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Captive breeding and the most threatened birds in Asia

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... In recent years, large-scale commercial breeding of some of the rarest songbirds has started to influence the Java and Bali bird trade, the interpretation of protected species legislation and the management of threatened species (Jepson and Ladle, 2005;2009b;Jepson, 2010Jepson, , 2016Kristianto and Jepson, 2011;Owen et al., 2014). Black-winged mynas are indeed bred by commercial breeders in the Central Javan town of Klaten (Collar et al., 2012;Owen et al., 2014) and in some of the larger cities on Java (see Results) as well as by private individuals throughout Java and Bali. ...
... While the three species are distinguishable morphologically, and have allopatric distributions, hybridisation between the species does occur, both within and outside their native ranges (Collar et al., 2012). One of 22 black-winged mynas observed in Sukahaji bird market in Bandung in 2016 was judged an A. melanopterus x A. tricolor hybrid (SC Chng, pers. ...
... Identification of the three species, when adult, can be straightforward when observed in the right conditions. Some of the younger birds of A. tricolor and A. tertius are similar in colouration to A. melanopterus (Collar et al., 2012) thus hampering identification. Recognising species differences in the bird markets may be hindered as birds may be kept in cages high up at the front of the shop, thus allowing it only to be seen from the side, or in back of the shop that are normally only dimly-lit. ...
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The illegal cage bird trade is increasingly recognised as a major impediment to the survival of a large number of songbirds. Indeed some bird species are now more common in captive private hands than they are in the wild. This includes the black-winged mynas (Acridotheres melanopterus, A. tricolor and A. tertius), three species of Critically Endangered songbirds endemic to Indonesia. Only 20 years ago these species were not considered globally threatened but high levels of trapping from the wild for the largely domestic cage bird trade has brought all three species to the brink of extinction. It is estimated that less than 500 black-winged mynas remain in the wild. Here we investigate the trade in black-winged mynas, online and in bird markets, and make an assessment of the role captive breeding played in the conservation and management of the species over the period 2009–2018. We found prices peaked in 2014 at ∼ US$140 (∼75% of the monthly minimum wage) per bird and have subsequently gone down to US$85 (now ∼33% of the minimum wage), possibly indicating higher supply and lower demand. In 2015–2018 we surveyed seven bird markets in western Java and in 127/145 visits observed 1253 black-winged mynas for sale. Turnover was high, with ∼50% of birds sold after one week upon arrival in the market. We estimate that between 1300 and 2300 mynas (retail value ∼ US$170,000) are sold annually in these seven bird markets. Few birds had closed leg-rings, but were in all likelihood a combination of captive-bred, first-generation captive-born and wild-caught individuals; some appeared to be crossbreeds between the three recognised species. With additional bird markets in Java and Bali and a thriving online trade, we estimate that the number of black-winged mynas in private ownership in Indonesia is in the order of 40,000 birds. Without proper registration and regulation in the trade of captive-bred mynas, even a small amount of wild-caught birds entering this now substantial trade will act as a serious impediment to the conservation of black-winged mynas. With the species already being ecologically extinct, we anticipate that it soon will join the ranks of species like Père David's deer Elaphurus davidianus and scimitar-horned oryx Oryx dammah that are extinct in the wild but that have captive populations in the tens of thousands. In order to prevent the imminent extinction of black-winged mynas in the wild, we recommend (1) that the Indonesian authorities invest in more effective law enforcement and prosecution of lawbreakers; (2) establishing a multi-stakeholder three species black-winged myna management plan, in which commercial captive breeders participate; and (3) better coordination of reintroduction programmes.
... Extrapolating this to the urban population of Java, which amounts to 60% of Indonesia's total, it suggests that a total of 1.4-1.8 million wild-caught native songbirds were acquired. This has resulted in a large number of songbirds being threatened with extinction largely, if not exclusively, due to trade (Collar et al. 2012, a phenomenon that has been labelled as the 'Asian songbird crisis'. ...
... Regulations are in place to restrict what can be sold in these markets, including quotas for species which are not protected by law and bans on the sale of wild-caught individuals of protected species, but these are rarely, if ever, enforced for all but perhaps the highest-profile species . While concerns about the effect of bird keeping on wild populations have been expressed for decades (Diamond et al. 1987, Basuni & Setiyani 1989, Nash 1993, in recent years it has become clear that trade is now the main threat to an increasingly large number of bird species (Collar et al. 2012, Owen et al. 2014. Monitoring the trade in some 200 species of birds is not practical, but a focus on a small number of indicator species instead could be a useful strategy (e.g. ...
... Only one Javan Green Magpie was found, in Pramuka market, Jakarta. Its plumage was still green, suggesting that it had been taken from the wild only recently-the plumage of Cissa magpies in captivity for prolonged periods fades to blue (Collar et al. 2012)-and it did not have a leg ring. The bird was said to originate from 'Subang', a district to the east of Jakarta and north of Bandung, but no further information was obtained. ...
... In recent years some first steps have been taken to document the scale of the bird trade in Sundaic Indonesia (Jepson & Ladle 2005 and its impact on some species (Shepherd 2006, Harris et al. 2015, as well as to provide a safeguard against the extinction of some of these species through the establishment of ex situ breeding populations (Collar et al. 2012, Owen et al. 2014). These initiatives have been largely extemporary in nature, with the ex situ work in particular driven by alarm and opportunity, much of it led by what is now called the Threatened Asian Songbird Alliance (TASA), operating as a formal body of the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA). ...
... This corvid was recognised only in 2013 as specifically distinct from Bornean Green Magpie C. jefferyi (montane Borneo) and simultaneously documented as in grave danger of extinction owing to trade pressure ( van Balen et al. 2013); it is known from 18 localities in the West and Central Javan mountains from Gn Halimun east to Gn Merapi. In direct response to van Balen et al. (2013), TASA initiated a programme of captive breeding, seeking whatever birds could still be found in Javan bird markets and maintaining them initially at Cikananga Wildlife Center, Sukabumi, Java (Collar et al. 2012, Owen et al. 2014. In late 2015, the captive population was divided up for security and propagation, and in January 2016 it comprised five males and 11 females (Cikananga), two pairs (Taman Safari, Bogor, Java), four pairs (Chester Zoo, UK), one pair (Durrell Wildlife Preservation Trust, Jersey, UK) and one pair (Prague Zoo, Czech Republic) (A. ...
... After the discovery that Javan Green Magpie was at great risk of extinction from Javanese trade pressure (see above), an assessment of other Javan endemic species led to the identification of this species, which shares much the same range as the magpie, as almost equally at risk (Collar et al. 2012, Collar & van Balen 2013, Owen et al. 2014, BirdLife International 2015. Despite its small range, it occurs in two fairly distinct subspecies. ...
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Commercial trade, almost always for pets, represents a major threat to bird species and subspecies in Sumatra, Kalimantan, Java and Bali, Indonesia. Thirteen species—Silvery Woodpigeon Columba argentina, Javan Hawk-eagle Nisaetus bartelsi, Helmeted Hornbill Rhinoplax vigil, Yellow-crested Cockatoo Cacatua sulphurea, Scarlet-breasted Lorikeet Trichoglossus forsteni, Javan Green Magpie Cissa thalassina, Black-winged Myna Acridotheres melanopterus, Bali Myna Leucopsar rothschildi, Straw-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus zeylanicus, Javan White-eye Zosterops flavus, Rufous-fronted Laughingthrush Garrulax rufifrons, Sumatran Laughingthrush Garrulax bicolor and Java Sparrow Lonchura oryzivora—are identified as at greatly elevated risk of global extinction from trade pressures, plus the nominate Javan race of Crested Jay Platylophus galericulatus, the races tricolor, hypolizus, opisthochrus, melanurus, omissus and barbouri of White-rumped Shama Copsychus malabaricus, race jalla of Asian Pied Starling Gracupica contra, races miotera, robusta and (extralimital) venerata of Hill Myna Gracula religiosa, and races rookmakeri and laurinae of Silver-eared Mesia Leiothrix argentauris. Scarlet-breasted Lorikeet Trichoglossus forsteni race djampeanus, White-rumped Shama Copsychus malabaricus races opisthochrus, omissus and nigricauda and Hill Myna Gracula religiosa race miotera may already be extinct. However, this is a conservative list because (a) some candidates simply lack information to indicate trade as a threat, (b) taxonomic revision will probably increase the number of full species at risk from trade, and (c) taxonomically undifferentiated populations were not included in this review. As certain favoured species disappear, others are targeted as next-best substitutes (e.g. Grey-cheeked Bulbul Alophoixus bres for Straw-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus zeylanicus), and commercial breeders may hybridise taxa for better effects (e.g. non-Indonesian subspecies of Asian Pied Starling Gracupica contra with Indonesian race jalla). Law enforcement, public awareness campaigns, in situ management, conservation breeding, conversion of trappers to wardens and field, market and genetic surveys are all needed, but commercial breeding, while attractive in theory, presents difficulties that are probably insurmountable in practice.
... The rampant, widespread and largely unregulated trade in birds in Indonesia has pushed several species to the brink of extinction, including the Javan Green Magpie Cissa thalassina, Rufousfronted Laughingthrush Garrulax rufifrons, Straw-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus zeylanicus , and Yellow-crested Cockatoo Cacatua sulphurea (PHPA/BirdLife International-IP 1998, Muchtar and Nurwatha 2001, Shepherd et al. 2004, van Balen et al. 2011, Collar et al. 2012, Collar and van Balen 2013. Although many threatened species are protected by Indonesian law, precluding their trade, and a comprehensive system exists for regulating the trade in non-protected wildlife, the rules are not being effectively enforced, and certainly over the last four decades, very little has been done to address the illegal commercial trade (Shepherd 2006, Nijman et al. 2009, Shepherd 2010. ...
... Traditionally referred to as the Black-winged Starling and a member of the Sturnus genus, recent phylogenetic work indicates the species should be reclassified as belonging to the Acridotheres genus (Lovette andRubenstein 2007 , Zuccon et al. 2008 ). Three subspecies of the Black-winged Myna have been described, viz. the nominate A. m. melanopterus in most of Java, A. m. tricolor in east Java (east of the town of Malang) and A. m. tertius on Bali (Collar et al. 2012 ). The three forms are distinguished by the extent of grey and black coloration on their mantle. ...
... In east Java and Bali especially, they were found in pairs or in small flocks, foraging on open ground such as grass lawns, and sometimes even roosting in trees and on houses in cities (MacKinnon and Phillipps 1993). By 2007, it was reported to have declined to a few hundred individuals on Java (Braasch 2007 ), and the wild population of A. m. tertius on Bali is currently thought to be 200 birds, largely within Bali Barat National Park and southernmost Bali (Collar et al. 2012, J. A. Eaton pers. obs. ...
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The Critically Endangered Black-winged Myna Acridotheres melanopterus is being pushed towards the brink of extinction in Indonesia due to continued demand for it as a cage bird and the lack of enforcement of national laws set in place to protect it. The trade in this species is largely to supply domestic demand, although an unknown level of international demand also persists. We conducted five surveys of three of Indonesia’s largest open bird markets (Pramuka, Barito and Jatinegara), all of which are located in the capital Jakarta, between July 2010 and July 2014. No Black-winged Mynas were observed in Jatinegara, singles or pairs were observed during every survey in Barito, whereas up to 14 birds at a time were present at Pramuka. The average number of birds observed per survey is about a quarter of what it was in the 1990s when, on average, some 30 Black-winged Mynas were present at Pramuka and Barito markets. Current asking prices in Jakarta are high, with unbartered quotes averaging USD 220 per bird. Our surveys of the markets in Jakarta illustrate an ongoing and open trade. Dealers blatantly ignore national legislation and are fearless of enforcement actions. Commercial captive breeding is unlikely to remove pressure from remaining wild populations of Black-winged Mynas. Efforts to end the illegal trade in this species and to allow wild populations to recover are urgently needed. We also recommend the immediate inclusion of Black-winged Mynas in Appendix III of CITES to allow for international support to Indonesia in clamping down on international trade of the species.
... The White-crested Laughingthrush is native to the north and north-eastern Indian subcontinent, south-eastern Tibet Autonomous Region and south-western China, Myanmar, Thailand and parts of Indochina, while the Sumatran Laughingthrush is endemic to the Indonesian island of Sumatra, where it is found in the mountainous regions (van Marle and Voous, 1988;BirdLife International, 2012). It is seriously threatened by capture for the domestic trade in cage birds (Shepherd, 2007;Shepherd, 2010;BirdLife International, 2012;Collar et al., 2012). The Sumatran Laughingthrush moves about in groups and is attracted to decoys, making it easy to trap (Collar et al., 2012). ...
... It is seriously threatened by capture for the domestic trade in cage birds (Shepherd, 2007;Shepherd, 2010;BirdLife International, 2012;Collar et al., 2012). The Sumatran Laughingthrush moves about in groups and is attracted to decoys, making it easy to trap (Collar et al., 2012). Recent evidence suggests that this species has undergone a considerable decline and is now known to be present at only a small number of sites (BirdLife International, 2012). ...
... Efforts to close down the illegal bird trade in Indonesia have been minimal, as exemplified by the presence of vast numbers of birds, often illegally obtained and fully protected by Ex situ conservation actions are under way. By mid-2012 there were 20 males and 17 female Sumatran Laughingthrushes in European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA) institutions, and a few more in private hands, and between October 2011 and September 2012, 10 birds were reared from four different pairs at the Cikananga Integrated Conservation Society centre, in West Java, Indonesia (Collar et al., 2012). These captive birds may very well play an important role in the conservation of this species in the future. ...
... Some captive breeding of this species in private hands in Indonesia supplies birds for the trade, but wild-caught birds, often from Malaysia, continue to appear in Indonesia's markets. Extirpated from the wild, the Bali Myna is bred in captivity in Indonesia and in a number of other countries (Collar et al. 2012), and has been reintroduced over time, but reintroduction efforts are hampered by the constant threat of poaching to supply a continual demand. ...
... Impeding conservation efforts is the notion that ownership of rare species is a prestigious symbol of social status (Nijman et al. 2009, Collar et al. 2012. Clearly, increased efforts to educate bird hobbyists on the fundamental aspects of conservation of threatened bird species is needed, as is stronger enforcement effort by the authorities in Indonesia. ...
Article
Bird trade has led to increasing endangerment of species throughout South-East Asia. An opportunistic survey of two bird markets in Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia, highlights continuing problems with illegal trade. In June 2019, a total of 63 species, accounting for 6,352 birds, were observed in two Makassar bird markets. The majority of the birds observed were native to Indonesia, but not necessarily native to Sulawesi, illustrating the movement of birds for commercial trade across the archipelago. Fifteen of the species observed are protected under Indonesian legislation, and the vast majority of the rest were likely to have been taken from the wild outside of Indonesia’s annual harvest and trade quota system. Such illegal trade is a major contributing driver to the decline in wild populations and undermines national legislation and conservation efforts.
... We did not observe very young birds. Experience from a conservation breeding programme (Collar et al. 2012, Owen et al. 2014 suggests that this is a challenging bird to breed. The current low prices that it commands in the bird markets more or less rule out the viability of any genuine commercial captive breeding. ...
... As one of the rarest birds in Indonesia, and one that is threatened mainly by trade, it is disconcerting to see it being offered openly for sale in several bird markets as well as online. The Rufous-fronted Laughingthrush has been identified as a species for which captive breeding offers an opportunity to save it from extinction (Collar et al. 2012, Owen et al. 2014. Efforts to enforce existing legislation by confiscating birds offered for sale in bird markets and online should be integrated with this captive breeding programme, with confiscated birds being added to the captive stock. ...
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The Rufous-fronted Laughingthrush Garrulax rufifrons shares the western part of the island of Java, Indonesia, with close to 100 million people. Historically it has been recorded from 15 mountains but post-2000 records all come from two of them (Gn Gede-Pangrango and Gn Slamet). Illegal trade for the cage-bird market is considered to be the main threat to the species; it is currently listed as Critically Endangered. Despite trade being the main threat, well-documented records of birds for sale and associated price data are scarce. Based on 174 surveys of 11 Javan bird markets (August 2016 to February 2020), we here report on the trade (volume, price developments and temporal patterns) in Rufous-fronted Laughingthrush. The species was recorded in 21% of the surveys, with a total of 61 birds (all adult-sized); in addition, we found seven birds offered for sale on online platforms. Prices were relatively low at ~US$69 and these prices differed geographically. We found no temporal changes in numbers or prices. We assessed that birds were sold on average within two weeks after arriving at the bird market and based on this we estimate that overall some 90 Rufous-fronted Laughingthrushes are sold in these markets annually. Our surveys raise the possibility that the species persists on other mountains in western Java and underscores the value of bird market surveys in gaining insight into how trade affects the conservation of imperilled bird species.
... Cikananga Wildlife Centre, west Java) to establish captive populations for future introductions (e.g. Collar et al. 2012), and coordinated through an endangered species recovery plan. Similar programmes are now available for other threatened songbirds, most notably the Bali Starling and 'Endangered' Black-winged Starling Acridotheres melanopterus (Collar et al. 2012, Cikananga Wildlife Centre 2016. ...
... Collar et al. 2012), and coordinated through an endangered species recovery plan. Similar programmes are now available for other threatened songbirds, most notably the Bali Starling and 'Endangered' Black-winged Starling Acridotheres melanopterus (Collar et al. 2012, Cikananga Wildlife Centre 2016. Since Straw-headed Bulbuls are also being captive-bred by private owners and aviculture organisations in Java (BirdLife International 2016b), conservationists can tap into the knowledge from existing ex-situ programmes and coordinate with licensed aviculturists to build breeding and holding facilities. ...
Article
The globally threatened Straw-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus zeylanicus is one of South-East Asia’s most imperiled songbirds due to the surging demand for the species in the regional bird trade. Recently uplisted from Vulnerable to Endangered, populations of the Straw-headed Bulbul have been extirpated from Java, Thailand and possibly Sumatra while those in Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia are in decline. Intriguingly, a significant yet rarely documented population of this species persists in Singapore. A major stronghold in Singapore is Ubin Island where a population is known since the 1920s. Using a long-term citizen science dataset rarely available for South-East Asian bird species, we determined the status and population trends of the Straw-headed Bulbul in Singapore over a 10–15 year period using Poisson regression models and standardised population indices. We found that the Straw-headed Bulbul population has increased at a rate of 3.69 ± 1.21% per annum on Ubin Island, while the population on Singapore Island remained stable (0.56% per annum) from 2000 to 2016. The population trends in Singapore contrast starkly with the declines reported elsewhere in South-East Asia. We estimated the population in Singapore to be a minimum of 202 individuals, distributed over multiple forest patches. The largest subpopulation of about 110 adult individuals persists on Ubin and which alone forms between 6.5–18.3% of the estimated global population in 2016. Given this unique situation, we recommend a number of conservation measures for the Straw-headed Bulbul to better protect the species, including: (1) an expansion of the protected area network in Singapore to include Ubin as a reserve, (2) the development of an endangered species management plan and, (3) the establishment of ex-situ conservation programmes in zoological institutions and wildlife centres in the region.
... Buyers are more likely, therefore, to continue to demand desired species even as their prices rise, rather than switching to more common (and less expensive) ones (Courchamp et al., 2006). That certain species of captive birds serve as status symbols in Indonesia Collar et al., 2012) further supports the idea of low substitutability. Therefore, we felt justified in testing for population declines based on price and trade volume without reliable information on source or trapping methods used (which are rarely available) (Crookes et al., 2005;Ling and Milner-Gulland, 2006). ...
... Heavy trapping led to very low population sizes in the 1980s and 1990s 84 and an exponential increase in price (Table S3). The species is so rare and valuable that owning 85 one is a status symbol (Collar et al., 2012). Demand is also likely augmented by the species' 86 designation as the official animal of Bali (Nijman et al., 2009; S. van Balen pers. ...
... Our fieldwork on Gn Salak was in suitable habitat near sites where the species had been recorded in the 1980s; on Gn Slamet, most of our work was slightly above the known altitudinal limit. Although there were no targeted searches for Rufous-fronted Laughingthrush, we neither recorded it at either site, nor saw it in any of the bird markets we visited, confirming the concerns expressed for the species (Collar et al. 2012, Collar & van Balen 2013, BirdLife 2014b. On Gn Slamet, the endemic subspecies slamatensis may persist in remaining forest below 2,000 m on the southern slopes of the mountain but is likely to be extremely threatened. ...
... Our failure to observe either Oriental Magpie Robin or White-rumped Shama despite specific searches provides additional evidence of the impact of the wild bird-trade (Jepson & Ladle 2005, Collar et al. 2012. These usually widespread species may already be extirpated from large areas of Java. ...
... Second, region-wide threat assessments of the severity and extent of trade and trapping should be conducted on all bird species in Southeast Asia and check if localized threats we detected reflect broader patterns. Such assessments should use a combination of market-and field-based surveys to inform site-specific, targeted conservation interventions, such as in situ management of species, habitat (including nest site provisioning) and conservation breeding (Collar et al., 2012;M. Eaton et al., 2015b;Harris et al., 2015;Kurniandaru, 2008;Pain et al., 2006). ...
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Tropical forest restoration stands to deliver important conservation gains, particularly in lowland Southeast Asia, which has suffered some of the world's highest rates of recent forest loss and degradation. This promise, however, depends on the extent to which biodiversity at forest restoration sites continues to be exposed to threats. A key knowledge gap concerns the extent to which biodiversity recovery in naturally regenerating tropical forests is impacted by trapping for the multi-million-dollar wildlife trade. Here, we use a repeated survey dataset to quantify rates of avian community recovery under forest regeneration, at a flagship restoration site in the lowland rainforests of Sumatra, Indonesia. We show that over a decade, forest regeneration was associated with significant abundance increases for 43.8 % of bird species. However, the apparent negative impacts of trade-driven trapping on avian populations also intensified: the proportion of species dependent on very remote forests increased from 5.4 % to 16.2 %. Moreover, the overall accessibility of the forest increased. We found that 14 % of species did not recover as fast as predicted based on the observed forest regeneration over the study period. We found trapping to disproportionately impact species targeted for trade: compared to opportunistically trapped species, twice more species showed increased abundance only in very remote forests. Our results highlight the potential for rapid avifaunal recovery in regenerating tropical forests, but also emphasize the urgency of tackling the serious threat of wildlife trade to Southeast Asia's biodiversity.
... Birds are kept as pets, they are kept as livestock, but also as something in between whereby birds add a sense of completeness to the household (Forster, 2009). Indonesia's extensive cage bird trade is widely recognized as a leading threat to many of the country's native bird species (Collar et al, 2012;Eaton et al, 2015;Harris et al, 2017;Marshall et al, 2020). Indonesia currently has the world's highest number of threatened native birds (n=175) (IUCN Red List, 2021), with illegal and unsustainable overexploitation for the pet trade being one of the major reasons for this. ...
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Bird keeping is deeply rooted in Indonesian culture and markets selling large numbers of birds are found across the country. We examined bird markets in Mataram on the island of Lombok. Across five market visits, 10,326 birds of 108 species were observed, with 18 of these species being nationally protected and 10 having been assessed as globally threatened by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Observed protected species, as well as non-protected species with no or exceeded harvest quotas accounted for a total of 8,586 (83.1%) illegally traded birds. In terms of trade volume, 83% (n=8,347) of the recorded Indonesian birds were native to Lombok, suggesting that many of the birds for sale were sourced locally. However, 63% (n=65) of the encountered Indonesian species were not native to Lombok, confirming previously described intra-national bird trade flows between the Indonesian islands. We found a strong positive relation between a species’ body size and its asking price. Current legislation in Indonesia is sufficient to eradicate the open trade in illegally sourced and/or protected species. Improved enforcement of these laws, in combination with strategic demand reduction efforts, is needed to curb illegal and unsustainable bird trade in the country.
... Birds are kept as pets, they are kept as livestock, but also as something in between whereby birds add a sense of completeness to the household (Forster, 2009). Indonesia's extensive cage bird trade is widely recognized as a leading threat to many of the country's native bird species (Collar et al, 2012;Eaton et al, 2015;Harris et al, 2017;Marshall et al, 2020). Indonesia currently has the world's highest number of threatened native birds (n=175) (IUCN Red List, 2021), with illegal and unsustainable overexploitation for the pet trade being one of the major reasons for this. ...
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Full-text available
... In recent years it has become clear that Indonesia is the centre of the Asian Songbird Crisis [1,5,7,8,15,26,28,[53][54][55][56][57] including a trade in a substantial number of species that are legally protected [58]. Our aim was twofold: to disentangle the legal and illegal aspects of the wildlife trade by examining data from empirical studies, and to evaluate whether visits of wildlife markets, wholesale traders, and monitoring of online trade would give us insights in both the magnitude and legality of this trade. ...
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It is challenging to disentangle the legal and illegal aspects of wild-caught animals that are traded in wildlife markets or online, and this may diminish the value of conducting wildlife trade surveys. We present empirical studies on the trade in birds (ducks, owls, songbirds, non-passerines) in Indonesia (2005 to 2021). Based on visits to wildlife markets, wholesale traders, and monitoring of an Instagram account, we examine if five specific pieces of legislation (domestic and international) are adhered to: (1) protected species, (2) harvest quota, (3) welfare, (4) provincial transport restrictions, and (5) illegal import of CITES-listed species. Our five distinctly different case studies showed that in each case, certain rules and regulations were adhered to, whilst others were violated to varying degrees. When trade involved non-protected species, there was frequently a lack of harvest quotas or trade occurred above these allocated quotas. Basic welfare provisions were regularly and habitually violated. Visiting wildlife markets and recording first-hand what is openly offered for sale is a highly reliable, verifiable, and valuable method of data collection that can give insight in numerous aspects of the animal trade. Our research provides support for recognising the urgency for the government to take appropriate action to curb all the illegal aspects of the bird trade in Indonesia.
... Bali starling (Leucopsar rothschildi) is an endemic bird species of Bali island listed as a critically endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and Appendix I of Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) (BirdLife International 2018). The critically endangered status of the species could be due to a small population, restriction to a small area, overexploitation, illegal trading, habitat conversion, and forest fire (Collar et al. 2012;Pramatana et al. 2017). Therefore, the conservation of Bali starling will need to involve a multidisciplinary approach, including political, socioeconomic, and scientific fields. ...
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Bali starling (Leucopsar rothschildi) is categorized as an endangered species based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) red list. Thus, preventing this species from extinction becomes very crucial. One of the most important activities for this purpose is a soft release method to avoid birds’ mortality, which has been done in West Bali National Park (WBNP). However, this method creates the dependency of birds to the artificial treatment and may affect the distribution of Bali starling. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the population and habitat and create a habitat suitability index model for Bali starling in WBNP. Data were obtained by surveying the Bali starling population, including the number of individuals, distribution, age structure, sex ratio, natality, and mortality. Vegetation analysis was also conducted to determine habitat conditions. Finally, map interpretation data was used to develop a suitable habitat model for Bali starling in WBNP. The results showed that 63 Bali starling were found near the resort office, bird release sites, and binding bird cages. It indicated that the habitat of Bali starling has shifted from the soft release site. The habitat suitability index model of Bali starling in WBNP was Y = 17.145 + 6.640PC1 - 4.055PC2, showing the selected variables only give a moderate determination coefficient (R2 = 40.9%). The artificial treatment created by the WBNP authority seems to be another great factor influencing the existence and distribution of Bali starling in WBNP. It was also indicated that Bali starling could breed in the WBNP, but it tends to have a shifting habitat in the wild. Keywords: Bali starling, Geographic information system, Habitat suitability, Population
... The occurrence of three well-marked forms of the globally threatened Black-winged Myna A. melanopterus across Java and Bali (nominate melanopterus in West, Central and westernmost East Java plus Madura, tricolor in remaining East Java and tertius on Bali) has been a nightmare for conservationists attempting to maintain pure forms in captivity (Collar et al. 2012). So distinctive are these forms that they were split by del Hoyo & Collar (2016), although this made no difference to the captive management programmes that have continued to attempt to secure each form. ...
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Pakistan’s avifauna was well documented in the two-volume work ‘The Birds of Pakistan’ (Roberts 1991, 1992), thanks to the numerous ornithologists and birdwatchers who visited, many of them stationed as civil service officers. Pakistan’s bird list was added to by Roberts (2002), and Grimmett et al. (2008) published the first modern field guide to the country, providing a more contemporary country list in the process. Since this time birdwatching and ornithology across the country have grown and, as a consequence, numerous new and interesting bird records have come to light. This article highlights and classifies the notable records in two categories from mid- 2013 to mid-2021: (1) records which constitute an addition to the checklist of Pakistan, in some cases presenting substantial range extensions; and (2) vagrant species with five or fewer previous records. In total, we document 23 new species for Pakistan and discuss 17 vagrant species.
... It is, however, domestic trade that is largely responsible for the precipitous decline of the wild population, which began in the 1960s but was most pronounced in the 1990s. The sharp decline in numbers traded in the 2000s gave a clear indication that wild populations were vanishing because of trapping (Collar et al. 2001, 2012, Shepherd et al. 2016, Nijman et al. 2018). ...
Article
The Black-winged Myna (Acridotheres melanopterus) is an Endangered passerine endemic to the islands of Java and Bali, Indonesia. Illegal trapping to supply the cage-bird trade has led to its near-total extinction, with the global population estimated to number fewer than 100 individuals. We estimated the current range and population size of the species at Baluran National Park, which supports Java’s last known population, and used species distribution modeling to evaluate potential suitability of currently unoccupied areas across the park to identify priorities for management intervention. We estimate that the Black-winged Myna population numbers 179 individuals (95% CI: 111–288; density: 14.3 ± 3.5 individuals km–2) and that its current range is 12.3 km2. Our model indicated that some 72 km2 of the park (30% of total area) has potentially suitable habitat for the species, and we infer that the principal cause for the disparity between its current and potential range is trapping, compounded by savanna loss and degradation due to illegal domestic cattle grazing and the spread of invasive thorny acacia (Vachellia nilotica). The partial clearance of acacia in recent years appears to have assisted a modest population recovery by the myna. Its further population growth and range expansion in Baluran will depend on effective management of illegal poaching, further clearance of acacia, and easing domestic cattle grazing pressure on areas of savanna, particularly through engagement with communities living inside the park. Any actions that increase the size of the Black-winged Myna population are likely to benefit other threatened savanna-dependent wildlife in the park, notably banteng (Bos javanicus) and Green Peafowl (Pavo muticus). While our models and recommendations may be applicable to other protected areas in Java, and indeed other threatened myna species, trapping and habitat change may have site-specific dimensions, especially outside of protected areas, and thus demand local bespoke solutions.
... The buffer villages around TNBB also pose a threat to Bali starling population, one of which is the threat of hunting by the surrounding community (Alikodra, 1987). According to Collar et al. (2012), in 1999 there was a direct hunt for 39 pairs of Bali starlings in the Management Unit for Bali Starling Development in TNBB. ...
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Bali starling (Leucopsar rothschildi) is one of the animals that getting more attention because is categorized as an endengered species on the IUCN red list, Appendix 1 of CITES, and protected animals by goverment of Indonesia. The conservation for recovery of species was carried out by West Bali National Park (WBNP) through release activity and collaboration with conservation organization for release in different place from their natural habitat. The population of bali starling on both locations is tend to decrease, the study aimed to analized the impact of human factor with the existence of bali starling based on geographic information system. The farthest point of bali starling existence form road distance is 1 359 meters on WBNP and 660 meters on Nusa Penida Island, while the closest point on both locations is 0 meter from road distance. The second human factor is village distance with the farthest point of bali starling is 7 296 meters on WBNP and 295 meters on Nusa Penida Island, while the closest point of bali starling is 543 meters on WBNP and 0 meter on Nusa Penida Island. The third human factor is community’s garden distance with the farthest point of bali starling is 5 696 meters on WBNP and 67 meters on Nusa Penida Island, while the closest point of bali starling is 408 meters on WBNP and 0 meter on Nusa Penida Island. The existence point of bali starling that are close to human activites have a negative impact. Bali starling will depend on the resources provided by the community on Nusa Penida Island and part of WBNP and also make it difficult for the bali starling to restore the wild nature for adaptation in natural habitat. Key words: bali starling, geographic information system, human factor, Nusa Penida, West Bali National Park
... Using data on the trade in seven species of mynas on the Indonesian islands of Java, Bali and Lombok, we gain novel insights in the potential risks that the trade in these species poses for the introduction of invasive non-native species. In Indonesia, keeping wild-caught songbirds in cages, to admire their plumage and/or their song is very common [22][23][24]. Among the people of Java (including the Betawi, Sundanese and Javanese, both living on Java and other islands) the keeping of a bird in a cage is part of a balanced life as it represents time devoted to a hobby [25]. ...
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The wildlife trade has facilitated the introduction of invasive non-native species, which may compete with native species for resources and alter ecosystems. Some of these species have great potential to become invasive if released or escaped from captivity. Here we studied the pet trade in a group of open countryside birds, the mynas (Acridotheres spp.) in Indonesia, and identified the areas that are at high risk of facing the establishment of these species. Mynas are among the most invasive birds in Southeast Asia. Once established in a new area, they are almost impossible to eradicate and can have strong negative impacts on the ecosystem. Preventing their introduction is therefore essential. Yet, invasive non-native mynas continue to be traded openly. We present data on the trade in seven species of mynas on Java, Bali and Lombok, with three species being native to parts of one or two of these islands, but not to the remainder, and four that are non-native to the region. From 2016 to 2021 we conducted 255 surveys of 30 animal markets. We recorded over 6000 mynas that were offered for sale outside their native range. Areas most at risk because of their high prevalence in specific animal markets, are Greater Jakarta, eastern Java, Bali and Lombok. The number of invasive non-native mynas recorded was positively related to the size of the animal market. Indonesia is signatory to several international agreements (CBD, ASEAN) that have policies and guidelines to prevent the introduction of invasive non-native species, but compliancy is weak. Annually hundreds and possibly thousands of invasive non-native mynas are released by Indonesian conservation authorities in regions that are outside their native range. Effective management of, and regulation of trade in, potential invasive non-native birds in Indonesia falls short and inadvertently greatly aids both their introduction and establishment.
... Comparable numbers for this market were reported in the late 1980s [4] and the early 1990s [5]. This persistent and large-scale threat has had a destructive effect on numerous species, both ones that are only found on (parts of) Java and ones that range over larger parts of Southeast Asia [3,[5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]. ...
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Indonesia is at the epicenter of the Asian Songbird Crisis, i.e., the recognition that the cage bird trade has a devastating impact on numerous imperiled bird species in Asia. The Javan pied starling Gracupica jalla, only in the last five years recognized as distinct from the pied starlings of mainland Southeast Asia, has been declared extinct the wild in 2021. Up until the 1980s, it used to be one of the most common open countryside birds on the islands of Java and Bali, Indonesia. From the early 2000s onwards, the species is commercially bred to meet the demand from the domestic cagebird trade. We conducted 280 market surveys in 25 bird markets in Java and Bali between April 2014 and March 2020, with 15 markets being surveyed at least six times. We recorded 24,358 Javan pied starlings, making it one of the most commonly observed birds in the markets. We established that, conservatively, around 40% of the birds in the market were sold within one week and used this to estimate that at a minimum ~80,000 Javan pied starlings are sold in the bird markets on Java and Bali. The latter represents a monetary value of USD 5.2 million. We showed that prices were low in the 1980s, when all birds were sourced from the wild. It became more varied and differentiated in the 2000s when a combination of now expensive wild-caught and cheaper captive-bred birds were offered for sale, and prices stabilized in the 2010s when most, if not all birds were commercially captive-bred. Javan pied starlings are not protected under Indonesian law, and there are no linked-up conservation efforts in place to re-establish a wild population on the islands, although small-scale releases do take place.
... Breeding Sumatran Laughingthrushes is extremely difficult (Owen 2008), and even though knowledge of methods and husbandry have improved in recent years in this regard (Owen 2017), the species can still not be produced in great numbers. Breeding of wild animals is a controversial issue and it is important to distinguish between breeding for conservation and breeding for recreational and/or commercial purposes (Collar et al., 2012). Especially for threatened species, it is essential to maintain genetic diversity, and breeding should ideally be an informed and planned activity aimed at preventing species extinction, or at least reducing harvesting pressure on wild populations (McGowan et al., 2017). ...
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The Sumatran Laughingthrush (Garrulax bicolor) is an island endemic bird species from Indonesia. Its populations have rapidly decreased over the last decades and where the species was once widespread, only fragmented populations now remain. The species is protected on a national level and any capture or trade of wild individuals is strictly prohibited. Yet, illegal domestic trade continues to threaten the survival of this species. Less is known about the international trade in this species. Here, we investigate Sumatran Laughingthrush trade in the European Union (EU). We opportunistically observed 19 different websites from 2018 to 2020 and visited the Zwolle Bird Market in the Netherlands on four occasions in the same period. We found a minimum of 45 Sumatran Laughingthrushes for sale or in the possession of at least 20 dealers and/or hobbyists in Europe. At least some of these birds in private collections are likely to be, or have originated from, illegally imported wild individuals. In addition to the conservation implications of the trade in wild individuals, a potential increase in captive bred individuals on the international market in the future could hinder effective law enforcement, due to the difficulties of distinguishing between wild-caught and captive bred individuals. It is therefore essential to counter commercial captive breeding and trade while it is still in its infancy. We recommend that the EU lists this species in Annex A of the EU wildlife trade regulations and urge the Government of Indonesia to list the Sumatran Laughingthrush in CITES Appendix III, to assist in preventing international trade in illegally-sourced Sumatran Laughingthrushes globally.
... Breeding Sumatran Laughingthrushes is extremely difficult (Owen 2008), and even though knowledge of methods and husbandry have improved in recent years in this regard (Owen 2017), the species can still not be produced in great numbers. Breeding of wild animals is a controversial issue and it is important to distinguish between breeding for conservation and breeding for recreational and/or commercial purposes (Collar et al., 2012). Especially for threatened species, it is essential to maintain genetic diversity, and breeding should ideally be an informed and planned activity aimed at preventing species extinction, or at least reducing harvesting pressure on wild populations (McGowan et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
The Sumatran Laughingthrush (Garrulax bicolor) is an island endemic bird species from Indonesia. Its populations have rapidly decreased over the last decades and where the species was once widespread, only fragmented populations now remain. The species is protected on a national level and any capture or trade of wild individuals is strictly prohibited. Yet, illegal domestic trade continues to threaten the survival of this species. Less is known about the international trade in this species. Here, we investigate Sumatran Laughingthrush trade in the European Union (EU). We opportunistically observed 19 different websites from 2018 to 2020 and visited the Zwolle Bird Market in the Netherlands on four occasions in the same period. We found a minimum of 45 Sumatran Laughingthrushes for sale or in the possession of at least 20 dealers and/or hobbyists in Europe. At least some of these birds in private collections are likely to be, or have originated from, illegally imported wild individuals. In addition to the conservation implications of the trade in wild individuals, a potential increase in captive bred individuals on the international market in the future could hinder effective law enforcement, due to the difficulties of distinguishing between wild-caught and captive bred individuals. It is therefore essential to counter commercial captive breeding and trade while it is still in its infancy. We recommend that the EU lists this species in Annex A of the EU wildlife trade regulations and urge the Government of Indonesia to list the Sumatran Laughingthrush in CITES Appendix III, to assist in preventing international trade in illegally-sourced Sumatran Laughingthrushes globally.
... With poaching pressure unrelenting across Java and Bali, conservation breeding has been strongly recommended as one of the main strategies in preventing the BWM's extinction 25,[30][31][32] . However, such efforts have been hampered greatly by taxonomic uncertainty 25 . ...
Article
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In today's environmental crisis, conservationists are increasingly confronted with terminally endangered species whose last few surviving populations may be affected by allelic introgression from closely related species. Yet there is a worrying lack of evidence-based recommendations and solutions for this emerging problem. We analyzed genome-wide DNA markers and plumage variability in a critically endangered insular songbird, the Black-winged Myna (BWM, Acridotheres melanopterus). This species is highly threatened by the illegal wildlife trade, with its wild population numbering in the low hundreds, and its continued survival urgently depending on ex-situ breeding. Its three subspecies occur along a geographic gradient of melanism and are variably interpreted as three species. However, our integrative approach revealed that melanism poorly reflects the pattern of limited genomic differentiation across BWM subspecies. We also uncovered allelic introgression into the most melanistic subspecies, tertius, from the all-black congeneric Javan Myna (A. javanicus), which is native to the same islands. Based on our results, we recommend the establishment of three separate breeding programs to maintain subspecific traits that may confer local adaptation, but with the option of occasional cross-breeding between insurance populations in order to boost genetic diversity and increase overall viability prospects of each breeding program. Our results underscore the importance of evidence-based integrative approaches when determining appropriate conservation units. Given the rapid increase of terminally endangered organisms in need of ex-situ conservation, this study provides an important blueprint for similar programs dealing with phenotypically variable species.
... But the importance of captive breeding for the protection of animal species continues to raise questions (Ebenhard 1995;Bowkett 2009). In captivity it was possible to save not only taxa reduced to few individuals (Collar et al. 2012) but also species extirpated in nature (Maddison et al. 2012). Zoos are also involved in in situ conservation through recovery programs for endangered species in collaboration with government authorities and local communities (Tribe and Booth 2003). ...
Chapter
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In the second volume of Problematic Wildlife, we explore relevant topics related to the ecology of the planet and the inevitable overlap between ecosystems, habitats, wildlife conservation, and human activities. The book is divided into six parts. The first is devoted to the species that can pose a danger to human health and safety, the second is about the urban wildlife and its related conflicts with humans, and the third is about hunting and ecotourism as possible tools for conservation. The fourth part of the book is devoted to the major problem of species extinction, while the fifth part consists in a broad collection of works about the debated role of the zoos for conservation, animal welfare, and animal rights. Finally, the last part of the book covers specific cases related to humans and herpetofauna convivence and conflicts.
... The first Sumatran Laughingthrush ever reared in captivity was hatched in Waddesdon Manor Aviary, Buckinghamshire, UK, July 2005 (Owen, 2008). Since then, conservation breeding programmes of Sumatran Laughingthrush, sometimes referred to as assurance colonies, have been in development in Indonesia at the Cikananga Integrated Conservation Society Centre, in European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA) institutions and in the hands of a few private breeders, with successful breeding taking place (Owen, 2008;Collar et al., 2012). Best practice guidelines for the breeding of this species were developed and published by the Chester Zoo, North of England Zoological Society, in 2017 (Owen, 2017). ...
Article
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In 2018, the Indonesian Government provided legal protection for the Sumatran Laughingthrush Garrulax bicolor. This species, endemic to the island of Sumatra, is now restricted to a few submontane and montane forests on the north and south of the island. Heavily trapped for the Indonesian songbird trade, populations are in serious decline. Calls to provide full protection for this species were made close to 15 years ago, and since that time, the Sumatran Laughingthrush has become very rare and categorised as Endangered by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. While ex-situ conservation breeding programmes may help ensure this species does not go extinct, its continued survival in the wild will depend very much on effective law enforcement in Indonesia.
... Recent studies have revealed that thirteen local avian species (see Table S1; supplementary material) are currently at serious risk of extinction because of over-harvesting (Shepherd 2006;Chng et al. 2015;Eaton et al. 2015;Iqbal 2015;Shepherd et al. 2016;Harris et al. 2017). Therefore, several conservation programs have already been initiated for a number of them (Collar et al. 2012;Owen et al. 2014). These programs, including both in situ and ex situ strategies, use several tools to ensure effective species protection. ...
Article
Decline of biodiversity, especially in tropical areas and rainforests, due to human activity is a serious global issue. Recovery programs, including reintroductions, are one means of active species protection and biodiversity preservation. The Sumatran Laughingthrush Garrulax bicolor (SL), a little known passerine endemic to Sumatra Island, is currently suffering from serious population decline due to the intensity of the illegal wildlife trade and habitat loss in the region. Most local subpopulations have been extirpated and those remaining have been reduced, thus, urgent need for conservation has arisen. In this study, we carried out the soft-release of rehabilitated SLs, originating from the wild and kept in captivity. We released four SL pairs (N= 8 individuals) in total and, by using radio-telemetry (VHF; <2 g tail-mounted tags); we assessed their survival rate and movement patterns. During the post-release period only one bird was monitored for the full, predetermined criterion period of three weeks for survival rate and site fidelity assessment and one death was confirmed directly. Affinity to the release site, defined by a 2 km radius around the release aviary, was lower for females, which left the release site within the first week after release leaving their fates unknown, compared with males which remained at the release site for up to three times longer. Therefore, only the males' home range sizes were calculated. As a standardised measure, only the first six days following release were included and 6−day home ranges were estimated as follows: 35.18±8.5 ha (mean±SE) with range 17.25-50.95 ha (N= 4 males). We did not find significant differences in the distances of males from the release aviary with increasing days following release. As far as we know, this is the first field study providing novel knowledge of the recovery ability of the Sumatran Laughingthrush and of its post-release behaviour, which are crucial for species protection management.
... Birds are the most widely captive-bred wild animals and, for several reasons, humans have kept captive-bred wild birds for thousands of years (Karsten 2007). While conservation of endangered species is among one of the most justifiable purposes (Collar et al. 2012), each case should be thoroughly evaluated and additional conservation alternatives must be considered (Snyder et al. 1996). Whatever the reason for keeping birds in captivity, adequate avian management and welfare must be guaranteed (Karsten 2007). ...
Article
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The breeding of wild birds in captivity assumes an increasingly important role in conservation due to the loss of species and their habitats. Providing the environmental and nutritional needs of species kept in captivity is the key for achieving success in such initiatives. Among the flock health practices, we highlight here wild bird vaccination, a scarcely studied subject. This study clinically and serologically evaluates the effect of applying a vaccination protocol against Newcastle disease in three groups of ornamental wild birds. The responses observed in 10 ornamental chickens were compared to those recorded in 12 ring-neck pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), 6 psittacines (2 cockatiels Nymphicus hollandicus, 2 lorikeets Trichoglossus haematodus molucanos, and 2 eastern rosellas Platycercus eximius), and 6 touracos (2 guinea Tauraco persa, 2 white-cheeked Tauraco leucotis, and 2 violet Musophaga violacea). One drop of each live Newcastle HB1 and La Sota vaccines were ocularly instilled on the 1st and 21st experimental days, respectively. On the 112th day, one shot of an inactivated oily Newcastle vaccine was intramuscularly injected. Serum samples were submitted to the Newcastle disease virus antibody Test Kit ELISA-BioChek. Except for the psittacines, other bird species showed a considerable increase in the antibody titers. However, their mean antibody titers differed significantly (P < 0.05) from that recorded in the chickens.
... While some species such as the Zebra Dove Geopelia striata and the Spotted Dove Spilopelia chinensis are captive bred on a commercial scale (Jepson and Ladle 2005), the majority of birds in trade in Indonesian markets are from the wild (Shepherd 2006, Jepson and Ladle 2011, Chng et al. 2015. The widespread and largely unregulated trade in wild birds has pushed several species to the brink of extinction, including the Javan Green Magpie Cissa thalassina, Blackwinged Myna Acridotheres melanopterus, Rufous-fronted Laughingthrush Garrulax rufifrons, Yellow-crested Cockatoo Cacatua sulphurea and Straw-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus zeylanicus (PHPA/BirdLife International-IP 1998, Muchtar and Nurwatha 2001, Shepherd et al. 2004, van Balen et al. 2011, Collar et al. 2012, Collar and van Balen 2013, Shepherd et al. 2016, Harris et al. 2016. Indonesia has a comprehensive legal system in place for safeguarding its wildlife but these laws are not adequately enforced and the illegal commercial trade of birds exists on a massive scale for the abovementioned species as well as many others (Shepherd 2006, Nijman et al. 2009, Shepherd 2010, Chng et al. 2015. ...
Article
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Currently listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, the Straw-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus zeylanicus is being driven towards extinction throughout most of its range by unregulated illegal trade supplying the demand for songbirds. We conducted surveys of bird markets in North and West Kalimantan, and Central, West and East Java between July 2014 and June 2015, and observed a total of 71 Straw-headed Bulbuls in 11 markets in eight cities. Comparing our data with the literature, we found that as numbers in markets are decreasing, prices are increasing to over 20 times the prices recorded in 1987, indicating that numbers in the wild are diminishing. This is corroborated by widespread extirpations throughout their range and reports from traders that Straw-headed Bulbuls are increasingly difficult to locate, while demand from consumers remains high. Concerted efforts from a variety of stakeholders are urgently needed to prevent the extinction of this species in the wild. We recommend that the Straw-headed Bulbul be included in Indonesia’s list of protected species, considered for uplisting to Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List and listed in Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). We also urge the Indonesian Government to effectively enforce existing laws, targeting the open bird markets to shut down the trade in this and other threatened species.
... Individuals that escape from captivity may have been selectively bred for their vocal capabilities as well as aesthetic features (e.g. build and tail length) (Collar et al., 2012). Furthermore, shamas in the trade have also been brought into Singapore from elsewhere in Southeast Asia -Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand (Nash, 1993), and Vietnam (ICA, 2015) -and may be genetically different from the Singaporean population. ...
Article
In the last two decades, unsustainable levels of wildlife trade have led to an unprecedented biological crisis. Southeast Asia has become an epicentre for wildlife trade in general and specifically for the cage-bird trade, resulting in numerous regional extinctions. To assess the impact of regional extinction on the loss of genetic diversity in affected cage-birds, we obtained > 18,000 genome-wide markers across 60 Southeast Asian samples of the white-rumped shama (Copsychus malabaricus), a prized songbird that has gone extinct across wide swathes of its Southeast Asian range following heavy poaching. High levels of genomic uniformity across its mainland Southeast Asian range indicate that future reintroductions of birds from regions with less poaching could help bolster populations in regions with intense poaching pressure. Genomic assignment tests demonstrate that birds in the only Sundaic country with strict enforcement of poaching bans, Singapore, are a mosaic of both native populations and escaped cage-birds of mostly peninsular Malaysian origin, indicating that inadvertent re-introductions of caged shamas have led to the recovery of a local population that was nearly extinct and now constitutes a safe haven for the subspecies tricolor. Our study underscores the potential of genome-wide SNPs in identifying implications of trade on wildlife populations.
... Captive propagation and the subsequent reintroduction of threatened species may also be a tool for bird conservation (HEINRICH, 2009;COLLAR et al., 2012). Environmental and nutritional requirements of species kept in captivity are the major aspects to be addressed in such projects (KARSTEN, 2007). ...
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This study discusses the causes of bird deaths recorded in a small aviary dedicated to the breeding of a few exotic, wild bird species. Findings from 28 birds were examined over a period of five years. About 40% of the deaths occurred in the first two weeks after hatching in the two most numerous species in the flock and such losses were mainly a result of starvation caused by inadequate nutritional management. Additionally, 28% of the cases affected recently introduced birds. Despite frequent treatment with anthelmintics; a total of 21% of the deaths in the flock could be attributed to parasitic diseases, most of them in recently acquired birds. Only three of the deaths could be associated with advanced age, all of the further cases were also attributable to management fails. Our results indicated that propagation of these and other species requires an improvement of the management of the newly hatched and newcomer birds to considerably enhance the flock’s performance. Such information may be useful in conservation initiatives and may justify, at least in part, captivity of these animals.
... Trade is a serious threat to the conservation of numerous Indonesian avian species (Shepherd 2006). Keeping birds as pets in Indonesia is a very popular and widespread hobby (Jepson & Ladle 2005) and the rampant, widespread and largely unregulated bird trade has pushed several species to the brink of extinction, including the Javan Green Magpie Cissa thalassina, Rufous-fronted Laughingthrush Garrulax rufifrons, Straw-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus zeylanicus and Yellow-crested Cockatoo Cacatua sulphurea (van Balen et al. 2011, Collar et al. 2012, Collar & van Balen 2013. ...
... data). The IUCN Red List currently lists trade as the primary threat to the survival of this species, and urgent actions have been called for (Shepherd 2007, 2010, 2013, Collar et al. 2012. Given the lack of recent records of the species in the wild and the persistence of numbers observed in trade, we recommend the species be assessed for a potential up-listing from 'Vulnerable' to 'Endangered'. ...
Article
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In ad hoc survey inventories of eight major bird markets in Java in 2014 and 2015, 615 individuals from nine species of the Garrulax genus were found for sale. The most numerous species was Sunda Laughingthrush Garrulax palliatus (215 individuals), followed by Chinese Hwamei G. canorus and Chestnut-capped Laughingthrush G. mitratus . Prices collected in Jakarta revealed that non-native species were the most expensive. Information from these and previous surveys indicate that prices for Sumatran Laughingthrush Garrulax bicolor appeared to have soared since 2007, suggesting increasing rarity of the species. We urge the Indonesian Government to take action against the illegal trade in laughingthrushes under existing laws, especially for the Rufous-fronted Laughingthrush Garrulax rufifrons which is listed on the national protected species list. We also recommend that the Sumatran Laughingthrush Garrulax bicolor be listed as a protected species under Indonesian law. As wild populations of Rufous-fronted Laughingthrush and Sumatran Laughingthrush are threatened by trade, we recommend an urgent review of the conservation status of both species on the IUCN Red List.
... Although some species are robust and may survive for long periods in small cages, others die soon after capture from stress, inappropriate food and other causes. Unfortunately, too little is known of the scale of the trade in Indonesia and the impact it has on wild populations, but it is likely to be a significant factor in the decline of some bird species, many of which are in serious decline in Indonesia (see Shepherd 2007, Collar et al. 2012. Baseline data for many species and species groups are lacking, hindering the development of effective conservation action. ...
... Some species are also victims of current fads -the popularity for owls as pets surged after the first Harry Potter movie (Shepherd, 2010). And then there are birds whose rarity immediately makes them coveted as a status symbol (Shepherd et al., 2004;Collar et al., 2012;Croes, 2012), such as the Bali Myna. ...
... Some species are also victims of current fads -the popularity for owls as pets surged after the first Harry Potter movie (Shepherd, 2010). And then there are birds whose rarity immediately makes them coveted as a status symbol (Shepherd et al., 2004;Collar et al., 2012;Croes, 2012), such as the Bali Myna. ...
... The need for long-term strategic market monitoring of the bird trade in Indonesia was also highlighted by TRAFFIC during the meeting. Over-harvesting is pushing several species, including the Sumatran Laughingthrush Garrulax bicolor towards the brink of extirpation or extinction (Collar et al., 2012;Shepherd, 2007Shepherd, , 2013. Such monitoring would help guide further research and conservation efforts, including longer-term demand-reduction strategies. ...
... Several European zoological institutions have joined forces with CCBC and have offered both financial and technical support in an effort to save these species with the long-term aim of ultimately establishing selfsustaining populations in the wild. From this arose a small working group now formalized under the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA) Passerine Taxon Advisory Group (TAG) as the 'Threatened Songbirds of Asia Working Group' (TSAWG), and includes bird curators and conservation specialists (Collar et al., 2012). ...
Article
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Indonesian birds are especially threatened both by habitat loss and trapping for the cage-bird trade. This paper describes recent zoo-supported work at Cikananga Wildlife Center, Java, for the conservation breeding of a number of threatened passerine birds. The founder populations of these birds were obtained from local private bird keepers. Zoos and similar-minded conservation organizations have backed this work through both funding and technical support. Conservation breeding has been highly successful for the Black-winged starling Sturnus melanopterus and Sumatran laughingthrush Garrulax bicolor. A more recently initiated programme for Javan green magpie Cissa thalassina has already resulted in breeding success and another programme has recently been initiated for the Rufous-fronted laughingthrush Garrulax rufifrons. Reintroduction trials have already been initiated for Black-winged starling and others are at the planning stages.
... Hospodárský in Pithart 2009). Moreover, on Java at the start of the century the species 'could be found in bird markets as a cheap local songster, selling for Rp 150,000 ($16)' , but in the past few years the price has increased tenfold and in 2012 no birds could be found in bird markets (R. Sözer in Collar et al. 2012 andin litt. 2013). ...
Article
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The Rufous-fronted Laughingthrush Garrulax rufifrons, endemic to Java, has been recorded from a total of 15 montane sites, 14 in West Java (nominotypical rufifrons) and one in Central Java (subspecies slamatensis). It occupies montane forest generally in the range 1,000-2,000 m, although this may vary with site, and occurs in monospecific parties of birds but also in bird waves, and has or had an association with Javan Green Magpie Cissa thalassina. Breeding appears to be extended through the year, but lack of records in January-February and July-August may reflect real breaks in the cycle. A lack of recent records from bird markets and a recent hike in prices of captive birds supports other concerns that the Javan bird trade may have affected the species, which in the past 20 years appears only to have been observed at Gunung Gede-Pangrango. Surveys of known sites and of several montane forest reserves are needed before a heavy investment in captive breeding is made.
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Black-winged myna ( Acridotheres melanopterus ) is an endemic species from Indonesia, which has no difference between male and female based on their morphological characteristic. It can be a problem for the breeders to identify the sex when they have to pair the bird. The aim of this research is to identify the differences between male and female black-winged myna based on morphometric characteristic. There are weight, length, width, circumference, and the spread of the wings. The data is processed using principal component analysis (PCA) on the SPSS 20 program. The samples are 71 black-winged myna with minimum two years of age from breeding facilities in Java and Bali islands. Based on the research, morphometric characteristic that distinguishes male and female bird mostly is their wingspan and their weight. Morphometric characteristics of the female myna are smaller than the male. This result is essential for breeders to minimize the risk of pairing the same sex bird.
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The Asian Songbird Crisis –the recognition that the cagebird trade is the number one threat to many songbirds—has focussed on either individual bird markets or specific taxa. We here show, through sustained monitoring, that even species that were not thought to be traded are also at risk from overexploitation. The Javan crocias Laniellus albonotatus is endemic to the montane forests of western Java–this remoteness was thought to be the reason why it had escaped from being at risk. We surveyed 21 bird markets over a 44-months period; the number of crocias recorded in markets (1.29 birds/survey) was negatively related to the distance to its habitat. The size of the bird market had no effect on the number of crocias we recorded. Prices (US$26.70/bird), when corrected for inflation, did not change over 12 years suggesting supply can keep up with demand. Turnover is high (50% sold after 8 days), and we estimate the total trade at 1,200 to 1,500 birds/year. Legal protection of Javan crocias seen in isolation thus far is proven to be ineffective. A more inclusive approach where government bodies, conservation agencies and society participate, is needed to curb the trade in this and other imperilled songbirds.
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This communication presents and discusses the financial costs recorded by a small Brazilian aviary in which a few captive-bred wild bird species have been kept. The highest expenses were associated with the birds’ diet, accounting for at least 60% of total costs. Among insectivorous-frugivorous birds, this figure was 88%. The most expensive food item was live food. Although initial costs for enclosures may be considerable, their durability means expenditures can be spread over time, mitigating their impact. Approximately 30% of the total costs for keeping the largest species studied here were linked to a spacious outdoor planted aviary. Quail from this flock required additional sanitary expenditure (i.e. 14% of the total) for controlling a previous parasitic infection. Total annual maintenance costs amounted to USD 298.00, USD 211.00 and USD 116.00 for each Pekin robin (Leiothrix lutea Scopoli, 1786), Livingstone's turaco (Tauraco livingstonii Gray, 1864), and Valley quail (Callipepla californica Shaw, 1798), respectively.
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The Javan Green Magpie has just been upgraded to species level in 2011. Based on IUCN criteria, it has the global status “critically endangered”. As the captive breeding is an integral aspect for the survival of this species, it is kept and bred at Cikananga Conservation Breeding Center since 2011. Here, it was possible to observe new aspects of the breeding biology, such as behaviour and diet. The experiences about keeping and breeding this species shall be summarized and presented in this article.
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Given the increasing rapprochement between aviculture and conservation organizations and the escalating global crisis in species conservation, we enumerate the avian taxa that are subject to, or might most appropriately be considered for, conservation-breeding programmes. Although the overall total, at 257, is only 2·6% of the extant global avifauna, the role for zoos remains crucial. Of this total, captive breeding is judged ‘Necessary’ or ‘Integral’ to conservation efforts for 45 spp (18%); for the great majority, it is regarded as ‘Precautionary’ or ‘Prudent’ [192 spp (75%)], and for the remainder it is recommended either as a showcase for in situ efforts [3 spp (1%) – although this proportion could be larger] or to deflect pressure from wild populations by the market-driven supply of captive-bred individuals [17 spp (7%)]. For the 8–21% of these species for which captive populations may not already exist, more detailed assessment is required prior to attempting to establish ex situ populations. Avicultural institutions preparing to rise to these challenges should recognize that: (1) the taking of birds into captivity should not provide an excuse to developers to continue unchecked with whatever activity threatens the species in question; (2) species recovery programmes driven primarily by conservation-breeding interests may need a more holistic agenda that develops the in situ component; (3) success has so far been elusive in several ‘Necessary’ cases (in which failure would lead almost certainly to extinction); (4) a delicate balance is needed between leaving ex situ management too late and starting it too early; (5) choice of species will depend not only on biological need but also on factors relating to the individual institution; (6) our recommendations are simply to consider conservation breeding for the species listed here that are not already in programmes; (7) speed of reaction is of the essence once the decision is clear; (8) new priorities will constantly arise, in some cases deriving from taxonomic revisions.
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Introduction The White-crested Laughingthrush Garrulax leucolophus is found from the north and north-eastern Indian subcontinent, south-eastern Tibet and south-western China, Myanmar, Thailand and Sumatra (Indonesia), but is absent from central and southern Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore. However, it has become a common introduced bird in Singapore (Sodhi & Sharp 2006). Recently this species has been split, with the Sumatran race being elevated to species level, the Black-and-white or Sumatran Laughingthrush G. bicolor (Collar 2006). While the Black-and-white Laughingthrush has only recently been treated as a species, bird dealers in Sumatra have always regarded it as such. The local name used for the White-crested Laughingthrush in Medan, North Sumatra, is Poksai Hong Kong and that for the Black-and-white Laughingthrush is Poksai Lokal (Indonesian word for "local"). In Jakarta both species are known as Poksai Jambul Putih, although bird dealers state that the Black-and-white Laughingthrush was from Sumatra and that the White-crested Laughingthrush was from Hong Kong. The Black-and-white Laughingthrush, endemic to the island of Sumatra, is found in mountainous regions (van Marle & Voous 1988, MacKinnon & Phillipps 1993). Its conservation status in Sumatra is largely unknown, although it is reportedly becoming increasingly scarce (BirdLife International 2006, Shepherd 2006). The decline in this species is due to a combination of habitat loss and, perhaps of more urgent concern, capture for commercial trade. The keeping and trading of birds is a very large and widespread hobby and business in Indonesia Plate 1. Black-and-white or Sumatran Laughingthrush Garrulax bicolor, adult in Waddesdon Manor Aviary, Buckinghamshire, UK, March 2007.
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Bird-keeping is an extremely popular pastime in Indonesia, where there is a thriving internal market in both wild-caught and captive-bred birds. However, little is known about whether the scale of bird-keeping represents a genuine conservation threat to native populations. Here we present the results of the largest ever survey of bird-keeping among households in Indonesia's five major cities. Birds were found to be urban Indonesia's most popular pet (kept by 21.8% of survey households) and we conservatively estimate that as many as 2.6 million birds are kept in the five cities sampled. Of bird-keeping households, 78.5% kept domestic species and/or commercially bred species and 60.2% kept wild-caught birds that we classified into three conservation categories: native songbirds, native parrots and imported songbirds. Compared to non-bird owners, households keeping wild-caught birds in all three conservation categories were richer and better educated, whereas households owning commercially-bred species were richer but not better educated and households keeping domestic species did not differ in educational or socio-economic status. We conclude that bird-keeping in Indonesia is at a scale that warrants a conservation intervention and that promoting commercially-bred alternatives may be an effective and popular solution.
Article
Application of a scoring system that grades morphological and vocal differences between allopatric taxa (major character 3, medium 2, minor 1; minimum 7 for species status, with none permitted on minor differences alone) of the Asian babblers (Timaliidae) results in the recognition of 44 species previously, usually or still occasionally accorded subspecific status: Rufous-crowned Laughingthrush Garrulax ruficeps, Sumatran Laughingthrush G. bicolor, Bare-headed Laughingthrush G. calvus, Cambodian Laughingthrush G. ferrarius, Rufous- cheeked Laughingthrush G. castanotis, Blue-crowned Laughingthrush G. courtoisi, Rufous-vented Laughingthrush G. gularis, Buffy Laughingthrush G. berthemyi, Orange-breasted Laughingthrush G. annamensis, Taiwan Hwamei G. taewanus, Bhutan Laughingthrush G. imbricatus, Assam Laughingthrush G. chrysopterus, Silver-eared Laughingthrush G. melanostigma, Golden-winged Laughingthrush G. ngoclinhensis, Malayan Laughingthrush G. peninsulae, Black-streaked Scimitar Babbler Pomatorhinus gravivox, Spot-breasted Scimitar Babbler P. mcclellandi, Grey-sided Scimitar Babbler P. swinhoei, Sri Lanka Scimitar Babbler P. melanurus, Taiwan Scimitar Babbler P. musicus, Sumatran Wren Babbler Rimator albostriatus, White-throated Wren Babbler R. pasquieri, Grey-banded Babbler Napothera sorsogonensis, Taiwan Wren Babbler Pnoepyga formosana, Rusty-throated Wren Babbler Spelaeornis badeigularis, Grey-bellied Wren Babbler S. reptatus, Chin Hills Wren Babbler S. oatesi, Pale-throated Wren Babbler S. kinneari, Chevron-breasted Babbler Sphenocichla roberti, Visayan Pygmy Babbler Stachyris pygmaea, Bold-striped Tit Babbler Macronous bornensis, Mindanao Miniature Babbler Micromacronus sordidus, Vietnamese Cutia Cutia legalleni, Collared Babbler Gampsorhynchus torquatus, Black-crowned Fulvetta Alcippe klossi, Indochinese Fulvetta A. danisi, Streak-throated Fulvetta A. manipurensis, Taiwan Fulvetta A. formosana, Black-browed Fulvetta A. grotei, Black-headed Sibia Heterophasia desgodinsi, Indochinese Yuhina Yuhina torqueola, Chestnut-crested Yuhina Y. everetti, Burmese Yuhina Y. humilis and Black-headed Parrotbill Paradoxornis margaritae. Scores for two taxa suggested as possible new species, 'Afghan Babbler' Turdoides (caudatus) huttoni and 'Mount Victoria Babax' Babax (lanceolatus) woodi, fall short, 'Deignan's Babbler' Stachyris rodolphei is provisionally placed in the synonymy of S. rufifrons owing to overlap of diagnostic characters, and a new genus, Robsonius, is erected for Napothera rabori and N. sorsogonensis of the Philippines based on no rictal bristles, part-feathered nares, broad white tips to wing-coverts and outer primaries, copious rump feathering, insect-like call and walking habit. Taiwan gains seven new endemic species, Vietnam six, China five, Philippines three (and an endemic genus), Cambodia one, Sri Lanka one, Myanmar one, Sumatra two, the Eastern Himalayas EBA two, Peninsular Malaysia one, and Thailand minus one. The tiny population of Garrulax courtoisi and massive trade in G. bicolor make these 'new' species the highest priority for conservation action, but several other new splits have small ranges and all require conservation status review.
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