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Traditional and medicinal uses of Carica papaya

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Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies
Year : 2013, Volume : 1, Issue : 1
First page : (7) Last page : (15)
ISSN: 2320-3862
Online Available at
Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies
Vol. 1 No. 1 2013 Page | 7
Traditional and Medicinal Uses of Carica papaya
Aravind. G *1, Debjit Bhowmik 1 , Duraivel. S 1, Harish. G 1
1. Department of Pharmacognosy, Nimra College of Pharmacy, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh,
India (E-mail:
Papaya, botanical name
Carica papaya
, is an lozenge tropical fruit, often seen in orange
red, yellow
green and
yellow-orange hues, with a rich orange pulp. The fruit is not just delicious and healthy, but whole plant parts, fruit,
roots, bark, peel, seeds and pulp are also known to have medicinal properties. The many benefits of papaya owed
due to high content of Vitamins A, B and C, proteolytic enzymes like papain and chymopapain which have antiviral,
antifungal and antibacterial properties. Carica papaya can be used for treatment of a numerous diseases like warts,
corns, sinuses, eczema, cutaneous tubercles, glandular tumors, blood pressure, dyspepsia, constipation,
amenorrhoea, general debility, expel worms and stimulate reproductive organs and many, as a result Carica papaya
can be regarded as a Neutraceutical. The present article reviews the pharmacological uses of Carica papaya and
side/toxic effects. Carica papaya contains an enzyme known as papain which is present in the bark, leaves and fruit.
The milky juice is extracted, dried and used as a chewing gum for digestive problems, toothpaste and meat
tenderizers. It also contains many biological active compounds including chymopapain and papain which is the
ingredient that aids digestive system, and again used in treatment of arthritis.
Keyword: Carica Papaya, Papain, Chymopapain, Neutraceutical
1. Introduction:
Papaya is a powerhouse of nutrients and is
available throughout the year. It is a rich source
of threes powerful antioxidant vitamin C, vitamin
A and vitamin E; the minerals, magnesium and
potassium; the B vitamin pantothenic acid and
folate and fiber. In addition to all this, it contains
a digestive enzyme-papaintha effectively treats
causes of trauma, allergies and sports injuries. All
the nutrients of papaya as a whole improve
cardiovascular system, protect against heart
diseases, heart attacks, strokes and prevent colon
cancer. The fruit is an excellent source of beta
carotene that prevents damage caused by free
radicals that may cause some forms of cancer. It
is reported that it helps in the prevention of
diabetic heart disease. Papaya lowers high
cholesterol levels as it is a good source of fiber.
Papaya effectively treats and improves all types
of digestive and abdominal disorders. It is a
medicine for dyspepsia, hyperacidity, dysentery
and constipation. Papaya helps in the digestion of
proteins as it is a rich source of proteolytic
enzymes. Even papain-a digestive enzyme found
in papaya is extracted, dried as a powder and used
as an aid in digestion. Ripe fruit consumed
regularly helps in habitual constipation. It is also
reported that papaya prevents premature aging. It
may be that it works because a poor digestion
does not provide enough nutrients to our body.
The fruit is regarded as a remedy for abdominal
disorders, The skin of papaya works as a best
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Vol. 1 No. 1 2013 Page | 8
medicine for wounds. Even you can use the pulp
left after extracting the juice from papaya as
poultice on the wounds. The enzymes papain and
chymopapain and antioxidant nutrients found in
papaya have been found helpful in lowering
inflammation and healing burns. That is why
people with diseases( such as asthma, rheumatoid
arthritis, and osteoarthritis) that are worsened by
inflammation, find relief as the severity of the
condition reduces after taking all these nutrients.
Papaya contributes to a healthy immune system
by increasing your resistance to coughs and colds
because of its vitamin A and C contents. Papaya
included in your diet ensures a good supply of
vitamin A and C that are highly essential for
maintaining a good health. Carica papaya
constituents exhibit alkaline combination, as with
borax or potassium carbonate and they have
showed good results in treatment of warts, corns,
sinuses, eczema, cutaneous tubercles and other
hardness of the skin, and also injected into
indolent glandular tumors to promote their
absorption. Green fruits of papaya are used to
treat high blood pressure, dyspepsia, constipation,
amenorrhoea, general debility, expel worms and
stimulate reproductive organs.
2. Biological Sources
Botanical Name: Carica papaya
Family Name: Caricaceae
Common Name: Papaya, Paw Paw, Kates, Papaw
Part Used: Leaves, Fruits, bark, leaves
3. Nutritional Value
The papaya, papaw, or pawpaw is the fruit of the
plant Carica papaya, the only species in the genus
Carica of the plant family Caricaceae. It is native
to the tropics of the Americas. The papaya is a
large, tree-like plant, with a single stem growing
from 5 to 10 m (16 to 33 ft) tall, with spirally
arranged leaves confined to the top of the trunk.
The leaves are large, 50–70 cm in diameter,
deeply palmately lobed, with seven lobes. The
tree is usually unbranched, unless lopped. The
flowers appear on the axils of the leaves,
maturing into large fruit. The fruit is ripe when it
feels soft and its skin has attained amber to
orange hue.
These nutritional values of papaya help to prevent
the oxidation of cholesterol. Papaya is rich in iron
and calcium; a good source of vitamins A, B and
G and an excellent source of vitamin C (ascorbic
acid). The extracts of unripe C. papaya contain
terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates,
glycosides, saponins, and steroids.
Table 1: Papaya, raw Nutritional value per 100 g
3 mg
Vitamin C
Folate (vit. B
Vitamin B
Niacin (vit. B
Riboflavin (vit.
Thiamine (vit.
) 0.04 mg
Vitamin A
Dietary fibre
Table 2: Carica papaya is a pack of enzymes
Carica papaya part
Unripe fruit
Β carotene,crytoxanthin
Benzyl isothiocynate, papaya oil
Ca, K, Mg,Zn,Mn,Fe
Shoots, leaves
Carpinine,carpaine,vitamin C and E
These nutritional values of papaya help to prevent
the oxidation of cholesterol. Papaya is rich in iron
and calcium; a good source of vitamins A, B and
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Vol. 1 No. 1 2013 Page | 9
G and an excellent source of vitamin C (ascorbic
acid). The extracts of unripe C. papaya contain
terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates,
glycosides, saponins, and steroids.
a. Proteolytic Enzymes
Papaya contains several unique protein-digesting
proteolytic enzymes including papain and
b. Papain
This enzyme is similar to pepsin, a digestive
enzyme in our body.
c. Chymopapain
A drug made from chymopapain used to be very
popular in treating slipped disk.
Both papain and chymopapain can help lower
inflammation and improve healing from burns.
d. Carpaine
The alkaloid, Carpaine, slows the heart rate in
humans and thus reduces blood pressure. Its
action is similar to the drug prescribed for heart
patients, digitalis. The alkaloid is reported to be
able to kill worms and amoebas.
e. Lycopene
Papaya has an abundance of cancer fighting
lycopene. It is a key intermediate in the
biosynthesis of many important carotenoids, such
as beta-carotene and xanthophylls.
f. Fibrin
Another useful compound not readily found in
the plant kingdom is Fibrin. It reduces the risk of
blood clots and improves the quality of blood
cells, optimizing the ability of blood to flow
through the circulatory system. Fibrin is also
important in preventing stoke.
4. Pharmacological Activity of Each Division
of Carica Papaya
Whole Carica papaya has a unique
pharmacological uses
4.1 Leaves
Papaya leaf has a numberless of benefits. In some
parts of Asia, the young leaves of the papaya are
steamed and eaten like spinach.
a. Dengue fever
Commencing on studies of Dr. Sanath Hettige,
who conducted the research on 70 dengue fever
patients, said papaya leaf juice helps increase
white blood cells and platelets, normalizes
clotting, and repairs the liver.
b. Cancer Cell Growth Inhibition
Recent research on papaya leaf tea extract has
demonstrated cancer cell growth inhibition. It
appears to boost the production of key signaling
molecules called Th1-type cytokines, which help
regulate the immune system.
c. Antimalarial and Antiplasmodial Activity
Papaya leaves are made into tea as a treatment for
malaria.[15] Antimalarial and antiplasmodial
activity has been noted in some preparations of
the plant,[15] but the mechanism is not understood
and not scientifically proven
d. Facilitate Digestion
The leaves of the papaya plants contain
chemical compounds of karpain, Substance which
kills microorganisms that often interfere with the
digestive function.
Additional Benefits of Papaya Leaves
As an acne medicine
Increase appetite
Ease menstrual pain
Meat tenderizer
Relieve nausea
4.2 Fruit
Papaya fruit is a rich source of nutrients such as
provitamin A carotenoids, vitamin C, B vitamins,
lycopene, dietary minerals and dietary fibre.
Danielone is a phytoalexin found in the papaya
fruit. This compound showed high antifungal
activity against Colletotrichum gloesporioides, a
pathogenic fungus of papaya
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a. Laxative
Ripe papaya fruit is laxative which assures of
regular bowel movement.
b. Indigestion
The milky juice which is tapped from the green,
mature fruit while still in the tree contains an
enzyme known as "papain". People use this in the
preparation of different remedies for indigestion.
c. Void the Heart Attack or Stroke
The folic acid found in papayas is needed for the
conversion of homocysteine into amino acids
such as cysteine or methionine. If unconverted,
homocysteine can directly damage blood vessel
walls, is considered a significant risk factor for a
heart attack or stroke.
4.3 Seeds
The black seeds of the papaya are edible and have
a sharp, spicy taste. They are sometimes ground
and used as a substitute for black pepper.
a. Nephro-Protective Activity
In wistar rats nephro-protective activity was
observed in dose related manner. Concentration
of urine and creatinine were evaluated.
b. More Potent
The papaya seeds are very pungent and peppery,
making them almost unpalatable. However the
seeds seem to have more potent medicinal values
than the flesh.
Papaya seeds have antibacterial properties and are
effective against E.coli, Salmonella and
Staphylococcus infections.
Papaya seeds may protect the kidneys from toxin-
induced kidney failure.
Papaya seeds can eliminate intestinal parasites.
Papaya seeds help detoxify the liver
As a skin irritant to lower fever
Cure for piles and typhoid
anti-helminthic and anti-amoebic properties
Dried papaya seeds actually look quite similar to
peppercorns and can be used in just the same
way. Grinding a couple over a meal, especially
protein rich meals, is a simple way to add extra
enzymes to your diet and improve your digestive
4.4 Peel
Papaya peel is often used in cosmetics. The
papaya peel can also be used in many home
a. Sunscreen And Soothing Slave
The presence of vitamin A helps to restore and
rebuild damaged skin. Applied papaya peel used
as skin lightening agent. When peel mixed with
honey and applied it can act as soothe and
moisturizers the skin.
b. Fight Dandruff
The papaya vinegar with lemon juice can be
applied to the scalp for 20 minutes prior to
shampooing to fight dandruff.
c. Muscle Relaxant
Adding papaya oil and vinegar to bath water,
along with essential oils like lavender, orange and
rosemary can be nourishing, refreshing and
relaxing, and can work as a pain reliever and
muscle relaxant.
4.5 Roots
Juice from papaya roots is used in some countries
of Asia to ease urinary troubles. Papaya leaf
when dried and cured like a cigar, is smoked by
asthmatic persons. An infusion of fresh papaya
leaves is used by person to expel or destroy
intestinal worms. Fresh young papaya are also
used to remedy colic, a certain stomach disorder
or cramp.
A decoction formed by boiling the outer part of
the roots of the papaya tree in the cure of
4.6 Latex
Fig 1: Fruits of Papaya
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The milky sap of a unripe papaya contains Papain
and chymopapain. chymopapain was approved
for intradiscal injection in patients with
documented herniated lumbar intervertebra discs
and who had not responded to "conservative
therapy". Vitamins and traces of an alkaloid
called Carpaine have also been found in the latex.
Apart from natural oils, the seeds of the fruit also
contain carbohydrates, carpasemine, benzyl
senevol and a glucoside. Papain is also used to
treat commercial beer, to degumm natural silk, as
a meat tenderizer and in the production of
chewing gums. Cosmetically it is used in
Shampoos and in a number of face-lifting
operations. In humans capaine slows down the
heart and thus reduces blood pressure.
5 Medicinal Value
a. Colon cancer
The fiber of papaya is able to bind cancer-causing
toxins in the colon and keep them away from the
healthy colon cells. These nutrients provide
synergistic protection for colon cells from free
radical damage to their DNA.
b. Anti-Inflammatory Effects
Protein enzymes including papain and
chymopapain and antioxidant nutrients found in
papaya; including vitamin C, vitamins E, and
beta-carotene, reduce the severity of the
conditions such as asthma, osteoarthritis, and
rheumatoid arthritis.
c. Rheumatoid Arthritis
Vitamin C-rich foods, such as papaya, provide
humans with protection against inflammatory
polyarthritis, a form of rheumatoid arthritis
involving two or more joints.
d. Promote Lung Health
If you are smoker, or if you are frequently
exposed to second hand smoke. Eating vitamin A
rich foods, such as papaya, help your lung healthy
and save your life.
e. Anti-Sickling Activity
Current research proves that papaya is having an
anti-sickling activity
f. Prevent Prostate Cancer
Men consuming lycopene-rich fruits and
vegetables such as papaya, tomatoes, apricots,
pink grapefruit, watermelon, and guava were 82%
less likely to have prostate cancer compared to
those consuming the least lycopene-rich foods.
G. Anticoagulant Effect
Injection of papian extract in a dog increases
prothrombin and coagulation threefold. It is also
claimed that the enzyme eliminates necrotic
tissues in chronic wounds, burns and ulcers.
Papain is also of commercial importance in the
brewery industry, in the food industry and in the
textile industry.
6. Allergies and Side Effects
Papaya is frequently used as a hair conditioner,
but should be used in small amounts. Papaya
releases a latex fluid when not quite ripe, which
can cause irritation and provoke allergic reaction
in some people.
The latex concentration of unripe papayas is
speculated to cause uterine contractions, which
may lead to a miscarriage. Papaya seed extracts
in large doses have a contraceptive effect on rats
and monkeys, but in small doses have no effect
on the unborn animals.
Excessive consumption of papaya can cause
carotenemia, the yellowing of soles and palms,
which is otherwise harmless. However, a very
large dose would need to be consumed; papaya
contains about 6% of the level of beta carotene
found in carrots (the most common cause of
a. Toxicity
Externally the papaya latex is an irritant to the
skin and internally it causes severe gastritis.
Some people are allergic to various parts of the
fruit and even the enzyme papain has its negative
b. Skin Discoloration
Eating too much of a yellow, green or orange-
colored food that contains beta carotene can
cause a benign form of skin discoloration called
carotenemia. The palms of the hands and soles of
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the feet are the most visible areas of the body
affected by carotenemia. Cutting back on your
papaya consumption will resolve the
discoloration of the skin.
c. Free Radical Scavenging Acivity
Papaya has many phenolic groups which may
scavange free radicals. Aqueous extract of papaya
leaves shows anti-oxidant activity
d. Respiratory Distress
Papain is also a potential allergen, according to
Purdue University, people who eat too much
papaya and ingest high levels of papain may
develop symptoms consistent with hay fever or
asthma, including wheezing, breathing difficulties
and nasal congestion.
e. Gastrointestinal Symptoms
Ironically, the same papain that calms your
stomach can cause an upset stomach when taken
in large amounts. The high fiber content of
papaya can also contribute to unrest of the
digestive system. The latex of the fruit's skin can
also cause irritation of the stomach.
7. Preliminary Research
Papaya seed extract may have in toxicity-induced
kidney failure. Evidently a kidney-transplant
patient in London was cured of a post-operative
infection by placing strips of papaya on the
wound for 48 hours. Women in India,
Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and other
countries have long used green papaya as an
herbal medicine for contraception and abortion.
Enslaved women in the West Indies were noted
for consuming papaya to prevent pregnancies and
thus preventing their children from being born
into slavery.
Is Papaya in Pregnancy Safe or Not?
There are so many old wives tales and
information flooding the media that people
should or should not have certain foods to eat
during pregnancy. But there is one specific food
which I get asked about so regularly that I need to
write about it. That's Papaya, is it Safe?
There have been many research projects into the
effects of foods on pregnant women and papaya
is no exception. Now the problem with Papaya is
that in an unripe state the Papaya contains high
concentrations of Latex, this latex concentration
reduces upon ripening and once completely ripe
has almost no latex left.
The Papaya latex's main constituents are papain
and chymopapain which have teratogenic
(abnormalities of physiological development) and
abortifacient (Can induce an abortion) effects. It
does this by increasing the chances of uterine
contractions as the papain acts like prostaglandin
and oxytocin which are known to put a mother’s
body into labour and hence an adverse effect on
the babies and mothers health.
The Latex can also cause marked oedema and
haemorrhagic placentas which are bleeding and
hemorrhaging from the edge of the placenta, this
can result in severe complications in pregnancy
and normally an early delivery.
Table 3: Home remedies practices
Application of
peel with a
little milk and
protects soothe and moisturize the skin
Apply peel as
the face mask
for about 20
quite effective in ridding the skin of
Slice papaya
into small
pieces; soak in
vinegar for
several weeks.
Remove the
peel and
fights dandruff
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Vol. 1 No. 1 2013 Page | 13
vinegar with
lemon juice
can be applied
to the scalp
for 20 minutes
prior to
to fight
peel simmered
in olive oil,
almond oil
and rosehip
oil, and the
papaya oil
massaged into
the skin and
use with
honey and
rose water
Works as a skin toner and skin cleanser
papaya oil and
vinegar to
bath water,
with oils like
orange and
nourishing, refreshing and relaxing, and
can work as a pain reliever and muscle
Eat Fresh
Ripe papaya
in the morning
Indigestion, constipation, flatulence,
improve appetite
Apply unripe
papaya juice
on affected
pimples, eczema, mouth ulcer
Eat at least
200gm of ripe
Eliminate acid reflux.
It is used to treat mouth ulcer, gum
disease and toothache.
Unripe fruit
Contraceptive in some Asian countries
Soup made
from fish and
nearly ripen
In Southern China, lactating mothers
drink the soup to improve milk flow
Wash the leaf
and cut into
smaller pieces
Squeeze the
pulp and filter
with the cloth
serving per
It has a very
bitter taste.
Hence it may
provide some
relief to
dengue fever.
Can cure dengue fever.
Dressing wounds and injuries
A decoction
formed by
boiling the
outer part of
the roots
Cure of dyspepsia.
Dried seeds
pounded and
mixed with
skin irritant to lower fever
Fresh or dry
crushed seeds
bacteriostatic, bactericidal and fungicidal.
Take half
Expel intestinal worms
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Vol. 1 No. 1 2013 Page | 14
papaya seed
with warm
water in the
follow 2 hours
later with
50ml castor
oil and 350ml
milk on an
stomach, take
this for 2-4
Detoxify the liver
8. Cosmetic Benefits of Papaya
Rubbing the white pulp of raw papaya improves
pimples as well as wrinkles. Papaya works as a
good bleaching agent. It is an important
ingredient in bath soaps, astringents, detergent
bars and hand washes.Home Recipe for Papaya
Skin Lightner Experts suggest that papaya can
help in removing dead worn-out skin cells and
replace it with healthy new cells, thereby
lightening the color of our skin. For this, one can
prepare a paste of raw papaya and apply it on the
skin once for few days.
9. Conclusion:
Carica papaya is a neutraceutical plant having a
wide range of pharmacological activates. The
whole plant has its own medicinal value. The
wide range of enzymes, vitamins present in
Carica papaya makes it a neutraceutical plant.
The present review is about all the prominent
pharmacological activity, home remedies and side
effects of Carica papaya.
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... It is widely cultivated in most parts of the world including some African countries, and its principal markets for consumption are the United States and Europe (6) . Papaya has been described as a powerhouse of nutrients, antioxidants like vitamins A, C, D and E (7) and carotenoids (8) . It has many medical benefits including, anticancer, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, gastrointestinalrelated disorders and hypoglycaemic effect (7) . ...
... Papaya has been described as a powerhouse of nutrients, antioxidants like vitamins A, C, D and E (7) and carotenoids (8) . It has many medical benefits including, anticancer, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, gastrointestinalrelated disorders and hypoglycaemic effect (7) . This fruit contains considerable concentrations of phenolic acids, flavonoids and a lipidic composition that reduces inflammatory markers and anti-platelet aggregation, protects against thrombogenesis and oxidative stress, and prevents dyslipdaemia factors that can be triggered by obesity (2,9) . ...
... Some research has revealed that the consumption of papaya leads to reduced body weights due to its anti-obesity properties (11) and other medical benefits. Papaya is a highly nutritious fruit (Table 1) with health benefits that can have a negative effect on the rats' metabolic syndrome benefits (7) . ...
Full-text available
Papaya ( Carica papaya L.) is a highly nutritious and less-caloric fruit, commonly consumed for its minerals and vitamins and hence may help in controlling obesity and abdominal discomforts. The present study investigated the hypolipidaemic effects of papaya juice extract on male Albino Wistar rats (7 weeks old; 185 ± 17 g) fed on a high fat and fructose diet (HFFD) for 6 weeks. The rats were divided into groups I–IV of five rats each and fed on either a HFFD (i.e. the Control), HFFD + 200 mg papaya, HFFD + 350 mg papaya or a HFFD + 500 mg papaya. On day 34, after an overnight fast, blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture under 99⋅8 % Chloroform anaesthesia for the determination of serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and high-density cholesterol (HDL-c). The atherogenic (AI) and coronary risk (CRI) indices were also calculated. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA where means were separated using Tukey's HSD test. Resulted showed that all rats given papaya juice had an increasing, non-significant HDL-c and reduced LDL-c levels while rats fed on HFFD had the highest TC (53⋅2 mg/dl) and TG (37⋅6 mg/dl) levels. Papaya juice statistically reduced the AI and CRI of the rats. In conclusion, consumption of HFFD + 500 mg was the most effective in the reduction of rats’ blood lipids and fats, due to its anti-obesity and hypolipidaemic properties, thus can be used in the management of dyspilidaemic disorders.
... It is also regarded as "the wonder fruit of the tropics and subtropics". It has anti-inflammatory, antitumour, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial and wound healing medicinal properties (Aravind et al., 2013) [1] . The latex and juice of fruit aid in dyspepsia, intestinal irritation, habitual constipation and chronic diarrhoea. ...
... It is also regarded as "the wonder fruit of the tropics and subtropics". It has anti-inflammatory, antitumour, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial and wound healing medicinal properties (Aravind et al., 2013) [1] . The latex and juice of fruit aid in dyspepsia, intestinal irritation, habitual constipation and chronic diarrhoea. ...
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Guava-Papaya chutney was developed and evaluated for changes in its physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory parameters at monthly interval for three months storage period. Total soluble solids increased significantly, while acidity decreased significantly in guava-papaya chutney with the advancement in storage period. Yeast and mold count increased significantly in chutney during storage. The scores for colour and appearance, flavour, taste, mouthfeel and overall acceptability in guava-papaya chutney decreased significantly during storage, however, the product was found acceptable even at three months storage. Chutney prepared with 40 guava:60 papaya pulp ratio was found the most acceptable.
... It is an excellent source of vitamin A (2020 IU/100 g) and also a rich source of other vitamins (Addai et al., 2013) [1] . It has anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial and wound healing medicinal properties (Aravind et al., 2013) [2] . Traditionally, papaya fruit has been used in preparation of salads, juice, ready-to-serve drinks, nectar, squash, sherbets, jam and confections like tutti-frutti and candy slices. ...
... It is an excellent source of vitamin A (2020 IU/100 g) and also a rich source of other vitamins (Addai et al., 2013) [1] . It has anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial and wound healing medicinal properties (Aravind et al., 2013) [2] . Traditionally, papaya fruit has been used in preparation of salads, juice, ready-to-serve drinks, nectar, squash, sherbets, jam and confections like tutti-frutti and candy slices. ...
... Interestingly, dried papaya seeds resemble peppercorns and can be used similarly. Grinding a few seeds over a meal, particularly protein-rich ones, provides an easy way to add extra enzymes to your diet and improve your digestive health (Arvind et al. 2013). ...
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This study aimed to determine the spermicidal activity of papaya seed oil (Carica papaya L) from local Bali varieties against Wistar rat spermatozoa by evaluating sperm quality and the correlation between the percentage of motility and viability spermatozoa to identify its active compounds. Papaya seed oil was obtained by extracting papaya seeds using n-hexane solvent. The study was designed as follows; group of spermatozoa Wistar rat were treated with NaCl 0.9% (control, P0), with Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (NaCMC) 0.5% (P1), with n-hexane extract 0.1%(b/v) (P2), with n-hexane extract 0.3%(b/v) (P3), and with n-hexane extract 0.5%(b/v) (P4). Column chromatography was used to separate the n-hexane extract into two fractions, A and B. The spermicide test for fractions A and B followed the same design as the test for n-hexane extract but until the P7 group. The result showed that fraction B exhibited higher spermicidal activity, with 23.3% motility and 33.8% of viability sperm at 100 ppm. The identification of fraction B by LCMS showed at least 12 mixture compounds were venoterpine, vitamin K5, 5-phenyl-2-pyridinamine, harmalan, styrylquinoline, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-benzoyl-2-methyl-4-phenylamino-quinoline, calcitroic acid, siderol, N-benzyl-linoleamide, (3β)-3-(diisopropylamino)androst-5-en-17-one, pipereicosalidine, and 25-azacholesterol. Spermicidal activity may be a synergistic effect of several compounds that have a cytotoxic activity such as styrylquinoline, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-benzoyl-2-methyl-4-phenylamino-quinoline, siderol, and pipereicosalidine.
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The occurrence of papaya anthracnose is a significant post-harvest ailment, necessitating the effective disease management. The aim was to determine the ability of secondary metabolites combination of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum isolates against the disease. A completely randomized design was used for in vitro experiments and a randomized block design for in vivo experiments. The treatments consisted of P. fluorescens P60 and T. harzianum T10, P. fluorescens P60 and T. harzianum T213, P. fluorescens P32 and T. harzianum T10, P. fluorescens P32 and T. harzianum T213 secondary metabolites and fungicides (a.i. maneb). The observed variables included the pathosystem component and papaya character and organoleptic test. The in vitro test results showed that P. fluorescens P60 and T. harzianum T10 and P. fluorescens P60 and T. harzianum T213 secondary metabolites inhibited the pathogen growth by 48.1075 and 43.4625%, respectively. The secondary metabolites of P. fluorescens P60 and T. harzianum T10 in vivo test results could delay the germination time by 12.63% and reduce the invasion area by 44.29%. All secondary metabolites had no effect on sugar content, hardness and sensory test. The combined secondary metabolites of P. fluorescens and T. harzianum are safe and does not affect papaya fruit quality.
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Melatonin, a well-known mammalian hormone is not just regulate circadian rhythm, and promote sleep in humans and animals but is also involved in multiple physiological actions in plants. Regulating melatonin production in plants could be a promising strategy for improving crops' resilience to stress in the era of climate change.
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Background: Uterine stimulants are medications used to induce/augment labor, induce abortion, and to prevent postpartum hemorrhage. Currently, available drugs carrying adverse effects, hence the present study is designed to study the effect of Carica papaya raw fruits extract in comparison with oxytocin using in vitro rat uterus preparations. Aims and Objectives: Primary and secondary aims of the present study were to evaluate the uterine stimulant effect and also the potency of C. papaya fruit extract using in vitro rat uterus preparations in comparison with oxytocin. Materials and Methods: A total of 6 female rats were taken and anesthetized with ether. By giving midline incision at abdomen from pubic symphysis, two horns of uterus were identified and collected from each rat. Uterus of each rat was subjected to Oxytocin 0.32 IU (standard), alcoholic extract of C. papaya 0.32 mg (AECP), and combination of various doses of AECP (0.64 mg, 1.28 mg, and 2.56 mg) and a fixed dose of Oxytocin (0.32 IU). Using Sherrington’s kymograph, the uterine responses of each drug and combinations were studied in terms of height of the graph. Results: The mean contraction of uterus was 6.55mm and 2.26 cm, when Oxytocin (0.32 UI) and AECP (0.32 mg) injected, respectively. When combination of Oxytocin and different doses of AECP was injected, the uterus has shown dose-dependent response, i.e., 7.13 cm (Oxytocin 0.32 IU +AECP 3.2 mg), 8.08 cm (Oxytocin 0.32 IU + AECP 6.4 mg), and 9.01 cm (Oxytocin 0.32 IU + AECP 12.8 mg). Conclusion: AECP has shown dose-dependent uterine stimulant effect. Further studies are required to find out the possible mechanism behind the uterine stimulant activity of AECP.
Çalışma, 2019-2020 arasında Somali’nin Shabelle bölgesindeki Afgoye şehrinden 10 km uzakta açık alanda yürütülmüştür. Araştırmada, Somali koşullarında farklı papaya çeşitlerinin fenolojik özelikleri ve verim açısından gösterdikleri performansları belirleyerek, üreticiye uygun çeşit önermek amaçlanmıştır. Denemede materyal olarak dişi ve erkek ağaç oranının dengelenmesine ihtiyaç duymaksızın, üreticilerin yetiştirebilecekleri, ihracatta tercih edilen ve hermafrodit çeşit olan ‘Eksotika II’ ve yerel bir çeşit olan ‘Somali Papaya’ kullanılmıştır. Hermafrodit çeşit ‘Eksotika II’ Malezya Tarımsal Araştırma ve Geliştirme Enstitüsü’den (MARDI) temin edilmiştir. ‘Eksotika II’ ve ‘Somali Papaya’ tohumları maxpeat torf içeren 7x9’luk viyollerde çimlendirilerek gelişmeleri sağlanmıştır. Boyları 50 cm’e ulaşan papaya fidanları 3x3 metre olacak şekilde bahçeye dikilerek yetiştirilmiştir. ‘Eksotika II’ papaya ağaçları ve ‘Somali Papaya’ yerel çeşidinin dişi ağaçlarında ağaç yüksekliği (cm), gövde kalınlığı (cm), ağaç başına yaprak sayısı (adet), dikimden ilk çiçeklenmeye kadar geçen süre (gün), çiçeklenmeden hasada kadar geçen süre (gün), ağaç başına meyve ağırlığı (kg) ve meyve tutumu (adet/ağaç), değerleri araştırılmıştır. İn vivo ortamda, ‘Eksotika II’ ve ‘Somali Papaya’ çeşidinin tohumları 15 gün içerisinde çeşide bağlı olarak % 58 (Eksotika II) ile % 67 (Somali Papaya) arasında çimlenme göstermişlerdir. Ağaç yüksekliği, dikimden ilk çiçeklenmeye kadar geçen süre, çiçeklenmeden hasada kadar geçen süre, ağaç başına meyve ağırlığı ve meyve tutumu değerleri ‘Eksotika II’ ve ‘Somali Papaya’ çeşidinin dişi ağaçlarında birbirine benzer sonuçlar vermiştir. Gövde kalınlığı ve ağaç başına yaprak sayısı bakımından ‘Eksotika II’ çeşidi yerel çeşide göre daha yüksek değerlere sahiptir. Ağaç başına meyve ağırlığı en yüksek çeşit 41.17 kg ile ‘Eksotika II’ papaya’ çeşididir. ‘Somali Papaya’ yerel çeşidi (dioik) papaya ağaçlarından verim alınabilmesi için gerekli olan dişi ve erkek ağaç oranı yaklaşık 93 gün (dikimden ilk çiçeklenmeye kadar geçen süre) sonra belirlenebilmektedir. Çiçek yapılarına göre dişi veya erkek olduğu belirlenen ağaçlar arasından dişi ağaçlar ile verimsiz erkek ağaçların %25’ini bırakılarak diğerlerinin teklendiği ‘Somali Papaya’ sı gibi dioik çeşitlerin yerine, ‘Eksotika II’ çeşidi papaya yetiştiricilere önerilmektedir.
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The perception that herbal medicines are generally safe and non-toxic, has all necessitated patients' use of herbs in the management of diabetes and hypertension. The study evaluated healthcare professionals' and patients' perceptions of the use of herbs to control diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension. The study utilized a randomized sampling method for the survey; an online form was designed and used for data collection. The questionnaire was sent to professional and non-professional groups having the target population (patients and relatives. The results showed that the majority of the participants stated the use of Vernonia amagdalena in the management of HTN (33.0%) and DM (9.9%). Other plants mentioned include Moringa leaves HTN n (5.5%), DM n(6.6%); Carica papaya; HTN (9.9%), DM (8.2); Ginger, and DM (12.6%). Dogoyaro/Agbo (4.9%). Notable antidiabetic plants reported in this study include Rauwolfia vomitoria (1.1%), Ugu leaves (2.2%), Hibiscus (zobo) (4.4%), Ocimum gratiscimum (1.1%), cucumber (1.1%), neem plant (3.8%). Previous knowledge on Diabetes Mellitus between the patients and healthcare workers was P=0.038 while previous knowledge on hypertension was p=0.029. The knowledge of herbal product(s) used in diabetes was p=0.043 while knowledge of herbal product(s) used in hypertension was p=0.019, at p<0.05. It was thus concluded that the participants believe that herbal medicines can relieve disease within a short period, are effective at the correct dosage, have fewer side effects or no side effects at the proper doses, and can effect a complete cure if standardized, affordable, better tolerated in the body.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) manifests as chronic inflammation of the colon. The bowel inflammation is due to alteration in the immune response to gut micro flora, oxidative stress and hereditary genetic factors. Leaf extract of papaya Carica papaya Linn. contain vitamin A, C, alkaloids, saponins, glycosides, tannins and flavonoids which have antispasmodic, analgesic, antibacterial and antioxidant properties. The main aim of the study was to detect the efficacy of Carica papaya leaf extract (PLE) on ulcerative colitis in Wistar Albino rats with objectives to explore the possible mechanism involved in its efficacy and to look for prebiotic activity. The project was initiated after the approval of Institutional Animal Ethics Committee. Thirty adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned into seven groups of six rats each. Group I-control, Group II-UC disease control, Group III-Disease with standard Sulfasalazine 100mg/kg, Group IV and Group V, UC disease model receiving PLE of 250mg/kg and 500 mg/kg respectively. Ulcerative colitis was not induced in Group VI and Group VII which received PLE of 500mg/kg and 700 mg/kg respectively. All the drugs were administered orally for 15 days. UC was induced by acetic acid on the 8th day. Blood sample was collected for biochemical analysis for antioxidant levels. Histopathological analysis of distal colon was performed to look for inflammatory features. Microbial analysis was done for group VI and group VII. There was significant reduction in body weight in UC induced groups when compared to control. The weight loss in Group IV and V (PE1 and PE2) was not as extreme as seen in the UC alone group. The treatment groups IV and V showed significant increase in protein levels, increased catalase and decreased malondialdehyde levels when compared to Group I, II and III. On histopathological analysis, the severity and extent of inflammation was less in 500mg/kg dose of leaf extract (Group V) than 250mg/kg of leaf extract (Group IV) and 100mg/kg of sulfasalazine (Group III). Tissue sections of Group V showed only few inflammatory infiltrates with absence of oedema and crypt abscess in the submucosal area. On examining the pathogenic versus beneficial bacterial load in the control and Group VI (PE 3) and Group VII (PE 4), papaya leaf extracts depicted antibacterial property and probiotic activity. In the present study, 500mg/kg of papaya leaf extract was efficacious in relieving oxidative stress and reducing inflammation in acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis in rats. Carica papaya leaf extracts have a potential role to modify gut microbe with respect to its prebiotic activity.
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Unlabelled: Therapy with oral proteolytic enzymes (OET) with combination drug products containing papain, bromelain, trypsin, and chymotrypsin has been shown to be beneficial in clinical settings such as radiotherapy-induced fibrosis, bleomycin pneumotoxicity and immunosuppression in cancer, all of which are nowadays known to be accompanied by excessive transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) production. It has been demonstrated that proteolytic enzymes reduce TGF-beta levels in serum by converting the protease inhibitor alpha2 macroglobulin (alpha2M) from the "slow" form into the "fast" form, whereby the "fast" form binds and inactivates TGF-beta irreversibly. In this study we have investigated the effect of OET on the concentration of TGF-beta1 in serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (n = 38), osteomyelofibrosis (OMF) (n = 7) and herpes zoster (HZ) (n = 7). Seventy-eight healthy volunteers served as controls. TGF-beta1 levels in serum were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We have demonstrated that in healthy volunteers and in patients there exists a correlation between active and latent TGF-beta1 in serum (r=0.8021; P<0.0001). Treatment with OET had no significant effect on TGF-beta1 concentration in healthy volunteers or patients with a normal level of TGF-beta1. In patients with elevated TGF-beta1 concentration (> 50 ng/ml serum), OET reduced TGF-beta1 in RA (P < 0.005), in OMF (P < 0.05) and in HZ (P < 0.05). Conclusion: These results support the concept that OET is beneficial in diseases characterized in part by TGF-beta1 overproduction.
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Ethanolic extracts of 22 traditionally used Indian medicinal plants were studied for their antimicrobial activity against seven bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, S. paratyphi, S. typhi, E. coli, Shigella dysenteriae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and five filamentous fungi (Aspergillus niger, Alternaria alternata, Fusarium chlamydosporum, Rhizoctonia bataticola and Trichoderma viride) and a yeast Candida albicans of clinical origin. Of these, 16 plant extracts showed varied level of antibacterial activity against one or more test bacteria. Similarly antifungal and anticandidal activity was detected among 17 and 9 plant extracts respectively. Broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity (both antibacterial and antifungal) was detected among crude extracts of Bryophyllum pinnatum (leaves), Caesalpinia bonducella (seeds), Delonix regia (flower), Hedychium spicatum (fruits), Mangifera indica (leaves), Murraya coenigii (leaves) and Syzgium cumini (seeds). Similarly extracts of Cichorium intybus (roots), Ficus religiosa (leaves) and Trigonella foenum-graecum (leaves) demonstrated more antibacterial activity with less antifungal activity. On the other hand Pistacia integerrima (stems) and Rheum emodi (roots) demonstrated more antifungal activity with less antibacterial activity.
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Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest yield. The effect of time on extraction efficiency was confirmed by qualitative identification of the compounds present in the lowest and highest yield extracts. Analysis of the leaf extract with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenes. Antifungal effectiveness was determined by challenging the extracts (LE, SRE, SUE) from the best extraction treatment against three phytopathogenic fungi: Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium spp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The leaf extract exhibited the broadest action spectrum. The MIC(50) for the leaf extract was 0.625 mg ml(-1) for Fusarium spp. and >10 mg ml(-1) for C. gloeosporioides, both equal to approximately 20% mycelial growth inhibition. Ethanolic extracts from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves are a potential source of secondary metabolites with antifungal properties.
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Exposure to oxygen may induce a lack of functionality of probiotic dairy foods because the anaerobic metabolism of probiotic bacteria compromises during storage the maintenance of their viability to provide benefits to consumer health. Glucose oxidase can constitute a potential alternative to increase the survival of probiotic bacteria in yogurt because it consumes the oxygen permeating to the inside of the pot during storage, thus making it possible to avoid the use of chemical additives. This research aimed to optimize the processing of probiotic yogurt supplemented with glucose oxidase using response surface methodology and to determine the levels of glucose and glucose oxidase that minimize the concentration of dissolved oxygen and maximize the Bifidobacterium longum count by the desirability function. Response surface methodology mathematical models adequately described the process, with adjusted determination coefficients of 83% for the oxygen and 94% for the B. longum. Linear and quadratic effects of the glucose oxidase were reported for the oxygen model, whereas for the B. longum count model an influence of the glucose oxidase at the linear level was observed followed by the quadratic influence of glucose and quadratic effect of glucose oxidase. The desirability function indicated that 62.32 ppm of glucose oxidase and 4.35 ppm of glucose was the best combination of these components for optimization of probiotic yogurt processing. An additional validation experiment was performed and results showed acceptable error between the predicted and experimental results.
Oral therapy with proteolytic enzymes (OTPE) (papain, bromelain, trypsin, chymotrypsin amylase and lipase) has been used in additive cancer therapy for several years and has led to a reduction in adverse effects after cancer treatment (radiation and chemotherapy). OTPE has been proven to have a beneficial effect, especially in cancers and other conditions involving elevated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) expression. Proteases such as trypsin, chymotrypsin, bromelain and papain have been demonstrated to be capable of converting the slow form of α2-macroglobulin into the fast form. This form of α2-macroglobulin is capable of irreversibly binding TGF-β. Subsequently the TGF-β-α2-macroglobulin complex can be quickly removed via endocytosis. Since the production of TGF-β is regulated by an autocrine loop, removal of TGF-β results in down-regulation of TGF-β overproduction. It has been proposed that OTPE may act through this interruption of the autocrine loop. In vitro reduction in TGF-β overexpression in tumor-associated macrophages leads to enhanced tumor killing capacity as well as to stimulation of natural killer cell and granulocyte cytotoxicity. In clinical trials with patients suffering from polycythemia vera or myelofibrosis, treatment with proteolytic enzymes has been shown to reduce elevated serum concentrations of TGF-β. These findings suggest that through reduction of TGF-β overproduction, OTPE could be beneficial in the inhibition of fibrosis and in additive tumor therapy.
Helminthiasis is one of the most important group of parasitic diseases in Indo-Pakistan subcontinent resulting in heavy production losses in livestock. A wide variety of anthelmintics is used for the treatment of helminths in animals. However, the development of resistance in helminths against commonly used anthelmintics have always been a challenge faced by the animal health care professionals. Therefore, exploitation of anthelmintic potential of plants indigenous to Indo-Pak subcontinent is an area of research interest. This paper reviews the use of some indigenous plants as anthelmintics in animals. # 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Unripe pulp of Carica papaya was screened to test for the presence of certain phytochemicals. Chemical composition of the pulp were determined. Phytochemical screening of mature unripe pulp of Carica papaya (dry weight) showed the presence of saponins and cardenolides while chemical analysis revealed the presence of potassium (223.0mg/100g) as well as sodium, calcium, iron, phosphorus, zinc, copper, magnesium and manganese in considerable quantities. Proximate analysis of the pulp showed that it contained starch (43.28%), sugars (15.15%), crude protein (13.63%), crude fat (1.29%), moisture (10.65%) and fibre (1.88%). All these results indicate that the pulp of mature unripe Carica papaya contains nutrients and mineral elements that may be useful in nutrition. The presence of some phytochemicals like saponins and cardenolides explained the astringent action of the plant encountered in the numerous therapeutic uses.