewer in number. ...
... This re-framing of the concepts, "minority" and "majority", which serve to challenge the existing order or status quo, was initiated in the 1990s by a photographer and human rights activist named Shahidul Alam who objected to his country (i.e. Bangladesh) and others under the thumb of coloniality and exploitation being referred to as "the third world" (Alam, 2008). Majority World Countries include sub-Saharan Africa, parts of the Caribbean, parts of Asia, and Central and South America. ...
Article
Purpose: This article highlights critical issues facing speech, language and hearing educators, clinicians, and scholars that pertain to culturally and linguistically responsive and globally sustainable practices. Method: Points included in this article pertain to the usefulness of understanding causes and consequences of world changes; and the importance of critically examining and reconceptualizing practices in ways that eliminate the vestiges of ableism, racism, and colonialism embedded in those practices. Result: This article provides strategies for moving away from positivist science and a medical model to critical science and a social model of disability for critically analysing the impact that the changing social, political, and global landscapes have on our practices. Conclusion: These strategies will help members of the discipline to rethink policies and standards that can transform practices into those that continue to be culturally responsive, globally sustainable, and relevant in this new global context.
... Do the accessibility ideals and emancipatory frameworks of the American disability rights movement (DRM) become forms of cultural hegemony within majority world 1 contexts? We use the term 'majority world' in keeping with the example of Bangladeshi photojournalist Shahidul Alam, to reject the Western-centric language of 'developing nations' which hides histories of oppression, extraction and continuing exploitation (Alam 2019). Landry, reflecting on his own career of global health rehabilitation practice in majority world nations, questioned whether the disability studies framework is an imposition, a form of white saviorism being mapped onto a culture with fewer resources and different norms of gender and religion. ...
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This article puts critical disability studies and global health into conversation around the phenomenon of scarf injury in Bangladesh. Scarf injury occurs when a woman wearing a long, traditional scarf called an orna rides in a recently introduced autorickshaw with a design flaw that allows the orna to become entangled in the vehicle’s driveshaft. Caught in the engine, the orna pulls the woman’s neck into hyperextension, causing a debilitating high cervical spinal cord injury and quadriplegia. The circumstances of the scarf injury reveal the need for more critical cultural analysis than the fields of global health and rehabilitation typically offer. First, the fatal design flaw of the vehicle reflects different norms of gender and dress in China, where the vehicle is manufactured, versus Bangladesh, where the vehicle is purchased at a low price and assembled on-site—a situation that calls transnational capitalist modes of production and exchange into question. Second, the experiences of women with scarf injuries entail many challenges beyond the injury itself: the transition to life with disability following the rehabilitation period is made more difficult by negative perceptions of disability, lack of resources and accessible infrastructure, and cultural norms of gender and class in Bangladesh. Our cross-disciplinary conversation about women with scarf injuries, involving critical disability studies, global health and rehabilitation experts, exposes the shortcomings of each of these fields but also illustrates the urgent need for deeper and more purposeful collaborations. We, therefore, argue that the developing subfield of global health humanities should include purposeful integration of a humanities-based critical disability studies methodology.
... International student mobility's intersection with permanent immigration arose largely in the past 25 years. In an intensifying global race for so-called 'highly skilled,' or higher-wage, economic migrants at the turn of the century, many minority-world countries (a term roughly analogous to Global North; see Alam, 2008) economically and demographically dependent on immigrants came to function as recruiters rather than gatekeepers, facilitating "talent for citizenship" exchanges (Shachar, 2006, p. 148). The U.S., Canada, Australia, and France attracted particularly high net inflows of highly-educated migrants during this time (OECD, 2008), and many remained long-term. ...
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Article
The ongoing dissertation investigates the EU-funded Tuning Central Asia initiative, which aimed to support curriculum convergence in higher education in five Central Asian countries. The Tuning Central Asian Higher Education Area (TuCAHEA)initiative is selected as a successful case of an inter-regional project that helped to prepare the ground for further higher education regionalization in Central Asia in the period between 2012 and2016.The study adopts the constructivist paradigm from International Relations and Deductive Qualitative Analysis as research designs and data analysis methods. This is a simultaneous qualitative case study, in which data is gathered by means of semi-structured interviews and qualitative content analysis of scholarly publications by European and Central Asian members of the Tuning community. The concept of epistemic community is applied to understand the role of academic expertsin higher education regionalization.
... Con questo termine mi approprio di un'espressione utilizzata daAlam (2008) per descrivere quell'area geografica non compresa nel cosiddetto mondo occidentale e che corrisponde all'83% del nostro pianeta. ...
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Article
Research on gender variance in childhood has for many years been limited to analyzing health issues and has therefore mostly been implemented in the medical and psychiatric field. The social and family context was generally neglected and only in recent years has it received the attention of researchers from the social sciences. Although research of this type is mostly limited to the North American context, this literary review aims to highlight the work that has been done so far. The importance of these selected studies lies on the experience of families of gender-variant children as told to us by the parents themselves. The work highlights the practical and discursive strategies implemented by parents to
... In moving towards equity in international higher education research and teaching, we choose to enact George Mwangi and Yao's (2020) call to de/construct terminology and concepts in an effort to move towards equity-driven international research. As such, we use the terms "Majority World" and "Minority World" to refer to countries and regions, as popularized by Alam (2008). Majority World countries are typically called the Global South, Third World, or Developing Countries that are low resourced yet are the majority of the world's population, natural resources, and land. ...
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Article
Doctoral education is often lauded as a site of academic socialization and research training for nascent scholars. However, discussions of socialization seldom problematize the dangers of intellectual imperialism and methodological nationalism inherent in doctoral researcher socialization. As such, the traditional socialization practices for doctoral students in the United States (U.S.) must be interrogated and expanded to move towards equitable practices for research, especially for students conducting international research. Using social and spatial positioning as our conceptual framing, we problematize and question current approaches and practices to doctoral researcher training in the U.S. We use the academic hood, which is granted upon successful completion of doctoral studies, as a metaphor to reconsider how to reflect upon and navigate power dynamics and knowledge production within the U.S. academy.
... Many of us in the Hollywood entertainment industry who represent the majority world (Alam, 2008), are familiar with its endless "symbolic pronouncements and token gestures" (Hunt, 2011) regarding equitable, fair, and diverse representation. The NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; 2019) Hollywood division was created as a watchdog organization after the whitewash fiasco of the 1999-2000 Network TV lineup when not one single actor of color was featured in any of their shows. ...
... In the verse quoted above, "yuh ketch dem broken / yuh could get dem all for nuttin" refers to male Trinidadians' revenge on the prostitutes, who had preferred the richer Americans to locals, but after the war and the departure of "the Yankees" were obliged to accept the lower rates paid by the locals. This verse has been interpreted by scholars as reflecting the installation of a patriarchal order where black manhood retakes control 7 I personally prefer the term 'Majority world' coined by Shahidul Alam (2008) instead of Global South since it highlights the fact that the majority of the world's population lives in the parts of the world traditionally referred to as 'developing'. ...
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Article
This article discusses the globalised commodification of Pretty Mas’ carnival in Trinidad and Tobago, focusing on the Bikini and Beads Mas’ form. It explains its links with the West Indian diaspora, since almost half the players in the carnival large bands are islanders who reside permanently in the country, and the other half are visitors mainly coming from the diaspora. The corpus shows that tourism became an impactful target for the organisation of this category of Pretty Mas’ while explaining the discrepancies between the national and global debate regarding the Bikini and Beads form of masquerade through an ethnographic analysis. It also presents the different social and symbolic meanings perceived by local players and visitors or “travelling players” while playing in the same Bikini and Beads Mas’ bands. The article goes on to consider the economic capital imposed by the Bikini and Beads management and its different implications for local players. It also shows how the marketing law of supply and demand allows the Bikini and Beads all-inclusive bands to increase the price of their costumes, basing them on the purchasing power of foreign tourists’ currencies, rather than that of the local residents.
... Manche Wissenschaftler*innen schlagen in jüngerer Zeit vor, auch relativ progressive Begriffe wie "Globaler Norden" und "Globaler Süden" durch die von dem bengalischen Photographen Shahidul Alam (2008) geprägten Begriffe minority world und majority world zu ersetzen. Diese Termini seien weniger normativ und problematisierten zudem die Tatsache, dass eigentlich nur ein relativ kleiner Teil der Menschheit mit seinem Lebensstil für die globale Umwelt-und Klimakrise verantwortlich ist. ...
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In diesem Beitrag stelle ich zunächst das Konzept der Externalisierung gemäß den Ansätzen von Lessenich sowie Brand und Wissen vor. Ferner werden diese Ansätze auf ihre geographische Relevanz hin untersucht. Obwohl es sich bei den Autoren nicht um Geographen handelt, so erweitern deren Einsichten doch den „Orientierungsrahmen für den Lernbereich Globale Entwicklung“, der Bildung für Nachhaltige Entwicklung in den Schulen verankern will und in diesem Zusammenhang Kompetenzen bzgl. der Gestaltung des persönlichen und beruflichen Lebens, der gesellschaftlichen Mitwirkung und der globalen Mitverantwortung vermitteln will (Schreiber und Siege 2016). Sie machen auch dessen blinde Flecken erkennbar, denn im Orientierungsrahmen aber auch im bereits etablierten Ansatz des „Globalen Lernens“ bleiben global-historische gewachsene politische, ökonomische, soziale und ökologischen Machtzusammenhänge meist unterbelichtet (Danielziek 2013). In einem zweiten Schritt werde ich darlegen, wie das Problem der Externalisierung didaktisch vermittelt werden kann. Es werden in diesem Zusammenhang Ideen und interaktive Werkzeuge vorgestellt, die Externalisierung als komplexes, multi-skalares Phänomen auf verschiedenen didaktischen Wegen sichtbar und diskutierbar machen.
... Enemmistömaailma (majority world) on "kolmannen maailman" ja "globaalin etelän" rinnalle noussut termi, joka määrittelee maailman historiallisesti heikennettyjä alueita niiden suhteellisen väestömäärän mukaan, kiinnittäen huomion poliittisen ja taloudellisen vallan epäsuhtaiseen jakaantumiseen(Alam 2008). ...
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Sienestys ja muu keräily on Suomessa suosittua ja laajamittaista. Se sijoittuu useimmiten metsiin, joiden elämää rytmittää päätehakkuiden, istutusten ja harvennusten kierto. Nopeakiertoiseen puuntuotantoon keskittyvä ja sitä erilaisilla materiaalis-semioottisilla käytännöillä ensisijaistava metsätalous nimetään artikkelissa plantaasiosentriseksi, feministisen talousmaantieteen kapitalosentrismin kritiikkiä mukaillen. Plantaasiosentrisissä järjestyksissä plantaasimainen, yksipuolistava, hierarkkisesti järjestynyt, pakotettuun monilajiseen työhön perustuva ja ajallisia katkoksia tuottava alkutuotanto jättää varjoonsa keräilyn kaltaisia moninaisia toimeentulon käytäntöjä ja kaventaa ymmärrystä olemassa olevista ja mahdollisista metsien talouksista. Metsätalouden plantaasiosentrismin ongelmaa lähestytään soveltamalla postkapitalistista metodologiaa eli tarkastelemalla sienestystä omaehtoisena ja elinvoimaisena toimeentulon ja hyvinvoinnin tuottamisen muotona, sekä analysoimalla sen tilanteista ja osittaista yhteen kietoutumista plantaasimaisen tuotannon kanssa. Empiirisesti tarkastelu pohjautuu korvasienestäjien kanssa kerättyyn kävelyhaastatteluaineistoon. Analyysi osoittaa, että vaihtelevan materiaalisen toimeentulon lisäksi ja rinnalla sienestys tuottaa harjoittajilleen hyvinvointia ja merkityksellisiä suhteita. Nämä suhteet eivät ole vain ihmisten välisiä: sienestys avaa mahdollisuuksia tarkastella metsien talouksia osallistumisena monilajisten elämää ylläpitävien verkostojen toimintaan. Plantaasimainen puuntuotanto on kuitenkin toistaiseksi erottamaton osa sienestyksen materiaalisia olosuhteita ja siihen kiinnittyviä ymmärryksiä, ja se muokkaa myös metsän moninaisten talouksien käsitteellistämistä. Plantaaseihin sopeutuminen tai niiden läsnäolon tunnistaminen ei kuitenkaan väistämättä tarkoita plantaasiosentrismiin myöntymistä. Metsiin paikantuva moninainen tuotanto ja sen esiin lukeminen luo ja ylläpitää mahdollisuuksia tulla toimeen paitsi elinympäristöjä raunioittavien käytäntöjen kanssa, myös niistä riippumatta ja niiden jälkeen.
... The significance here is that with India being a majority country (see Alam, 2008), perspectives from majority world countries are lacking considerably in minority world countries such as Australia 2 . The history of the Vijayanagara Empire set in the southern state of Karnataka, educates students about sustainable water harvesting and relating 2 "The term 'Majority world' highlights the fact that the majority of the world's population lives in these parts of the world traditionally referred to as 'developing'. ...
Thesis
This autoethnographic research study explores how I as a history teacher sought to embed environmental education in the age of the Anthropocene. The research study explores the opportunities and limitations of teaching Indigenous sustainability knowledge such as Indian medieval history through existing curricula in Australia. The study is highly significant for environmental education research and practice as there are limited studies, which have focused on engaging students with environmental education in History whilst meeting Sustainability cross-curriculum priority requirements (ACARA, 2016).
... Some important labels can be traced back to a single originator, though the way they resonate, are taken up and evolve as they circulate shows the living pathways of new terms. Bangladeshi photographer Shahidul Alam's "Majority World" (early 1990s; see Alam, 2008), French demographer Alfred Sauvy's "Third World" (in 1952; see Solarz, 2012), and Czech writer Milan Kundera's "Central Europe" (Kundera, 1984) stand out as examples of coinages that took hold among scholars and the society at large. Alam and Kundera rejected powerful, globally circulating labels like "Third World," "Developing World," and the East-West divide, crafting new categories in response. ...
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Scholars and students of comparative education routinely, and often reflexively, categorize places with labels that have complex and problematic histories, connotations and associations. Both comparative education classrooms and scholarship will benefit from reflecting on the dynamics of labeling places. We seek to provide a framework for analyzing the main issues and risks associated with labeling with a heuristic we call the 3P framework. It invites students and scholars to consider the ways in which power, perspective, and plurality are expressed through the terms we apply to places. Through this framework, we identify common pitfalls in labeling. We provide a table with open access resources that critically examine many of the most important and common geographic labels in our field. To illustrate how these issues are manifested in particular contexts, we provide two vignettes, on South Asia and Estonia. The vignettes show how issues of power, perspective and plurality are manifested through the labels used and applied in specific places where we conduct research. Finally, we examine how the labeling process is situated in specific contexts and how meaning is culturally rooted; in doing so, we explain how the exclusive use of English-language labels in this piece is necessarily incomplete. The piece concludes with recommendations for teaching with this framework and for producing comparative education scholarship that deploys labels with greater reflexivity and intentionality.
... The third construct that we assessed was related to colonial beliefs. In 'minority world' countries (Alam 2008) such as the UK, female genital mutilation is often stereotyped as a barbaric and backward practice that is peculiar to third world societies (Arora and Jacobs 2016). Guin e and Fuentes (2007) found that differences in female genital mutilation prevention strategies between the UK and France were contingent on acceptance of ethnic minorities as a 'colonial inheritance'. ...
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Clitorectomies performed on the genitals of infants identified as female and as intersex have been described both as similar procedures and as different procedures. The former types of surgery have been recognised more consistently as human rights abuses than the latter in recent decades. We tested social psychological explanations of why human rights are differently recognised when infants are described as 'intersex' or 'female'; 122 laypeople in the UK read one of two near-identical descriptions of clitorectomies performed on intersex or female infants and reported their agreement with 22 items about the human rights of such infants. Clitorectomies were perceived as violating human rights more by women than by men, and more so when infants were described as female than intersex. Endorsement of human rights was better predicted by several psychological variables when infants were described as female than as intersex. Less politically conservative participants, as assessed by a Right-Wing Authoritarianism measure, and participants who trusted medical authority more recognised human rights violations of female infants more than intersex infants. Results are discussed with respect to human rights efforts to protect infants from medically non-necessary genital surgery on the basis of membership in identity categories or possession of sex characteristics.
... The key feature of transnational feminist theory is that it warns against imposing the frames of reference and moral visions of Western high-income countries (which we shall call the Minority World) on the Majority World (Mohanty, 1988;Mohanty et al., 1991). We choose to use the terms Minority World and Majority World in place of older designations like First World/Third World and developed/developing, which we see as problematic (Alam, 2008). The term Minority World underscores the fact that Western high-income countries account for less than 15% of the world's population. ...
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Drawing from a larger study of non fatal suicidal behavior in Sri Lanka, we examine the narratives of two young women and their mothers following the daughter’s suicide-like act. These accounts offer insights into how the moral person is constructed in Sri Lanka and, particularly, what it means to be a good daughter and a good woman in Sri Lanka. We reflect on the implications that radically different conceptions of the self and personhood have for construing mental health and wellbeing outside a Western psychological framework. We also examine briefly how such conceptions of self and personhood have shaped feminisms in different locales.
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... The term 'majority world' is used to denote non-Western countries (formerly referred to as third world or developing countries). Majority world countries constitute two-thirds of the Earth's human population (Alam, 2008). ...
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... El antropólogo e investigador de políticas para el desarrollo, Arturo Escobar (2010), argumenta firmemente por acercamiento relacionales y descolonizadores que desconecten desarrollo de modelos de crecimiento occidentales. Esto se contrapone a lo que muchos gobiernos latinoamericanos y organizaciones internacionales se han enfocado como visión de desarrollo utilizando las artesanías bajo discursos occidentales, en dónde los consumidores de la minoría del Norte Global juegan roles de "salvadores", y piensan que "rescatan" a la "pasiva" mayoría del mundo del Sur Global (Adams & Raisborough, 2011;Alam, 2008). Esta forma de lástima ha sido sujeta a crecientes críticas (Zakaria, 2014;Zick Varul, 2008) por fomentar el "complejo del rescatador blanco" (Cole, 2012). ...
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Esta ponencia discute la necesidad de descolonizar el diseño y a sus profesionistas del discurso del Norte Global que establecen cómo el diseño debe ser ejercido. Este acercamiento universalizado ha afectado a culturas del Sur Global y sus contextos, en particular, a los pueblos originarios. En América Latina, diseñadores educados bajo este discurso de diseño hegemónico se acercan a artesanos indígenas para la creación de proyectos conjuntos dentro del área conocida como Diseño Artesanal. Como resultado, ha existido un énfasis hacia la estética de los productos usando a los artesanos indígenas como productores de “las creaciones de los diseñadores”. Por tal motivo, surgen preguntas acerca del rol que juega el diseño y los diseñadores en dar forma a la herencia cultural, al igual que definir colaboraciones que respeten la autonomía de los pueblos originarios. Considerando que muchos diseñadores alrededor del mundo operan en contextos del Sur y no representan el “arquetipo” de diseñador del Norte, resulta necesario descolonizar a los diseñadores y generar nuevos arquetipos que sean apropiados a los contextos donde ejercen, al igual que considerar a los artesanos como diseñadores con valiosos conocimientos ancestrales.
... (We use the term 'Minority World' to describe what is often called the 'First World'. For a discussion of the concept of the Minority World/Majority World terminology, refer to Alam, 2008). Yet, 16 years later, these examples of direct action are now not uncommon. ...
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In their seminal 2002 paper, Kollmuss and Agyeman asked the important question ‘Why do people act environmentally and what are the barriers to pro-environmental behaviour?’ The article has had a remarkably high rate of readership, with 64,900 electronic views to date, and 16 years later, this question remains significant. But are environmental educators and researchers any closer to understanding why people engage in pro-environmental behaviour? For this special issue of the Australian Journal of Environmental Education and its focus on ecologising education, it is timely not only to re-explore but to (re)story the concepts of environmental knowledge, environmental awareness and pro-environmental behaviour, in order to generate fertile ground for the creation of new understandings and practices in environmental education. After considering relevant literature published between 2000 and 2018, this article offers an original framework for considering the complex, varied, and interconnected influences on the development of pro-environmental behaviour by (re)storying the development of pro-environmental behaviour through articulating it as a living forest.
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COMPELLING STORIES provides a comprehensive introduction to children’s and young adult literature in English language education. It demonstrates why story matters for language learners and presents many ideas for teaching with literary texts from diverse cultural contexts, stories that are well suited to the primary or secondary classroom. The book explores the advantages of deep reading and the vital importance of in-depth learning, motivating students to work collaboratively and with empathy while preparing for and confronting the challenges of the twenty-first century. Story is promoted as central to language education in order to experience new perspectives from around the world. The focus is on: GRAPHIC NOVELS, PICTUREBOOKS, YOUNG ADULT FICTION, VERSE NOVELS, DYNAMIC PLAYS, SONGS, POETRY and CREATIVE WRITING. Illustrating the approach with a Deep Reading Framework based in research and theory, Janice Bland guides the reader to discover how to make use of literary texts in a way that energizes students for interculturality, creativity and critical literacy.
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Participatory forest management (PFM) has been applied to address declining tropical forest conditions. In the literature, there is a mixed evidence on PFM's role in improving forest conditions. However, most assessments ignore a relationship between household distance from PFM forests and impacts to non-PFM forests albeit being an essential aspect. Some PFM assessments show that distance matters in determining an individual's participation But, sparsely discussing the distance in relation to forest biophysical conditions in a landscape context. Drawing on the landscape approach and insights from Miombo forests of Kilwa in southern Tanzania, we illustrate the importance of studying PFM schemes in a landscape context to illuminate the relationship between household distance from PFM forests and impacts to non-PFM forests. Our study villages have forest abundances in areas between households and PFM forests. The average distance between households and PFM forests is 7.8 km. The long distances and forest abundances produce an ‘outbound effect’, whereby degrading and deforesting activities shift from PFM to non-PFM forests. Our analysis calls for landscape-level assessments that include forests under different governance regimes even those in unreserved landscapes – non-PFM forests. This is important for two reasons. First, for generating locally grounded contextual insights necessary for developing understandings of global forest conservation efforts from the ‘ground up’. Second, for revealing correct forest conditions in the entire landscape critical in the light of ongoing national and international interests to manage trees inside and outside designated forest reserves for both carbon sequestration and landscape restoration.
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This paper is a critical discourse analysis of the responses by Harvard and Oxford to the murder of George Floyd. Findings point to how the two institutions visually separate stated commitments to equity and their identities as world-class institutions. The official university response is compared and contrasted to student media, The New York Times and The Guardian. Mediatization provides a framework for looking at the multiple logics that elite universities are responding to in maintaining their top-ranked identities while also responding to media pressure to acknowledge racism in their institutions.
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The distribution of resources through an unconditional, universal mechanism (such as a universal basic income) recognizes the shared origins of wealth created by past generations and built out of the commons. Yet some groups have lost and suffered far more than others during the process of production and wealth creation, due to colonization, slavery and expropriation. This article argues that calls for reparations are an important caveat to the universalist case for distributive justice. It does so by examining three cases for reparations: reparations for slavery, for transnational inequalities generated by European colonization, and for the dispossession of Indigenous peoples by settler colonialism. The authors put these three cases in dialogue with the argument for universalist (re)distribution, in particular the contention that a universal but redistributory rightful share could act as redress for the unjust expropriation and wealth accumulation of capitalism. This article thus demarcates the overlaps and tensions between reparatory justice and distributory justice, underscoring both the intersection and the friction between calls for redistribution on universal lines and variegated forms of redistribution plus recognition.
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We acknowledge and pay respect to the people of the Yugambeh Nation on whose Land we work, meet and study. We recognise the significant role the past and future Elders play in the life of the University and the region. We are mindful that within and without the buildings, the Land always was and always will be Aboriginal Land. ¹ This paper introduces staying-with the traces of inter/intra-subjective experience, with and within place, in mapping-making philosophy in environmental education. Through a conceptualisation of philosophy as concepts or knots in an infinite composition of knowledge, rather than separate knowledges, we use staying-with the traces ² as method, whereby our embodied patterns of human and more than human relationality across place and time may engage with philosophy. This grounding of philosophy foregrounds the diverse onto-epistemologies of posthumanism and indigenist ³ ways of knowing, acknowledging tensions and searching for the possibilities of connectivity between them. Through an embodied arts-based walking practice, our approach challenges the perpetuation of reductionist perspectives, including nature/culture binaries, within environmental education. We stay with the traces of bird, meeting, tree, watery and concrete in mutual inseparable relation and becoming.
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In this chapter we perform a meta-analysis and synthesize existing critical library and information studies work into a cohesive approach to critical systems librarianship, informed by diverse perspectives and ethical lenses. We seek to enable and facilitate a critically-informed, reflective, and reflexive approach to systems work with specific focus on how information technologies are applied in library work. Critical systems librarianship centrally involves critical reflection which allows systems workers to question the underlying values, assumptions, and power relations ingrained in their daily practices and the institutions within which they work: this is essential to both theoretical questioning and developing strategies to contest power imbalances.
Chapter
This chapter theorizes academic libraries and library workers as partners in social justice work in higher education, linking the core concerns of critical librarianship (or Critlib) to library leadership practices that can enable and facilitate widening participation as a political project. Widening participation, as a policy imperative and higher education practice, attempts to improve access to higher education among under-represented groups. However, rooted in the logic of marketized, neoliberal higher education, liberal approaches to widening participation are instrumentalist and contribute to a cultural discourse which reproduces inequity and unequal educational outcomes. Drawing on Nancy Fraser's model of social justice and critical sociology of education, particularly the work of Penny Jane Burke and Diane Reay, this chapter develops a critical theory of library leadership which radically reframes widening participation practice as a project of recognition and inclusion. In connecting the rich scholarship of Critlib movement, particularly critical information literacy and library pedagogies, to shared commitments to social justice between library and other education workers, this chapter deepens our theoretical understanding of libraries’ contributions to widening participation.
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Work is a central conduit to justice for the disability rights movement, which claims that through work, persons with disabilities may find meaning, belonging, and a sense of worthiness, and be taken seriously as rights-holders. Proponents of the right to work argue that over time, a combination of work, public education, and activism will erode social, cultural, and political barriers to full participation in society. But this emphasis on the right to work necessarily excludes people who cannot work and undermines their claims to other rights. A disability rights program founded on a work ethic that goes along with the right to work draws lines of inclusion and exclusion, cultivates harmful ideas of worthiness, produces a duty to work, and de-values alternative modes of living. Solutions to better deal with the fraught intersection of work and disability are thus unlikely to emerge from singling out the disability rights movement. Only if we cast the net wider and grapple with the root problems of the work ethic in tandem – by addressing issues of time, valuing alternative ways of being, building social, economic, and political scaffolds to make visible people’s experiences at and expectations of work, and, potentially, exercising the refusal to work – can work become a place of empowerment and flourishing for all. • Points of Interest: • The right to work is a central gateway for persons with disabilities for social inclusion. • States have crafted a range of policies to give effect to this right, but these have not changed the reality that most people with disabilities are either unemployed, facing poverty, or are socially excluded. • Post-work scholarship makes a compelling case that the right to work cannot be remedied for people with disabilities by looking at their experience alone; the problems at the intersection of disability and work might be particularly pronounced or obvious, but they are part and parcel of wider issues plaguing the world of work as currently conceptualized. • By fruitfully combining new advances in post-work scholarship and critical disability rights theory, this article describes the most urgent changes needed to remedy the fraught intersection of work and disability. • To make the right to work for people with disabilities, we must reconsider issues of time, value alternative ways of being, build social, economic, and political scaffolds to make visible and effective people’s experiences at and expectations of work, and exercise a refusal to work.
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Chapter
Bibliometrics started as a fundamentally quantitative approach which has now begun to integrate qualitative aspects. In this chapter, I present a mixed-methods approach which brings together bibliometrics and Philip Mayring’s qualitative content analysis. With this methodology I tackle the issue of how interculturality has been incorporated into research on legal interpreting, positing that, in accordance with the cultural shift that has taken place in Translation and Interpreting Studies, the latest studies will incorporate the intercultural dimension in new and more diverse ways. After building a corpus made up of articles on legal interpreting, I applied Mayring’s summarising content analysis and inductive category formation. I identified twenty different ways in which interculturality is brought into research on legal interpreting. It appears in relation to different sub-topics of sorts, such as the issue of cross-cultural equivalence, among others, as well as in different parts of the research (as part of the research question or the theoretical considerations, for instance). Close analysis of the results showed that the main issue related to this topic seems to be that of the interpreter’s role: mere conduit or active broker? The results also show that further clarification is needed on what is culture and what are cross-cultural issues. Finally, while the initial hypothesis was only partially confirmed, the insights gained further prove the usefulness and potential of the mixed-methods approach presented in this chapter.
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Throughout history, human and social sciences have shown a common will to face the challenges that are the closest to people, those related to living together and understanding one another. This volume presents emerging research that embraces this responsibility and takes its place leading today's multicultural societies, with proposals that review the past with renewed perspectives and others that reveal the problems of our future. Applying various methodologies and theoretical approaches, all the contributors in this volume share the ambition of generating new knowledge to jointly face the challenges posed by an increasingly diverse daily experience.
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Book
Throughout history, human and social sciences have shown a common will to face the challenges that are the closest to people, those related to living together and understanding one another. This volume presents emerging research that embraces this responsibility and takes its place leading today's multicultural societies, with proposals that review the past with renewed perspectives and others that reveal the problems of our future. Applying various methodologies and theoretical approaches, all the contributors in this volume share the ambition of generating new knowledge to jointly face the challenges posed by an increasingly diverse daily experience.
Article
Library and Information Science (LIS) professionals frequently demonstrate interest in work toward a more just, equitable world. However, while information professionals constantly scrutinize the implications of language in everything from reference interviews to archival description, we seem far less inclined to such self-reflection in our interventions in global inequality, drawing uncritically on the language of traditional international development work, with all its attendant assumptions, limitations, and erasures of non-Western histories and knowledges. Mobilizing critical development theory, this paper elaborates a broad textual critique of the discourse of global "information inequality" within US and advocates a more critical discourse around global justice.
Article
Library and Information Science (LIS) professionals frequently demonstrate interest in work toward a more just, equitable world. However, while information professionals constantly scrutinize the implications of language in everything from reference interviews to archival description, we seem far less inclined to such self-reflection in our interventions in global inequality, drawing uncritically on the language of traditional international development work, with all its attendant assumptions, limitations, and erasures of non-Western histories and knowledges. Mobilizing critical development theory, this paper elaborates a broad textual critique of the discourse of global "information inequality" within LIS and advocates a more critical discourse around global justice. Résumé: Les professionnels de la bibliothéconomie et des sciences de l'information font souvent preuve d'un intérêt marqué pour les efforts visant à amener un monde plus juste et plus équitable. Toutefois, si en tant que professionnels de l'information, nous sommes sans cesse en train de scruter les usages et les implications du langage utilisé dans tout ce que nous examinons, des entretiens de référence jusqu'à la description archivistique, nous sommes, semble-t-il, beaucoup moins enclins à l'autoréflexion critique dans nos interventions concernant les inégalités dans le monde; nous nous appuyons sans discernement sur la langue de travail du développement international traditionnel, avec toutes les hypothèses, limites et effacements qu'elle suppose dans les histoires et les connaissances non occidentales. En mettant à profit la théorie critique du développement, cet article élabore une large critique textuelle du discours sur « l'inégalité de l'information » sur le plan mondial tel qu'il est pratiqué au sein des sciences de l'information et préconise un discours plus critique sur la justice mondiale.
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