Evolution of environmental management in Kenya

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... Therefore, a critical responsibility of the strategic managers is to modify the central functions or dependent variables of A(D), R 2 (z, M), and C(z, q, P) as they acquire more accurate information and data or 'feedback' as the campaign progresses. By improving sampling approaches, remediation managers have recently enjoyed significant progress in managing such feedback, especially for the average variable-cost function C (Sullivan and Sylvester, 2006). For every significant improvement of this dependent function's accuracy during the cleanup campaign, the strategic manager or controller should recalculate the optimum level of the independent variables and change them accordingly – provided the extra cost in money and time of such course corrections are worth it.Figure 6is a representation of the restoration campaign as a management system as a simple feedback loop diagram. ...
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This paper presents a fundamental analysis of a wide-Area environmental cleanup campaign's net-present value or net-utility gain. It is designed to support the site-specific optimisation strategies of US Department of Homeland Security. The analysis is subject to the highly imperfect market condition of 'full competition'. This is where the executive managers can control: 1) the production rate and cleanliness performance of the cleanup process; 2) the supply-side investments in the cleanup-production system to lower (or shift to the right) the variable cleanup-cost function; 3) the demand-side investments in knowledge creation and dissemination or public communication that increase (or shift to the right) the contaminated property's value or cleanup-benefit function for society. The net-utility gain function that is derived under these conditions is then analysed quantitatively to determine optimum values of production rate and cleanliness level, as well as the optimum levels of investments in containment or decontamination, cleanup-production system, and public communication. The net-utility gain function also used to analyse qualitatively six widely contrasting historical case studies. It therefore represents a basic strategic theory for guiding the management of environmental cleanup campaigns.
Z RECENZJI: 1) Prof. zw. dr hab. Henryk Gawron, Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Poznaniu: ”(…) Jest to dzieło świadczące o szerokiej wiedzy i umiejętnościach pisarskich dr. P. Tworka. Pracę dr. P. Tworka można wskazać jako przykład nowoczesnej odpowiadającej potrzebom specjalistów monografii naukowej poświęconej problematyce reakcji na ryzyko w działalności przedsiębiorstwa budowlano-montażowego. Moim zdaniem – monografia P. Tworka znajdzie wielu czytelników zarówno w ośrodkach naukowych, jak i wśród praktyków gospodarczych w budownictwie”. 2) Prof. zw. dr hab. Alfreda Czachorowska, Politechnika Częstochowska ”(…) Uważam, że recenzowana rozprawa jest cenną i wartościową monografią. Stanowić ona będzie istotnie nową pozycję w polskiej literaturze naukowej, dobrze wypełniającą powstałą lukę w zakresie identyfikacji form i metod reakcji na ryzyko w przedsiębiorstwach budowlano-montażowych”.
In recent years, a vast number of regulators and normative guidelines have suggested new approaches to managing risk in corporate settings. Emphasis has been on strategies for managing operational risk and the benefits of a more integrated approach to the overall risks affecting a company. However, it is unclear whether these ‘new’ approaches to risk management have been accepted and implemented by the industry. Based on interviews with 20 experienced chief risk officers working in Swedish industry, this explorative study aims at investigating and analyzing current opinions and considerations on the implementation of operational risk management (ORM). The development toward more integrated risk management approaches as proposed in the enterprise risk management (ERM) is also in focus. The results of the interviews indicate that the Swedish industry approach to ORM is today rarely a strictly formalized, straightforward activity. Instead informal, decentralized, pragmatic, bottom-up approaches to ORM are preferred over an ERM approach to overall risk exposures. The respondents stressed that their companies' activities with ORM had been guided by the Swedish regulatory (precautionary) approach, notably regarding environmental and occupational risks. Stakeholders such as the financial markets and insurers, as well as various guidelines and policy documents relating to corporate responsibility and corporate governance had further directed the development. However, as a result of stricter international regulation relating to ORM and ERM, it is likely that incentives for more formalized risk management approaches will emerge also in Sweden.
Irrigation developed indigenously has long been practised on the Western rift escarpment of the Kerio Valley in Kenya by the Marakwet people. Outsiders have often remarked on the problem of soil erosion, and suggested that the irrigation practices are unsustainable. This article discusses local and outside perceptions of soil erosion under irrigation, and their implications for assessing the sustainability of indigenous irrigation. It argues that erosion is taking place, but that local farmers do not perceive erosion as such as a critical challenge to their farming activities. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Drought is a recurring challenge to the livelihoods of those living in Tharaka District, Kenya, situated in the semi-arid zone to the east of Mount Kenya, from the lowest slopes of the mountain to the banks of the Tana River. This part of Kenya has been marginal to the economic and political life of Kenya from the colonial period until the present day. A study of more than 30 years of change in how people in Tharaka cope with drought reveals resilience in the face of major macro-level transformations, which include privatisation of landownership, population growth, political decentralisation, increased conflict over natural resources, different market conditions, and environmental shifts. However, the study also shows troubling signs of increased use of drought responses that are incompatible with long-term agrarian livelihoods. Government policy needs to address the challenge of drought under these new macro conditions if sustainable human development is to be achieved.
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