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Official Methods of Analysis of The Association of Official Analytical Chemists

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... Once this latter was remover (vacuum evaporator) the oil content was calculated using following equation. The solvent was removed from oil using an evaporator and oil contents were weighed until a constant weight was achieved [18]. The oil yield for each sample was calculated using following equation: ...
... The amount of free fatty acid in the 2.5 g weighed samples was determined by dissolving the oil in ethanol / ether (1:1, v/v) (Merck-Germany) solution and then titrating it against 0.1 N ethanolic KOH solution. The results are given in % oleic acid [18]. Peroxide value is expressed as milli equivalent of active oxygen contained per kg of oil (meq O 2 /kg oil). ...
... Chloroform/acetic acid (Merck-Germany) mixture (v/v; 50:50) and 2 mL of potassium iodide (Merck-Germany) solution were added to 1 g of the oil sample and allowed to react in the dark. The resulting iodine was then titrated with 0.1 N sodium sulfate (Merck-Germany) solution [18]. ...
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The effect of the cellulase and papain enzymes treatments, at the malaxation stage before cold pressing from Ayvalık, Gemlik, Yağlık and Çöpaşı olives, were evaluated in relation to free fatty acid, peroxide value, oil yield, color values, tocopherol content, fatty acid composition and phenolic components in the obtained oil samples. According to the results, it was observed that enzyme usage and application time caused significant differences on free fatty acid (p < 0.05) and peroxide value (p < 0.01). The highest free acidity (8.57%) and peroxide value (12.00 meq O2/kg) were detected in oils from Ayvalık (12 h-papain 1.0% (w/v) treatment) and Çöpaşı (24 h-papain 1.0% (w/v) treatment), respectively. Tocopherol contents, fatty acid composition and phenolic components showed increase in 12 h treated samples. The oil samples obtained after 12 h cellulose 1.0%(w/v) treatment showed the highest (254.7 mg/kg) tocopherol content. Oleic acid contents of oil samples varied between 63.36 and 72.68%. Hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol contents were higher in the samples with low oleuropein content. Generally, cellulose 1.0% (w/v) application resulted in better nutritional quality of the oils.
... The AOAC 30 technique was used to determine the moisture content, where 2 g of sample was weighed in a clean dried aluminium dish. The sample was dried at 130±3 °C for 1 hour in an oven until it reached a consistent weight and then cooled to room temperature. ...
... The amount of ash in the sample was assessed through the AOAC technique where a 5 g sample in a porcelain dish was burned on a hot plate until blackened 30 . It was then cooled and kept in a muffle furnace at 550°C to produce light grey-coloured ash. ...
... The method outlined in AOAC 30 where, M 1 = Mass of filter paper; M 2 = Mass of residue and filter paper ...
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Background Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an essential pulse crop which can offer highly nutritional food to human beings. But, the inadequate availability of nutrients such as Zn could pose a significant threat to public health. Thus, there is a need to improve the food quality parameters and nutrient levels of the crop using biofortification thus, making it beneficial for human consumption. Methods This study evaluated the influence of zinc (Zn) foliar application on food quality parameters, yield, Zn concentration and its uptake along with the economics of field pea cultivation. In the experiment, different concentrations of ZnSO4.7H2O and Zn-EDTA at the flowering and bud initiation stage were applied to the field pea. Results The foliar application of ZnSO4.7H2O (1.0%) at the flowering and bud initiation stages (treatment T7) was highly efficient in increasing food quality parameters such as crude fibre, TSS, N, K and protein content with maximum values of 3.02, 20.5, 3.15, 3.41 and 14.97%, respectively. Also, the maximum yields of grain and straw in field pea for treatment T7 were 4840 kg ha⁻¹ and 3275 kg ha⁻¹, respectively. Similarly, the maximum Zn concentration in grain (54.8 mg kg⁻¹) and straw (52.5 mg kg⁻¹) of field pea was observed in treatment T7. Additionally, Zn uptake by grain (214 g ha⁻¹) and straw (167 g ha⁻¹) was the maximum for the treatment T7 involving ZnSO4.7H2O (1.0%). Whereas, grain Zn concentration and uptake decreased in the treatments involving the use of Zn-EDTA due to the formation of the complex resulting in the reduced availability of Zn to crop. Conclusion Therefore, the application of ZnSO4.7H2O (1.0%) at the flowering and bud initiation stage significantly improved the food quality parameters, grain and straw yield, concentration of Zn and uptake over control and could be used to alleviate the Zn deficiency in field pea.
... Total minerals were measured gravimetrically by calcinations method in electric furnace, using a working temperature of +550 • C (SR ISO 936:1998 standard). [43][44][45][46]. ...
... Total lipids were measured on the Velp Scientifica-SER 148 extractor (manufacturer VELP Scientifica SRL, Usmate Velate, Italy), using the Soxhlet method (AOAC Officinal methods of analysis/1990 [43][44][45][46]), compatible with the SR ISO 1443:2008 protocols [43,47]. ...
... Cysteine and methionine were assessed in form of cysteic acid and methionine sulfone, following sample oxidation with performic acid. Tryptophan was assessed after NaOH hydrolysis at 110 • C, throughout 22 h, in accordance with the protocol specified by Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Analytical Chemists [44,46]. Amino acid quantification was expressed in the g/16 g N system, equivalated to g/100 g of total protein [43,[56][57][58]. ...
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Polyodon spathula is a valuable species of sturgeon native to North America that has acclimatized very well in Europe. Detailed knowledge of the quantitative and qualitative productive performance of paddlefish meat is of interest. Through this article, we aimed to highlight the chemical composition, cholesterol, and collagen content of fillets issued from paddlefish aged two and three summers and to highlight, as well as the nutritional value, the profile of fatty acids and amino acids, the sanogenic indices and the biological value of proteins for the epaxial and hypaxial muscle groups. The chemical analysis of the fillets by age indicated slightly higher values in summer three, compared to summer two: +5.32% dry matter, +0.89% protein, +41.21% fat, therefore +10.94% gross energy and for collagen by 2.94%; instead, for water, minerals and the W/P ratio the values were lower by 1.52%, 10.08%, and 2.29%. The nutritional assessment revealed that paddlefish has a meat with high PUFA content (approx. 22% of total fatty acids) and good values of sanogenic indices (Polyunsaturation Index = 7.01–8.77; Atherogenic Index = 0.57; Thrombogenic Index = 0.38–0.39; Hypocholesterolemic Fatty Acids = 33.01–41.34; Hypocholesteromic/Hypercolesteromic Fatty Acids ratio = 1.9). Also, the proteins of these fish are of good quality for young and adult consumers (EAA index = 156.11; Biological Value = 158.46; Nutritional Index (%) = 28.30) and good enough for children (Essential Amino Acids Index = 96.41; Biological Value = 93.39; Nutritional Index (%) = 17.45).
... Proximate composition of diets and tissues was drawn on the method of the AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) [29]. Moisture was determined by continuous drying at 105°C to constant weight. ...
... A previous study exhibited that the content of crude lipid of whole crab was reduced with the substitution rate of FM with low-gossypol cottonseed protein concentrate exceeding 40% for juvenile swimming crab [29]. Different studies could draw diametrically different conclusions on the same study species (swimming crab) which may be due to different protein sources, such as soy protein concentrate and lowgossypol cottonseed protein concentrate [25,26]. ...
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An 8-week feeding trial was carried out to assess the effect of dietary krill meal on growth performance and expression of genes related to TOR pathway and antioxidation of swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus). Four experimental diets (45% crude protein and 9% crude lipid) were formulated to obtain different replacements of fish meal (FM) with krill meal (KM); FM was replaced with KM at 0% (KM0), 10% (KM10), 20% (KM20), and 30% (KM30); fluorine concentration in diets were analyzed to be 27.16, 94.06, 153.81, and 265.30 mg kg-1, respectively. Each diet was randomly divided into 3 replicates; ten swimming crabs were stocked in each replicate (initial weight, 5.62 ± 0.19 g ). The results indicated that crabs fed with the KM10 diet had the highest final weight, percent weight gain (PWG), and specific growth rate (SGR) among all treatments ( P < 0.05 ). Crabs fed with the KM0 diet had the lowest activities of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), total superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and had the highest concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the hemolymph and the hepatopancreas ( P < 0.05 ). In the hepatopancreas, the highest content of 20:5n-3 (EPA) and the lowest content of 22:6n-3 (DHA) were shown in crabs fed with the KM30 diet among all treatments ( P < 0.05 ). With the substitution level of FM with KM gradually increasing from 0% to 30%, the color of the hepatopancreas changed from pale white to red. Expression of tor, akt, s6k1, and s6 in the hepatopancreas was significantly upregulated, while 4e-bp1, eif4e1a, eif4e2, and eif4e3 were downregulated with dietary replacement of FM with KM increasing from 0% to 30% ( P < 0.05 ). Crabs fed with the KM20 diet had notably higher expression of cat, gpx, cMnsod, and prx than those fed with the KM0 diet ( P < 0.05 ). Results demonstrated that 10% replacement of FM with KM can promote growth performance and antioxidant capacity and notably upregulate the mRNA levels of genes related to TOR pathway and antioxidant of swimming crab.
... The moisture, crude protein, crude fat and ash contents of RBH were determined according to AOAC using sub components 925.09, 979.09, 920.39 and 923.03, respectively [17]. The total carbohydrate content in RBH was calculated by subtracting the sum of moisture, ash, fat and crude protein content from the total matter. ...
... aw, moisture and color values aw of milk tablets was determined by using a water activity meter (AQUA LAB 4TE, dew point, water activity meter, USA). The moisture content of milk tablets was measured according to a method of AOAC [17]. Color values of milk tablets were measured in terms of CIE L*, a*, b* values using a color measurement device (Hunter Lab, Color flex 4510, USA). ...
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The objectives of this study were to produce rice bran hydrolysate (RBH) in a pilot-scale process and determine its physicochemical properties including chemical compositions, α-amino contents, molecular weight (MW) distribution and antioxidant activities. The results found that RBH contained a crude protein of 16.14 %, α-amino contents of 51.56 mg Leucine Eq./g RBH, ABTS radical scavenging activity of 20.17 mg Trolox Eq./g RBH, and FRAP value of 5.77 mg Trolox Eq./g RBH. The major peak of MW peptides of RBH was 753 - 6,088 Da (50.81 %). RBH in various levels (0 - 2.0 %) was supplemented in milk tablets. Physicochemical properties, and sensory evaluation (9-point hedonic scale) of all milk tablets were then determined. The result indicated that the milk tablets with 2.0 % RBH (MT_2%RBH) contained higher antioxidant activities than the others, however, the overall acceptability score of all milk tablets was not significantly different (p ≥ 0.05). MT_2 %RBH was selected for further development by adding 2.0 % cocoa (MT_2%RBHC) and 2.0 % vanilla powder (MT_2%RBHV). The MT_2%RBHC containing higher antioxidant activities and sensory attributes score than the others was further selected for microbiological qualities, consumer and purchase tests (n = 300). It was found that MT_2%RBHC was accepted by 300 people, with an overall acceptability score of 7.16 (Like moderately), and its microbiological qualities, including total bacteria, total yeast and mold and Escherichia coli did not exceed the standard limits. These results suggested that RBH produced in the pilot-scale process has a potential as nutritive and antioxidative supplementation in milk tablets. HIGHLIGHTS Rice bran hydrolysate (RBH) has a potential for production in a pilot-scale process The major peak of molecular weight (MW) peptides of RBH was 753 - 6,088 Da (50.81 %) RBH has a potential as antioxidative supplementation in milk tablets Cocoa milk tablets supplemented with RBH were accepted by 300 panelists Microbiological qualities of milk tablet did not exceed the standard limits GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT
... The total amino acid analysis was determined according to the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists (AOAC) 982.30 E (a,b,c) [21]. Overall, after the samples' digestion with 6N HCl, ion exchange chromatography was employed with post-column ninhydrin derivatization and quantitation. ...
... Overall, after the samples' digestion with 6N HCl, ion exchange chromatography was employed with post-column ninhydrin derivatization and quantitation. The crude protein content was assessed using AOAC standard method, Kjeldahl [21]. Briefly, the protein content was determined by multiplying the crude nitrogen content with nitrogen-to-protein conversion factor (Kp), including 4.43 for BSF [22], 5 for cricket [23], and 6.25 for all animal sources. ...
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The use of fetal bovine serum (FBS) and the price of cell culture media are the key constraints for developing serum-free cost-effective media. This study aims to replace or reduce the typical 10% serum application in fish cell culture media by applying protein hydrolysates from insects and marine invertebrate species for the growth of Zebrafish embryonic stem cells (ESC) as the model organism. Protein hydrolysates were produced from black soldier flies (BSF), crickets, oysters , mussels, and lugworms with a high protein content, suitable functional properties, and adequate amino-acid composition, with the degree of hydrolysis from 18.24 to 33.52%. Protein hydrol-ysates at low concentrations from 0.001 to 0.1 mg/mL in combination with 1 and 2.5% serums significantly increased cell growth compared to the control groups (5 and 10% serums) (p < 0.05). All protein hydrolysates with concentrations of 1 and 10 mg/mL were found to be toxic to cells and significantly reduced cell growth and performance (p < 0.05). However, except for crickets, all the hydrolysates were able to restore or significantly increase cell growth and viability with 50% less serum at concentrations of 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 mg/mL. Although cell growth was enhanced at lower concentrations of protein hydrolysates, the cell morphology was altered due to the lack of serum. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity results indicated that BSF and lugworm hydrolysates did not alter the cell membrane. In addition, light and fluorescence imaging revealed that the cell morphological features were comparable to those of the 10% serum control group. Overall, lugworm and BSF hydrolysates reduced the serum by up to 90% while preserving excellent cell health.
... The proximate compositions of the samples were determined using the AOAC [19] method. Moisture content was obtained by drying in the oven until a constant weight was obtained at 105 °C. ...
... The method described by AOAC [19] was used for mineral analysis. The ash was digested with 3 mL of 3 M HCl and made up to the mark in a 100 mL standard flask with 0.36 M HCl before the mineral element contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Buck scientific 210 VGP, Bulk Scientific Inc., 06855 USA). ...
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The aim of the study was to determine the nutritional and functional properties of beans-maize flour samples. Flour blends were produced using 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 50:50 (maize: beans, w/w) while 100% maize served as the control. The proximate composition results were: moisture content (8.99-7.65%), crude protein (6.93-14.00%), carbohydrate (63.75-75.64%), total ash (0.97-2.62%), crude fat (6.95-11.11%) and crude fiber (0.51-0.87%). Functional properties results obtained were: water absorption capacity (1.75-1.90 g/g), oil absorption capacity (1.33-1.53 g/g), swelling capacity (1.66-1.36 mL/g), least gelation concentration (15.00-4.50%), bulk density (1.54-1.67 g/mL), foaming capacity (51.00-80.83%) and foaming stability (8.28-19.01%). The substitution of maize flour with beans had significant improvements in the mineral and amino acid compositions of the composite flours. Generally, there was an improvement in the nutritional and functional properties as the level of beans supplementation increased. It was concluded that the addition of beans flour to maize flour enhanced the nutritional and functional properties of the composite flours.
... a, b, and carotenoids in chia leaf were measured using a spectrophotometer and calculated as mg/g fresh weight. Fresh leaves were taken to determine the total free amino acids, according to [30]. A.O.A.C. [30] was used to calculate the overall indoles and overall phenols in new leaves. ...
... Fresh leaves were taken to determine the total free amino acids, according to [30]. A.O.A.C. [30] was used to calculate the overall indoles and overall phenols in new leaves. Dried chia leaves were analyzed for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and total carbohydrates using the assays described by [31][32][33], and Chaplin and Kennedy [34]. ...
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Citation: El-Desouky, H.S.; Zewail, R.M.Y.; Selim, D.A.-F.H.; Baakdah, M.M.; Johari, D.M.; Elhakem, A.; Mostafa, Y.S.; Alamri, S.; Sami, R.; El-Khayat, L.A.S.; et al. Bio-Growth Stimulants Impact Seed Yield Products and Oil Composition of Chia. Agronomy 2022, 12, 2633.
... Moisture content was determined gravimetrically using the oven-drying method at 103 • C ± 2 • C according to AOAC 2016 [36]. The assay was completed once the weight of the samples was stabilized. ...
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Active packaging based on chitosan (Ch) incorporated with six different natural hydro-alcoholic extracts (HAE) (rosemary, green tea, black tea, ginger, kenaf, and sage) were developed and tested to extend the shelf life of fresh poultry meat. The quality of the meat packaged was assessed through physical-chemical and microbiological characterization over 15 days of refrigerated storage. In vitro antimicrobial activity of pure extracts and films against Gram-positive (B. cereus) and Gram-negative (S. enterica) foodborne bacteria was also addressed. Pure extracts and the films developed showed antimicrobial activity by the diffusion agar method only against the Gram-positive bacteria. Microbial analysis of the meat wrapped with films incorporated with HAE showed a reduction of 3.1–4.5 log CFU/g and 2.5–4.0 log CFU/g on the total viable microorganisms and total coliforms, respectively. Ch + Kenaf and Ch + Sage films presented the highest antimicrobial activity. Regarding the oxidation degradation, as expected, TBARS values increased for all samples over time. However, the meat wrapped in the biocomposites, except for CH + Sage, presented lower secondary oxidation metabolites (reduction of 75–93%) in the content of malonaldehyde. This protection was superior for the meat wrapped with Ch + Rosemary. Active film also showed promising results by retarding the discoloration process and the increase of pH over time. Thus, the biocomposites produced can pose as an alternative technology to enhance the shelf life of fresh poultry meat and maintain its quality.
... Roots and tops were detached individually, rinsed, and weighed to assess foliage yield (ton ha −1 ), and root yield (ton ha −1 ). Sugar content (%) was assessed by Saccharometer on a lead basis using the technique of Delta sugar company by AOAC method A.O.A.C [65]. Sugar yield (ton ha −1 ) = root yield (ton ha −1 ) × Sugar content (%). ...
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Combined stressors (high soil salinity and saline water irrigation) severely reduce plant growth and sugar beet yield. Seed inoculation with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and/or foliar spraying with silica nanoparticles (Si-NP) is deemed one of the most promising new strategies that have the potential to inhibit abiotic stress. Herein, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) plants were treated with two PGPR (Pseudomonas koreensis MG209738 and Bacillus coagulans NCAIM B.01123) and/or Si-NP, during two successive seasons 2019/2020 and 2020/2021 to examine the vital role of PGPR, Si-NP, and their combination in improving growth characteristics, and production in sugar beet plants exposed to two watering treatments (fresh water and saline water) in salt-affected soil. The results revealed that combined stressors (high soil salinity and saline water irrigation) increased ion imbalance (K+/Na+ ratio; from 1.54 ± 0.11 to 1.00 ± 0.15) and declined the relative water content (RWC; from 86.76 ± 4.70 to 74.30 ± 3.20%), relative membrane stability index (RMSI), stomatal conductance (gs), and chlorophyll content, which negatively affected on the crop productivity. Nevertheless, the application of combined PGPR and Si-NP decreased oxidative stress indicators (hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation) and sodium ions while increasing activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD; up to 1.9-folds), catalase (CAT; up to 1.4-folds), and peroxidase (POX; up to 2.5-folds) enzymes, and potassium ions resulting in physiological processes, root yield, and sugar yield compared to non-treated controls under combined stressors (high soil salinity and saline water irrigation). It is worth mentioning that the singular application of PGPR improved root length, diameter, and yield greater than Si-NP alone and it was comparable to the combined treatment (PGPR+Si-NP). It was concluded that the combined application of PGPR and Si-NP has valuable impacts on the growth and yield of sugar beet growing under combined stressors of high soil salinity and saline water irrigation.
... A proper record of feed consumed, refusal and faeces voided by each crossbred bullock was maintained during the entire trial period. Representative samples of feed consumed, refusal and faeces were taken for proximate [12] and fibre fractions [13] analyses. ...
Article
Present experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding lucerne straw and urea treated wheat straw based TMR (Total Mixed Ration) on nutrients intake, digestibility of nutrients, rumen parameters, rumen microbial protein synthesis and enteric methane emissions in crossbred bullocks. Experiment was conducted on 15 crossbred bullocks for 50 days using Completely Randomized Design. The animals in control group (T1) were fed TMR with 70% wheat straw and 30% concentrate. The animals in experimental group T2 were fed TMR with 35% urea treated wheat straw, 35% wheat straw and 30% concentrate whereas, animals in T3 group were fed TMR with 35% lucerne straw, 35% wheat straw and 30% concentrate. The intakes of nutrients and rumen parameters were not affected by the treatments. Digestibility coefficients of crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE) and hemicellulose (HC) did not differ significantly among the groups. Similarly, digestibility coefficients of dry matter (DM) and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) did not differ significantly between T1 & T2 group, and significant reduction was reported in T3 group. Crude fibre (CF), NDF (neutral detergent fibre), ADF (acid detergent fibre) and cellulose digestibility was significantly higher in T2 group, whereas significant reduction noted in NDF, ADF and cellulose digestibility in T3 group, as compared to T1 group. Rumen microbial protein synthesis improved by 17.22% (p>0.05) in T2 group, but almost similar value was reported in T3 group, as compared to control group. Average daily methane emission in T2 and T3 group reduced significantly by 16.20% and 17.71%, as compared to T1 group. The energy loss in the form of methane (CH4) as % of gross energy intake (GEI) in T2 and T3 groups reduced numerically by 11.10% and 15.66% (p>0.05), as compared to T1 group. Hence, inclusion of urea treated wheat straw and lucerne straw in wheat straw based TMR helped in reducing enteric methane emissions in crossbred bullocks.
... The proximate compositions of diets, feces, initial and final crabs were estimated according to the method of [19] in an in vivo laboratory, Vietnam. Moisture contents of crabs and feed were determined after oven-drying to a constant weight at 105 • C. Each sample was combusted at high temperature in pure oxygen; then, the nitrogen content was measured by thermal conductivity detection and converted to equivalent protein by an appropriate numerical factor: crude protein % = % N × 6.25. ...
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Three isoenergetic diets differing in their fishmeal/soy protein concentrate (SPC) ratio were assessed on the tissue growth and energy budget of juvenile crabs Scylla serrata in postmolt stages (PMolt) and in intermolt stages (IMolt). The average growth rates on a dry matter basis were 2.064 ± 0.324% and 0.492 ± 0.08% initial BW.day−1 during PMolt and IMolt stages, respectively. The efficiencies of the feed conversion (FCE, %), protein retention (PRE, %) and energy retention (ERE, %) were similar for the three experimental diets. However, FCE, PRE and ERE in PMolt stages were four to five times higher than in IMolt stages. The feed intake, energy and protein required for growth in PMolt stages were obviously higher than in IMolt stages. The energy budgets (% total energy intake) were marginally affected by diet but were significantly affected by the molt stage. The maintenance energy was lower in PMolt stages (49.84 ± 4.9%) than in IMolt stages (83.33 ± 2.45%). The excess in maintenance energy in IMolt stages represents the portion set aside for the next molt: shell energy content (4.97 ± 0.31%) and energy for ecdysis (±28%). Conversely, recovery energy was significantly higher in PMolt stages (34.39 ± 0.99%) than in IMolt stages (8.33 ± 1.7%). In conclusion, SPC sustained good tissue growth and good feed utilization and can be used as a main source of dietary protein for crab juveniles in captivity.
... CP (method 4.2.08), ether extract (EE; method 920.85), and total ash (TA; method 923.03) [25]. Neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) were determined according to the procedures described by Van Soest et al. [26]. ...
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This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of nano copper (nano Cu) and nano zinc (nano Zn) supplementation on the biomarkers of immunity and antioxidant and health status attributes in young dairy calves. Twenty-four young cattle calves were randomly assigned into four groups (6 calves per group) on a body weight and age basis for a period of 120 days. The feeding regimen was the same in all the groups except that these were supplemented with 0.0 mg nano Cu and nano Zn (control), 10 mg nano Cu (nanoCu10), 32 mg nano Zn (nanoZn32), and a combination of nano Cu and nano Zn (nanoCu10 + nanoZn32) per kg dry matter (DM) basis in four respective groups. Supplementation of nano Cu along with nano Zn improves immune response which was evidenced from higher immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin M (IgM), immunoglobulin A (IgA), total immunoglobulin (TIg), and Zn sulphate turbidity (ZST) units and lower plasma concentrations of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and cortisol in the nanoCu10 + nanoZn32 group. There was no effect of treatment on the plasma concentrations of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Antioxidant status was also better in the nanoCu10 + nanoZn32 group as evidenced by lower concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and higher activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), ceruloplasmin (Cp), and total antioxidant status (TAS). However, treatment did not exert any effect on catalase (CAT) activity. Although the nano Cu or nano Zn supplementation, either alone or in combination, did not exert any effect on growth performance or body condition score (BCS), the frequency of diarrhoea and incidence of diarrhoea were lower, while faecal consistency score (FCS) and attitude score were better in the nanoCu10 + nanoZn32 groups. In the control group, one calf was found affected with joint illness and two calves were found affected with navel illness. During the experimental period, none of the calves in all four groups were found to be affected by pneumonia. The findings of this study revealed that dietary supplementation of nano Cu in combination with nano Zn improved the health status of young dairy calves by improving immunity and antioxidant status.
... The pork patty was cut into small pieces representing the outside (i.e., approximately 10% lower from the top side surface of the patty) and the inside of the patty (i.e., under 10% lower from the top of the patty). The Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) method of No. 950.46B was used to determine the moisture content [28]. The samples of each trial were analyzed in triplicate. ...
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Effects of the container design on the heat transfer rate and food quality during microwave heating were explored and validated with numerical simulations and experiments. The uniformity of moisture content and temperature was investigated, and to describe microwave heating patterns, a simulation model was created. Pork patties with different moisture and salt contents were heated in three different containers (center and edge-perforated lid as well as without lid) to achieve 80 °C using a domestic microwave oven. Compared to the center or mid-way positions, the temperatures at the edge of the patties rose quickly. By containing the evaporated vapor from the heated pork patties inside the container, the container with a center-perforated lid decreased the heating rate and non-uniformity in temperature and moisture content. A simplified numerical model for the electromagnetics, heat, and momentum transfer coupling simulation was developed to understand the moisture and temperature distribution of the pork patties after microwave heating. Heating uniformity and the final quality of the pork patties could be improved by a container with a center-perforated lid. The proposed model was able to describe the microwave warming process for ready-to-eat products; thus, it is a useful tool for designing microwavable ready meals.
... The weighed samples were subjected to remove moisture at 105±2 °C for 24 hours. After which it was kept inside a desiccator for cooling to ambient temperature and the change in mass (measured using electronic weighing balance) was noted (AOAC 2000) [2] . The moisture content was expressed as% (wet basis, wb) or (dry basis, db). ...
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Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) is one of the most important spice crop grown in India which is generally used for cooking as well as medicinal purposes. It is generally used as a condiment in vegetables, meat and fish preparations due to its colour and mild flavor. Turmeric has long been used as a medicine in Ayurveda and Unani systems for medicine in India. The experiment was conducted on physical properties of fresh turmeric rhizomes of "Salem" variety at Dapoli. The average moisture content of fresh turmeric rhizomes was 81.26% (wet basis). The length, width and thickness of the fresh turmeric rhizomes were determined and found to be 67.66 mm, 22.24 mm and 16.78 mm, respectively. The geometric mean and sphericity were 29.11 mm and 0.44. The average mass, volume and surface area of the fresh turmeric rhizomes was found 18.97 g, 14.26 cm 3 and 15.57 cm 2 , respectively. The average bulk density, true density and porosity were calculated as 422.87 kg/m 3 , 1142.01 kg/m 3 and 62.90%, respectively. The average of angle of repose was 26.68°. The engineering properties of fresh turmeric rhizomes are useful for design of turmeric processing equipments, handling and storage. Also it can be helpful for design of Pulverizer for preparation of turmeric powder.
... Total Solids, Crude Protein, Crude Fat, Ash, and Crude Fibre were determined according to AOAC [15]. The total carbohydrate content was determined by difference. ...
Article
The need to combat food insecurity and malnutrition has seen industries focus on enriching indigenous staple foods with locally available nutritious but underutilised food crops. Bamboo shoot (BS) is one such crops that has drawn significant global interest owing to its high nutrient content, health-promoting elements and low fat. This study aimed at evaluating the proximate composition, physicochemical, and functional properties of wheat-cassava-BS composite flours and their respective loaves of bread. Five levels of BS (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10%) were substituted for wheat-cassava using 80:20 percent wheat: cassava mixture as control. The flours were analysed for water absorption capacity, Normal Falling Number (NFN) and dough softening. Bread samples were baked from each of the formulated composite flours and analysed for nutritional composition and physical properties. Water absorption increased with an increase in BS substitution while there was a reduction of 16.8% in the normal falling number from the control. Dough softening increased with an increase in BS inclusion up to 7.5%. All the bread made from BS flour had significantly different (p < 0.05) physical properties (loaf volume, density, specific volume, and Browning Index [BI]) from the control. However, the crumb BI for all the BS composite-bread samples were not significantly (p > 0.05) different. Bamboo shoots had 16.6% ash, 19.7% fibre, 29.4% crude protein, and the lowest energy-to-protein ratio of 9.78 kcal/g. The proximate components of the blended bread increased with an increase in BS substitution. Composite bread with 10% BS had the highest total ash, crude fibre, and protein at 4.51%, 5.26%, and 26.4% compared to the control that had 0.66%, 0.88%, and 1.55%, respectively. Results of this study show that BS flour can be blended with wheat-cassava composite to increase BS utilisation and improve the nutritional value of developed products, thus providing diversification in bakery products. Key words: bamboo shoots, composite bread, cassava, physicochemical, functional properties, proximate composition
... On a dry basis, the initial moisture content of fresh WMR was determined by drying 5 g of the sample in a hot air convection oven dryer (Thermo Scientific Waltham, MA) at 105 °C for 24 h until a consistent weight was attained [16]. 1000 ± 10 g of 1.4-2.2 ...
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In this study, different drying methods namely, hot air drying (HAD: 60, 80 °C), vacuum freeze-drying (VFD: -40, − 80 °C) and vacuum-microwave drying (VMD: 160, 320 W), showed a significant effect (p < 0.05) on the drying kinetics and quality of WMR obtained from two largely cultivated watermelon cultivars. Wang and Singh and the Logarithmic model having higher R² were selected as the best-fitted thin-layer drying model to explain the drying characteristics of WMR. The quality parameter studied includes chromatic parameters, bioactive and individual phenolic compounds of dried WMR. Chromatic parameters (L*, a*, b* and ΔE) were greatly influenced by the drying temperature during HAD process. VFD preserves the original nutritional composition of both cultivars and VMD results in increased phenolic and flavonoid compounds extraction as microwave power was increased from 160 to 320 W. The best quality dried product having a high bioactive composition, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity was observed in WMR of cultivar Black chairman dried after VFD (− 40 °C) and VMD (320 W) and the lowest was observed in HAD (80 °C). The VFD, with its higher retention of bioactive compounds and coloring parameters, could be used as a substitute for HAD, whereas the VMD, with its faster drying time and higher concentration of bioactive compounds, could be used as a substitute for HAD. Graphical abstract
... The dry matter content was determined [31] by drying samples in an oven at 105 °C until a constant weight was obtained (method No. 950.46B; AOAC, 1990). ...
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementing commercial diets with rapeseed, hempseed and camelina seed cakes on the yolk and albumen colour and nutritional value of yolk lipids in Estonian quail eggs. A total of 585 eggs were used to evaluate egg weight, yolk and albumen pH and colour, proximate yolk composition, cholesterol content and fatty acid composition in the yolk lipids of three Estonian quail groups each fed a diet supplemented with 10% rapeseed, hemp or camelina seed cakes. The higher (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively) lightness (L*) of the yolk was detected in the group of quail fed the diet supplemented with rapeseed and camelina cakes compared to the hempseed addition. Meanwhile, the albumen lightness in the rapeseed group was higher (p < 0.01) in comparison to the camelina group. A lower (p < 0.001) yolk negative a* value was estimated in the hemp group than in the groups fed rapeseed and camelina seed cake supplements, while the rapeseed group demonstrated lower (p < 0.001) albumen yellowness (b*) and colour saturation (C) in comparison to the other groups. The highest and lowest proportions of total saturated (SFAs)and monounsaturated (MUFAs) fatty acids, respectively, were found in the yolk lipids of quails fed a mixture supplemented by hemp cake. A higher (p < 0.05) proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was only found in the hemp group compared to the camelina group. The highest and lowest (p < 0.001) n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios were found in the yolk lipids of quail receiving mixtures supplemented with rapeseed and camelina cakes, respectively. The yolk of the quail from the rapeseed group showed more favourable lower and higher (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively) atherogenic index (AI) and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic (h/H) ratio compared to the hemp and camelina groups. The lower yolk cholesterol content was found in the eggs of the quail fed the diet supplemented with rapeseed cake compared to the eggs of the quail which were fed the diets containing more n-3 PUFAs from the addition of hemp and camelina cakes (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively).
... Moisture content was determined by referring to the AOAC [15] method, which was then gravimetrically determined. Starch and amylose contents were determined by Luff-schoorl [16] and the direct acid hydrolysis method [17], respectively. ...
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Sago starch has weaknesses such as low thermal stability and high syneresis. Modifications were made to improve the characteristics of native sago starch. In this study, sago starch was modified by autoclave-heating treatment (AHT), osmotic-pressure treatment (OPT), octenyl-succinic anhydride modification (OSA), and citric acid cross-linking (CA). This study aimed to examine the changes in chemical composition, crystallinity, and functional properties of the native sago starch after physical and chemical modifications. The results show that physical modification caused greater granule damage than chemical modification. All modification treatments did not alter the type of crystallinity but decreased the relative crystallinity of native starch. New functional groups were formed in chemically modified starches at a wavelength of 1700–1725 cm−1. The degree of order (DO) and degree of double helix (DD) of the modified starches were also not significantly different from the native sample, except for AHT and OPT, respectively. Physical modification decreased the swelling volume, while chemical modification increased its value and is inversely proportional to solubility. AHT and OPT starches have the best freeze–thaw stability among others, indicating that both starches have the potential to be applied in frozen food.
... All analytical methods including those used for characterizing the raw water and the groundnut seed powder correspond to standard methods [43][44][45][46]. Arsenite was measured using a Spectrophotometer (A 500) and the pH was measured using Hanna pH meter. ...
Article
Arsenic has a detrimental effect on both the environment and humans. In many parts of the world, arsenic has been detected in drinking water sources above acceptable levels. Considering the fact that millions of people are at high risk of arsenic poisoning via water intake, arsenic remediation from drinking water has become a global issue of serious concern. Chemical coagulants are already being used for treatment but their enormous cost, human and environmental issues associated with their use have led to searching for alternatives like natural coagulants (plant-based). In this study, laboratory scale studies using jar test experiments were performed on synthetic arsenite contaminated groundwater to analyse the efficiency of Arachis hypogaea (groundnut seed) on the treatment of arsenic contaminated water. Experiments were carried out using synthetic arsenite contaminated borehole water with pH kept constant at 7.30. Results indicated that groundnut seed extract was able to significantly reduced arsenite in water either as primary coagulant or as coagulant aid (using alum as primary coagulant). As primary coagulant, above 90% arsenite reduction was achieved and as a coagulant aid about 99.97% arsenite reduction was achieved. The pH of the treated water was within neutral (basic) due to the buffering capacity of the seed extract. Therefore, results from this study revealed that groundnut seed has potential for use as primary coagulant or as coagulant aid (with alum as primary coagulant) for the treatment of arsenic contaminated groundwater.
... The chemical composition of tahini sesame was estimated before and after the fortification step. The tahini's carbohydrate, protein, fat, moisture, and ash contents were determined using AOAC procedures [36]. The analyses were carried out in triplicates, and the mean value per constituent was estimated. ...
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Sesame butter (tahini) is a common appetizer and food additive in the Mediterranean basin. Pathogenic strains and mycotoxin content are the most hazardous issues in the final product. This investigation aimed to enhance the quality and safety properties of tahini products against microbial hazards and mycotoxins. Local samples of tahini were evaluated for natural contamination, including mycotoxin level determinations. Agaricus blazei was utilized as a bioactive source and evaluated for the bioactive content of laccase, B-glucan, antioxidant activity, and phenolic content, as well as antimicrobial and antioxidant potency. Two fortification ratios (0.5% and 1.0%) were chosen to apply Agaricus in tahini sesame as a model. Chemical composition, color attributes, sensory properties, emulsion, and oxidative stability were evaluated for the fortified samples versus the control. The results reflected increments of protein (22.91 ± 0.64% to 29.34 ± 0.96%), fiber content (3.09 ± 0.05% to 6.27 ± 0.06%), emulsion stability (84.9 ± 1.24% to 95.41 ± 0.56%), oxidative stability, and bioactive group content. The fortification process is reflected by the absence of Salmonella, Listeria, and E. coli bacteria from contaminated samples after 30 days of storage. The water activity for 1.0% fortification (0.154 ± 0.001) was recorded as lower than the control sample (0.192 ± 0.002). Moreover, the degradation of aflatoxins and zearalenone content was recorded during storage. The degradation ratio reached 68% and 97.2% for 0.5% and 1.0% fortifications, respectively, while zearalenone degradation recorded a decline of 26.7% and 33.7%, respectively, for the same fortification ratios. These results recommended 1.0% lyophilized mushroom fortification as a quality and ameliorative safety treatment for tahini products.
... An optimum temperature is needed for the fish to maximize its growth performance [17]. In addition, the effects of temperature on diets have been revealed in the sea bream Sparus aurata and blood snapper Lutjanus malabricus [5,18]. Apart from the marine fish, the hybrid Sabah grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus × E. lanceolatus) has gained attention because it grows fast and tastes good. ...
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This study explores the gastrointestinal evacuation time (GET) and gastrointestinal evacuation rate (GER) of the popular Sabah grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus × E. lanceolatus) adults using two established methods (X-radiography and serial slaughter) and square root modeling using different temperatures: 28 °C, 30 °C, 32 °C, and 34 °C and different diets: pellet (ash: 11.4 ± 0.08; moisture: 29.0 ± 0.01; protein 37.5 ± 0.80; lipid 15.0 ± 0.13) and trash fish: Sardinella sp. (ash: 2.3 ± 0.15; moisture: 78.5 ± 0.33; protein 55.4 ± 0.62; lipid 7.3 ± 0.25) and the impact on growth indices. The results indicate that the GET shortened as temperature increased from 28 °C to 30 °C; however, it was prolonged when it surged to 32 °C and 34 °C. The groupers fed with trash fish at a temperature of 30 °C had the shortest GER (0.41 ± 0.10 g hr−1) whereas groupers fed with pellet at 34 °C had the longest GER (0.95 ± 0.02 g hr−1). Likewise, the highest SGR (16.25 ± 2.11 % day−1) was observed at 30 °C for groupers fed with a trash fish diet. The condition (K) value was lowest at 34 °C for groupers fed with a pellet diet (1.01 ± 0.04) and highest at 30 °C for groupers fed with trash fish (1.45 ± 0.04). Our results suggest that temperature and diet influence growth indices and GE of adult Sabah groupers. Incorporation of this information will allow better management of this commercially important grouper species when reared in a controlled aquaculture environment.
... Before using refractometer, it was clean and calibrated by distilled water. The percentage of TSS was revealed as the results in terms of degree Brix (°Bx) [32]. ...
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The effect of various concentration of xanthan gum (0.5%, 1%, and 2%) based edible coating supplemented with pomegranate peel extract (0.5 mL) on functional and physico-chemical properties of mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruits were studied during the storage period of 15 days at 22 °C. The application of xanthan gum (XG) based edible formulations with pomegranate peel extract (PPE) was found to be effective to maintain the quality attributes and characteristics like reducing weight loss, respiration rate, ethylene production, maintained total soluble solids (TSS), acidity, pH, texture property, ascorbic acid, phenols, and antioxidant activity as compared to control samples. In general, all tested formulations are effective; but edible coatings based on 2% of XG were found the most potential to prevent the postharvest characteristics of mango fruits while maintaining the quality attributes.
... The cooked fish were then dished out to the panellists in replicates for evaluation. The chemical analysis was carried out using the recommended standard methods (AOAC, 2005) [4] and results were compared with one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) as described by Njoku et al., (1998) [16] . The observed significant difference in mean values of treatments was then separated using the Duncan's multiple range test (Duncan, 1955) [7] employing the computer statistical package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19 window 7. fig. 2 where from observation, AMM had highest values across all parameters considered whereas FFA had the least. ...
... Phytochemicals are compounds of plants known to exhibit diverse pharmacological and biochemical effects on living organisms [27]. The qualitative phytochemical composition of the leaves Combretum plants analysed in this study revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, terpenoids, steroids, cardiac glycosides, and flavonoids ( Table 2). ...
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In this study, twelve Combretum spp. were investigated for their phytochemical content, antioxidant potential, and their proximate and trace elements/minerals composition. The qualitative phytochemical composition of the leaves, stems, and ashes of Combretum plants analysed revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, terpenoids, steroids, cardiac glycosides, and flavonoids. The following phytoconstituents were lost in the ashes; tannins apart from C. mkuzense and C. padoides; cardiac glycosides; and flavonoids. The quantitative phytochemical analyses revealed that both the leaves, stems, and some ashes such as C. apiculatum and C. vendae contained levels of phenolic compounds, tannins, and flavonoids. DPPH screening method indicated great scavenging activity with the 70% acetone leaf extracts of C. kraussii, C. zeyheriim, and C. mkuzense. There was a significant decrease in the antioxidant activity in the ashes compared to the leaves and the stems. AOAC and ICPE protocols performed the proximate and nutritional analysis of the 70% acetone extracts. The extracts had substantial amounts of ash, moisture, protein, and energy. The leaves and ashes of C. adenogonium and C. apiculatum could provide a good source of calcium in the diet. This study presents valuable information on the phytochemical composition, nutritional composition, and antioxidant properties of some Combretum species.
... The pH was determined using a Jenway 3520 digital pH meter (Jenway ® , Staffordshire, OSA, UK). The total titratable acidity was determined as described by AOAC [41], 10 mL of each fruit juice was titrated against 0.1N NaOH using phenolphthalein as an indicator. Each ml is equivalent to 90.08 mg of lactic acid, and the acid equivalent is the volume of NaOH utilized. ...
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Probiotics improve gut health; however, their intake through diet is mainly in the form of dairy products, which represents a challenge to lactose-intolerant individuals and vegetarians. This study aimed to determine the prebiotic potential of baobab and to evaluate the potential of using fermented baobab-based beverages as functional foods. The prebiotic content of baobab fruit pulp was determined. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from raw milk samples, identified through phenotypic and molecular methods, and evaluated for their probiotic potential. Three potential non-dairy synbiotic functional beverages using baobab fruit pulp fermented with potential probiotic Limosilactobacillus fermentum and mixed with milk, water, and apple juice separately were produced. The growth and survival of probiotic L. fermentum in the beverages at room (25 °C) and refrigeration (4 °C) temperatures for 3 weeks were determined. Baobab fruit pulp contained phytochemicals, vitamins, fatty acids, inulin, and fructooligosaccharides. Sequence alignment of the LAB isolates identified homologous sequences of Lacticaseibacillus casei, Limosilactobacillus fermentum, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, Lentilactobacillus buchneri, and Lactiplantibacillus pentosus with 97.2–98.5% similarity. All the lactic acid bacteria did not produce DNAse and gelatinase enzymes, exhibited antagonistic activity against test pathogenic organisms, and demonstrated tolerance to bile salt, simulated gastric juice, and acid. The viability of L. fermentum increased from an initial inoculum size of 106–108 CFU/mL in the baobab-based beverages and remained constant at 108 CFU/mL both at room and refrigeration temperatures. However, after three weeks, the viability of L. fermentum in the synbiotic beverages reduced to 107 CFU/mL. Refrigerated synbiotic beverages had more viable L. fermentum cells (8.04–8log10 CFU/mL) than those stored at room temperatures (7.95–7.7log10 CFU/mL) after three weeks of storage. This study has shown that baobab fruit pulp has prebiotic potential and can be used in the production of a non-dairy functional beverage.
... Ascorbic acid was determined by the 2, 6dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP) titration procedures based on the method of Casanas et al. (2002) [13] . Total soluble solid of garlic bulbs was determined according to AOAC (2003) [5] using hand Refractometer, and were expressed as o Brix. The area of fresh green leaves for each treatment was measured using SPAD -502 Plus. ...
Article
A field experiment was conducted during the rabi 2013 and 2014 in the Experimental Farm of Department of Horticulture, Assam Agricultural University (AAU), Jorhat to study the optimization of best planting planting date in terms of yield of nine selected germplasm/ varieties of garlic (Allium sativum L.). The growth and yield attributing characters like plant height, leaves per plant, leaf area index, bulb weight, bulb diameter, clove per bulb, 100 clove weight, bulb yield, SPAD (Soil Plant Analysis Development) value (Chlorophyll), Ascorbic Acid content and TSS (Total Suspended Solids) decreased significantly with the delay in planting time. The interactive results revealed planting of garlic cloves on 15 October recorded the highest growth parameters and yield in case of Bhima Omkar variety (11.51 t ha-1) which was at par with Ekfutia Assam (10.03 t ha-1) followed by Assam Local (9.43 t ha-1).
... After dying, they were used to determine fat content according to the Soxhlet method [16] with ethyl ether as a solvent. The content of crude protein was determined according to the Kjeldahl method with a 6.25 multiplier, and the ash content by sample mineralization at 550-600 • C [17]. The analyses were performed in duplicate. ...
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The aim of the study was to compare the chemical and fatty acid composition, colour, and sensory quality of wild and farmed pikeperch. Raw wild pikeperch had a higher moisture and ash contents, as well as pH value, but lower fat and protein contents than farmed pikeperch. In sous-vide fillets, a higher fat and a lower protein content were noted in farmed fish. Slight differences in colour attributes between farmed and wild fish affected neither chroma nor hue in raw and sous-vide fillets. Wild and farmed fish fillets prepared using sous-vide were scored similarly in the sensory assessment. Although wild fish had a more beneficial fatty acid composition demonstrated by a higher proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic, a higher fat concentration in farmed pikeperch resulted in obtaining similar or even higher concentration of these fatty acids in sous-vide fillets. Regardless of the origin of pikeperch it might be recommended as a valuable part of a daily diet.
... Eventually, the substrate nutrient composition and properties are factors determining the mushroom nutritional composition and heavy metal profile [1,8,23] . Studying the mushrooms heavy metal profile as affected by recycled substrates and its subsequent impact on human health is taking researchers interest nowadays [24] . Consequently, the present study will showcase the effect of applying nano-amino with different doses and at separate timings during the cropping cycle on the nutrient composition and heavy metals profile of oyster mushroom cultivated on a substrate containing SMS. ...
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The present study evaluated the effect of Lithovit-Amino25 on the nutrient profile and heavy metal composition of Pleurotus ostreatus. The product was tested in two doses applied at three different timings: T2: 3 g kg −1 /spawning, T3: 3 g kg −1 /after first harvest, T4: 3 g kg −1 /spawning and after first harvest, T5: 5 g kg −1 /spawning, T6: 5 g kg −1 /after first harvest, and T7: 5 g kg −1 /spawning and after first harvest. Compared to control (T1: non-treated substrate), mushrooms' fibers and carbohydrates increased in all treatments, recording the highest values in T4 (4.16%) and T3 (18.42%), respectively. Protein content was higher in mushrooms of substrates treated at spawning, with a 0.33% improvement in T5. Fat content decreased in T3, T4, T6, and T5. Total sugars decreased in mushrooms of treated substrates, and glucose was the dominant sugar in mushrooms. Fructose increased in mushrooms of T3 and T4. Calcium, iron, and potassium decreased in mushrooms of treated substrates. Sodium decreased in T3, T5, and T7, magnesium increased in T2, and phosphorus increased only in T2 and T7. Copper content of all treated mushrooms was in the standard safe limit (< 40 ppm), and it decreased in T2, T4, and T5 by around 2.5, 6.6, and 5.1 ppm, compared to control. However, zinc content increased in mushrooms of all treated substrates, and nickel and lead, increased by respective ranges of 2.8−11.88 ppm and 9.1−21 ppm, higher than the safe limits. The product presented a risk of heavy metal bioaccumulation even with a low dose. Citation: Sassine YN, Shuleva N, El Sebaaly Z. 2022. Changes in Pleurotus ostreatus nutritional value and heavy metal profile as a result of supplementation with nano-additive. Studies in Fungi 7:12 https://doi.
... Three bags of seaweed were randomly selected for nutritional analysis. Dry Matter (DM), Ether Extract (EE), Crude Protein (CP), Crude Fiber, Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), and Acid Detergent Lignin were carried out according to the methods of the AOAC, 2005 [8]. ...
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Objective: Gracilaria tenuistipitata var. Liui is a red seaweed, artificially cultivated in Nuniachara sea beach at Cox’s Bazar, primarily utilized as a human diet and nutritional supplement inBangladesh. It has specific industrial applications as well. The study sought to assess the potential for enteric methane (CH4) reduction of this seaweed from the cattle industries. Materials and Methods: To explore the diversified application of this seaweed in livestock feed industries to reduce enteric CH4 production from ruminants, a feeding trial was done at the Pranisheba research and development cattle farm, Savar, Dhaka. An ambient CH4 amount was measured with and without the application of seaweed in concentrate feed by a sensor-based Internet of Things device of the remote cowshed monitoring system. Other clinical parameters, like feeding amount, body temperature, and consistency of feces, were physically monitored. Results: After proximate analysis, the composition of total crude protein, crude fiber, and moisture of G. tenuistipitata var. Liui was 24.09%, 0.18%, and 21.31%, respectively. The quantity of total energy was 2,615 kcal/kg. Adding 1% seaweed to the cattle-concentrated diet on a dry matter basis lowered the average ambient CH4 concentration from 48.30 ± 4.45 to 41.02 ± 3.41 ppm; the differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Average body temperature, amount of daily feed intake, and consistency of feces remain unchanged. Conclusion: The results show that there is a chance that G. tenuistipitata var. Liui could be used to stop cattle from making enteric CH4.
... Soluble solid content (SSC; %) was determined in the fresh root of sugar beet using a hand refractometer according to McGinnis [65]. Moreover, the sucrose percentage was estimated according to AOAC [66]. ...
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Powdery mildew disease, caused by Erysiphe betae, is one of the most threatening diseases on sugar beet plants worldwide. It causes a great loss in the root yield, sugar percentage, and quality of produced sugar. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the susceptibility of 25 sugar beet cultivars to infection with powdery mildew disease under Egyptian conditions. Moreover, we evaluated the impacts of three eco-friendly materials, including potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3; at 5 and 10 g L−1), Moringa oleifera seed extract (25 and 50 g L−1), and the biocontrol agent, Bacillus subtilis (108 cell suspension) against E. betae in two successive seasons 2020 and 2021. Our findings showed that there were significant differences between these 25 cultivars in their susceptibility to the disease under study. Using the detached leaves technique in vitro, B. subtilis showed strong antifungal activity against E. betae. Moreover, both concentrations of KHCO3 and moringa seed extract significantly reduced the disease severity. Under field conditions, tested treatments significantly reduced the severity of powdery mildew disease and prevented E. betae from producing its conidiophores and conidia. Scanning electron microscope examination of treated leaves demonstrated the presence of the decomposition of fungal hyphae, conidiophores, conidia, and the occurrence of plasmolysis to fungal cells and spores on the surface of the leaves. Furthermore, these treatments greatly improved the percent of sucrose and soluble solids content, as well as the enzymatic activity of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. It is noteworthy that treatment with moringa seed extract gave the best results, followed by potassium bicarbonate, then B. subtilis cell suspension. Generally, it is recommended to use the substances used in this research to combat powdery mildew to minimize or prevent the use of chemical fungicides harmful to public health and the environment.
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To evaluate the grain yield and quality of ten quinoa genotypes, four simultaneous field experiments were conducted in different regions (Karaj, Shahrekord, Urmia, and Kashmar) of semi-arid condition of Iran, based on a randomized complete block design with three replications during the 2018 growing season. The results of the analysis of variance showed that there was a significant difference between genotypes in grain yield, oil content, and fatty acid composition. The results also showed that the superior genotype in Karaj in terms of grain yield was the Q26 genotype (716 kg ha⁻¹), in Shahrekord the Q26 genotype (2196 kg ha⁻¹), in Urmia the Q18 genotype (1614 kg ha⁻¹), and in Kashmar the Titicaca genotype (829 kg ha⁻¹). The highest 1000-grain weight (3.6 g) belonged to the Q31 genotype in Urmia. The lowest saponin content was observed in the Q12 genotype in Urmia. The protein content was not significantly different between the studied genotypes, but the highest and lowest levels (16.22 and 13.95 g kg⁻¹, respectively) were observed in Q12 and Q29 genotypes, respectively. The evaluated genotypes were significantly different in terms of iron content (p ≤ 0.01) and calcium (p ≤ 0.05). The maximum and minimum oil content (3.68 and 2.52, respectively) was found in the Q18 and Red Carina genotypes, respectively. Considering both quantitative and qualitative traits, the Giza1 and Q26 genotypes were superior and could be recommended for cultivation in semi-arid regions of Iran.
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Over the past few decades, there has been a rise in the demand for bioplastics worldwide, particularly polylactic acid (PLA), which is used as an alternative to petrochemical-derived plastics. However, it may take a few years for PLA to completely disappear from the natural environment. In this study, an innovative green approach to valorize PLA film-based bioplastic waste was proposed using PLA-degrading actinobacterium, Saccharothrixsp. MY1, cultured in silk wastewater as a low-cost substrate. Through the bioprocess optimization platform, the optimal medium compositions were the basal medium (0.40% (w/v) (NH4)2SO4, 0.20% (w/v) K2HPO4, 0.10% (w/v) KH2PO4, 0.05% (w/v) MgSO4·7H2O) supplemented with a half-strength silk wastewater (0.17 g protein/L) as an organic nitrogen source and 0.57% (w/v) PLA film as the sole carbon source. The optimal operating conditions were an initial pH of 6.0, a shaking speed of 200 rpm, and an inoculum size of 5.76 × 10⁹ CFU/mL (or 7.2 OD600). Under these conditions, the PLA film was completely degraded within 3 days, and silk wastewater was valorized into PLA-degrading enzymes with great PLA-degrading activity (36 U/L). The Gel-LC–MS/MS results confirmed that the PLA depolymerase was a serine protease with a molecular weight of 26–30 kDa, which plays an important role in PLA film degradation. Overall, our results demonstrate that silk wastewater offers a low-cost substrate for PLA-degrading enzyme production and may contribute significantly to the environmentally friendly and cost-effective management of bioplastic waste. Graphical Abstract
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Nutritional composition reflects the estimates of available energy in the forages. Antinutrients and antiquality factors in forages reduce utilization of nutritional components affecting livestock productivity. The forages with significant quantities of antinutritional and antiquality components may have undesirable effects on livestock such as bloating, mineral imbalances, nitrate toxicity, plant toxin poisonings from glycosides or alkaloids and neurological abnormalities when consumed in excessive amounts. Polyphenolic compounds, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, nitrates, phytic acid, and oxalates are important antinutrient compounds in the forages. The toxicity of these antinutrients depends upon their rate of degradation by ruminal microbes. Lignin, NDF, ADF, and tannins are important antiquality constituents present in forages.
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate the quality and sensory properties of cookies produced from wheat flour using avocado puree as fat substitute. Design/methodology/approach Cookies were produced from wheat flour using avocado puree as fat substitute in ratio 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, respectively. The formulation of margarine and avocado puree blends was done by using D-Optimal Mixture Design. In all, 20 samples were produced from each substitution level and analyses were done in triplicates to obtain mean values using standard methods. Means were separated by Duncan’s multiple range test, and significances were accepted at less than 5% confidence level (p < 0.05). Proximate and functional analyses were conducted on the flour samples, while cookie samples were subjected to proximate and sensory analyses. Findings The results of this study revealed that the values of loose bulk density, packed bulk density, oil absorption density, water absorption capacity, swelling power, solubility and dispersibility of the flours at p < 0.05 are 0.3–0.4 g/ml, 0.5–0.7 g/ml, 16.9%–94.0%, 39.7%–80.6%, 461.2%–618.2%, 6.0%–29.8% and 69.0%–82.8%, respectively. The moisture, protein, fat, total dietary fiber, total ash and carbohydrate contents of the cookies at p < 0.05 are 3.6%–16.7%, 6.5%–9.9%, 2.5%–19.2%, 1.7%–1.9%, 1.1%–3.0% and 65.0%–70.7%, respectively. The taste, color, crispiness, texture and overall acceptability of the cookies at p < 0.05 are 7.4–7.8, 6.9–7.5, 7.2–7.9, 7.3–7.7 and 7.4–8.3, respectively. The sensory scores showed that panelists preferred the taste, crispiness and texture of the cookies produced from wheat flour using avocado puree as fat substitute at varying proportion. The sensory characteristics of sample WF4 (100% avocado puree) were rated overall best in all the parameters tested followed by sample WF3 (75% avocado puree). Hence, this study established the possibility of producing cookies from wheat flour using avocado puree as fat substitute without a negative impact on the sensory characteristics and the consumers’ acceptability. Practical implications The cookies produced from this study are not meant for vegetarians because eggs were added in the formulations and recipes but could be valuable to ovo-vegetarians that may take food with eggs without restriction. The major challenge of this study was that avocados are very expensive in much of the world, so this is only suitable and viable where there is an excess of the fruit. Originality/value This study examined the use of avocado puree as fat substitute in cookie production. Effects of avocado puree on proximate composition and functionality of cookies produced from wheat flour were also determined. This approach was novel, and it will encourage the use of avocado for value-added in industrial food production.
Chapter
Forage quality analysis involves estimation of different components in sample. Different analytical methods are available for the evaluation of nutrient content in forages. The most practical approach is analysis of nutritional composition of forages with wet chemistry methods for direct determination of moisture, ether extract (fat), ash (mineral), nitrogen (crude protein), and fiber fractions. In the recent years the simpler and less expensive methods such as NIR and FTIR spectroscopy have made forage quality analysis cost-effective and less time consuming. The chapter elaborates the methodology for the estimation of the different nutritional components in forages.
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Mineral deficiencies generally exist widely in livestock. Ash is the inorganic residue which provides a measure of the total mineral content. Required only in trace levels, minerals are crucial for maintaining livestock health and production efficiency. The analysis for minerals in different forages would be helpful in determining the deficiency or excess before adding mineral supplements. The chapter discusses the methods for the estimation of minerals in forages.KeywordsAshMineral compositionAtomic absorption spectrophotometerFlame photometer
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Silphium integrifolium Michx. (Silflower) has been a promising subject for domestication as a perennial oilseed crop. This work was carried out to investigate the seed processing aspect of this effort. Thousand seed weight, densities, and dimension of the seeds were evaluated, seed milling to obtain enriched kernel fraction was conducted, and initial characterization of the seed protein was performed. There was wide variation in flat seed length (11.5–20.8 mm), width (4.6–11.8 mm), and thickness (0.9–1.6 mm). The thousand seed weight was 23.8 g but the tapped bulk density was only 189.6 g/L due to the presence of wing around the seed's periphery. The kernel accounted for 56.1% of the seed weight and contained 31.0% oil. A kernel‐enriched fraction with 79.6% purity was obtained by roller‐milling, sifting, and air classification. Linoleic (62.3%) and oleic (19.6%) acids were the major fatty acids in the oil. The defatted enriched kernel fraction contained 63.41% crude protein. Globulin, glutelin, albumin, and prolamin accounted for 55.6%, 19.3%, 16.4%, and 8.7% of the soluble proteins, respectively. At an extraction pH of 9, protein solubility was 62%. Maximum solubility (70%) was obtained at pH 10 while minimum solubility of 9% occurred between pH 4 and 5.5. Aside from the oil, the dehulling of silflower seeds also produced a high‐protein defatted meal, which may be used as is or as a starting material for enriching the protein further into a protein isolate.
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The present investigation was carried out at the laboratory, Department of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh during the session 2021-22 with a view to determine the effect of storage period of squash for its proximate analysis and organoleptic quality after 30 days of storage. Under this experiment, overall 11 treatment was taken T1 (Watermelon pulp 90% + Sugar beet pulp 10%+ 0.2% Citric acid + Sugar (200 g)), T2 (Watermelon pulp 80% + Sugar beet pulp 20%+ 0.2% Citric acid + Sugar (200 g)), T3 (Watermelon pulp 70% + Sugar beet pulp 30%+ 0.2% Citric acid + Sugar (200 g)), T4 (Watermelon pulp 60% + Sugar beet pulp 40%+ 0.2% Citric acid + Sugar (200 g)), T5 (Watermelon pulp 50% + Sugar beet pulp 50%+ 0.2% Citric acid + Sugar (200 g)), T6 (Watermelon pulp 40% + Sugar beet pulp 60%+ 0.2% Citric acid + Sugar (200 g)), T7 (Watermelon pulp 30% + Sugar beet pulp 70%+ 0.2% Citric acid + Sugar (200 g)), T8 (Watermelon pulp 20% + Sugar beet pulp 80%+ 0.2% Citric acid + Sugar (200 g)), T9 (Watermelon pulp 10% + Sugar beet pulp 90%+ 0.2% Citric acid + Sugar (200 g)),T10 (Watermelon pulp 100%+ 0.2% Citric acid + Sugar (200 g)), T11 (Sugar beet pulp 100%+ 0.2% Citric acid + Sugar (200 g)). On the basis of present investigation it was concluded that the Treatment T5 (Watermelon Pulp 50% + Sugar beet pulp 50%+ 0.2% Citric acid + Sugar (200 g)) was found to be the best in terms of TSS, color and appearance, overall acceptability and shelf life.
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The milk quality and characteristics of the local Gharbi sheep and autochthonous goat population were studied and compared to those of the local Maghrebi camel. Milk samples from 378 lactating animals raised in the Tunisian oasis region were obtained and processed for various physicochemical compositions (pH, density, acidity, dry matter, fat, protein, lactose, casein, ash, and casein-protein ratio), mineral concentrations (Ca, P, Na, and K), and bacteriological properties (total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB), total coliform count (TCC), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), sulfite-reducing Clostridium (CSR), yeast and molds (Y/M), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Salmonella) using standard methods. Milk from sheep breeds had a higher average of all physical parameters (pH, density, and dornic acidity) than milk from goat species. The sheep population produced milk with a similar pH to the camel population, but with a higher density and acidity content. The pH and acidity were higher in Neggas than in goat species, while density was similar in both. For chemical composition, the results showed significant heterogeneity in milk content across all species. Except for the casein-protein ratio, which favors goat species, the analysis indicates that sheep species were superior to populations of goats and camels in all chemical compositions. The present results showed considerable variation in the mineral content of milk from different species. The levels of calcium and phosphorus are higher in sheep than in goat and camel milk. Compared to small ruminants, milk from camels is the richest in Na and K. Additionally, more calcium is present in the milk of camels than that of goats. Goat milk, the lowest in Ca and Na, contains more P than camel milk and more K than sheep’s milk on average. The poorest microbial quality was that of camel milk for all bacterial counts. Based on TMAB, TCC, and E. coli counts, the microbiological quality of goat milk was higher than that of ovine milk, while ovine milk had better quality based on LAB, Y/M, and S. aureus values. For Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, there were no significant variations between the species studied. Results showed that all milk samples studied were completely free of two dangerous pathogens, Salmonella and sulfite-reducing Clostridium. The bacteriological quality of small ruminant’s milk was acceptable and met the regulatory limits set by Tunisian dairy legislation. Regarding camel milk, the microbial analysis revealed poor quality that exceeds standard criteria.
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Being a climacteric fruit, guava increases the rate of ripening after harvest which leads to perishable during storage and have a very short shelf life. An investigation was framed to determine the effect ethylene absorbent with and without carrier materials on biochemical composition of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. Allahabad Safeda during the storage period. The experiment was conducted at Department of Horticulture, Anand Agricultural University, Anand during the month of January, 2022. The treatments comprised of 10 different combinations of ethylene absorbent (KMnO4) with and without carrier materials. The experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized Design with 3 repetitions. Periodical observation was taken at initial, 3 rd , 5 th , 7 th and 9 th day after storage (DAS). The results revealed that treatment T6 [Kaolin + KMnO4 (20 g)] was recorded best in terms of quality conservation and it was at par with the treatment T3 [Talc + KMnO4 (20 g)]. Total soluble solids (TSS) and total sugar contents was found increased up to 5 th DAS in T6 and T3 but in others treatments gradually deceased from the 3 rd DAS. In case of acidity, ascorbic acid and phenol content progressively decreased after harvesting. However, significantly maximum ascorbic acid and numerically higher acidity and phenol content were maintained in T6 followed by T3. At 9 th DAS, significantly higher TSS (7.93 ºBrix), acidity (0.35 %), ascorbic acid (138.14 mg/100 g), total sugar (6.41 %), reducing sugar (3.49 %), non-reducing sugar (2.92 %) was registered under the treatment T6 while total phenol (37.22 mg/100 g) was recorded maximum in T3 which rightly reflects to the prolongation of shelf life of guava.
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Organic farming is believed to have better nutritional quality when compared to non-organic farming. The present study investigates the effect of germination and fermentation on nutritional and anti-nutritional quality of wheat and finger millet from organic (org) and non-organic (n-org) sources. Differences in nutritional composition between org and n-org were minimal in unprocessed samples, whereas, fat, protein and fiber contents were influenced upon processing. Fatty acid content varied significantly upon germination and fermentation, linoleic acid (37.06-38.78 %) was predominant in wheat. Oleic acid (34.02-35.84 %) was major in finger millet, germination resulted in increased oleic acid content (26-30%), while the rest were higher in fermented samples. Vitamin content differed significantly upon processing, higher content was observed in org samples and processing effects were similar for both grains with the exception of niacin. Processing had a significant effect on anti-nutritional factors like phytic acid, saponins and oxalic acid. Phytic acid content reduced upon germination (5-7 %) and fermentation (60-81 %). The nutritional profile of wheat and finger millet was influenced more by processing variables than by growing conditions.
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This study aimed to evaluate the bioaccumulation of heavy metals (copper, zinc, and lead) and chemical compositions (fat, protein, moisture, and ash) in the Parastromateus niger muscle of the Oman Sea in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon. An atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to determine heavy metal concentrations in fish muscle tissue. Chemical composition contents were measured using the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methods. Zinc was the most abundant heavy metal in two seasons (0.077 ± 0.005 μg/g), followed by copper (0.033 ± 0.005 μg/g) and lead (0.015 ± 0.005 μg/g). The mean concentrations of all heavy metals of muscle in pre-monsoon were higher than in post-monsoon. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Pb were lower than the maximum permissible limits (MPL) of international standards for human consumption established by FAO, FAO/WHO, WHO, and MAFF. The protein and fat content in fish muscle collected in pre-monsoon was higher than in post-monsoon. A significant difference between protein, fat, moisture, and ash values was recorded in two seasons (P < 0.05). The human health risk of heavy metals was evaluated according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standards. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of each heavy metal in two seasons was lower than the tolerable daily intake (TDI). THQ (target hazard quotient) and TTHQ (total target hazard quotient) values were lower than the threshold limit of 1.0, indicating a non-carcinogenic risk for consumers. TR (target carcinogenic risk) value for Pb was much lower than the unacceptable risk level (10-4); therefore, the consumption of muscles of Parastromateus niger did not significantly pose a human health risk.
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Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl) seed starch (KS)-based films obtained via casting were developed using glycerol and sorbitol as plasticizers. Higher purity starch was achieved using the alkaline steeping method. The starch characterization involved proximal composition, thermal, structural, morphological and antioxidant analyses in order to assess its impact on the film properties. Film performance was evaluated in water vapor permeability (WVP), microstructure, physical properties, antioxidant activity, opacity and solubility. KS exhibited a high yield (24%), amylose (33.61%) and phenolics compared to non-conventional starches, indicating appreciable antioxidant capacity. Film solubility and WVP were affected by the plasticizers. Alkaline starch film (KSF) plasticized with sorbitol was strong and rigid, little soluble and less permeable compared to KSF plasticized with glycerol. Therefore, while all KSF films appear as a potential material for active food packaging, and due to their antioxidant properties, KS presents itself as a highly promising starch source for application in films.
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This study examined the effects of unconventional feed on performance characteristics and candidate gene expression in growing pigs of 3-5months of age. A Total of forty-five (45) growing pigs were randomly allotted into five treatments consisting of whole maize (T1), brewer's dried grain (T2), cassava peel meal (T3), plantain peel meal (T4), and corn husk meal (T5), at 35% inclusion rate. Performance data were collected for 12weeks, while duodenum and liver samples were collected after the experiment for gene expression analysis. Data were analyzed in a completely randomized design. Diets significantly (p< 0.05) affected growth performance with treatment 2 recording the highest average daily weight gain of 0.21±0.02 whilecorn husk meal (T5)had the least 0.11±0.01. Feed efficiency was highest for whole maize (T1) and brewer's dried grain (T2) (0.10±0.02) and lowest for t5 (0.07±0.17). Cost-benefit analysis were significantly different (p<0.05) with t4 recording the highest gross margin. Insulin-like growth factor1 and leptin gene were differentially expressed in tissues, while no significant differences (p>0.05) existed for growth hormone gene and ryanodine receptor1 gene. The results showed commendable gross margin, however, cognizance should be taken in the quantity of brewer's dried grain fed to pigs since it increased the expression of ryanodine receptor 1 gene that leads to por-cine malignant hypertermia and pale soft exudates pork.
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