Storms of history-water, hazard and society in the Philippines

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... However, no tsunami-genic earthquake or landslide seismicity was reported. Furthermore, a similar tsunami-like flood was reported to have occurred during the October 12, 1897 typhoon (Bankoff, 2007;Municipality of Hernani, 2014), underscoring the likelihood that the bore was a direct consequence of the typhoon, and not a tsunami that happened to occur simultaneously. Even within the coastal engineering community the event has been a mystery because the destructive bore lasted for a few minutes (Nobuoka et. ...
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Typhoons cause damage by a variety of mechanisms: wind, large waves, and storm surge. Storm surge itself has three components: pressure-driven setup (the inverse barometer effect), wind-driven setup (wind pushing water onshore), and breaking-wave-induced setup (breaking waves pushing water onshore). Numerical modeling shows that in the fringing-reef-protected town of Hernani during Typhoon Haiyan, pressure-and wind-driven setup were small, while breaking-wave-induced setup varied in time as the envelope of large and small incident wave groups (sets), resulting in an infragravity oscillation. The surf beat contained energy in a frequency range close to the natural resonant mode of the reef, which amplified the energy of the surf beat (Nakaza and Hino, 1991; Nwogu and Demirbilek, 2010). During propagation over the reef, the amplified surf beat steepened nonlinearly, and impacted the town as a tsunami-like bore, resulting in extensive damage and casualties. Since coastal hazard planning presently relies on phase-averaged wave modeling, infragravity surges such as the one that struck Hernani are not currently being accounted for, highlighting the necessity for a change of policy and the adoption of phase-resolving wave models in regions protected by fringing coral reefs.
... The tropical is blessed by profuse parturition, on the one hand, and it is site of calamity and ruination, on the other. The Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters reports that, since 1900, the 'Philippines has experienced the most events defined as requiring international assistance.' 18 Between 1900 and 1991, there was an average of eight disasters a year, making the country the hardest hit by natural disasters in 90 years. This is another condition of the 'apocalypse,' the destruction of the natural world, the decimation of population, the devastation of heritage. ...
... There were also news reports that men in some areas had stayed behind to guard their houses. Two historical storm surge events had previously devastated Tacloban-one in 1897 which killed up to 1500 [3] and another in 1912 which killed 15,000 people [26]-but the residents were not aware of these and had not learned from history. Further, there is also the assumption that common folk are generally disinterested in learning about hazards because daily concerns are more important and at that time, political issues related to corruption had diverted media attention. ...
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Through political ecology and pragmatism, this thesis aims at capturing the complexity of flood hazard and the expansion of the range of choice. Empirical data suggest that although the locals view flooding as an unwelcome normal occurrence, changes in people’s lifestyles have altered how they perceive flooding. Elements such as political conflicts and climate change have, additionally, weakened local response mechanisms. In its attempts to deal with flooding, even after the 2011 Mega-Flood, the government has been inclined towards resorting to technological fixes and policies meant to generate wealth for offsetting losses. Social, political, historical, and cultural aspects have been ignored. Participants, however, incorporate these elements into their responses. By engaging with the participants, it became apparent that to expand the range of choice and to strengthen resilience, it is important to encourage preparedness, promote traditional knowledge, highlight the role of religion, and enhance the role of local government.
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