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Toward Standardization of Vegetation Indices

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175
AcronymsandDenitions
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8
To wa r d St a nd a r d i z at ion
of Vegetation Indices
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 $PODMVTJPOT 
3FGFSFODFT 
Michael D. Steven
University of Nottingham
Timothy J. Malthus
Commonwealth Scientic and
Industrial Research Organisation
Frédéric Baret
National Institute of
Agronomic Research
© 2016 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
176 Remotely Sensed Data Characterization, Classication, and Accuracies
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1304"*-"DPNCJOBUJPOPGUIF13041&$5MFBGPQUJDBM
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8.1 Introduction: Vegetation
Indices and Their Uses
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JOHNFEJVN (BUFTFtBM (BVTNBOBOE"MMFO F
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FWFO XIFO EJTUPS UFE CZ PUIFS FOWJSPONFOUBM W BSJBCMFT 8IFO
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FUBUJPOJTNJYFE XJUIUIBUPGTPJMPSPUIFSCBDLHSPVOETXIJDI
UFOEUPTIPXBNVDIBUUFSSFTQPOTFBDSPTTUIJTTQFDUSBMSFHJPO
FSFTVMUJTUIBUUIF/*3UFOETUPJODSFBTFXJUIWFHFUBUJPODPWFS
GPSFYBNQMFBTBDSPQHSPXTXIJMFUIFSFESFFDUBODFEFDSFBTFT
FOEJOHBUDPWFSXJUIBTQFDUSVNDMPTFCVUOPUJEFOUJDBM
UPUIBUPGBTJOHMFMFBG
FLFZGBDUPSJOUIFEFWFMPQNFOUPG7*TJTUIFJODSFBTJOHDPO
USBTU CFUXFFOUIFSFFDUBODFJOUIFUXP CBOET5PFODBQTVMBUF
UIJT DPOUSBTU FBSMZ XPSL JEFOUJFE B WBSJFU Z PG DPNCJOBUJPOT
PGUIF /*3BOE WJTJCMFCBOET PGXIJDIUIF CFTULOPXO CZ GBS
BMUIPVHI CZ GBS G SPN UIF CFTU JT UIF /PSNBMJ[ FE %JFSFODF
7FHFUBUJPO*OEFY/%7*EFOFEBT
NDVI NIRred
NIRred
=
+
ρρ
ρρ

XIFSFρJTUIFTQFDUSBMSFFDUBODFEJNFOTJPOMFTTJOUIF/*3PS
SFETQFDUSBMCBOEF /%7*JTGVODUJPOBMMZFRVJWBMFOUUPUIF
TJNQMFSBUJP PGUIF UXPCBOET1FSSZ BOE-BVUFOTIMBHFS
)PXFWFSJUT GPSNVMBUJPO FOTVSFT UIBU UIFWBMVFPG UIF/%7*
SBOHFTTUSJDUMZ GSPN¦UP XIJDI JTDPNQVUBUJPOBMMZNPSF
DPOWFOJFOUUIBOUIFSBUJPXIJDIIBTOPVQQFSCPVOE" XJEF
WBSJFUZ PG BMUFSOBUJWFGPSNVMBUJPOT IBWF CFFOVTFEGPSFYBN
QMF UIF 4 PJM"EKVTUFE 7FHFUBUJPO *OE FY 4"7 * )VFUF 
EFOFdaT
SAVI NIRred
NIRred
=+
++
()
()
( )
1LL
ρρ
ρρ 
F GPSNVMBUJPO PG 4"7* EJFST GSPN /%7* CZ JODMVEJOH B
TPJMDBMJCSBUJPOGBDUPS-UIBUBEKVTUT GPSWBSJBCJMJUZJOUIFJOEFY
JOUSPEVDFE CZTPJMSFFDUBODFDIBSBDUFSJTUJDT "MUIPVHI )VFUF
 GPV OE U IBUUIFPQUJNB MWBMVF PG -WBSJFEXJUIWFHFUBUJPO
EFOTJUZBNJESBOHFWBMVFPGXBTGPVOEUPQSPWJEFFFDUJWF
DPSSFDUJPOGPSWBSJBUJPOTEVFUPTPJMCBDLHSPVOEBDSPTTUIFGVMM
SBOHF PG EFOTJU JFT -BUFS WBS JBOUT PO UIJT BQQSPBDI W BSJFE UIF
WBMVFPG- XJU I 3POEFBVY FtBM  QSPQPTJOH 0QU JNJ[FE
4"7* 04"7* X JUI -POUIFCBTJTPGBOPQUJNJ[BUJPO
BDSPTTBSBOHFPGBHSJDVMUVSBMTPJMT0UIFSTJODMVEFUIF.PEJFE
4PJM"EKVTUFE7FHFUBUJPO*OEFY.4"7*2JFUaMXIJDI
FNQMPZTBTFMGBEKVTUFEWBMVFPG-CBTFEPOUIFTQFDUSBMSeFD
UBODF EBUB UIFNTFMWFT BOE UIF 5SBOTGPSNFE 4PJM"EKVTUFE
7FHFUBUJPO*OEFY 54"7*#BSFU BOE(VZPUXIFSF - JT
CBTFE PO JOGPSNBUJPO BCPVUUIF TPJMDIBSBDUFSJTUJDT .PTU 7*T
BSFSFGPSNVMBUJPOTCBTFE PO UIFTBNF UXPTQFDUSBMCBOETCVU
TPNF TVDI BT UIF &OIBODFE 7FHFUBUJPO *OEFY &7* )VFUF
FtBMJOUSPEVDF BEEJUJPOBMTQFDUSBM JOGPSNBUJPOVTVBMMZ
JOBOBUUFNQUUPSFEVDFBUNPTQIFSJDTFOTJUJWJUZ&BDIJOEFYIBT
240022001800
Wavelength (nm)
1600140012001000800
50
40
30
Reflectance (%)
20
10
0
600400 2000
'*HVSF -BCPSBUPSZNFBTVSFE SFFD UBODF TQFDUSVN PG B CFBO
MFBG 'SPN UIF"VUIPSFKJUUFST BU MPOHFSXBWFMFOHUITBSF JOTUSV
NFOUBMOPJTF
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177Toward Standardization of Vegetation Indices
JUTBEWPDBUFTBOENBOZIBWFQBSUJDVMBSNFSJUTCVULFZGFBUVSFT
BSF UIBUUIFZBSF JOUSJOTJDBMMZ EJNFOTJPOMFTTBOE UIBU UIFZ BMM
VMUJNBUFMZTIBSFUIFDIBSBDUFSJTUJDPGVTJOHUIFDPOUSBTUCFUXFFO
/*3BOESFESFFDUBODFBTUIFQSJNBSZNFBTVSFPGWFHFUBUJPO
'PSNPTUPGUIJTEJTDVTTJPOUIFUFSNWFHFUBUJPOJOEFY7*XJMM
CFVTFEHFOFSJDBMMZUPBQQMZUPBMMPGUIFN
8.1.1 Vegetation Index Applications
FBQQMJDBUJPOTPG7*TBSFCBTFEPOUIFJSBCJMJUZUPNFBTVSFGPMJ
BHFEFOTJUZJOBDPOTJTUFOUNBOOFSBDSPTTBXJEFSBOHFPGWFHFUB
UJPOUZQFT*OFBSMZFMETUVEJFT7*TXFSFTVDDFTTGVMMZSFMBUFEUP
MFBGBSFB JOEFY-"*EFOFEBTUIFUPUBMTJOHMFTJEFEBSFBPG
MFBGQFSVOJUBSFBPGHSPVOENNJFEJNFOTJPOMFTTDBOPQZ
DIMPSPQIZMMHN¦XFUBOEESZCJPNBTTHN¦UIFGSBDUJPOPG
HSPVOEDPWFSFECZMFBWFTEJNFOTJPOMFTTQSJNBSZQSPEVDUJWJUZ
HN¦EBZ¦UIFGSBDUJPOPGQIPUPTZOUIFUJDBMMZBDUJWFSBEJBUJPO
BCTPSCFECZBWFHFUBUJPODBOPQZG"1"3EJNFOTJPOMFTTBOE
PUIFSWBSJBCMFT5VDLFS5VDLFSFtBM)PMCFOFtBM
4UFWFOFtBM"TBMMPGUIFTFGBDUPSTBSFNFBTVSFTPGGPMJBHF
EFOTJUZUIFZUFOEUPCFIJHIMZJOUFSDPSSFMBUFEJOBOZJOEJWJEVBM
TUVEZ)PXFWFSUIFTFWBSJBCMFTBSFIJFSBSDIJDBMMZMJOLFECZUIF
QSPDFTTPGDBOPQZQIPUPTZOUIFTJTUIBUDPOWFSUTBCTPSCFE1"3UP
YFEFOFSHZJOCJPNBTT'JHVSFFSFFDUJPOPGMJHIUCZB
QMBOUDBOPQZJTMBSHFMZEFUFSNJOFECZUIFUPUBMBSFBPGMFBGBOE
UIFQSPKFDUJPOTPGUIBUBSFBUPXBSECPUIUIFTPVSDFPGJMMVNJOB
UJPOBOEUIFEFUFDUJPOEFWJDFJTJOUSPEVDFTBEFQFOEFODFPO
MFBGBOHMFEJTUSJCVUJPO7FSIPFGBOEUPBMFTTFSFYUFOUPUIFS
GBDUPSTTVDIBTDMVNQJOH(PXFSFtBM"TUIFZJOWPMWFTJN
JMBSQSPKFDUJPOTUIJTJTDMPTFMZDPOOFDUFEUPUIFXBZJOXIJDIMFBG
BSFBBOEBOHMFDPNCJOFUPEFUFSNJOFMFBGDPWFSGSBDUJPOPS1"3
BCTPSQUJPO4UFWFOFtBMTPUIBUBTJOEJDBUFEJO'JHVSF
UIFSFTQPOTFPGB7*SFMBUFTNPTUEJSFDUMZUPUIFTFWBSJBCMFT"O
JMMVTUSBUJPO PG UIJT MJOLJT UIBUJO TQJUF PGWBSJBUJPOT XJUI UJNF
PGEBZ1JOUFSGPVOEUIBUUIFSFMBUJPOTIJQPGG"1"3XJUI
WBSJPVT 7*TXBTJOEFQFOEFOU PGJMMVNJOBUJPOBOHMF'JHVSe
TIPXTUIFNPEFMFESFMBUJPOTIJQCFUXFFO04"7*SFQSFTFOUBUJWF
IFSFPG7*THFOFSBMMZBOE-"*GPSDBOPQJFT XJUIEJFSFOUMFBG
BOHMFEJTUSJCVUJPOTXIJMF'JHVSeTIPXTUIBUUIFSFMBUJPOTIJQT
FTTFOUJBMMZDPMMBQTFPOUPBTJOHMFDVSWFXIFOFYQSFTTFEBTGVOD
UJPOTPGMFBGDPWFSGSBDUJPO4UFWFO FTBNFCFIBWJPSDBO
CFGPVOEXJUI /%7* XIFSF UIFNFSHFSPGDVSWFT GPSEJFSFOU
MFBGBOHMFEJTUSJCVUJPOTJTTMJHIUMZMFTTUJHIUBMUIPVHIOPUFOPVHI
UPJOUSPEVDFTFSJPVTWBSJBUJPOTFJNQMJDBUJPOPGUIJTNFSHFSJT
UIBUUIFSFJTSFEVOEBODZJOUIFCJPQIZTJDBMQBSBNFUFSTBOEUIBU
7*TDBOCFVTFEUPNFBTVSFGPMJBHFEFOTJUZJOBXBZUIBUJTMBSHFMZ
JOEFQFOEFOU PG DBOPQZTUSVDUVSF BOEUPTPNF FYUFOUTQFDJFT
.PSFPWFSBTMFBGDPWFSGSBDUJPOJTJUTFMGDMPTFMZSFMBUFEUISPVHI
TJNJMBSEFQFOEFODFPOMFBGBSFBBOETUSVDUVSFUPUIFJOUFSDFQ
UJPOPGTPMBSSBEJBUJPOCZQMBOUDBOPQJFT4UFWFOFtBM7*T
MFOEUIFNTFMWFTUPUIFFTUJNBUJPOPGMJHIUDBQUVSFCZWFHFUBUJPO
Leaf angle
distribution
Leaf cover
fraction fAPAR
Vegetation
index
Primary
productivity
(g m–2 day–1)
Biomass
(g m–2)
Leaf area index
(LAI; m2/m2)
Chlorophyll
(g m–2)
'*HV S F )JFSBSDIJDBM EJBHSBN TIPXJOH UIF SFMBUJPOTIJQT
CFUXFFOWBSJPVTNFBTVSFTPGDBOPQZEFOTJUZBOEUIFJSMJOLXJUIWFHFUB
UJPOJOEJDFT
Leaf area index
OSAVI
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
043210
'*HVS F4FOTJUJWJUZPG04"7*UPMFBGBOHMFEJTUSJCVUJPOGPSBSBOHF
PGMFBGBSFBJOEJDFTGPSFMMJQTPJEBMEJTUSJCVUJPOTXJUINFBOMFBGBOHMFTPG
¡¡ȸ¡BOE¡"MMUIFQBSBNFUFSTBSFEJNFOTJPO
MFTT"EBQUFEGSPN4UFWFO.%3FNPUF4FOT&OWJSPO
Leaf cover fraction
1.21.00.80.60.40.20.0
0.2
OSAVI
0
0.1
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
'*HV S F 4FOTJUJWJUZPG 04"7*DPWFSFTUJNBUFTUPMFBGBOHMF EJT
USJCVUJPO1BSBNFUFST BT GPS 'JHVSF "EBQUFEGSPN 4UFWFO.%
3FNPUF4FOT&OWJSPO
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178 Remotely Sensed Data Characterization, Classication, and Accuracies
PS G"1"3 'PMMPXJOH .POUFJUI  XIP FTUBCMJTIFE UIF
NPEFMPVUMJOFEJO'JHVSFTIPXJOHUIBUMJHIUDBQUVSFXBTUIF
LFZEFUFSNJOBOU PG UIFDPOWFSTJPOPGTPMBSFOFSHZUPCJPNBTT
SFNPUFTFOTJOHPGUIJTWBSJBCMFMFBETUPEJSFDUFTUJNBUJPOPGQSP
EVDUJWJUZJODSPQT4UFWFOFtBM8JFHBOEFtBMF
TBNFBSHVNFOUBMMPXT7*TUPCFBQQMJFEJOMBSHFTDBMFNPOJUPS
JOHPGWFHFUBUJPOEZOBNJDT(PXBSEFtBM XJUI B SBOHF
PG BQQMJDBUJPOT JO BH SJDVMUVSF .BTFM MJ FtBM  PS FDPMPHZ
1FUUPSFMMJFtBM%JSFDUFTUJNBUJPOPGG"1"3POB HMPCBM
TDBMF JTOPXUIF GPDVTPGTFWFSBMNBKPSTQBDF QSPHSBNT VTJOH
UIF .0EFSBUF3FTPMVUJPO *NBHJOH 4QFDUSPNFUFS .0%*4
.&EJVN3FTPMVUJPO *NBHJOH 4QFDUSPNFUFS .&3*4 4FB
7JFXJOH8JEF'JFMEPG7JFX4FOTPS4FB8*'4UIFUXPTUSFBN
JOWFSTJPOQBDLBHFBQQMJFEUP.0%*4QSPEVDUTCZUIF&VSPQFBO
+PJOU 3FTFBSDI $FOUSF .0%*45*1 UIF 7&(&5"5*0/ TFO
TPSPOUIF4ZTUÒNF1SPCBUPJSFE0CTFSWBUJPOEFMB5FSSFTBUFMMJUF
41057&(BOE"EWBODFE7FSZ)JHI3FTPMVUJPO3BEJPNFUFS
"7)33TZTUFNT1JDLFU)FBQTFtaM
8.2 The Need for Standards
"MM TDJFODFT DPNNFODF XJUI B MFOHUIZ QFSJPE PG FYQMPSBUJPO
XJUIBEJWFSTJUZPGJEJPTZODSBUJDBQQSPBDIFTVOUJMUIFEJDVMUJFT
PGSBUJPOBMJ[JOHEJFSFOUNFUIPEPMPHJFTMFBEUPBNPWFNFOUGPS
TUBOEBSEJ[BUJPOFCFOFUTPGTUBOEBSEJ[BUJPOUIBUBSFQBSUJD
VMBSMZQFSUJOFOUUPSFNPUFTFOTJOHBSFJOUFSPQFSBCJMJUZPGTZTUFNT
BOEEBUBDPOUJOVJUZFVTFPGTUBOEBSETBMTPIFMQTUPHFOFSBUF
BVUIPSJUZGPSTUBOEBSEJ[FEQSPEVDUT BOE XJUIJODSFBTJOHVTF B
HSFBUFSGBNJMJBSJUZXJUIUIFJSDBQBCJMJUJFTBOEMJNJUT
"QFSTJTUFOUJTTVFJOWFHFUBUJPONPOJUPSJOHJTUIFBDRVJTJUJPO
PGTVDJFOUEBUBUPDBQUVSFUIFEZOBNJDTPGQMBOUHSPXUI1MBOU
HSPXUISFRVJSFTXBUFSVTVBMMZTVQQMJFECZSBJOGBMMTPUIFNPSF
QSPEVDUJWF WFHFUBUFE SFHJPOT BSF GSFRVFOUMZ DMPVEZ PCTUSVDU
JOHUIFWJFXPGTBUFMMJUFTFOTPST)FMMFSF EBUBBDRVJ
TJUJPO QSPCMFN GPSTBUFMMJUFTZTUFNTIBT CSPBEMZ CFFO SFTPMWFE
JO UXPXBZT BU IJHIFS SFTPMVUJPOTCZ UIF EFWFMPQNFOUPGTZT
UFNT TVDI BT 4105 PS *,0/04 XJUI QPJOUBCMF D BNFSBT UIBU
DBO UBSHFU QBSUJDVMBS TJUFT TFWFSBM UJNFT XJUIJO UIF TBUFMMJUF
SFQFBU DZDMFBOE BU MPXFSSFTPMVUJPOT XJUI NPSF GSFRVFOUEBUB
BDRVJTJUJPOCZTFMFDUJWFMZ DPNQPTJUJOH PWFSQFSJPET PG 0EBZT
PSNPSF(VUNBOWBO-FFVXFOFtBM"MUFSOBUJWFMZ
WFHFUBUJPONPOJUPSJOHDBOCFQFSGPSNFECZBJSDSB UIBUDBOZ
CFOFBUIUIFDMPVEEFDL+BHHBSEBOE$MBSLPSCZNPOJUPS
JOHTZTUFNTNPVOUFEPONPCJMFGBSNNBDIJOFSZGPSQSFDJTJPO
BHSJDVMUVSF "MM UIFTFTPMVUJPOT JOUSPEVDFUIFJS PXOQSPCMFNT
*OQBSUJDVMBSCPUIQPJOUJOHBOE DPNQPTJUJOHUFOE UP JODSFBTF
UIFSBOHFPGWJFXJOHBOHMFTBOEUPBMFTTFSFYUFOUTPMBS BOHMFT
VTFEJOUIF7*QSPEVDU.POJUPSJOHVOEFSDMPVESFRVJSFTBEEJ
UJPOBMEBUBUPOPSNBMJ[FGPSJODJEFOUTPMBSJSSBEJBODFBOENFB
TVSFTEJFSFOUSFFDUBODFDIBSBDUFSJTUJDTDPSSFTQPOEJOH UP UIF
NVMUJEJSFDUJPOBMEJVTFJMMVNJOBUJPOPGUIFUBSHFU$PSSFDUJPOT
DBOCFNBEFGPSBOHVMBSFFDUTVTJOH B NPEFMPGUIF CJEJSFD
UJPOBMSFFDUBODFEJTUSJCVUJPOGVODUJPO#3%'CVUSFRVJSFB
QSJPSJ LOPXMFE HF PG UIF WFHFUBUJPO UZ QF 4UFWFO  #BDPVS
FtaM
" DPNQMFNFOUBSZ BQQSPBDI JT UP DPNCJOF EBUB GSPN NPSF
UIBO POF TZTUFNTPNFUJNFT SFGFSSFEUPBTUIF VTF PG B WJSUVBM
DPOTUFMMBUJPO$&04.BSUÓOF[#FMUSÈOFtBM-POH
UFSNFOWJSPONFOUBMBOBMZTJTNBZBMTPSFRVJSFNFUBBOBMZTJTPG
EBUBGSPNBSBOHFPGTZTUFNT#PZEBOE'PPEZ,FZUPUIFTF
BQQSPBDIFTJT UIFBEPQUJPO PG BTFUPG PQFSBUJOHTUBOEBSET GPS
UIFTZTUFNTUPCFDPNCJOFEFJODSFBTJOHGPDVTPOMPOHUFSN
DPOUJOVJUZPGWFHFUBUJPOPCTFSWBUJPOTQBSUJDVMBSMZGPSNPOJUPS
JOHFOWJSPONFOUBMDIBOHFBUMBSHFSTDBMFTIBTMFEUPDPOTJEFS
BCMFJOUFSFTUJOCBDLDBMJCSBUJOH EBUB GSPNFBSMJFSTZTUFNTTVDI
BT -BOETBU PQFSBUJPOBMTJODF  BOE "7)33 TJODF
BTOFBS BTQPTTJCMFUPDVSSFOUTUBOEBSETUPFTUBCMJTIUIF MPOH
UFSNCBTFMJOF#SPXO FtBM 4BNBJOFtBM4XJOOFO
BOE 7FSPVTUSBUF  1SFDJTF DB MJCSBUJPO PG UIF JOTUS VNFOUT
JTSFRVJSFEBOEBUUFOUJPOUPWBSJBUJPOTJO#3%'BTTPDJBUFEXJUI
EJFSFOUPSCJUBMDIBSBDUFSJTUJDT3ÚEFSFtBM5FJMMFU FtBM
 .BSUÓOF[#FMUSÈO FtBM VT TUBOEBSEJ[BUJPO JT
SFRVJSFE STUGPSJOEJWJEVBM TFOTPSTUP BDDPVOUGPSWBSJBCJMJUZ
JO DBMJCSBUJPO BOE PUIFS PCTFSWBUJPOBM QBSBNFUFST PWFS UJNF
4FDPOETUBOEBSEJ[BUJPOJTSFRVJSFECFUXFFOTFOTPSTUPBMMPXUIF
JOUFSPQFSBCJMJUZPGEJFSFOUTZTUFNT$PVQMFEXJUIUIFTFJOTUSV
NFOUBMJTTVFT JT UIFOFFEUPTQFDJGZ TUBOEBSE PCTFSWJOH DPOEJ
UJPOTXJUIVOBNCJHVPVTDPSSFDUJPOQSPDFEVSFT UP BDDPVOUGPS
EFWJBUJPOTGSPNUIFTUBOEBSE"DIJFWFNFOUPGUIFTFHPBMTXPVME
JO QSJODJQMF BMMPX DPOTJTUFOU NPOJUPSJOH PG WFHFUBUJPO BDSPTT
UJNFBOEBDSPTTTQBUJBMTDBMFT)PXFWFSBMUIPVHITUBOEBSETGPS
NBOZBDUJWJUJFTXJUIJOUIF FMEPGSFNPUFTFOTJOHBSFCFJOHQSP
NPUFECZ$PNNJUUFF PO &BSUI 0CTFSWBUJPO 4BUFMMJUFT $&04
*OUFSOBUJPOBM0SHBOJ[BUJPOGPS4UBOEBSEJ[BUJPO*40/BUJPOBM
"FSPOBVUJDTBOE4QBDF"ENJOJTUSBUJPO/"4"BOEPUIFSBHFO
DJFTOPDPODFSUFEBUUFNQUIBTZFUCFFONBEFUPTUBOEBSEJ[F7*T
8.2.1 Vegetation Index Formula
"UQSFTFOUBXJEFSBOHFPG7*TBSFHFOFSBUFECZEJFSFOUFBSUI
PCTFSWBUJPOTZTUFNTBOEEBUBVTFST-F.BJSFFtBMFWBMV
BUFEJOEJDFTGPSUIFJSTFOTJUJWJUZUPDIMPSPQIZMMBDSPTTEJFSFOU
UZQFTPGMFBWFTBOE"HBQJPVFtBMFWBMVBUFEFTUBCMJTIFE
JOEJDFT GPS EJ TUJOHVJTIJ OH BSDIBFPMPHJDBM DSPQ NB SLT /FJUIFS
MJTU JT FY IBVTUJWF "T XFMM BT IJHIMJH IUJOH U IF JOBEFRVBDJFT PG
/%7*UIFFOPSNPVTQSPMJGFSBUJPOPGJOEJDFTJOEJDBUFTCPUIUIF
OFFEGPSBTUBOEBSEBOEUIFEJDVMUZPGBDIJFWJOHPOF"MUIPVHI
B OVNCFS PG JOEJDF T IBWFC FFO EFWFMPQFE UIBU BSF DMBJ NFE UP
SFQSFTFOUTQFDJDQSPQFSUJFTPGWFHFUBUJPOXBUFSDPOUFOUDIMP
SPQIZMMDBSPUFOPJETBOESBEJBUJPOVTFFDJFODZ1F×VFMBTBOE
'JMFMMBUIFTFVTVBMMZSFRVJSFIJHITQFDUSBMSFTPMVUJPOBOE
BSF OPU UIF DPODFSO IFSF * O HFOFSBM UIF EJFSFOU CSPBECB OE
7*TBSFIJHIMZJOUFSSFMBUFEBOEBSFVTVBMMZVTFEUPSFQSFTFOUUIF
TBNFWFHFUBUJPOQBSBNFUFST*ONPTUDBTFTUIFJSEJFSFODFTMJF
JO UIFHFOFSBMJUZPG UIFEBUB UIBUIBWF CFFO VTFEUP UFTUUIFN
BOE UIF EFHSFFUP XIJDIUIFZ DBOTVQQSFTT GBDUPSTFYUSBOFPVT
UP UIF FTUJ NBUJPO PG WFHFUBUJPO DIBSBD UFSJTUJDT TVDI BT T PJM PS
BUNPTQIFSJDFFDUT)PXFWFSEJFSFOUJOEJDFTEPIBWFEJTUJODU
SFTQPOTFTBOENBZZJFMEEJFSJOHFTUJNBUFTPGEFSJWFEQBSBNF
UFST#PZEFtBMGPVOEUIBUFTUJNBUFTPGQIFOPMPHJDBMFWFOU
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179Toward Standardization of Vegetation Indices
EBUFTTVDIBTUIFTUBSUBOEFOEPGUIFHSPXJOHTFBTPOEJFSFECZ
TFWFSBMEBZTXIFOEJFSFOUJOEJDFTXFSFVTFEXJUIVODFSUBJOUJFT
GSPNUIFTFEJFSFODFT iBTMBSHFBT UIPTFBSJTJOHGSPNDMJNBUJD
QFSUVSCBUJPOTw
8.2.2 Alternatives to Standard
Vegetation Indices
8IJMFBTUBOEBSE7*XPVMEUIFSFGPSFTFFNEFTJSBCMFJUJTOPOF
UIFMFTTXPSUIEJTDVTTJOHUIFBMUFSOBUJWFT*GTUBOEBSETBSFEFWFM
PQFEQSFNBUVSFMZUIFSFJTBEBOHFSPGMPDLJOUPBTUBOEBSEUIBU
QSPWFTUPCFJOBEFRVBUF5PTPNFFYUFOUUIJTJTUIFDBTFXJUIUIF
/%7*.BOZQBQFSTIBWFQPJOUFEPVUJUTFYDFTTJWFTFOTJUJWJUZUP
TPJMDIBSBDUFSJTUJDT)VFUF3POEFBVYFtBMCVUIBW
JOHCFFOBEPQUFEBTBOPQFSBUJPOBMQSPEVDUGSPNUIFFBSMZT
5PXOTIFOEBOE+VTUJDFJUIBTCFDPNFUIFEFGBDUPTUBO
EBSEGPSMBUFSTZTUFNTBSFDFOUXFCTFBSDI+VOFSFQPSUFE
PWFS  BDBEFNJD QBQFST PO U IJT JOEFY 0OF BMUFSOBUJWF UP
7*T JT UPFTUJNBUFWFHFUBUJPOQBSBNFUFST EJSFDUMZCZJOWFSUJOH
BWFHFUBUJPO DBOPQZSFFDUBODFNPEFM XJUI FBSUI PCTFSWBUJPO
EBUB"TUIFCBTJTGPSQSPEVDUJWJUZFTUJNBUJPOG"1"3IBTCFFO
SFDPHOJ [FE BT BO FTTFOUJBM DMJNBUF WBSJBCMF GPS H MPCBM NPEFM
JOH BOE JT B MSFBEZ B SPVUJOF QSPEVDU PG U IF .0%*4 .&3 *4
7&(&5"5*0/ BOE .FUFPTBU 4FDPOE (FOFSBUJPO4QJOOJOH
&OIBODFE 7JTJCMF BOE *OGSBSFE *NBHFS .4(4&7*3* TZT
UFNT(PCSPOFtBMFWBMVBUFEUIFFFDUTPGSBEJPNFUSJD
VODFSUBJOUJFTPOUIF.&3*4QSPEVDUBOEFTUJNBUFEUIBUFSSPST
JOG"1"3FTUJNBUJPOTIPVMECFCVU%0EPSJDPFUaM
GPVOE JODPOTJTUFODJFT QBSUJDVMBS JO GPSFTU XIFO DPNQBSJOH
UISFFG"1"3BMHPSJUINTPWFS&VSPQF4JNJMBSJTTVFTXFSFGPVOE
CZ1JDLFU)FBQT FtBMXIPUFTUFETJY BMUFSOBUJWF G"1"3
QSPEVDUT PWFS "VTUSBMJB FZ TVHHFTU UIBU DVSSFOU G"1"3
QSPEVDUTBSFOPUSFMJBCMFFOPVHIUPCFGFEJOUPCJPHFPDIFNJDBM
QSPDFTTNPEFMTPSVTFEJOEBUBGVTJPOBQQSPBDIFT"GVSUIFSEJG
DVMUZXJUI UIFTFQSPEVDUTJTUIBU UIFZSFMZ PO EJFSFOUUZQFT
PGEBUBJOQVUJODMVEJOHJONPTUDBTFTNVMUJBOHVMBSSFFDUBODF
EBUB 8IJMF HSFBUFS SFMJBCJMJUZ NBZ CF BDIJFWBCMF XJUI GVUVSF
TZTUFNT PS CFUUFSNPEFMTJUXPVMEOPU CF SFBMJTUJDUPHFOFSBUF
UIFFRVJWBMFOUQSPEVDUGSPNIJTUPSJDEBUBXIFSFLFZJOQVUTBSF
NJTTJOH)PXFWFSB7*BMUIPVHIMFTTEJSFDUMZBQQMJDBCMFBT BO
JOQVUUPQSPDFTT NPEFMTJUSFNBJOTKVTUBO JOEFYDBOXJUIJO
MJNJUTCFTUBOEBSEJ[FE
8.3 Sources of Variation
inVegetation Indices
"MUIPVHI 7*T SFTQPOE QSJNBSJMZ UP GPMJBHF EFOTJUZ IPXFWFS
FYQSFTTFEUIFZBSFDSJUJDBMMZBFDUFECZBSBOHFPGPUIFSGBDUPST
7BO-FFVXFOEJTUJOHVJTIFTCFUXFFOVODFSUBJOUJFTSFMBUFE
UP JOQVU QBSBNFUFST 7* GPSNVMBUJPO BOE QSPEVDU HFOFSBUJPO
JTTVFT TVDI BT DPNQPTJUJOH SVMFT .PTU PG UIF EJTDVTTJPO IFSF
SFMBUFTUPUIFSTUPGUIFTFDBUFHPSJFT5BCMFDMBTTJFTUIFTPVSDFT
PG FYUSBOFPVT WBSJBUJPO JOUP FOWJSPONFOUBM PCTFSWBUJPOBM BOE
JOTUSVNFOUBMDBUFHPSJFTBTEJTDVTTFEGVSUIFSBTGPMMPXT
8.3.1 Soil Background
%FQFOEFODF PO TPJM SFFDUBODF JT JOIFSFOU JO UIF GPSNVMBUJPO
PG7*T BTNFBTVSFTPGWFHFUBUJPOoTPJMDPOUSBTU8JUIUIF/%7*
EBSLFSTPJMTXJMMUFOEUPBNQMJGZUIFWFHFUBUJPODPNQPOFOUPGUIF
TJHOBMXIJMFCSJHIUFSTPJMTXJMMUFOEUPTVQQSFTTJU)VFUF
3POEFBVYFtBM'JFMETUVEJFTUIBUSFMBUF/%7*UPNFBTVSFT
PGGPMJBHFEFOTJUZBSFBMNPTUJOWBSJBCMZDPOEVDUFEPOBTJOHMFTPJM
UZQF BOE BMNPTUJOFWJUBCMZBDIJFWFSFMBUJPOTIJQTXJUI IJHI DPS
SFMBUJPOTCVUTVCTFRVFOUBUUFNQUTUPUSBOTGFSUIFSFMBUJPOTIJQTUP
PUIFSFOWJSPONFOUTBSFPFOEJTBQQPJOUJOHEVFUPDIBOHFTJOUIF
CBDLHSPVOE FFDU PGTPJM UZQF*OEJWJEVBMTPJMT BMTP EFDSFBTF JO
CSJHIUOFTTXJUIXFUUJOH#PXFSTBOE)BOLT3POEFBVYFUaM
4PJMFFDUTJO/%7*DBOCFBTIJHIBTPGUIFEZOBNJD
SBOHFCVUBSFDPOTJEFSBCMZSFEVDFE JO UIF4"7*SBOHFPGJOEJ
DFT3POEFBVYFUaMDPSSFTQPOEJOHUPBNBYJNVNFSSPSPG
BCPVUJOUIFFTUJNBUJPOPGMFBGDPWFSGSBDUJPO
8.3.2 Atmospheric Effects
"UNPTQIFSJDFFDUTDIBOHFUIFSBEJBODFTNFBTVSFETPUIBUUIF
UPQPGBUNPTQIFSF SFFDUBODFT HFOFSBUF B EJFSFOU 7* GSPN
UIBUPCTFSWFEBUUIFTVSGBDF*UJTFTTFOUJBMUPQPJOUPVUIFSFUIBU
UPTUBOEBSEJ[F B7* SFRVJSFTUIF JOEFYUPCF CBTFEPO TVSGBDF
SFFDUBODFTBTEFOFE JO &RVBUJPOPS"OZ PUIFSNFB
TVSFNFOU TVDI BT UPQPGBUNPTQIFSF SFFDUBODF SF QSFTFOUT B
DPNCJOBUJPO PG TJHOBMT GSPNCPUI WFHFUBUJPO BOE BUNPTQIFSF
CVUVTJOH FRVJWBMFOU TVSGBDF SFFDUBODF EBUBFMJNJOBUFT NBOZ
PGUIFFSSPSTBOEBMMPXTDPNQBSJTPOPGJOEJDFT(VZPUBOE(V
5"#-F  4PVSDFTPG&YUSBOFPVT7BSJBUJPOJO7FHFUBUJPO*OEJDFT
4PVSDFPG7BSJBUJPO "QQSPBDIUP0WFSDPNF ,FZ3FGFSFODFT
&OWJSPONFOUBMGBDUPST
4PJMCBDLHSPVOE 4PJMBEKVTUFEJOEJDFT )VFUFBOE3POEFBux etaM
"UNPTQIFSF "UNPTQIFSJDNPEFMJOH 7FSNPUe etaMBOE#FSk etaM
0CTFSWBUJPOQBSBNFUFST
4PMBSBOHMF $BOPQZ#3%'NPEFMJOH +BDRVFNPud etaMBOE7FSNPUe etaM
7JFXJOHBOHMF
*OTUSVNFOUBMGBDUPST
1JYFMTJ[F "HHSFHBUJPOTDBMFNPEFMJOH .BSUÓOF[#FMUSÈn etaMBOE0CBUa etaM
4QFDUSBMCBOET 7*JOUFSDBMJCSBUJPO 4UFWen etaMUIJTDIBQUFS
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180 Remotely Sensed Data Characterization, Classication, and Accuracies
.FBTVSFNFOUTNVTUBMTPCFDBMJCSBUFEBDDPSEJOHUPCFTU
QSBDUJDF 1SJDF  .BOZ TUVEJFT JO UIF QBTU IBWF BQQMJFE
UIF 7* DPODFQU SBUIFS MPPTFMZ TPNF FWFO VTJOH VODBMJCSBUFE
EJHJUBM OVNCFST %/T UP DPNQVUF UIF JOEFY 4VDI GPSNVMB
UJPOT DBO QSPWJEF TUSPOH DPSSFMBUJPOT XJUI WFHFUBUJPO EFOTJUZ
NFBTVSFT JO JOEJWJEVBM TUVEJFTCVUDBOOPU FBTJMZCFDPNQBSFE
XJUITUVEJFTVTJOHEJFSFOUJOTUSVNFOUTPSGPSNVMBUJPOT;IPV
FtBMGPVOEMBSHFTFOTPSEFQFOEFOUEJFSFODFTCFUXFFO
/%7*T GPS WBSJPVT TZTUFNT EFQFOEJOH PO XIFUIFS UIFZ XFSF
%/ CBTFE SBEJBODF CBTFE PS SFFDUBODF CBTFE )BEKJNJUTJT
FtBM  GPVOE B NFBO E JFSFODF PG  CFUXFFO VODPS
SFDUFE BOE BU NPTQIFSJDB MMZ DPSSFDUFE /%7* WBMVFT BOE NPSF
NPEFTU CVU TUJ MM USPVCMFTPNF EJFSFODFT J O B SBOHF PG PUIFS
JOEJDFT .JVSB FtBM  FWBMVBUFE BUNPTQIFSJD FFDUT PO
JOUFSTFOTPSDPNQBUJCJMJUZBOETIPXFEUIBUBUNPTQIFSJDDPSSFD
UJPOUPUPQPGDBOPQZMFEUPUIFHSFBUFTUDPOTJTUFODZCFUXFFOTZT
UFNT$PSSFDUJPOTGPSBUNPTQIFSJDFFDUTUPSFUSJFWFUIFTVSGBDF
SFFDUBODFBSFUIFSFGPSFBTUSJDUOFDFTTJUZ"WBSJFUZPGFNQJSJDBM
BOENPEFMCBTFEBQQSPBDIFTBSFBWBJMBCMF.BIJOZBOE5VSOFS
F4FDPOE 4JNVMBUJPOPGB4BUFMMJUF4JHOBM JO UIF4PMBS
4QFDUSVN47FSNPUFFtBMBOE.0%FSBUFSFTPMVUJPO
BUNPTQIFSJD 53"/TNJTTJPO .0%53"/ #FSL FtBM 
BUNPTQIFSJD NPEFMTBSF XJEFMZVTFECVU EJDVMUJFT DBO BSJTF
JOBDRVJTJUJPOPGUIFBUNPTQIFSJDQBSBNFUFSTSFRVJSFEUPNBLF
UIFDPSSFDUJPOQBSUJDVMBSMZJOSFNPUFMPDBUJPOTXJUIVODFSUBJO
UJFTBTTPDJBUFENBJOMZXJUIBFSPTPMDPOUFOU/BHPMFtBM
'PSUVOBUFMZBUNPTQIFSJDFFDUTJO7*TBSFTPNFXIBUMJNJUFECZ
UIFSBUJPDPOTUSVDUJPOPGNPTUJOEJDFTDPVQMFEXJUIUIFGBDUUIBU
UIFWJTJCMFBOE/*3CBOETBSFUPBMBSHFFYUFOUBFDUFEJOTJNJMBS
XBZTCZBUNPTQIFSJDBFSPTPM4UFWFO GPVOEUIBU 04"7*
FTUJNBUFTPGMFBGDPWFSGSBDUJPOGPSNJEMBUJUVEFTVNNFSNPOJ
UPSJOHDPOEJUJPOTXFSFSFMBUJWFMZJOTFOTJUJWFUPRVJUFMBSHFFSSPST
JONPEFMFEBUNPTQIFSJDQBSBNFUFSTSFTVMUJOHJOOPNPSFUIBO
oFSSPSJOUIFDPWFSFTUJNBUF
8.3.3 Directional Effects
FDPNQMFYTUSVDUVSFPGWFHFUBUJPODBOPQJFTBTBTTFNCMBHFTPG
MFBWFTBOEPUIFSDPNQPOFOUTTVTQFOEFEBCPWFUIFTVSGBDFHJWFT
SJTFUPBNPSFPSMFTTDPNQMFY#3%'UIBU MFBETUP B7*EFQFO
EFODF PO TPMBS BOE WJFXJOHBOHMFF #3%'PG WFHFUBUJPO JT
MBSHFMZ DPOUSPMMFE CZ UIFSFMBUJWFGSBDUJPOTPG JMMVNJOBUFETPJM
GPMJBHF B OE TIBEPX WJTJCMF JO  B HJWFO EJSFD UJPO (VZPU 
4DIMVFTTFMFtBM"UMBSHFJODJEFODFBOHMFTUIFTDFOFXJMM
BQQFBS UP CF GVMMZWFHFUBUFE FWFOXIFO-"* JT TNBMM XIFSFBT
UIFOBEJSWJFXXJMMTIPXBHSFBUFSQSPQPSUJPOPGTPJMBOENBYJ
NJ[FTTFOTJUJWJUZUPMFBGBSFBBOEDBOPQZTUSVDUVSF*OHFOFSBM
WBSJBUJPOT PG SFFDUFE SBEJBODF XJUI FJUIFS TPMBS PS WJFXJOH
BOHMF B SF HSFBUFTU GPS FSFD UPQIJMF MFBG B OHMF EJTUS JCVUJPOT BOE
MFBTUGPSQMBOPQIJMFEJTUSJCVUJPOT7FSSFMTU FUBMTIPXFE
UIBU7*TTIPXFEMBSHFWBSJBUJPOTXJUIWJFXJOHBOHMFBOECZUIF
QSJODJQMFPGSFDJQSPDJUZTPMBSBOHMFUIBUBSFEFQFOEFOUPOCPUI
JOEFY BOEWFHFUBUJPO UZQF 4JNTFtBMBOE .PVSBFtBM
BMTPGPVOEUIBU EJSFDUJPOBMFFDUTXFSFJOEFY TFOTJUJWF
CFJOHHSFBUFSGPS&7*UIBOGPS/%7**GVODPSSFDUFETPMBSBOE
WJFXBOHMFFFDUTNBZWBSZXJUIPSCJUBMESJPGMPOHUFSNTBUFM
MJUFT5VDLFSFUaM#SPXOFUaM"OHVMBSFFDUTBMTP
PDDVSBT BSFTVMU PGUIF DPNQPTJUJOH BQQSPBDIFT VTFE UP HFO
FSBUFDMPVEGSFF WFHFUBUJPOQSPEVDUTGSPNHMPCBMEBUBTFUTWBO
-FFVXFOFtBM 8IFSF UIFWFHFUBUJPO DIBSBDUFSJTUJDTBSF
LOPXOBOHVMBSFFDUTPO7*TDBOCFFTUJNBUFECZDBOPQZNPE
FMT4IVMUJT4UFWFO7FSSFMTUFtBM+BDRVFNPVE
FUaMBOEBTUIFTPMBSBOEWJFXJOHBOHMFTBSFLOPXOQSF
DJTFMZGPSBOZPCTFSWBUJPOUIFSFTJEVBMFSSPSTBSFOPUMBSHF'PS
HMPCB MTDBMF WFHFUBU JPO NPOJUPSJOH XIFSF JU J T JNQSBDUJDB M UP
BQQMZJOEJWJEVBM NPEFMTUPTQFDJDWFHFUBUJPO UZQFT7FSNPUF
FUaMEFNPOTUSBUFEUIBU#3%'DPSSFDUJPOTDPVMECFNBEF
POUIFCBTJTPGBOBTTVNQUJPOUIBUUIFTIBQFPGUIF#3%'WBSJFT
NPSFTMPXMZUIBOUIF NBHOJUVEF PG UIFSFFDUBODFFTIBQF
DBOUIFOCFRVBOUJFECZUXPQBSBNFUFST3 BOE7SFMBUFEJO
CSPBEUFSNTUPWFHFUBUJPOBOESPVHIOFTTUIBUDBOCFEFSJWFECZ
JOWFSTJPOPGUIFUJNFTFSJFT
#3%'FGGFDUTDBOBMTPPDDVSXJUI DMPVEJOFTTUPQPHSBQIZ
BOEBUNPTQIFSJDTUBUF5IFTFGBDUPSTDIBOHFUIFSFMBUJWFDPO
USJCVUJPOPGEJGGVTFTPMBSJSSBEJBODFUIBUDPNQSJTFTBEJTUSJ
CVUJPOPGJODJEFOUBOHMFT4UFWFO4UFWFOBOE6OTXPSUI
JOUFSBDUJOHXJUIEJGGFSFOU QBSUTPG UIF #3%' BOE HFO
FSBU JOH TQ FDUS BM B OE BOH VMBS  SFGM FDUB ODFT E JGGFS FOU UP UI PTF
GSPNUIFVOJEJSFDUJPOBMEJSFDUTPMBSJSSBEJBODF#ZDPNQBS
JOH DBOPQZ NFBTVSFNFOUT NBEF VOEFS GVMM TVOMJHIU BOE
TJNVMBUFEDMPVEFOUJSFMZEJGGVTFJMMVNJOBUJPO4UFWFO
GPVO E EJG GFSFODFT  VQ UP  J O /%7* CF UXFFO  DBOPQJF T JO
TVOMJHIUBOETIBEFCVUEFNPOTUSBUFEUIBUUIFDBOPQZTQFDUSB
VOEFSTUBOEBSEDPOEJUJPOTDPVMECFSFDPOTUSVDUFEUPBQSF
DJTJPOPG oGSPNUIFTIBEFE NFBTVSFNFOUT0WFSBMM
UIFTF TUVEJFT JOEJDBUF UIBU BMUIPVHI BOHVMBS SFTQPOTFT BSF
QSPCMFNBUJDBOEDPNQMFYUIFZBSFTVTDFQUJCMFUPDPSSFDUJPO
CZNPEFMJOHUIF#3%'
8.3.4 Pixel-Size Effects
" OVNCFS PG T UVEJFT IBWF DPN NFOUFE PO UIF FF DUT PG QJYFM
BHHSFHBUJPOXIFOJOUFHSBUJOHEBUBGSPNNVMUJQMFTPVSDFTWBO
-FFVXFO5BSOBWTLZFtBM  .BSUÓOF[#FMUSÈO FtBM
 .VOZBUJ BOE .CPXFOJ  " GVOEBNFOUBM JTTVF JT
UIBU7*TBSFOPUMJOFBS GVODUJPOTPGSFFDUBODFTPUIBUTQBUJBM
BWFSBHFTPGUIF7*BSFOPUQSFDJTFMZFRVJWBMFOUUP7*WBMVFTDBM
DVMBUFEPOUIFCBTJTPGBWFSBHJOHUIFSBEJBODFTPSSFFDUBODFT
'JHVSee EJFSFODFJTOPUMBSHFJOUIFFYBNQMFTIPXO
CVU XPVME J O QSJODJQMF JODSF BTF XJUI H SFBUFS IFUFSPHFOF JUZ PG
UIF TVSGBDF B OE XJUI UIF OV NCFS PG QJYFMT UP CF BHHSFHBUFE
0CBUBFUaMEFWFMPQFEBUIFPSFUJDBMCBTJTGPSEFBMJOHXJUI
TDBMJOHFFDUTCBTFE PO NPOPUPOJDCFIBWJPSPGUIF FFDUBT B
GVOD UJPO PG TQBUJBM SFTPMVUJPO .BSUÓOF[#FMU SÈO FtBM  
JOEJDBUFUIBU JOQSBDUJDFUIJTOPOMJOFBSJUZIBT OPU CFFOGPVOE
UPCFUIFNBKPSJTTVFBOEUIBUHFPMPDBUJPOVODFSUBJOUZJTBNPSF
TFSJPVT TPVSDF PG FSSPS JO JOUFSTFOTPS DPNQBSJTPO )PXFWFS
.VOZBUJ BOE.CPXFOJ GPVOEUIBUBHHSFHBUJPOJO BSFBT
PGTQBSTF QBUDIZWFHFUBUJPO DPVMEMFBE UPVOEFSFTUJNBUJPOPG
QSPEVDUJWJUZ
© 2016 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
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181Toward Standardization of Vegetation Indices
8.3.5 Spectral Band Effects
*O BEEJUJPO UP WB SJBCJMJUZ PG U IF 7* JUTFMG BOZ TUB OEBSEJ[BUJPO
QSPUPDPM NVTU BMTP BDDPVOU GPS EJFSFODFT CFUXFFO NFBTVSF
NFOUTZTUFNT &WFOXIFO JOTUSVNFOUT BSFQSFDJTFMZ DBMJCSBUFE
BOEBMMUIFQSPQFSDPSSFDUJPOTBSFBQQMJFEGPS#3%'BOEBUNP
TQIFSJDFFDUTJOEJDFT GSPN UIFWBSJPVT NFBTVSFNFOUTZTUFNT
EJFS TZTUFNBUJD BMMZ EVF UP EJFSFODFT J O UIF QPTJUJPO XJEUI
BOE TIBQF PG UIF XBWFCB OET VTFE (BMMP BOE %BVHIUSZ 
(VZPUBOE(V#BOE QMBDFNFOUEPFT OPUDSJUJDBMMZ BFDU
UIFCFIBWJPSPSTUSFOHUIPGSFMBUJPOTIJQTXJUIWFHFUBUJPOEFOTJUZ
CVUDBOHJWFSJTFUPMBSHFEJFSFODFTJOUIFUUFEDPFDJFOUT-FF
FtBM4PVEBOJFtBM%JFSFODFTJOJOEFYBSFJOFWJ
UBCMF CFDBVTF EJFSFOU TFOTPST NFBTVSF EJFSFOU QBSUT PG UIF
WFHFUBUJPOoTPJMSFFDUBODFTQFDUSVNBOEDPOTFRVFOUMZSFTQPOE
JO EJFSJOH EFHSFFTUP UIFCJPQIZTJDBM WBSJBCMFT DPODFSOFE*O
BEEJUJPO5FJMMFUBOE3FOGPVOEUIBUTQFDUSBMEJFSFODFT
BSF HFOFSBUFE CZ UIF TQFDUSBM EFQFOEFODF PG BUNPTQIFSJD HBT
USBOTNJUUBODF )PXFWFSJU USBOTQJSFT UIBUJO NPTUDBTFT UIFTF
EJFSFODFTBSFNPSFRVBOUJUBUJWF UIBORVBMJUBUJWFXJUIBMNPTU
QFSGFDU DPSSFMBUJPOTCFUXFFOJOEJDFT SFDPSEFECZEJFSFOU TZT
UFNT4UFWFOFtBMJTTUVEZQSPQPTFTUIFBQQMJDB
UJPOPGUIFSFMBUJPOTIJQTFTUBCMJTIFEJOUIFTFQBQFSTBTBLFZTUFQ
JOUIFTUBOEBSEJ[BUJPOPG7*T
8.4 Vegetation Index
Intercalibration Approaches
*OUFSDPNQBSJTPOPG7*TDBOCFQFSGPSNFECZEJSFDUDPNQBSJTPO
PGNFBTVSFNFOUTNBEF CZEJFSFOUJOTUSVNFOUT CZTJNVMBUJPO
GSPNNPEFMTQFDUSBPSCZQBSUJBMTJNVMBUJPOPGCBOESFTQPOTFT
GSPNFMESFFDUBODFTQFDUSB%JSFDUDPNQBSJTPOTBSFMJNJUFEUP
QBSUJDVMBSJOTUSVNFOUTBOEBSFTVCKFDUUPFSSPSTEVFUPOPOTJNVM
UBOFJUZ JOFYBDU JNBHF DPSFHJTUSBUJPO BOE BUNPTQIFSJD FFDUT
UIFZ BMTP GB JM UP EJTUJOHVJTI TQFDUSBM CBOE FFDUT GSPN TFOTPS
DBMJCSBUJPOFSSPST"MUIPVHI NPEFMTQFDUSBBSFIJHIMZWFSTBUJMF
QBSUJDVMBSMZGPSTFOTJUJWJUZUFTUTUIFJSEJSFDUBQQMJDBUJPOSFRVJSFT
TVQSFNFDPOEFODFUIBUUIFNPEFMQBSBNFUFSJ[BUJPODBQUVSFTBMM
UIFJNQPSUBOUTPVSDFTPGWBSJBUJPO4JNVMBUJPOGSPNEBUBIBTUIF
BEWBOUBHFJOUIJT DPOUFYU JO UIBUUIFTQFDUSBM EBUB BSF SFBMJTUJD
UIFTJNVMBUFESFTVMUTBSFOPUMJNJUFEUPQBSUJDVMBSJOTUSVNFOUT
BOEUIFJOUFSDPNQBSJTPOTBSFBMMNBEFPOBDPNNPOEBUBTFU
8.4.1 Intercalibration of Vegetation
Indices after Steven etal. (2003)
FBOBMZTJTCZ4UFWFOFtBMVTFEBEBUBCBTFPGIJHI
SFTPMVUJPOTQFDUSBPG WFHFUBUJPODBOPQJFT UP TJNVMBUF/*3 BOE
WJTJCMFCBOESFTQPOTFTPGQBSUJDVMBSJOTUSVNFOUTBOEUIFODPN
QBSFE7*TBTNFBTVSFECZEJFSFOUTJNVMBUFEPCTFSWJOHTZTUFNT
FEBUBCBTFEFTDSJCFEJONPSFEFUBJMCZ4UFWFO FtBM
DPNQSJTFE B TFUPGOBEJSWJFXJOH CJEJSFDUJPOBMSFFDUBODF
TQFDUSB NFBTVSFE PWFS DBOPQJFT PG DPOUSBTUJOH BSDIJUFDUVSF
TVHBSCFFU BOENBJ[FJOUIF 6OJUFE ,JOHEPNBOE 'SBODFJO
FYQFSJNFOUTDPOEVDUFEJOBOEJOFQMBOUDBOPQJFT
IBEBGVMMSBOHFPG-"*BOETPJMCBDLHSPVOETXIJMFDPOUSBTUJOH
MFBGDPMPSTXFSFBDIJFWFECZ USFBUNFOUTXJUIEJTFBTFPS EJMVUFE
IFSCJDJEF4QFDUSBMCBOESFTQPOTFTXFSFTJNVMBUFECZDPOWPMWJOH
UIFUPQPGDBOPQZ TQFDUSBM SBEJBODFEBUB XJUIUIFGVMMTQFDUSBM
SFTQPOTFGVODUJPOPGFBDIPGUIFTFOTPSTUFTUFEBOEOPSNBMJ[JOH
XJUI UIFDPSSFTQPOEJOH DPOWPMWFE EBUB GPS UIFSFGFSFODF QBOFM
VTFE JO UIFFMEBEKVTUFE GPS JUT USVFSFFDUBODFFTQFDUSBM
SFTQPOTFGVODUJPOTXFSFGPVOEJOUIFMJUFSBUVSFPSGSPNUIFXFC
PSPCUBJOFECZQFSTPOBMDPNNVOJDBUJPOBOEXFSFEJHJUJ[FEFWFSZ
1ONUPNBUDIUIF TQFDUSBM EBUB'JHVSFFPQFSBUPSTPG
UIF0SC7JFXBOE0SC7JFXTZTUFNTXFSFVOXJMMJOHUPSFMFBTF
UIFTQFDUSBMSFTQPOTFGVODUJPOTPGUIFJSJOTUSVNFOUTTP4UFWFO
FtBMUFTUFEUXPBMUFSOBUJWFNPEFMTBCPYGVODUJPOBDSPTT
UIFOPNJOBMXBWFMFOHUISBOHFBOEB(BVTTJBOUUFETPUIBUUIF
OPNJOBMXBWFCBOEMJNJUTXFSFUIFIBMGQPXFSQPJOUT FXBWF
CBOETGPS7FOμTXIJDIIBEOPUCFFOQSFDJTFMZEFOFEXFSFBMTP
NPEFMFEXJUIB(BVTTJBOPOUIFCBTJTPGUIFEFWFMPQFSTBEWJDF
FTJNVMBUFECBOE SFFDUBODFTXFSFUIFOBQQMJFE UPDPNQVUF
Red NIR
0.1
0.15
0.15 0.55
0.55
0.55
0.5
0.5
0.50.25
0.71
0.60
0.50
0.57
0.47
0.38
0.43
0.33
0.25
0.25
0.2
0.6
0.60.3
0.6
0.200 0.550
NDVI from average =0.467
Average NDVI =0.471
NDVI
Averages
0.2
0.2
'*HVS F)ZQPUIFUJDBMJMMVTUSBUJPOPOUIFFFDUPG/%7*OPOMJO
FBSJUZPOBHHSFHBUJPOPG OJOF QJYFMTJOUPPOFFNFBOPGUIF/%7*T
BDSPTTB¨QJYFMBSFBMPXFSCPYJTOPUJEFOUJDBMUPUIF/%7*DBMDV
MBUFEGSPNUIFNFBOSFFDUBODFWBMVFTVQQFSUXPCPYFT
1000900800
Wavelength (nm)
MISR
IRS
700600500
0
0.2
Relative sensitivity
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
'*HV S F &YBNQMFPGTQFDUSBM SFTQPOTFGVODUJPOTGPSUXPPGUIF
TZTUFNT TJ NVMBUFE "EBQUFE GSPN 4UF WFO .% FtBM 3FNPUF 4F OT
&OWJSPO
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182 Remotely Sensed Data Characterization, Classication, and Accuracies
UIF7*T/%7*4"7*BOE04"7*GPSUIFEJFSFOUTZTUFNTBTXFMM
BTGPSBIZQPUIFUJDBMMZJEFBMOBSSPXCBOETFOTPSQBJSCBTFEPO
OBSSPXCBOETBUBOE5ONQSPQPTFEBTBTUBOEBSE8JUI
OBSSPXCBOETUIFSFFDUBODFWBMVFTBSFOPMPOHFSTFOTJUJWFUP
CBOEXJEU I PS TQFDU SBM SFTQPOTF GVODUJPO )PXFWFS UP SFEVDF
UIFFFDUTPGJOTUSVNFOUBMOPJTFJOUIFPSJHJOBMEBUBCBTFCBOE
XJEUITPG0ONDFOUFSFEPOUIFOPNJOBMXBWFMFOHUITXFSFVTFE
UPEFUFSNJOFUIF SFFDUBODFT GPSUIFTUBOEBSECBOETF7*T
GSPNUIFEJFSFOUTJNVMBUFETZTUFNTXFSFUIFODPNQBSFE
'JHVSFTBOETIPX/%7*WBMVFTGPSUXPTZTUFNTDPN
QBSFEXJUIUIFDPSSFTQPOEJOH/%7*TGPSUIFQSPQPTFETUBOEBSE
CBOETBUBOE5ON7*TGSPNBMMTZTUFNTXFSFIJHIMZMJO
FBSMZ DPSSFMBUFE /0"" BOE UIF $PNQBDU )JHI3FTPMVUJPO
*NBHJOH 4QFDUSPNFUFS $)3*4 BT TIPXO IFSF SFQSFTFOU UIF
FYUSFNFT PGTMPQF XJUI/%7*GPS/0""CFJOH BT NVDI
MPXFSUIBO UIFTUBOEBSEPOUIF TBNFUBSHFU FTUSFOHUI BOE
MJOFBSJUZPGUIF DPSSFMBUJPOTNJOJNVNSNFBOT UIBU
/%7*TSFDPSEFECZEJFSFOUPCTFSWBUJPOTZTUFNTDBOCFJOUFS
DBMJCSBUFEUP B EFHSFF PG QSFDJTJPOPGBCPVU ±4UFWFOFtBM
 UBCVMBUFE UXPXBZ JOUFSTZTUFN DPOWFSTJPO DPFDJFOUT
GPSPQFSBUJPOBMTZTUFNTBTXFMMBTUIFTUBOEBSEOBSSPXCBOE
TFOTPSQBJS*OBMBUFSVQEBUF 4UFWFOFtBMFYUFOEFEUIF
JOUFSDBMJCSBUJPOPG7*TGPSXBSEUPJODMVEFDPOWFSTJPODPFDJFOUT
GPSPSCJUJOHTFOTPSTZTUFNT MBVODIFETJODFUIFQBQFSBOE
CBDLXBSEUPJODMVEFIJTUPSJDBMWBSJBUJPOTJOUIF/0"""7)33
TZTUFNBUPUBMPGTZTUFNT5BCMF5XPXBZJOUFSDPOWFS
TJPOUBCMFTBSFOPMPOHFSQSBDUJDBMGPSUIFMBSHFOVNCFSPGTZT
UFNTJOWPMWFETPGPSTJNQMJDJUZUIFDPOWFSTJPOTBSFHJWFOSFMBUJWF
UPBO/%7*CBTFEPOUIFTUBOEBSEQBJSPGOBSSPXCBOETBU
BOE5ONFTF CBOETXFSFPSJHJOBMMZ DIPTFO UPCFDMPTFUP
UIFPQUJNVNNBYJNJ[JOHUIF/%7*WBMVFBMUIPVHIJOGBDUUIF
/%7*GPSUIF$)3*4TZTUFNVTJOHUIF-/*3CBOE'JHVSe
EPFTIBWFBTMJHIUMZHSFBUFSEZOBNJDSBOHF
-JOFBSSFHSFTTJPOTGPS4"7*04"7*BOE/%7*EJFSJOTMPQF
BOEJOUFSDFQUCZOPNPSFUIBOBCPVUBOESFTQFD
UJWFMZBDSPTTUIFXIPMFSBOHFPGJOEJDFT"TUIFTFEJFSFODFTBSF
DPOTJEFSBCMZ MFTTUIBO UZQJDBMFSSPST PGNFBTVSFNFOU B TJOHMF
DPOWFSTJPO UBCMF JT BEFRVBUF GPS UIF SB OHF PG 7* GPSNVMBUJPOT
DPOTJEFSFE *U JT BMTP QPTTJCMF UP DPOWFSUGSPNPOFPQFSBUJPOBM
TZTUFNUPBOPUIFSVTJOH5BCMFUPDPOWFSUSTUUPUIFTUBOEBSE
BTBOJOUFSNFEJBUFTUBHFBOEUIFOGSPNUIFTUBOEBSEUPUIFTFD
POETZTUFN0OFYBNQMFTUFTUFEUIFFSSPSJOUIJTUXPTUBHFQSP
DFTTBTDPNQBSFEXJUIEJSFDUDPOWFSTJPOCFUXFFOUIFTZTUFNT
XBTVQUPJOTMPQFBOEJOJOUFSDFQU
5BCMFBMMPXT7*EBUBGSPNBOZPGUIFMJTUFETZTUFNTUPCF
DPSSFDUFEUPUIFDPSSFTQPOEJOH7*GPSUIFTUBOEBSEQBJSPGTQFD
USBMCBOET5PDPOWFSUB7*GSPNBOPQFSBUJPOBMTZTUFN7*PQUP
UIFTUBOEBSE7*TUE&RVBUJPOJTBQQMJFEVTJOHUIFTMPQFBOE
JOUFSDFQUWBMVFTGSPNDPMVNO # 5PDPOWFSU GSPN UIF TUBOEBSE
UPBQBSUJDVMBSPQFSBUJPOBMTZTUFN&RVBUJPOJTBQQMJFEVTJOH
UIFTMPQFBOEJOUFSDFQUWBMVFTGSPNDPMVNO"
7*TUE7*PQ¨<TMPQF>#<JOUFSDFQU>#
7*PQ7*TUE¨<TMPQF>"<JOUFSDFQU>"
'PSUIF0SC7JFXTZTUFNTXIFSFUIFEFUBJMFETQFDUSBMSFTQPOTF
GVODUJPOT XFSF VOBWBJMBCMFUIFSFBSFUXPSFTVMUTJO 5BCMF
DPSSFTQPOEJOH UP UIF BMUFSOBUJWF BTTVNQUJPOT BQQMJFE 'PS
Standard bands
0.8 10.60.40.2–0.2
NOAA8
–0.2
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
0
0
'*HVSF3FHSFTTJPO PG /%7* CBTFE PO /0"" CBOET BHBJOTU
UIFTUBOEBSECBOET±BOE±nN"EBQUFEGSPN4UFWFO
.%FtBM *OUFSDBMJCSBUJPO PGWFHFUBUJPOJOEJDFT"OVQEBUFJO.&
4DIBFQNBOFETUI*OUFSOBUJPOBM4ZNQPTJVNPO1IZTJDBM.FBTVSFNFOUT
BOE 4QFDUSBM 4JHOBUVSFT JO 3FNPUF 4FOTJOH *OUFSOBUJPOB M "SDIJWFT PG
UIF1IPUPHSBNNFUSZ3FNPUF4FOTJOHBOE4QBUJBM*OGPSNBUJPO4DJFODFT
7PM9997*1BSU$*4134%BWPT$)QQo
10.80.6
Standard bands
–0.2
0.2
CHRIS (L14)
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
–0.2 0.40.20
0
'*HV S F 3FHSF TTJPO PG /%7* CBTFE PO U IF $)3*4 OFBSJO GSB
SFE -B OE SFE CBOET BHBJ OTU UIF TUBOE BSE CBOET "EBQUFE G SPN
4UFWFO.%FtBM*OUFSDBMJCSBUJPOPGWFHFUBUJPOJOEJDFT"O VQEBUF
JO .&  4DIBFQNBOFET UI *OUF SOBUJPOBM 4ZNQPT JVN PO 1IZTJDBM
.FBTVSFNFOUTBOE4QFDUSBM4JHOBUVSFTJO3FNPUF4FOTJOH*OUFSOBUJPOBM
"SDIJWFT PG UIF 1IPUPHSBNNFUSZ 3FNPUF 4FOTJOH BOE 4QBUJBM
*OGPSNBU JPO 4DJFODFT 7PM 999 7* 1BSU $ *4134 %BWPT $)
QQ.1o
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183Toward Standardization of Vegetation Indices
5"#-F $POWFSTJPO$PFDJFOUTGPS7*T/%7*4"7*BOE04"7*GSPN%JFSFOU4ZTUFNT4UFWFO
.BMUIVTBOE#BSFU#BTFEPO4JNVMBUJPOTGSPNUIF%BUBCBTFPGUIF'VMM/*3BOE7JTJCMF4QFDUSBM3FTQPOTFT
PG&BDI4ZTUFN8IFSF"MUFSOBUJWF0QUJPOTGPSB4ZTUFN&YJTU#PUI"SF4IPXO
" #
4FOTPSWT4UBOEBSE 4UBOEBSEWT4FOTPS
4BUFMMJUF4FOTPS *OUFSDFQU 4MPQF *OUFSDFQU 4MPQF
"-* ¦   
"45&3VTJOHCBOE# ¦   
"45&3VTJOHCBOE/    
"543""543   ¦ 
$)3*4VTJOHCBOE- ¦   
$)3*4VTJOHCBOE-   ¦ 
%.$   ¦ 
'PSNPTBU    
*,0/04 ¦   
*34   ¦ 
,PNQTBU   ¦ 
-BOETBU5.   ¦ 
-BOETBU&5.   ¦ 
-BOETBU.44   ¦ 
.&3*4   ¦ 
.*43   ¦ 
.0%*4   ¦ 
.4(4&7*3*   ¦ 
/0""    
/0""   ¦ 
/0""   ¦ 
/0""   ¦ 
/0""   ¦ 
/0""   ¦ 
/0""   ¦ 
/0""   ¦ 
/0""   ¦ 
/0""   ¦ 
/0""   ¦ 
/0""   ¦ 
/0""   ¦ 
0SC7JFXVTJOHCMPDLGVODUJPO   ¦ 
0SC7JFXVTJOH(BVTTJBO   ¦ 
0SC7JFXVTJOHCMPDLGVODUJPO    
0SC7JFXVTJOH(BVTTJBO    
10-%&3   ¦ 
2VJDL#JSE    
4FB8*'4   ¦ 
4105)SW   ¦ 
4105)SW   ¦ 
4105   ¦ 
7FOμTVTJOHCBOE#XJUI(BVTTJBO ¦   
7FOμTVTJOHCBOE#XJUI(BVTTJBO   ¦ 
© 2016 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
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184 Remotely Sensed Data Characterization, Classication, and Accuracies
0SC7JFX CPUI NFUIPET HJWF DPNQBSBCMF SFTVMUT TP UIBU
BEKVTUNFOUUPUIFTUBOEBSEDBOCFNBEFUPCFUUFSUIBOQSF
DJTJPO 'PS 0SC7JFX IPXFWFS UIF EJFSFODF JT BCPVU 
JOEJDBUJOHUIBUJOUIFBCTFODFPGGVSUIFSJOGPSNBUJPOUIJTTZT
UFN JT VOTVJUBCMF GPS BQQMJDBUJPOT SFRVJSJOH JOUFSDBMJCSBUJPO
XJUIPUIFST
8.4.2 Validation of Cross-Sensor Conversion
"MUIPVHI EJSFDU JOUFSDPNQBSJTPOT PG TFOTPST TVFS GSPN
HSFBUFSFSSPSTBOEMJNJUBUJPOTUIBOUIFTJNVMBUJPOBQQSPBDI
BQQMJFE JO 4FDUJPO  UIFZ BSF WBMVBCMF JO WBMJEBUJOH UIF
OEJOHT 4UFWFO FtBM  SFQPSUFE JNBHFCBTFE DPN
QBS JTPOT CFU XFFO 4105 )JH I3FTPMVUJPO 7J TJCMF )37 BOE
-BOETBUFNBUJD .BQQFS 5. EBUB BOE CFUXFFO "MPOH
5SBDL4DBOOJOH3BEJPNFUFS "543 BOE"7)33*OCPUI
TUVEJFTQJYFMTXFSFBHHSFHBUFEBDSPTTRVBTJVOJGPSNUBSHFUTUP
NJOJNJ[FDPSFHJTUSBUJPOFSSPSTBOEUIFFNQJSJDBMSFTVMUTXFSF
JOSFBTPOBCMFBHSFFNFOU±XJUIUIFTJNVMBUFEDSPTTTFO
TPSDBMJCSBUJPOT4UVEJFTCZ)JMMBOE"JGBEPQPVMPVBOE
(VZPUBOE(VBMTPHFOFSBUFEDPFDJFOUTUIBUTVQQPSUFE
UIFOEJOHTCVUQSFWJPVTTJNVMBUJPOTCZ(BMMPBOE%BVHIUSZ
XFSFTJHOJ DBOUMZEJFSFOUBMUIPVHITJNJMBSMZCBTFEPO
TJNVMBUJPOGSPNFMEEBUB.PSFSFDFOUTUVEJFTIBWFJODMVEFE
CPUI EJSFDUDPNQBSJTPOT PG JNBHF EBUB BOE WBSJPVTGPSNTPG
TJNVMBUJPOFRVBMJUZPGJNBHFDPNQBSJTPOTJOUIFMJUFSBUVSF
JTIPXFWFSRVJUFWBSJBCMFXJUINBOZTVFSJOHGSPNTVCTUBOUJBM
EJFSFODFTJOJNBHFBDRVJTJUJPOUJNFEJFSFOUTPMBSPSWJFX
JOHBOHMFTJOTVcJFOUBHHSFHBUJPOUPPWFSDPNFDPSFHJTUSBUJPO
FSSPSTPSPUIFSQSPCMFNT4VDI TUVEJFTNBZTIPXEJFSFODFT
CFUXFFOTFOTPSTCVUIBWFJOTVcJFOUQSFDJTJPOUPUFTUDPOWFS
TJPOGBDUPST4FMFDUFESFTVMUTBSFEJTDVTTFEBTGPMMPXT
.BSUÓOF[#FMUSÈOFtBMDPNQBSFE&OIBODFEFNBUJD
.BQQFS &5. 5. -JOFBS *NBHJOH 4FMG4DBOOJOH 4FOTPS
-*44"EWBODFE4QBDFCPSOFFSNBM&NJTTJPOBOE3FFDUJPO
3BEJPNFUFS"45&32VJDL#JSEBOE"7)33EBUBPOTFMFDUFE
TJUFT JO TPVUIFBTUFSO 4QBJO DPWFSJ OH B XJEF SBOHF PG TVSGBD F
UZQFT'JHVSF"MMJNBHFTXFSFOFBSOBEJSWJFXJOHBOEUIF
JNBHF QBJST DPNQBSFE XFSFOP NPSF UIBO BGFXIPVSTBQBSU
"MUIPVHIDPNQBSJTPOTXFSFPGUPQPGBUNPTQIFSF/%7*XJUI
PVU BUNPTQIFSJD DPSSFDUJPO UIFZ GPVOE UIBU XJUI TVDJFOU
BHHSFHBUJPO UP SFEVDF OPJTF UIFJS DSPTTTFOTPS SFMBUJPOTIJQT
XFSF MJOFBS SFBTPOBCMZ QSFDJTF B OE JO HPPE BHSFFNFOU XJUI
UIF SFTVMUT PG4UFWFO FtBM)PXFWFS'JHVSF  TIPXT
UIFEJcVMUZPGFTUBCMJTIJOHSFMJBCMFDSPTTTFOTPSSFMBUJPOTIJQT
CZ EJSF DU DPNQBSJTPO  *O TQJUF PG UIF VT F PG BHHSFHBU JPO BOE
IPNPHFOPVT BSFBT GPS DPNQB SJTPO TVCTUB OUJBM EJFSFODFT JO
DPFDJFOUTSFNBJO
+JFtBMFWBMVBUFEEJFSFODFT CFUXFFO"7)33 BOE
.0%*4 JO UXP ZFBST PG EBUB PWFS UIF DPOUFSNJOPVT 6OJUFE
4UBUFT *OBEEJUJPO UPUIFJS PXOOEJOHTUIBU UIF EJFSFODFT
BSFTVCTUBOUJBMBOETZTUFNBUJDUIFZDPNQBSFUIFJSSFTVMUT
XJUIQSFWJPVTDSPTTTFOTPSTUVEJFT(BMMPFtBMDPN
QBSFE/%7* WBMVFT GPS .0%*4BOE"7)33 PWFSUIF 6OJUFE
4UBUFTGPSJEFOUJDBMEBZDPNQPTJUJOHQFSJPETBOEGPVOEMJO
FBSSFMBUJPOTIJQTCFUXFFO/%7*WBMVFTGSPNEJFSFOUTFOTPST
FJSSFHSFTTJPOTMPQFT EJFSGSPN4UFWFOFtBM CZ OP
NPSF UIBO  JOEJDBUJOH HPPE BHSFFNFOUXJUIJOUIF MJNJUT
PG UIFEBUB BMUIPVHI UIF DPNQPTJUJOH QSPDFTT DBO JOUSPEVDF
BTZTUFNBUJD VQXBSECJBTJO /%7* (PXBSE FtBM UIJT
XPVME QSPCBCMZ CF TJNJMBS GPS CPUI TZTUFNT 'FOTIPMU FtBM
  D PNQB SFE  .&3 *4  .0%* 4 B OE 7& (&5"5 *0/ QS PE
VDUT PO HSBTT TBWBOOBI JO 4FOFHBM VTJOH XJEFBOHMF JOTJUV
NFBTVSFNFOUTXJUICBOESBEJPNFUFSTEFTJHOFEUPBQQSPYJNBUF
UIFSFMFWBOUCBOET FZSFQPSUHFOFSBMMZHPPEBHSFFNFOUXJUI
4UFWFOFtBMCVUXJUIIJHIFS.&3*4TFOTJUJWJUZUPWFHF
UBUJPOUIBOQSFEJDUFE)PXFWFSUIFBDDVSBDZPGUIFJSDPNQBSJ
TPOTEFQFOETPOUIFEFHSFFUPXIJDIUIFJOTJUVTFOTPSCBOET
NBUDI UIPTF PG UIF TBUFMMJUFJOTUSVNFOUT *OBEEJUJPO BTUIFZ
OPUFE JO U IFJS TUVEZ XJEFBOH MF NFBTVSFNFOUT XPVME F YBH
HFSBUF 7*T QBSUJDVMBSMZ JOUIF NJEEMF PG UIFSBOHFBMUIPVHI
HJWFO UIFFYUFOTJWFPWFSMBQPGUIFTQFDUSBMCBOETUIFBOHVMBS
SFTQPOTFFFDUJTMJLFMZUPCFWFSZTJNJMBSGPSUIFEJFSFOUTZT
UFNTDPNQBSFE
5SJ TID IFO LP F tBM  B OE %0 EPSJ DP FtBM IBWF
BQQMJFE RVBESBUJD DPSSFDUJPO GBDUPST GPS JOUFSTFOTPS DPSSFD
UJPOTFSFJTOPEPVCUUIBUBRVBESBUJDGVODUJPOXJMMQSPWJEF
BCFUUFSTUBUJTUJDBM UUP BOZ HJWFO TFUPG EBUB FWFO EBUB UIBU
BQQFBSTUSPOHMZ MJOFBSBT JO'JHVSFT BOE  CVU UUJOHB
DVSWFUPTVDIEBUBNBLFTUIFDPFDJFOUTSFMBUJWFMZVOTUBCMFBT
UIFBEEJUJPOBMDPFDJFOUUFOETUPDPVOUFSBDUUIFQSFWJPVTPOFT
BOEJUJTVODMFBSXIFUIFSUIFFYUSBDPFDJFOUJTKVTUJFECZB
HFOFSBM HBJO JO BDDV SBDZ XIFO BQQMJFE UP JOEFQFOEFOU EBUB
4XJOOFOBOE 7FSPVTUSBFUF DPNQBSFEUIF FFDUPGDPS
SFDUJPOTBDDPSEJOH UP 4UFWFOFtBMBOE UIFQPMZOPNJBM
DPSSFDUJPOTPG5SJTIDIFOLPFtBM*OHFOFSBMUIFDPSSFD
UJPOTCZ4UFWFOFtBMHBWFUIFHSFBUFSSFEVDUJPOPGFSSPS
FYDFQUGPSPQFOPSTQBSTFHSBTTMBOEXJUIMPX/%7*XIFSFWBM
VFTXFSFPWFSDPSSFDUFEXIJMFUIFNFUIPEPG5SJTIDIFOLPFtBM
 QSPWJE FE B NPSF DPOTJTUFOU D PSSFDUJPO BDSPTT B MM MBOE
DPWFSDMBTTFT
4POH FtBM  GPVOE MJOFBS DPOWFSTJPOT CFUXFFO "7)33
(MPCBM*OWFOUPSZ.PEFMJOHBOE .BQQJOH4UVEJFT(*..4BOE
41057(5 7&(&5"5*0/ JOTUSVNFOU /%7* WBMVFT CVU UIF
DPFDJFOUT WBSJFE SFHJPOBMMZ BDSPTT $IJOB 'JHVSF  TIPXT B
NBQPGBWFSBHF EJFSFODFTCFUXFFOUIF (*..4BOE7(5QSPE
VDUT.PVOUBJOPVTSFHJPOT$TIPXCPUIQPTJUJWFBOEOFHBUJWFEJG
GFSFODFTXIJMFUIFCPSEFSMJOFCFUXFFOSFHJPOT"BOE#XIFSFUIF
EJFSFODFTBSFMBSHFSBOESFHJPOT$BOE%XIFSFUIFZBSFMPXFS
DPSSFTQPOETUPBNBKPSDMJNBUJDBOEHFPMPHJDBMCPVOEBSZ8IFO
SBUFTPGDIBOHFPGTFBTPOBMMZJOUFHSBUFE/%7*XFSFDPNQVUFEUIFSF
XFSFTVCTUBOUJBMEJFSFODFTCFUXFFOUIFUXPTZTUFNT'JHVSe8
.JVSBFtBMDPNQBSFE/%7*WBMVFT GPS B OVNCFS PG
TZTUFNTPO)ZQFSJPOIZQFSTQFDUSBMJNBHFEBUBPWFSUSPQJDBMGPS
FTUBOETBWBOOBIJO#SB[JMFZBQQMJFEBTJNJMBSBQQSPBDI UP
4UFWFOFtBMDPNCJOJOH UIFBUNPTQIFSJDBMMZ DPS
SFDUFEEBUBXJUITQFDUSBMSFTQPOTFGVODUJPOTUPTJNVMBUFTVSGBDF
NFBTVSFE SBEJBODF JO WBSJPVT CBOET "MUIPVHI SFMBUJPOTIJQT
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185Toward Standardization of Vegetation Indices
CFUXFFOTJNVMBUFESBEJBODFTJOQBJSFECBOETXFSFGPVOEUPCF
MBOEDPWFSEFQFOEFOUUIFSFMBUJPOTIJQTGPS/%7*XFSFJOEFQFO
EFOUPGMBOEDPWFS)PXFWFSUIFZXFSFTVDJFOUMZOPOMJOFBSUP
SFRVJSFUUJOHBRVBESBUJDGVODUJPOGPSBOBEFRVBUFDPOWFSTJPO
CFUXFFOTZTUFNT
*OUFSTFOTPS DPOWFSTJPOT IBWF BMTP CFFO FWBMVBUFE CZ
NPEFMJOH BQQSPBDIFT 7BO -FFVXFO FtBM  TJNVMBUFE
/%7* G SPN "7)3 3 .0%*4 B OE 7JTJCMF  *OGSB SFE *NB HJOH
3BEJPNFUFS 4VJUF 7**34 VTJOH UIF TDBUUFSJOHCZ BSCJUSBSJMZ
JODMJOFEMFBWFT4"*-NPEFMXJUIBXJEFSBOHFPG-"*F
NPEFM XBT QBSBNFUFSJ[FE XJUI EBUB JOQVUT GSPN TQFDUSBM
MJCSBSJFT PG WFHFUBUJPO UXP TQFDUSB TPJ M UXP TQFDUSB BOE
TOPXPOFTQFDUSVN FJSSFTVMUGPS/0""WFSTVT.0%*4
JTXJUIJOPGWBMVFTQSFEJDUFEGSPN5BCMFCVUUIFJSQSF
EJDU JPO GPS /0"" IBT B TMPQF  I JHIFS (POTBNP BOE
$IFOVTFEBDPVQMFE13041&$54"*-PS1304"*-
BOE 4 NPEFM UP HFOFSBUF TZOUIFUJD EBUB DPSSFTQPOEJOH UP
1TBUFMMJUFTFOTPSTFJSTJNVMBUJPOTJODMVEFEBSBOHFPGMFBG
DIBSBDUFSJTUJDT-"*GSPNUPXJUIBYFETQIFSJDBMMFBGBOHMF
EJTUSJCVU JPO B SBOHF PG TPMB S BOE WJFXJOH BOHMFT B OE FJHIU
EJTUJODUCBDLHSPVOETeZ GPVOEHPPE BHSFFNFOUXJUICPUI
4UFWFOFtBMBOEWBO-FFVXFOFtBMCVU MFTTTP
XJUIPUIFSTUVEJFTUIBUIBEVTFERVBESBUJDUUJOH4PVEBOJFtBM
BMTPGPVOEHPPEBHSFFNFOUXJUI4UFWFOFtBMGPS
1304"*-TJNVMBUJPOTPG*,0/04 &5.BOE4105 /%7*T
GSPNGPSFTUDBOPQJFTUIFNBYJNVNEJFSFODFT JOTMPQFBOE
JOUFSDFQUXFSFBOESFTQFDUJWFMZ%0EPSJDPFtBM
BTTFTTFEUIF HFOFSBM FFDUJWFOFTTPGTZOUIFUJDDBMJCSB
UJPOEBUBHFOFSBUFECZSBEJBUJWFUSBOTGFSNPEFMJOHGPSDSPTT
TFOTPSDBMJCSBUJPO*OHFOFSBMBJSCPSOFTQFDUSBMNFBTVSFNFOUT
HBWFCFUUFSSFTVMUTCVUNPEFMHFOFSBUFEEBUBXFSFGPVOEUPCF
BHPPETVCTUJUVUFGPSSFHJPOBMPSHMPCBMNPOJUPSJOH
May 20, 2003 July 31, 2003
NDVI_QuickBird
NDVI_QuickBird NDVI_QuickBird
NDVI_QuickBird
1.0 1.0
0.9 0.9
0.8 0.8
0.7 0.7
0.6 0.6
0.5 0.5
0.4 0.4
0.3 0.3
0.2 0.2
0.1 0.1
0.0
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.0
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
Grid 25 m×25 m
Grid 100 m×100 m Grid 100 m×100 m
Grid 25 m×25 m
Forestry
Forestry
Forestry
Forestry
NDVI_ETM+NDVI_ETM+
NDVI_ETM+NDVI_ETM+
Alfalfa
Alfalfa Alfalfa
Alfalfa
NDVI_ETM + =1.0537 ×NDVI_QuickBird + 0.0148
R2= 0.9957
NDVI_ETM + =1.0526 ×NDVI_QuickBird + 0.0146
R2= 0.9983
NDVI_ETM+=1.0360 ×NDVI_QuickBird+0.0236
R2= 0.9989
NDVI_ETM+=1.0330 ×NDVI_QuickBird+0.0244
R2= 0.9951
Spring irrigated
crop
Spring irrigated
crop Summer irrigated
crop
Summer irrigated
crop
Bare soil
Bare soil Bare soil
Bare soil
0.8 0.9 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
1.0
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
1.0
'*HV S F *OUFSDPNQBSJTPOT PG &5.BOE 2VJDL#JSE /%7* JO IPNPHFOFPVT[POFTBU N BOE  N TDBMFTFEBUBGPS+VMZ
JODMVEFBQSJPSDPOWFSTJPOGSPN5.UP&5./%7*"EBQUFEGSPN.BSUÓOF[#FMUSÈO$FtaM*OU+3FNPUF4FOT
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186 Remotely Sensed Data Characterization, Classication, and Accuracies
500 km500
0.04 0.08 Tengchong
Qinling
A
B
Heihe
N
D
C
C
C
Huaihe
1.7–0.8–0.08–0.04 0
0
ΔN:
'*HVSF.BQPGNFBOBOOVBMEJFSFODFTPG7(5BOE(*..4/%7*GPSoJO$IJOB"EBQUFEGSPN4POH:FtBM*OU+3FNPUF
4FOT
N
E: –4 –0.8 –0.3 –0.1 0.1 0.3
500 km
(a)
0500
0.8 4
'*HVSF3BUFPGDIBOHFZFBS¦PGTFBTPOBMMZJOUFHSBUFE/%7*JO$IJOBGSPNUPGPSB7(5BOEC(*..4TZTUFNT"EBQUFE
GSPN4POH:FtaM*OU+3FNPUF4FOT $POUJOVFE
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187Toward Standardization of Vegetation Indices
8.5 Vegetation Index Standardization
*OQSPQPTJOHBTUBOEBSEGPS7*TTPNFHFOFSBMQSJODJQMFTTIPVME
CFDPOTJEFSFE
1SJODJQMF4UBOEBSEJ[BUJPOTIPVME CF BQQMJDBCMFUPWFH
FUBUJPOJOEJDFTGSPNBMMTZTUFNTJODMVEJOHUIFWFSZFBS
MJFTUUPNFFUUIFBJNPGQSPWJEJOHBMPOHUFSNCBTFMJOF
PGHMPCBMWFHFUBUJPONFBTVSFNFOUT'PSUIJTSFBTPOUIF
JOEFYDIPTFO TIPVMECFCBTFE PO KVTU UXPCBOET UIF
SFEBOEUIF /*3JOTQJUFPGJNQSPWFNFOUTJOQFSGPS
NBODFSFQPSUFEXJUIJODPSQPSBUJPOPGBEEJUJPOBMCBOE
JOGPSNBUJPO
1SJODJQMF4UBOEBSETTIPVMECFDBQBCMFPGFWPMWJOHPWFS
UJNF"7*TUBOEBSENVTUCFUSBDFBCMFBOEJGQPTTJCMF
SFWFSTJCMF BT OFX LOPXMFEHF PS JNQSPWFE NPEFMJOH
NBZSFRVJSFSFBEKVTUNFOUPGQBTUEBUB8JUIBOFWPMW
JOHTUBOEBSEDPNQMFUFNFUBEBUBBSFFTTFOUJBMUPBMMPX
MBUFSBEKVTUNFOUTBOEBEPQUFSTPGUIFTUBOEBSETIPVME
TQFDJGZQSFDJTFMZXIBUDPSSFDUJPOTBOEQSPDFEVSFTIBWF
CFFOBQQMJFEJOBEKVTUJOHNFBTVSFEEBUB
1SJODJQMF4UBOEBSEJ[BUJPOQSPDFEVSFTTIPVMECFNPEVMBS
TPUIBUDPSSFDUJPOTGPSTQFDUSBMCBOETTPJMCBDLHSPVOE
#3%' BOE PUIFS GBDUPST BSF QFSGPSNFE TFQBSBUFMZ
.PEVMBSJUZJNQSPWFTUIFBCJMJUZ UPUSBDF BOE JGOFDFT
TBSZ SFWFSTF QSPDFTTFT BOE FSSPST JO UIF TZTUFN F
TFRVFODFPG DPSSFDUJPOQSPDFEVSFTTIPVMEBMTPCFDPO
TJEFSFEBTOPUBMMUIFPQFSBUJPOTBSFTUSJDUMZDPNNVUBUJWF
3BEJPNFUSJD DPSSFDUJPOTDBMJCSBUJPO BOE BUNPTQIFSJD
DPSSFDUJPOTIPVMEDPNFSTUGPMMPXFECZDPSSFDUJPOT
GPSJMMVNJOBUJPOBOEWJFXJOHHFPNFUSZBTUIFTFNBZWBSZ
UP TPNF FYUFOU XJUI UIF QBSUJDVMBS CBOET PG UIF FBSUI
PCTFSWBUJPOTZTUFN'JOBMMZUIF7*TIPVMECFDBMDVMBUFE
BOEBEKVTUNFOUNBEFGPSUIFTQFDUSBMCBOETBTEFTDSJCFE
JO4FDUJPO&RVBUJPO
8.5.1 Proposals for Vegetation Index Standards
*OQSBDUJDFBUNPTQIFSJD DPSSFDUJPOTBSFVTVBMMZDPNCJOFEJOB
TJOHMFNPEFMXJUIDBMJCSBUJPOF47FSNPUFFtBMBOE
.0%53"/#FSLFtBMNPEFMTBSFCPUIXJEFMZVTFEBOE
BQQSPQSJBUF IFSF $BMMJFDP BOE %FMM"DRVB  JOWFTUJHBUFE
EJFSFODFT CFUXFFO UIFTF NPEFMT CVU GPVOE UIBU TJHOJDBOU
FFDUT XFSFDPOOFE UP XBWFMFOHUIT TIPSUFSUIBO0ONTP
UIFDIPJDFPGNPEFMTIPVMEIBWFNJOJNBMJNQBDUPO7*T4VDI
NPEFMT BMT P BDDPVOU GPS WBSJBUJPOT JO FB SUIoTVO E JTUBODF BOE
UIFFFDUTPGTPMBSBOEWJFXJOHBOHMFPOUIFBUNPTQIFSJDFFDUT
7BSJBUJPOTJOTPMBSPVUQVUBSFOPUNPEFMFECVUBSFUZQJDBMMZPG
UIFPSEFSPGBOEDBOTBGFMZCFJHOPSFE
" #3%' NPEFM JT OFFEFE UP BD DPVOU GPS FFDUT PG WJFXJ OH
BOEJMMVNJOBUJPOEJSFDUJPOTF1304"*-NPEFM+BDRVFNPVE
FtBMJTXJEFMZSFTQFDUFEBOETVDJFOUMZWFSTBUJMFGPSUIJT
QVSQPTF5PTUBOEBSEJ[FGPSCJEJSFDUJPOBMFFDUTJUJTBMTPOFDFT
TBSZUPBEPQUTUBOEBSETPMBSBOE WJFXJOH BOHMFT#BDPVS FtBM
QSPQPTFETUBOEBSEJ[JOHPOWJFXJOHBUOBEJSXJUIBTPMBS
[FOJUI BOHMFPG¡$POWFOJFOUMZUIFTFBOHMFTBQQSPYJNBUFUP
UIF BWFSBHFNFBTVSFNFOU DPOEJUJPOTUIBU BQQMZUPUIF DBOPQZ
N
(b)
E: –4 –0.8 –0.3 –0.1 0.1 0.3 0.8 4
500 km0500
'*H V S F  DPOUJOVFE 3BUFPGDIBOHFZFBS¦PGTFBTPOBMMZJOUFHSBUFE/%7*JO$IJOBGSPNUPGPSB7(5BOEC(*..4TZT
UFNT"EBQUFEGSPN4POH:FtaM*OU*3FNPUF4FOT
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188 Remotely Sensed Data Characterization, Classication, and Accuracies
TQFDUS BM EBUBCBTF VTF E CZ 4UFWFO FtBM   TP BEPQ
UJPOPGUIFTFBOHMFTBTTUBOEBSEXPVMEFOTVSFBTFMGDPOTJTUFOU
TZTUFNFTPMBSBOHMFQSPQPTFEJTBMTPBSFBTPOBCMFNJEWBMVF
GPS TVNNFS WJFXJOH DPOEJUJPOT BU N JEMBUJUVEFT  F CJEJSFD
UJPOBMFFDUTEFQFOEPOWFHFUBUJPOUZQFUIBUDBOCFNPEFMFECZ
1304"*-PO UIFCBTJT PG MFBGBOHMFEJTUSJCVUJPO*G UIJT JOGPS
NBUJPO JT VOBWBJMBCMF PSJNQSBDUJDBM UP JNQMFNFOUTVDIBT JO
HMPCBMTDBMFBQQMJDBUJPOTDPSSFDUJPOTCBTFE PO BTQIFSJDBM MFBG
BOHMFEJTUSJCVUJPOBSFSFDPNNFOEFEIFSF
FJOTUSVNFOUTQFDJD 7*DBO OFYUCFDBMDVMBUFE GSPNUIF
DPSSFDUFE TVSGBDF SFFDUBODF WBMVFT "EKVTUNFOU TIPVME UIFO
CF NBEF UP EFUFSNJOF UIF DPSSFTQPOEJOH JOEFY GPS UIF TUBO
EBSECBOETBOE 5ONBSFQSPQPTFE IFSFCZ BQQMZJOH
&RVBUJPOXJUIUIFBQQSPQSJBUFDPOWFSTJPODPFDJFOUT GSPN
5BCMF
.VMUJQMF TUBOEBSET GPS JOEJDFT NBZ CF OFDFTTBSZBU MFBTUJO
UIFTIPSUUFSNF/%7*JTTPXFMMFTUBCMJTIFEUIBUJUTDPOUJOV
BODFJTVOBWPJEBCMFJOTQJUFPGJUTEFDJFODJFT"OJOEFYBEKVTUFE
UPNJOJNJ[FTFOTJUJWJUZUPWBSJBCMFTPJMTIPVMEBMTPCFJODMVEFE
CVUUIFSFBSFNBOZDMBJNBOUTFTJNQMFTUJTUIF4"7*EFOFE
JO&RVBUJPO)VFUFXJUIBWBMVFPGGPSUIFBEKVTU
NFOUGBDUPS-FBEWBOUBHFPGUIF4"7*GPSNVMBUJPOJTUIBUUIF
BEKVTUNFOUGBDUPSFMJNJOBUFTUIFOFFEGPSTQFDJDDBMJCSBUJPOUP
EJFSFOUTPJMT)VFUFBOE-JV3FFWBMVBUJPOCZ3POEFBVY
FtBMPGBSBOHFPG-WBMVFTGPVOEUIBUBWBMVFPGHBWF
BTMJHIUMZCFUUFSQFSGPSNBODFQBSUJDVMBSMZXIFOUIFTPJMUZQFTJO
UIFBOBMZTJTXFSFSFTUSJDUFEUPUIPTFMJLFMZUPCFGPVOEJOBHSJDVM
UVSFBOEUIF04"7*XBTQSPQPTFEJODPSQPSBUJOHUIJT WBMVF*O
UIFBOBMZTJTCZ3POEFBVYFtBMUIFWBSJBODFJOUIFJOEFY
EVFUPTPJMUZQFXBTSFEVDFEGSPN GPS/%7* UPBOE
GPS4"7*BOE04"7*SFTQFDUJWFMZFDBTFGPS04"7*XBT
MBSHFMZCBTFEPOJUTQFSGPSNBODFXJUIBSFTUSJDUFETFUPGBHSJDVM
UVSBMTPJM UZQFT XIFSFJUSFEVDFEUIF TPJMTJHOBMUP XJUI
UIFSFTJEVBMFSSPSEJTUSJCVUFEFWFOMZBDSPTTUIFSBOHFPGGPMJBHF
DPWFS8JUIUIFXJEFSEBUBTFUUIBUNJHIUCFNPSFBQQMJDBCMFGPS
HMPCBM BQQMJD BUJPO 4"7* BOE .4"7* XFSF TMJHIU MZ CFUUFS QFS
GPSNFST4"7*XJUI-JTSFDPNNFOEFEIFSFPWFS.4"7*
GPSJUTHSFBUFS TJNQMJDJUZBOE JUT LOPXODPNQBUJCJMJUZXJUI UIF
DPOWFSTJPODPFDJFOUTJO5BCMF#PUI04"7*BOEUIFPSJHJ
OBM4"7*BSFCBTFEPOBOBMZTFTPGSFMBUJWFMZOBSSPXEBUBTFUTBOE
GVSUIFSTUVEJFTPWFSBXJEFSSBOHFPGTPJMUZQFTNBZMFBEUPCFUUFS
VOEFSTUBOEJOHPGUIFFSSPSTBOEBOJNQSPWFEHFOFSBMJOEFYCVU
BQFSGFDUTPJMBEKVTUNFOUJTOPUBUUBJOBCMFBOESFTJEVBMFSSPSTPG
UIFPSEFSPGDBOCFFYQFDUFEJOUIFFTUJNBUJPOPGGSBDUJPOBM
WFHFUBUJPODPWFS3POEFBVYFtaM
"TVNNBSZPGUIFTFQSPQPTBMTJTTIPXOJO5BCMF
8.5.2 Limits to Standardization
'JOBMMZJUNVTUCFSFDPHOJ[FEUIBUUIFSFBSFMJNJUTUPUIFBCJMJUZ
UPDPSSFDUBOETUBOEBSEJ[F7*TFQPUFOUJBMQJUGBMMTPGGBJMJOH
UPBQQMZMJNJUT UP UIFPQFSBUJPOBM QBSBNFUFST BSFJMMVTUSBUFEJO
'JHVSFXIJDISFQSFTFOUTUIFBWFSBHFPG.0%*4&7*PCTFS
WBUJPOTPWFSUXPNPOUIQFSJPETBSPVOEUIFTPMTUJDFT0ODMPTF
FYBNJOBUJPOUIFSFBQQFBSTUPCFBTMJHIUJODSFBTFJO&7*BMPOH
UIF"SDUJD$JSDMFJO UIF NJEEMFPGUIFOPSUIFSOXJOUFSJT JT
FNQIBUJDBMMZOPUBSFTVMU PGJODSFBTFE WFHFUBUJPO"UUIJT UJNF
PGZFBS JOUIJT MPDBUJPOUIF TVOJTHSB[JOH UIF IPSJ[POBOE BT
BSFTVMUPGJUTMPXBMUJUVEFJTTFWFSFMZEFQMFUFEJO TIPSUFS XBWF
MFOHUIT CZ 3BZMFJHITDBUUFSJOHJOUIFBUNPTQIFSFFFFDUPG
UIJT TFMFDUJWF EFQMFUJPOJTUIBU BMUIPVHI UIFTVO XPVMEBQQFBS
SFEUPBHSPVOEPCTFSWFSJUJTBDUVBMMZSFMBUJWFMZXFBLJOUIFSFE
DPNQBSFE UP UIF / *3 4VOMJH IUSFF DUFE GSPN TOPX UIFSFGPSF
IBT BO FYBHHFSBUFE /*3 SFE SBUJP UIBU FOIBODFT UIF 7* 8F
SFDPNNFOEUIJT JNBHFBTBQV[[MFBOEBXBSOJOHGPSTUVEFOUT
PGSFNPUF TFOTJOHF QSPCMFN JTFBTJMZ BWPJEFEUIF TQFDUSBM
CBMBODFPGTPMBSJSSBEJBUJPOJTDPOTFSWBUJWFPODFTPMBSFMFWBUJPO
FYDFFET¡.POUFJUIBOE6OTXPSUI7BSJBUJPOTJOTQFD
USBM JSSBEJBODF DBOQSPCBCMZ CFNPEFMFEXJUISFBTPOBCMFBDDV
SBDZXJUIJOBGFXEFHSFFT PGUIF IPSJ[POCVUVOUJMUIJT DBOCF
SFMJBCMZEFNPOTUSBUFEPCTFSWBUJPOTCFZPOEBTPMBS[FOJUIBOHMF
PG¡TIPVMECFFYDMVEFEFTBNFMJNJUBQQMJFTUPPCTFSWBUJPO
BOHMFTBTTFMFDUJWF3BZMFJHITDBUUFSJOHXPSLTJOFYBDUMZUIFTBNF
XBZPOUIFVQXFMMJOHSFFDUFESBEJBODF
8.6 Discussion
FSFJTBHFOFSBMEJDVMUZXJUICPUIBUNPTQIFSJDDPSSFDUJPOBOE
#3%'NPEFMJOHUIBUUIFNPEFMTSFRVJSFJOQVUEBUBGPSQBSBNFUFS
J[BUJPO"UNPTQIFSJDDPSSFDUJPOQBSBNFUFSTBSFEJDVMUUPPCUBJO
5"#-F  4VNNBSZPG4QFDJD1SPQPTBMT.BEFJn JT$IBQUFSGPS7FHFUBUJPO*OEFY4UBOEBSET
4UBOEBSE1BSBNFUFST 7BMVF 3FNBSLT
7*GPSNVMB 4"7* 1SFGFSSFE
/%7* 5PMFSBUFE
4QFDUSBMCBOET
/FBSJOGSBSFE 815nm /PNJOBMCBOEXJEUh 20nm, cenUFSFEPOUIFTFXBWFMFOHUIT
3FE 670nm
7JFX[FOJUIBOHMF ¡ "FS#BDPur etaM
4PMBS[FOJUIBOHMF ¡
"UNPTQIFSJDDPSSFDUJPO 5PTVSGBDFSeeDUBODF 4PS.0%53"/SPVUJOFTSFDPNNFOEFEB
#3%'DPSSFDUJPOT 5PTUBOEBSEBOHMFT 1304"*-SFDPNNFOEFEXJUITQIFSJDBMMFBGBOHMFEJTUSJCVUJPOCZEFGBVMUB
BFTFBSFJOUFSJNSFDPNNFOEBUJPOTBOEEPOPUQSFDMVEFBMUFSOBUJWFPSJNQSPWFEQSPDFEVSFT
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189Toward Standardization of Vegetation Indices
GPSSFNPUFBSFBTCVU4UFWFOGPVOEUIBU04"7*FTUJNBUFTXFSF
BFDUFEUPBWFSZNJOPSFYUFOUCZFSSPSTJOUIFNPEFMBTTVNQUJPOT
*OBHMPCBMNPOJUPSJOHDPOUFYUJUXPVMEBMTPCFQPTTJCMFUPJODPS
QPSBUFTBUFMMJUFBFSPTPMPCTFSWBUJPOTJOUPBSPVUJOFDPSSFDUJPOQSP
DFEVSF'PS#3%'NPEFMJOHUIFMFBGBOHMFEJTUSJCVUJPOJTDSJUJDBM
*OBTJNVMBUJPOPGUIFFFDUPGWBSJBCMF4105WJFXJOHBOHMFT4UFWFO
GPVOEWBSJBUJPOTJO04"7*VQUPSFMBUJWFUPWFSUJDBMWJFX
JOHJTEJFSFODFDPSSFTQPOEFEUP¡MFXBSEUJMUPGUIF4105
DBNFSBBOEMBSHFSEJFSFODFTXJMMPDDVSBUHSFBUFSBOHMFT)PXFWFS
BTUIFPOBEJSFFDUDBOCFFTUJNBUFECZUIFNPEFMJUTIPVMEOPU
PGJUTFMGCFBNBKPSTPVSDFPGFSSPSXIJMFFSSPSTBTTPDJBUFEXJUIUIF
BTTVNFEMFBGBOHMFEJTUSJCVUJPODBOCFFYQFDUFEUPCFTFDPOEPSEFS
SFMBUJWFUPUIFPWFSBMMNBHOJUVEFPGUIFPOBEJSFFDU
4JODFUIFQBQFSCZ4UFWFOFtBMBOVNCFSPGTUVE
JFT IBWF BQQMJFE UIF DPFGGJDJFOUT QSPWJEFE UP DPOWFSU GPS
DSPTTTFOTPSFGGFDUT4VOFUaM'JTIFSFUaM1PVMJPU
FUaM5BOHFUaM;IBOHFUaM1SPQBTUJOBOE
&SBTNJ0VZBOHFUaM0UIFSTIBWFUFTUFEUIF
DPOWFSTJPOFRVBUJPOTBHBJOTUEBUBPSNPEFMJOHBQQSPBDIFTBT
EFTDSJCFE JO 4FDUJPO  5IF WBMJEBUJPO TUVEJFTEJTDVTTFE
QSPWJEF HFOFSBM TVQQPSU GPS UIF JEFB PG JOUFSDBMJCSBUJOH 7*T
BOEJONBOZDBTFTTVQQPSUGPSUIFMJOFBSDPFGGJDJFOUTQSP
WJEFECZ4UFWFOFtBMBOEHJWFOJOFYUFOEFEGPSNJO
5BCMF 5IFBDDVSBDZ TVHHFTUFECZ UIFTFTUVEJFT JTPG UIF
PSEFSPG± JOUIFTMPQF5IJTJTQSPCBCMZBCPVUUIFMJNJU
PGBDDVSBDZGPSBWBMJEBUJPOTUVEZJOUIJTDPOUFYU.PSFQFS
UJOFOUIFSFJTUIFSFMBUJWFQSFDJTJPOPGUIFDPOWFSTJPOTXIJDI
JTBCPVU±
%FTQJUF UIJT T VQQPSU UIF HFOFSBMJU Z PG UIF JOUFSTFOTPS SFMB
UJPOTIJQT TIPVME CF DPOTJEFSFE 4POH FtBM  GPVOE UIBU
1.00.80.60.4
Enhanced vegetation index
November 21, 2000–January 21, 2001
May 21–July 21, 2000
0.20.0
'*HVSF$PNQPTJUFETFBTPOBM.0%*4&7*PCTFSWBUJPOTJMMVTUSBUJOHUIFFFDUTPGFYUSFNFTPMBSBOHMFTPOUIFJOEFY"EBQUFEGSPNIUUQ
FBSUIPCTFSWBUPSZOBTBHPW*05%WJFXQIQ JE
© 2016 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Downloaded by [CSIRO Library Services] at 14:39 12 November 2015
190 Remotely Sensed Data Characterization, Classication, and Accuracies
EJFSFODFTCFUXFFO"7)33(*..4BOE41057&(&5"5*0/
/%7*XFSFCPUIMBOEDPWFSBOETFBTPOBMMZEFQFOEFOU)PXFWFS
JUJTEJDVMUUPBTTFTTXIFUIFSTVDIWBSJBUJPOTBSFGVOEBNFOUBMMZ
MJOLFEUPUIFCBTJDPCTFSWBUJPOTPSBOBSUJGBDU PGUIFDPNQPTJU
JOHBOEQSPDFTTJOHQSPDFEVSFTBQQMJFEUPHFOFSBUFPOFPSPUIFS
PGUIFEBUBTFUT*UJTBMTPQPTTJCMFUIBU UIFTFEFQFOEFODJFT BOE
UIFFBSMJFSOEJOHCZ4XJOOFOBOE7FSPVTUSBFUFUIBUUIF
FRVBUJPOTPG4UFWFOFtBMPWFSDPSSFDUFEMPXWBMVFTNBZ
CFSFMBUFEUPUIFIJHI WBSJBCJMJUZPG/%7*XJUISFTQFDUUP TPJM
%0EPSJDPFtBM SFGFSSFEUPFBSMJFS TUVEJFTUIBUNFOUJPO
MBOEDPWFSEFQFOEFODF CVUUIFTFTUVEJFTSFMBUFE UP EJFSFODFT
JO7*TSBUIFSUIBOUIFJSSBUJP.JVSBFtBMBTXFMMBTUIF
TUVEZCZ%0EPSJDPFtBMJUTFMGTIPXFEUIBUDPOWFSTJPOUP
/%7*UBLFTPVUNPTUPGUIFMBOEDPWFSEFQFOEFODFUIBUJTGPVOE
JOUIFJOEJWJEVBMCBOET
"GVSUIFSDPODFSOJTUIBUUIFDSPTTTFOTPSSFMBUJPOTIJQTIBWF
CFFOFTUBCMJTIFEPOBSFMBUJWFMZOBSSPXCBTFPGEBUB FEBUBCBTF
VTFECZ4UFWFOFtBM   DPNQSJTFE  JOEFQFOEFOU
NFBTVSFNFOUTPGTQFDUSBMSFFDUBODFPGTUSJDUMZBHSJDVMUVSBMDBO
PQJFT0UIFSTUVEJFT IBWFFWFO GFXFS NFBTVSFNFOUT BOEXIJMF
NPEFMTJNVMBUJPOT NBZHFOFSBUF MBSHFTZOUIFUJD EBUBTFUT UIFJS
FNQJSJDBMTVQQPSUCBTFJTPFOWFSZOBSSPX*OBEEJUJPONBOZPG
UIFTUVEJFTEJTDVTTFEJO4FDUJPOIBWFBQQMJFEUIFTBNFNPE
FMTTPTJNJMBSOEJOHTBSFUP CF FYQFDUFE'PSFTUDPWFSDMBTTFT
XIFSFEFFQTIBEPXNBZCFBTJHOJDBOUDPNQPOFOUPGUIFUBSHFU
BSFOPUXFMMSFQSFTFOUFEJOUIF EBUBTFUTBMUIPVHIUIFTUVEZCZ
4PVEBOJFtBMTVHHFTUTUIBUUIFDPFDJFOUTPG 5BCMF
TUJMMQSPWJEFBHPPEDPSSFDUJPO"TOPUFECZ4UFWFOFtBM
QSFWJPVTTUVEJFTIBWFBMTPGPVOETFOFTDFOUCJPNBTTPSMJUUFSUP
CFBTJHOJDBOUGBDUPSFSFTVMUTPG.JVSBFtBM XIJDI
SFRVJSFE B RVBESBUJD DPSSFDUJPO CFUXFFO TFOTPST TVHHFTU UIBU
UIFSFMBUJPOTFTUBCMJTIFEJO5BCMFBSFOPUVOJWFSTBM"CSPBEFS
EBUBCBTF NJHIUIFMQ UP SFTPMWFUIFTF JTTVFTCVUBT.JVSBFU BM
  QP JOUFE PVU PCTFSWBUJPOT XJUI EJFSFOU TQFDUSBM CB OET
BSFJOIFSFOUMZEJFSFOUBOENBZJOUSPEVDFCJBTJOUPEPXOTUSFBN
QSPEVDUTFTBNFDBWFBUBQQMJFTUPDPSSFDUJPOGPS#3%'FFDUT
/FWFSUIFMFTTTUBOEBSEJ[BUJPOJTJNQFSBUJWFGPSBSBOHFPGJTTVFT
BOEEPFTOPUQSFDMVEFVTFPGUIFEBUBJOPSJHJOBMGPSNBUGPSTQF
DJDQVSQPTFT4UFWFOFtBMBSHVFEUIBUSFTUSJDUJPOPGUIF
JOUFSDBMJCSBUJPO EBUBCBTF UP DV MUJWBUFE WFHFUBUJPO NBZ BDUVBMMZ
IBWF BMMPXFE B UJHIUFS TUBUJTU JDBM SFMBUJPOTIJQ UP CF FTUBCMJTIFE
UIBO XPVME IBWF PDDVSSFEXJUIBCSPBEFSNPSFSFQSFTFOUBUJWF
EBUBTFU %JFSFODFT CFUXFFO JOEJDFT BSF JO NPTU DBTFT RVJUF
TNBMM BOE BQQMZJOH DPOWFSTJPOT CBTFE PO BHSJDVMUVSBM EBUBT
FUTNBZIFMQUPNBJOUBJOSFMBUJPOTIJQTXJUIG"1"3BOESFMBUFE
QBSBNFUFSTUIBUIBWFCFFOXFMMWBMJEBUFEJOTVDIFOWJSPONFOUT
8.7 Conclusions
FPVUDPNFPG UIJT TUVEZJT UIBUDPSSFDUJPOTBSF QPTTJCMFUP BO
BDDFQUBCMFEFHSFFPGQSFDJTJPOGPSUIFNBJOTPVSDFTPGWBSJBUJPOJO
7*TTPJMCBDLHSPVOEBUNPTQIFSJD#3%'BOETQFDUSBMCBOEFFDUT
F VODFSUB JOUZ PG UIFTF DPSSFDU JPOT JT BCPVU  GPS TPJM XIFO
VTJOHB4"7*3POEFBVYFtBMGPSQPPSMZDIBSBDUFSJ[FE
BUNPTQIFSJDBFSPTPMBNPVOU 4UFWFO GPSPOBEJSWJFX
BOHMFFFDUTVQUP¡JGQPPSMZDIBSBDUFSJ[FE4UFWFOBOE
BCPVUGPSTQFDUSBMCBOEFFDUTFDPSSFTQPOEJOHVODFSUBJO
UJFTJOEPXOTUSFBNQSPEVDUTTVDIBTG"1"3XJMMCFTMJHIUMZMBSHFS
(SFBUFSFSSPSTDBOBMTPCFFYQFDUFEBUMBSHFSBOHMFTPGWJFXPSTPMBS
[FOJUIBOHMFTBOEJGFSSPSTDPNCJOFNBMJHOMZCVUUIFPWFSBMMFFDU
PG BUNPTQIFSJD BOE #3%' FSSPST DBO CF SFEVDFE TVCTUBOUJBMMZ
CZ BQQMJDBUJPO PG TJNQMF XFMMFTUBCMJTIFE NPEFMT BOE BQQSPQSJ
BUFJOQVUEBUB'VSUIFSTUVEJFTBSFOFFEFEUPFYUFOEUIFEBUBCBTF
GPS DPNQBSJTPO PG TFOTPST BOE BTTFTTNFOU PG #3%' FFDUT UP
BTTFTTUIFFSSPSTPGNPEFMJOHBOEUPWBMJEBUFUIFQSPDFEVSFTBOE
UIFJS FFDU PO 7*T BOE EPXOTUSFBN QSPEVDUT *U JT BOUJDJQBUFE
UIBU UIF FSSPST XJMM CFDPNF CFUUFS DIBSBDUFSJ[FE BT QSPDFEVSFT
FWPMWF/FWFSUIFMFTTUIFSFJTTVcJFOUFWJEFODFUPQSPDFFEOPX
4UBOEBSEJ[BUJPO XJMMIBWFJNNFOTF CFOFUTGPSWFHFUBUJPONPOJ
UPSJOHCPUIPOTIPSUUJNFTDBMFSFHJPOBMTUVEJFTXIFSFUIFDPOTUFM
MBUJPOBQQSPBDIJTBQQMJFEUPNPOJUPSUIFEZOBNJDTPGTQFDJDMBOE
DPWFSTBOEJOMBSHFTDBMFTUVEJFTPGFOWJSPONFOUBMIJTUPSZXIFSF
SFDPSETGSPNFBSMZTBUFMMJUFTBSFNFSHFEXJUINPEFSOEBUB
References
"HBQJPV " % ( )BEKJNJUTJT BOE % % "MFYBLJT 
&WBMVBUJPOPGCSPBECBOEBOEOBSSPXCBOEWFHFUBUJPOJOEJ
DFT GPS UIF JEFOUicBUJPO PG BSDIBFPMPHJDBM DSPQ NBSLT
3FNPUF4FOTo
#BDPVS$'.#SÏPOBOE'.BJHOBO/PSNBMJ[BUJPOPG
UIFEJSFDUJPOBMeFDUTJO/0""o"7)33SeeDUBODFNFB
TVSFNFOUTGPSBOJNQSPWFENPOJUPSJOHPGWFHFUBUJPODZDMFT
3FNPUF4FOT&OWJSPOo
#BSFU'BOE((VZPU1PUFOUJBMTBOEMJNJUTPGWFHFUBUJPO
JOEJDFTGPS-"*BOE"1"3BTTFTTNFOU3FNPUF4FOT&OWJSPO
o
#FSL " -4#FSOTUFJO ( 1"OEFSTPO 1 ,"DIBSZB %$
3PCFSUTPO+)$IFUXZOEBOE4."EMFS(PMEFO
.0%53"/DMPVEBOE NVMUJQMF TDBUUFSJOH VQHSBEFT XJUI
BQQMJDBUJPOUP"7*3*43FNPUF4FOT&OWJSPOo
#PXFST4"BOE3+)BOLT3eeDUJPOPGSBEJBOUFOFSHZ
GSPNTPJM4PJM4DJo
#PZE%44"MNPOE+%BTI1+$VSSBOBOE3")JMM
1IFOPMPHZPGWFHFUBUJPOJO4PVUIFSO&OHMBOEGSPN&OWJTBU
.&3*4 UFSSFTUSJBM DIMPSPQIZMM JOEFY .5$* EBUB *OU +
3FNPUF4FOTo
#PZE%4BOE(.'PPEZ"OPWFSWJFXPGSFDFOUSFNPUF
TFOTJOHBOE(*4CBTFESFTFBSDIJOFDPMPHJDBM JOGPSNBUJDT
&DPM*OGPSNBUJDTo
#SPXO . + & 1JO[ØO , %JEBO + 5 .PSJTFUUF BOE $ +
5VDLFS  &WBMVBUJPO PG UIF DPOTJTUFODZ PG MPOHUFSN
/%7*UJNFTFSJFTEFSJWFEGSPN"7)3341057FHFUBUJPO
4FB8J'4.0%*4BOE-BOETBU&5.TFOTPST*&&&5SBOT
(FPTDJ3FNPUF4FOTo
$BMMJFDP'BOE'%FMM"DRVB"DPNQBSJTPOCFUXFFOUXP
SBEJBUJWFUSBOTGFSNPEFMTGPSBUNPTQIFSJDDPSSFDUJPOPWFSB
XJEFSBOHFPGXBWFMFOHUIT*OU+3FNPUF4FOTo
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191Toward Standardization of Vegetation Indices
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192 Remotely Sensed Data Characterization, Classication, and Accuracies
.JVSB5")VFUFBOE):PTIJPLB"OFNQJSJDBMJOWFTUJ
HBUJPOPGDSPTTTFOTPSSFMBUJPOTIJQTPG/%7*BOESFEOFBS
JOGSBSFE SeeDUBODF VTJOH &0 )ZQFSJPO EBUB 3FNPUF
4FOT&OWJSPOo
.JVSB5+15VSOFSBOE" 3 )VFUF4QFDUSBMDPNQBU
JCJMJUZPGUIF/%7*BDSPTT7**34.0%*4BOE"7)33BO
BOBMZTJTPGBUNPTQIFSJDeFDUTVTJOH&0)ZQFSJPO*&&&
5SBOT(FPTDJ3FNPUF4FOTo
.POUFJUI+-$MJNBUFBOEUIFecienDZPGDSPQQSPEVD
UJPOJO#SJUBJO1IJMPT5SBOT34PD-POE4FS#o
.POUFJUI+-BOE.)6OTXPSUI1SJODJQMFTPG&OWJSPONFOUBM
1IZTJDTOEFEO&EXBSE"SOPME-POEPO6,
.PVSB:.-4(BMWÍP+3EPT4BOUPT%" 3PCFSUT BOE
'..#SFVOJH6TFPG.*435FSSBEBUBUPTUVEZJOUSB
BOEJOUFSBOOVBM&7*WBSJBUJPOTJOUIFESZTFBTPOPGUSPQJ
DBMGPSFTU3FNPUF4FOT&OWJSPOo
.VOZBUJ $ BOE ( .CPZFOJ  7BSJBUJPO JO /%7* WBMVFT
XJUIDIBOHFJOTQBUJBMSFTPMVUJPOGPSTFNJBSJEWFHFUBUJPOB
DBTFTUVEZJO/PSUIXFTUFSO4PVUI"GSJDB*OU+3FNPUF4FOT
o
/BHPM+&'7FSNPUFBOE4%1SJODFEFDUTPGBUNP
TQIFSJD WBSJBUJPO PO "7)33 /%7* EBUB 3FNPUF 4FOT
&OWJSPOo
0CBUB,5.JVSBBOE):PTIJPLB"OBMZTJTPGUIFTDBM
JOHeFDUTJOUIFBSFBBWFSBHFEGSBDUJPOPGWFHFUBUJPODPWFS
SFUSJFWFE VTJOH BO /%7*JTPMJOFCBTFE MJOFBS NJYUVSF
NPEFM3FNPUF4FOTo
0VZBOH 8 ' ) )BP " , 4LJENPSF 5 " (SPFO " (
5PYPQFVTBOE58BOH*OUFHSBUJPOPGNVMUJTFOTPS
EBUB UP BTTFTT HSBTTMBOE EZOBNJDT JO B :FMMPX 3JWFS TVC
XBUFSTIFE&DPM*OEJDo
0VZBOH 8 ' ) )BP $ ;IBP BOE $ -JO  7FHFUBUJPO
SFTQPOTF UP 30ZFBST IZESPQPXFS DBTDBEF FYQMPJUBUJPO
JO VQQFS TUSFBN PG :FMMPX 3JWFS $PNNVO /POMJOFBS 4DJ
/VNFS4JNVMo
1F×VFMBT+ BOE * 'JMFMMB7JTJCMFBOEOFBSJOGSBSFEUFDI
OJRVFT GPS EJBHOPTJOH QMBOU QIZTJPMPHJDBM TUBUVT 5SFOET
1MBOU4DJo
1FSSZ $ 3 BOE - ' -BVUFOTIMBHFS  'VODUJPOBM FRVJWB
MFODF PG TQFDUSBM WFHFUBUJPO JOEJDFT 3FNPUF 4FOT &OWJSPO
o
1FUUPSFMMJ/+07JL".ZTUFSVE+.(BJMMBSE$+5VDLFS
BOE/$4UFOTFUI6TJOHUIFTBUFMMJUFEFSJWFE/%7*
UP BTTFTT FDPMPHJDBM SFTQPOTFT UP FOWJSPONFOUBM DIBOHF
5SFOET&DPM&WPMo
1JDLFU)FBQT $ " + ( $BOBEFMM 1 3 #SJHHT / (PCSPO
7.)BWFSE.+1BHFU#1JOUZBOE.33BVQBDI
&WBMVBUJPO PG TJY TBUFMMJUFEFSJWFE 'SBDUJPO PG "CTPSCFE
1IPUPTZOUIFUJD "DUJWF 3BEJBUJPO '"1"3 QSPEVDUT
BDSPTT UIF "VTUSBMJBO DPOUJOFOU 3FNPUF 4FOT &OWJSPO
o
1JOUFS 1 +  4PMBS BOHMF JOEFQFOEFODF JO UIF SFMBUJPOTIJQ
CFUXFFOBCTPSCFE1"3BOESFNPUFMZTFOTFEEBUBGPSBMGBMGB
3FNPUF4FOT&OWJSPOo
1PVMJPU%3-BUJGPWJDBOE*0MUIPG5SFOETJOWFHFUBUJPO
/%7*GSPN1LN"7)33EBUBPWFS$BOBEBGPSUIFQFSJPE
o*OU+3FNPUF4FOTo
1SJDF+$$BMJCSBUJPOPGTBUFMMJUFSBEJPNFUFSTBOEUIFDPN
QBSJTPOPGWFHFUBUJPOJOEJDFT3FNPUF4FOT&OWJSPOo
1SPQBTUJO1BOE4&SBTNJ"QIZTJDBMMZCBTFEBQQSPBDI
UPNPEFM-"*GSPN.0%*4NEBUBJOBUSPQJDBMSFHJPO
*OU+"QQ&BSUI0CT(FPJOGo
2J+"4$IFICPVOJ"3)VFUF:),FSSBOE44PSPPTIJBO
 " NPdieE TPJM BEKVTUFE WFHFUBUJPO JOEFY 3FNPUF
4FOT&OWJSPOo
3ÚEFS" 5,VFNNFSMFBOE+)JMM&YUFOTJPOPGSFUSP
TQFDUJWF EBUBTFUT VTJOH NVMUJQMF TFOTPST "O BQQSPBDI UP
SBEJPNFUSJDJOUFSDBMJCSBUJPOPG-BOETBU5.BOE.44EBUB
3FNPUF4FOT&OWJSPOo
3POEFBVY ( . % 4UFWFO BOE ' #BSFU  0QUJNJ[BUJPO
PG TPJM BEKVTUFE WFHFUBUJPO JOEJDFT 3FNPUF 4FOT &OWJSPO
o
4BNBJO0#(FJHFSBOE+-3PVKFBO4QFDUSBMOPSNBMJTB
UJPOBOEGVTJPOPGPQUJDBMTFOTPSTGPSUIFSFUSJFWBMPG#3%'BOE
"MCFEP"QQMJDBUJPOUP7&(&5"5*0/.0%*4BOE.&3*4
EBUBTFUT*&&&5SBOT(FPTDJ3FNPUF4FOTo
4DIMVFTTFM( 3 &%JDLJOTPO+- 1SJWFUUF8+&NFSZBOE
3.,PLBMZ.PEFMJOHUIFCJEJSFDUJPOBMSeeDUBODFEJT
USJCVUJPOGVODUJPOPG NJYFE niUFQMBOUDBOPQJFTBOETPJM
JGFPQIZT3FT"UNPT%o
4IVMUJT+,$BMDVMBUFETFOTJUJWJUJFTPGTFWFSBMPQUJDBMSBEJP
NFUSJDJOEJDFTGPSWFHFUBUJPODBOPQJFT3FNPUF4FOT&OWJSPO
o
4JNT % " " ' 3BINBO & ' 7FSNPUF BOE ; +JBOH 
4FBTPOBMBOEJOUFSBOOVBMWBSJBUJPOJOWJFXBOHMFeFDUTPO
.0%*4WFHFUBUJPOJOEJDFTBUUISFFGPSFTUTJUFT3FNPUF4FOT
&OWJSPOo
4POH : . .B BOE ' 7FSPVTUSBFUF  $PNQBSJTPO BOE
DPOWFSTJPOPG"7)33(*..4BOE41057&(&5"5*0/
/%7*EBUBJO$IJOB*OU+3FNPUF4FOTo
4PVEBOJ , $ 'SBOÎPJT ( MF .BJSF 7 -F %BOUFD BOE &
%VGSÐOF  $PNQBSBUJWF BOBMZTJT PG *,0/04 4105
BOE&5.EBUBGPSMFBGBSFBJOEFYFTUJNBUJPOJOUFNQFS
BUF DPOJGFSPVT BOE EFDJEVPVT GPSFTU TUBOET 3FNPUF 4FOT
&OWJSPOo
4UFWFO.%4UBOEBSEEJTUSJCVUJPOTPGDMFBSTLZSBEJBODF
2+3PZ.FUFPSPM4PDo
4UFWFO.%FTFOTJUJWJUZPGUIF04"7*WFHFUBUJPOJOEFY
UPPCTFSWBUJPOBMQBSBNFUFST3FNPUF4FOT&OWJSPOo
4UFWFO . %  $PSSFDUJOH UIF eFDUT PG eMEPG WJFX BOE
WBSZJOH JMMVNJOBUJPO JO TQFDUSBM NFBTVSFNFOUT PG DSPQT
1SFDJT"HSJDo
4UFWFO.%17#JTDPFBOE,8+BHHBSE&TUJNBUJPOPG
TVHBSCFFUQSPEVDUJWJUZGSPNSeeDUJPOJOUIFSFEBOEJOGSB
SFETQFDUSBMCBOET*OU+3FNPUF4FOTo
4UFWFO. %17#JTDPF ,8+BHHBSEBOE+1BSVOUV
'PMJBHF DPWFS BOE SBEJBUJPO JOUFSDFQUJPO 'JFME $SPQT 3FT
o
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193Toward Standardization of Vegetation Indices
4UFWFO.%5+.BMUIVTBOE'#BSFU*OUFSDBMJCSBUJPOPG
WFHFUBUJPOJOEJDFT"OVQEBUF*O.&4DIBFQNBOS.-JBOH
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© 2016 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
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© 2016 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Downloaded by [CSIRO Library Services] at 14:39 12 November 2015
... 2017a;Steven et al., 2015). ...
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