Article

Research on the relations between geothermal history and oil-gas generation in Jiudong basin

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... First, the thickness of each of our sampled sections is less than 2 km, and the strata were probably tilted substantially before reaching their maximum thickness Song, 2006]. Moreover, the Tertiary mean paleogeothermal gradient of the Jiuquan Basin was approximately 25-30°C km À1 , and the mean surface temperature was approximately 10°C [Ren et al., 2000a[Ren et al., , 2000bGao et al., 2004]. The limited thickness and paleogeothermal gradient thus suggest low burial temperatures, which coincide with the minimum AFT annealing depth of approximately 2.1 km in the Jiuquan Basin suggested by Ren et al. [2000aRen et al. [ , 2000b. ...
... Moreover, the Tertiary mean paleogeothermal gradient of the Jiuquan Basin was approximately 25-30°C km À1 , and the mean surface temperature was approximately 10°C [Ren et al., 2000a[Ren et al., , 2000bGao et al., 2004]. The limited thickness and paleogeothermal gradient thus suggest low burial temperatures, which coincide with the minimum AFT annealing depth of approximately 2.1 km in the Jiuquan Basin suggested by Ren et al. [2000aRen et al. [ , 2000b. Second, all of the detrital peak ages are similar to or older than their depositional ages. ...
Article
The India-Asia collision resulted in the Cenozoic framework of faults, ranges, and tectonic basins and the high topography of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, but how and when these features formed remains poorly understood, leading to conflicting tectonic models. However, information on the tectonic evolution of these active orogenic belts is well preserved in synorogenic basin sediments. In this study, we carefully analyze the detrital apatite fission track ages of Cenozoic synorogenic sediments from the Jiuquan Basin to decipher the entire exhumation process of the adjacent Qilian Shan throughout the Cenozoic. Our data indicate that initially rapid Cenozoic exhumation occurred in the Qilian Shan during the late Paleocene-early Eocene (~60–50 Ma), almost synchronous with the India-Asia collision. The Qilian Shan subsequently experienced long-lived exhumation that continued until at least the middle Miocene (~45–10 Ma). During this period of exhumation in the Qilian Shan, tectonic deformation occurred throughout the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. The early Cenozoic deformation in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau may have been caused by the transfer of tectonic stress from the distant India-Asia collision boundary through the complex lithospheric environment of the Tibetan Plateau. The present tectonic configuration and topography of the Qilian Shan and the northeastern Tibetan Plateau likely became established since the middle Miocene and after the long-lived deformation began in the early Cenozoic.
... "þ" means measured vitrinite reflectance (R o ) datum, and the solid line means modeled result in the right chart. 50e60 C/km (Zhao et al., 1998); the Hailaer Basin, 35e58 C/km (Liu, 1992;Chen et al., 2004;Cui et al., 2007); the Baiyinchagan sag of the Erlian Basin, 52 C/km (Liu and Zhang, 2011); the Jiuxi and Huahai Basins, 38e42 C/km (Ren et al., 1995(Ren et al., , 2000aWang et al., 1999); the Jiudong Basin, 35e42 C/km (Ren et al., 2000b;Wang and Li, 2007). So what causes the high thermal state in the Early Cretaceous of the Chagan sag? ...
Article
The Chagan sag has the greatest oil and gas exploration potential among the sags in the Yingen-Ejinaqi Basin, Inner Mongolia. To reveal the tectono-thermal evolution history of the Chagan sag, this article utilized a combination of forward and inversion methods on the basis of 7 apatite fission track and 119 vitrinite reflectance data to reconstruct the Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectono-thermal evolution history in the Chagan sag. The results show that the Chagan sag had a high geothermal gradient during the Cretaceous, and it experienced the following 4 stages of tectono-thermal evolutions: (1) a rapid geothermal gradient increase stage from the Bayingebi Formation depositional period to the Suhongtu Formation depositional period, during which the geothermal gradient increased to 46~52℃/km at the end of the Suhongtu Formation depositional period; (2) a geothermal gradient peak stage during the Yingen Formation depositional period, with maximum geothermal gradient ranged from 50 to 58℃/km; (3) a high geothermal gradient continuation stage during the Wulansuhai Formation depositional period, with maximum geothermal gradient ranged from 39 to 48℃/km; and (4) a thermal subsidence stage during the Cenozoic, during which the Chagan sag is in the uplift and erosion stage due to the Himalayan movement and the geothermal gradient gradually decreased to 31~34℃/km at the present day. Moreover, the tectono-thermal evolution was matched with the tectonic evolution and volcanic activities in the Chagan sag. During the Early Cretaceous, the intraplate rift was developed, lithosphere was thinned and multi-phase intense volcanoes were erupted in the Chagan sag, so that a large amount of energy was released to the surface from the deep crust, resulting in a high geothermal gradient during this period. In addition, the high geothermal gradient during the Cretaceous was favorable for hydrocarbon generation, corresponding to a shallow paleo-generation threshold, and the Early Cretaceous geothermal fields controlled the hydrocarbon generation of the Chagan sag. This work may provide new insights for the understanding of the oil and gas exploration potential of the Chagan sag.
... Xiagou Formation mainly develops fan deltas and lacustrine sedimentary systems. Statistics of strata thickness shows that the strata is thicker in the eastern area than the western Lou, 2005;Ren et al., 2000;Xu, 1994). ...
Article
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Yinger ((sic)) sag is the main petroleum generative sag in eastern Jiuquan ((sic)) Basin, and only the Changshaling ((sic)) oil resource has been found after 60 years prospecting. Changshaling anticline crest zone was formed above the regional uplift, and was slightly affected by over thrust during Tertiary Period. The anticline crest was identified as a structural transposition zone. Based on analysis of seismic facies, logging facies and seismic inversion technique, it has been demonstrated that anticline crest zone conducts drainage entering basin and dominates sedimentary detritus further dispersing, and the anticline crest zone controls the distribution of sand bodies and the development of sedimentary system consequently. The sequence stratigraphic patterns of multi-step fault belt in Member 3 of Xiagou ((sic)) Formation in Lower Cretaceous in the anticline crest zone is composed of the development of sedimentary facies in plan and distribution of multi-step fault belt sand bodies in spatial. This research investigates the sand-control models and sequence patterns, and finally a model of reservoirs in anticline crest zone is identified.
... "þ" means measured vitrinite reflectance (R o ) datum, and the solid line means modeled result in the right chart. 50e60 C/km (Zhao et al., 1998); the Hailaer Basin, 35e58 C/km (Liu, 1992;Chen et al., 2004;Cui et al., 2007); the Baiyinchagan sag of the Erlian Basin, 52 C/km (Liu and Zhang, 2011); the Jiuxi and Huahai Basins, 38e42 C/km (Ren et al., 1995(Ren et al., , 2000aWang et al., 1999); the Jiudong Basin, 35e42 C/km (Ren et al., 2000b;Wang and Li, 2007). So what causes the high thermal state in the Early Cretaceous of the Chagan sag? ...
... The source rocks are Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous lacustrine mudrocks (Vincent and Allen, 1999). The Lower Cretaceous strata in the Jiuxi Basin comprises three formations: the Chijinbao (K1c), Xiagou (K1g), and Zhonggou (K1z) Formations ( Fig. 2B) (Ren et al., 2000a;Wu, 1983;Yang et al., 2002). The Qingxi Sag has an area of 540 km 2 with a maximum sedimentary thickness of approximately 5000 m, and is the most important petroliferous area in the Jiuxi Basin . ...
Article
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Under the constraint of an isochronous sequence stratigraphic framework, sediment infill of the Xiagou Formation reflects the overall control of dynamic tectonic movements and episodic sedimentations in the Qingxi Sag. Structure reactivity during post-depositional processes could cause stratigraphic variations in longitudinal time and lateral space. This study documents sediment infill features and their response to the tectonic evolutions of the Qingxi Sag. The data sets include comparison of cores, well drilling, 3D seismic, inter-well correlation, wave impedance inversion profiles, original strata recovery data, sedimentary facies spatial evolution and their superimposition with paleogeomorphology.
Article
The Qilian Shan on the northeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau contains structural, sedimentary and tectonothermal records of plateau formation and growth in response to the Indian-Asian continental collision. In this study, we reveal the tectonic deformation evolution of the Qilian Shan by detrital apatite fission track (AFT) thermochronology and provenance analysis of a sedimentary section on the northern flank of the Qilian Shan based on paleocurrent measurements and detrital zircon UPb geochronology. The unannealed detrital AFT peak ages span ~154–10 Ma, and the zircon UPb ages range between ~3260 Ma and ~ 178 Ma. Detrital AFT ages showing that the initial exhumation occurs ca. 154–135 Ma and ca. 105–81 Ma and abundant ages of ca. 61–24 Ma indicate the prominent exhumation of the sedimentary provenance from the Qilian Shan at those times. Zircon UPb analysis suggests that the sediments were generally sourced from the Qilian Shan to the south, with moderate provenance changes at ~10 Ma and 5.1 Ma. These geochronological datasets imply that the Qilian Shan experienced multistage deformation during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic, i.e., late Jurassic-early Cretaceous (153.6–135.2 Ma), late Cretaceous (104.5–80.9 Ma), late Paleocene-Oligocene (61–43.1 Ma;38.2–24.6 Ma), mid-late Miocene (10 ± 4 Ma) and Pliocene (5.1–3.6 Ma). During the Cenozoic, the deformation initiated in the late Paleocene reflects the synchronous far-field response of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau margin to the Indian-Asian plate collision.
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Ying'er sag of Jiuquan Basin develops overpressure in Lower Cretaceous. The compaction and overpressure were analyzed by using pressure direct measurements, wireline log and transformation of clay minerals data. To test the analyzed origins of overpressure, pressure modeling by the fluid-flow method was performed. The results show that there are four pressure zones vertically, i.e. hydrostatic regime (<2.5 km), shallow overpressure regime (2.5-3.2 km), pressure transition regime (3.2-3.6 km) and deep overpressure regime (>3.6 km) and the overpressure decreases from south to north taking Changshaling as the dividing line. The primary cause of overpressure is disequilibrium compaction resulted from late rapid subsidence since Miocene. The observation that the rapid conversion of smectite to illite coincides with the overpressure regimes is interpreted to the direct contribution of transformation of clay minerals to overpressure. Limited by the abundance of organic matter (w(TOC)<1.5%) of overpressure zones, the hydrocarbon generation contributes little to overpressure. Different mechanical and chemical fluid-flow pressure models were performed and compared. The modeled pore pressure and porosity evolution by mechanical compaction combined with chemical compaction are consistent with the observation results and more reasonable, which suggests that disequilibrium compaction and chemical compaction are the main causes of overpressure in Ying'er sag.
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The G Basin is a typical passive rift basin in Africa which growth formed by the influence of the shear zone of Central Africa. And the southern depression is the most important petroleum generative depression of the basin. In order tofurther clarify the exploration direction, need carry out the study of thegeothermal history andhydrocarbon accumulation. Reservoir temperature shows that the current average geothermal gradient is 3.9°C/100 m, belongs to the middle geothermal field. According to the vitrinite reflectance and inclusion thermometry, restored the thermal evolution history of southern depression. The study shows that the paleogeothermal gradient of the depression was 2.4~3.77°C/100 m in Cretaceous and the paleogeothermal gradient is lower than today's. The paleotemperature recovery and thermal history modeling show that the maximum paleotemperature reached in the present day and the thermal evolution of Hydrocarbon source rocks in Lower Crataceous is mainly controled by present geothermal field. The study onhomogenization temperature of fluid inclusion shows that there were two fluid action events experienced in the southern depression of G Basin and they occurred at the early stage of Late Cretaceous(96.0~87.0 Ma)and Quaternary Period(3.0~0 Ma). The primaryhydrocarbon reservoir forming stages of Lower Cretaceous is the early stage of Late Cretaceous.
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The Jiudong Basin, situated in the triangular belt between the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and the North China Plate(NCP), is one classical rift basin, but there is controversy for the mechanism of rifting during the Early Cretaceous. Because there are obvious differences for the tectonic forces between the two tectonic belts: N-S compressive stress of TP and NW-SE extension of NCP, it is so different to truly understand which tectonic force the formation of the Jiudong Basin was controlled in during the Early Cretaceous. So this study chooses the Yinger depression of the Jiudong Basin, which is far away strong tectonic Altyn Tagh Fault(ATF) and has been studied by more geologists, to analysis the process of rifting formation using multiple methods, including mapping and correlation of 2D seismic reflection data, transition of sedimentary center, and ZTR values of sedimentary heavy minerals. All data indicate that rifting of the Yinger depression began to be active because the Jurassic normal faults were active due to the N-S extrusion of TP, the Early Cretaceous. And the formation process is divided into three stages: Initial, strong, atrophy rifting.
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The present geothermal gradient of the Huh Lake depression is 3.54°C/ 100 m, so it is a middle - temperature geothermal field. The paleogeothermal gradient reconstructed by the vitrinite reflectance, microthermometric measurements of fluid inclusions and fission-track path method was 3.7-6.5°C/100 m, which is higher than the present geothermal gradient, and the ancient subsurface temperatures are higher than the present subsurface temperatures. The reconstruction of the paleogeothermal gradient and modeling of the thermal history indicate that the maximum paleogeothermal values were reached in the Late Cretaceous and that the paleogeothermal field controlled the maturity of Lower Cretaceous hydrocarbon source rocks. Study of the relation between the thermal history and hydrocarbon shows that the formation of hydrocarbon in the Huh Lake depression mainly progressed through two stages: the late Early Cretaceous stage and stage since the Paleogene, with the late Early Cretaceous being the main stage of hydrocarbon accumulation. The intensity of hydrocarbon generation has become weak since the Paleogene with decreasing temperatures in the target strata.
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To improve resolution is the key point of spectral imaging. Adaptive optimal kernel time-frequency representation used a kernel function which can change adaptively with signal characteristics to weight the ambiguity function. The cross-components located away from the origin of the ambiguity plane are suppressed, and the auto-components centered at the origin are passed. Adaptive optimal kernel time-frequency representation decreases the impact of cross terms obviously and obtains a better time-frequency resolution than the methods as CWT and SPWVD, which is proved by the model data. Based on adaptive optimal kernel time-frequency representation, the seismic data of the target layer in Changshaling area of Ying'er Sag are processed by spectral imaging. On the basis of spectral imaging results and sedimentary environment, a prediction of favorable zones in Changshaling area was made. The result shows that this method is not only suitable for the time-frequency analysis of seismic signal and excels the traditional methods in reservoir description, but also takes an effectiveness in reservoir prediction.
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The Chagan sag has the greatest potential for oil and gas exploration among other sags in the Yin'gen-Ejinaqi basin. To reveal the Mesozoic and Cenozoic thermal history and source rock thermal evolution history in the Chagan sag, the thermal history was modeled on basis of vitrinite reflectance data of 9 wells. The modeled results show the thermal gradients increased gradually from the Early Cretaceous Bayin'gebi Formation to the end of the Yin'gen Formation, and the thermal gradients reached maximum values(50-58 °C/km) at the end of the Yingen Formation. Then the thermal gradients decreased gradually from the Late Cretaceous Wulansuhai Formation to the present day, and the thermal gradients is only 31-34 °C/km in the present day. Meanwhile, based on the above thermal gradient data, with combination of the depositional and tectonic development history and geochemical parameters of source rocks, maturation histories of 3 sets of source rocks of 9 wells were modeled. The modeled results show the maturation histories were controlled by the palaeogeothermal, and the maturation of 3 sets of source rocks reached maximum values in the late period of the Early Cretaceous.
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The Hulunhu Depression with thick deposits and well-developed strata is an important replacement exploration area in the Hailaer Basin. The Nantun Formation is its primary hydrocarbon source rock and the Tongbomiao and Damoguaihe Fms are the secondary source rocks. These source rocks have supreme oil-generating conditions, but no systematic study has been performed on its geothermal evolutionary history so far. The present geothermal gradient is 30.7 ℃/km in the Hulunhu Depression, belonging to the moderate temperature field. The average paleogeothermal gradient recovered by the vitrinite reflectance, homogenization temperature of fluid inclusions and apatite fission track method is about 42-56 ℃/km, obviously higher than the present geothermal gradient. That is to say, the paleogeotemperature is higher than the present geotemperature. The paleogeotemperature reconstruction and geothermal history simulation showed that the Hulunhu Depression reached the maximum paleogeotemperature in the Late Yimin period (90 Ma), and entered a cooling process since the Paleogene and Neogene. The maturity of the Lower Cretaceous hydrocarbon source rocks was mainly controlled by the paleogeothermal field. The results from the studies of the paleogeothermal evolutionary history and the authigenic illite dating of reservoirs showed that the Late Yimin period was a very important stage for hydrocarbon accumulation in the Hulunhu Depression. In this period, the depression uplifted and got denudated, the temperature of strata reduced, the burial depth of source rocks decreased, and the intensity of hydrocarbon generation weakened. ©, 2015, Oil and Gas Geology Editorial Board. All right reserved.
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