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Flow Theory and Research

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Abstract

This chapter describes flow, the experience of complete absorption in the present moment, and the experiential approach to positive psychology that it represents. We summarize the model of optimal experience and development that is associated with the concept of flow, and describe several ways of measuring flow, giving particular attention to the experience sampling method. We review some of the recent research concerning the outcomes and dynamics of flow, its conditions at school and work, and interventions that have been employed to foster flow. Finally, we identify some of the promising directions for flow research moving into the future.

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... It can occur in any area of life (Csíkszentmihályi, 1990; Moneta and Csíkszentmihályi, 1996) and is related to the satisfaction derived from performing various activities. Dealing with the challenge was made real through a series of goals, receiving continuous feedback on progress and modifying actions based on this information (Nakamura and Csíkszentmihályi, 2009). ...
... Currently, researchers are continuing to search and construct testing of measurement tools most relevant to flow measurement. These include: The Flow Questionnaire (Nakamura and Csíkszentmihályi, 2009;Moneta, 2012), Experience Sampling Method (ESM) (Nakamura and Csíkszentmihályi, 2009;Moneta, 2012;Csíkszentmihályi and Larson, 2014), Flow State Scale-2 (FSS-2), Dispositional Flow Scale-2 (DFS-2) (Jackson and Eklund, 2002;Moneta, 2012), Flow Short Scale (Delle Fave et al., 2011b;Engeser, 2012), Flow Scale Mayersa (Nakamura and Csíkszentmihályi, 2009) Dispositional Flow Scale-2, Flow State Scale-2 ...
... Currently, researchers are continuing to search and construct testing of measurement tools most relevant to flow measurement. These include: The Flow Questionnaire (Nakamura and Csíkszentmihályi, 2009;Moneta, 2012), Experience Sampling Method (ESM) (Nakamura and Csíkszentmihályi, 2009;Moneta, 2012;Csíkszentmihályi and Larson, 2014), Flow State Scale-2 (FSS-2), Dispositional Flow Scale-2 (DFS-2) (Jackson and Eklund, 2002;Moneta, 2012), Flow Short Scale (Delle Fave et al., 2011b;Engeser, 2012), Flow Scale Mayersa (Nakamura and Csíkszentmihályi, 2009) Dispositional Flow Scale-2, Flow State Scale-2 ...
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The aim of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Polish version of the Dispositional Flow Scale-2 (DFS-2) and Flow State Scale-2 (FSS-2), for use with Polish adults and young adults. Currently, there are no tools that would allow us to study flow among Polish speakers. At the same time, due to the great interest in flow and its potential importance for effectiveness, cooperation, and learning, it is worth ensuring that reliable validated measurement questionnaires are available for people studying the Polish population. Study participants completed 856 questionnaires, of which 496 individuals (with an average age of 36.31 years) participated in the DFS-2 study and 360 individuals (with an average age of 33.46 years) participated in the FSS-2 study. The maximum likelihood estimator (MLR) was selected for the CFA analysis. Model fit was assessed using: χ2, comparative fit index (CFI), Tucker-Lewis index (TLI), and standardized root mean square of residuals (SRMR), and root mean square of approximation error (RMSEA). For both questionnaires, formative first-level models with nine factors and second-level models with nine factors loaded on a higher-order flow factor were compared using the Satorra-Bentler Scaled difference χ2 test. The ω coefficient was used to estimate the reliability of the FFS-2 and DFS-2 models tested in the CFA method. Confirmatory factor analysis of both DFS-2 structural models showed satisfactory model fit. Most of the fit indices for the hierarchical 2nd order FSS-2 model presented satisfactory values, except for SRMR. Both DFS-2 and FSS-2 factors tested in the analysis showed good reliability (ω ≥ 0.7). Our findings confirmed the reliability and validity of the Polish versions of DFS-2 and FSS-2 scales. The scales are reliable when applied to Polish adults and young adults.
... According to self-determination theory, intrinsic motivation leads to engagement [63], and the self-system model suggests that engagement is the main mediator between intrinsic motivation and academic performance [64]. A particular kind of intrinsic motivation is called 'flow' and is characterized by an intense and focused concentration on the present moment, merging of action and awareness, loss of reflective self-consciousness, a sense of control of one's actions, and distortion of temporal experience [65]. The concept of flow has caught the interest of practitioners focused on the fostering of positive experiences, such as teachers in formal schooling, according to Nakamura and Csikszentmihalyi [65]. ...
... A particular kind of intrinsic motivation is called 'flow' and is characterized by an intense and focused concentration on the present moment, merging of action and awareness, loss of reflective self-consciousness, a sense of control of one's actions, and distortion of temporal experience [65]. The concept of flow has caught the interest of practitioners focused on the fostering of positive experiences, such as teachers in formal schooling, according to Nakamura and Csikszentmihalyi [65]. ...
... Strong positive experiences are essential to compensate for their history of failure and low self-esteem [66,67]. However, keeping up a feeling of flow is demanding due to the fragile balance between keeping the challenge interesting and rewarding without exceeding the person's skills [65]. The importance of this fragile balance became evident, in the re-enrollment project, when staff tried to rekindle the inner motivation and educationrelated goals of the participants. ...
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When students drop out of high school, this is often negative for their development as well as for society, as those who drop out have an increased risk of unemployment, health problems, and social problems. The aim of the present study was to synthesize knowledge regarding processes related to school dropout in general and school re-enrollment in particular. We performed a narrative review of the literature, focusing on Norwegian and Nordic studies, but we also included studies from other countries when relevant. We discussed the findings in relation to attachment theory and our own research on the topic. As a result, we identified five main challenges to upholding education- related goals in long-term dropout processes: lack of relatedness, overchallenged self-regulation capacity, compensating for a history of failure, wounded learner identities, and coping with prolonged stress. In conclusion, the identified challenges converged on the importance of belonging and social support. The prerequisite for addressing the challenges seemed to be the establishment of a trustful relationship between the students who have dropped out and at least one teacher, and preferably also with other supportive adults. These relationships may provide sufficient social support and aid the students’ motivation to complete school.
... However, it tends to assume certain elements as enjoyable (e.g., challenge, persistence, flow), while it is not entirely clear whether players actually perceived it as enjoyable or fun. For instance, challenges that exceed players' skill thresholds can be detrimental to enjoyment (Nakamura &Csikszentmihalyi, 2009), andShen et al. (2009) noted that despite the tendency to assume that gameplay is to provide enjoyment for players, many serious games are not actually perceived to be enjoyable by players. ...
... However, it tends to assume certain elements as enjoyable (e.g., challenge, persistence, flow), while it is not entirely clear whether players actually perceived it as enjoyable or fun. For instance, challenges that exceed players' skill thresholds can be detrimental to enjoyment (Nakamura &Csikszentmihalyi, 2009), andShen et al. (2009) noted that despite the tendency to assume that gameplay is to provide enjoyment for players, many serious games are not actually perceived to be enjoyable by players. ...
... The experience of flow can improve the quality of participation [6] and make public behavior more meaningful [7][8][9]. The theory of flow has been widely used in "experiential" industries [10], extending to education flow [11], and group flow [12]. Novak has suggested nine factors that create a positive result and cause flow: skill, control, challenge, arousal, telepresence, time distortion and exploratory behavior, focused attention, involvement, and interactivity [13]. ...
... Chinese experts have divided these factors into three categories: condition, experience, and result factors [10]. Many studies have shown that the condition of the flow is related to positive results [11,12,15], and products designed based on the theory of flow can create a better user experience and yield the best educational guidance effect [16,17]. ...
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Being responsible for ensuring nature preservation, environmental interpretation raises peo�ple’s awareness of nature preservation as a form of public service, and enhance their environmentally responsible behavior. Based on the flow theory, this study proposes a conceptual model of environ�mental interpretation impacts on visit motivation, ecological experience, environmental attitudes, and environmental behaviors. Selecting the users (visitors) of environmental interpretation at Potatso National Park in Shangri-La, Yunnan Province, China, we obtained 568 valid questionnaires and used Amos software to analyze a structural equation model to verify the model. The results indicate that the environmental interpretation plays a significant role in enriching the public’s ecological experience, which is an intermediary variable in which visiting motivation influences environmental attitudes and guides environmentally responsible behavior. The research suggests that national parks should strengthen the environmental interpretation facilities experiential and available, and adjust the configuration of the existing interpretation media in the three-dimensional structure of theme, space, and time, considering the motivation of the public visits, enriching ecological experience, and inspiring service details.
... Research has identified the different components involved in Flow. These components are usually conceptualized as those elements that phenomenologically configure FS and the factors that are considered to be the conditions for that FS to occur (Nakamura and Csikszentmihalyi, 2009). With regard to these previous conditions, the following have been noted: (1) There is a balance between the skills and the challenge to be faced (balance). ...
... Chirico et al., 2015;Tan and Sin, 2021), more and more studies are being found in the field of music education and/or related to musical performance (Custodero, 2002(Custodero, , 2005Fritz and Avsec, 2007;Sinnamon et al., 2012;Marin and Bhattacharya, 2013;Wrigley and Emmerson, 2013;Iusca, 2015;Cohen and Bodner, 2019a,b;Moral-Bofill et al., 2020b). In educational and training contexts, it is considered a source of motivation that can promote learning and the development of skills over time (Nakamura and Csikszentmihalyi, 2009). In the field of music, it has been considered a rewarding and motivating experience that promotes the desire to continue doing the activity that is being carried out (Custodero, 2002(Custodero, , 2005. ...
Thesis
La interpretación musical es una actividad compleja a nivel motor, cognitivo y emocional que depende de una variedad de factores, no solo relacionados con la competencia musical. Los estados psicológicos pueden influir en el nivel de competencia artística, ya que pueden facilitar o impedir que los músicos intérpretes muestren su verdadero potencial musical. El desarrollo de habilidades de autorregulación dirigidas a suscitar la respuesta de Fluidez puede contribuir a mejorar la calidad de su experiencia durante la interpretación, aumentar la motivación intrínseca, y facilitar el compromiso con la actividad durante largos períodos de tiempo (importante para los logros creativos y artísticos). En las enseñanzas musicales parece fundamental el desarrollo de habilidades psicológicas que preparen adecuadamente a los músicos y estudiantes de música a afrontar los estresores específicos vinculados a las demandas de sus estudios y de su futura profesión. Pero, más allá de los beneficios específicos en la actividad profesional, el entrenamiento en habilidades psicológicas de autorregulación podría influir en su salud y bienestar general. La teoría de la Fluidez se enmarca en la corriente de la Psicología Positiva, cuyo cuerpo de conocimiento ha ido en aumento desde el inicio del S. XXI. Desde esta corriente, la investigación científica se ha dirigido a comprender y construir aquellos factores que permiten que las personas, las comunidades y las sociedades prosperen. Los resultados del creciente número de investigaciones que han estudiado los efectos de aplicar la Psicología Positiva en diferentes ámbitos, muestran que la Psicología Positiva tiene una amplia base de evidencia que respalda su eficacia. Específicamente, la investigación sobre la experiencia de Fluidez ha aumentado durante los últimos años. La Fluidez “es un estado gratificante de profunda implicación y absorción que las personas experimentan cuando afrontan una actividad desafiante y perciben habilidades adecuadas para involucrarse” (EFRN, 2014)1. El fenómeno fue descrito por Csikszentmihalyi (1975)2 para explicar por qué las personas realizan actividades sin más motivo que la actividad en sí misma, sin recompensas extrínsecas, y, además, persisten en esas actividades. La experiencia de Fluidez es una experiencia reconocida como una realidad fenomenológica por personas de todas las edades, género, estatus socioeconómico y muy diversas culturas; y se considera como un estado positivo de conciencia por todas ellas. La evidencia que se ha obtenido a través de décadas de investigación ha mostrado que la experiencia de Fluidez, entendida como una experiencia óptima, sucede cuando los desafíos que una persona afronta, así como las habilidades que tiene para involucrarse están en equilibrio y a partir de un cierto nivel (superior a lo que uno realiza de forma más cotidiana en la vida diaria). Aunque estas relaciones están en parte moderadas por otros factores, tanto situacionales, como personales. La evidencia empírica también muestra que la Fluidez se asocia al afecto positivo. Cuando las personas experimentan Fluidez en una situación, también tienden a ser felices después. En el contexto de actividades que ofrecen desafíos óptimos para las habilidades que posee una persona, es un estado que se ha asociado de forma positiva con el rendimiento. En parte, porque el estado de Fluidez, como estado intrínsecamente gratificante, conduciría a un mayor compromiso con la actividad a lo largo del tiempo. En el ámbito de la música, existe una acumulación creciente de trabajos de investigación que han estudiado la Fluidez desde diferentes perspectivas. En el contexto de la interpretación musical, uno de los temas de mayor interés está relacionado con la contribución de la experiencia de Fluidez a la mejora de los síntomas de la Ansiedad Escénica Musical y a la mejora del rendimiento o calidad interpretativa. Para poder evaluar el estado de Fluidez en personas que interpretan música, pero también, para poder evaluar la eficacia de intervenciones dirigidas a desencadenar la respuesta de Fluidez, es necesario contar con un instrumento de medida del estado de Fluidez, validado en una muestra representativa de músicos intérpretes del Estado Español. El hilo conductor de la presente tesis ha sido la medición del estado de Fluidez en el contexto de la música. En primer lugar, se realizó la adaptación al español y la validación del instrumento de medida del estado de Fluidez, cuyas propiedades psicométricas se analizaron con una amplia muestra de 486 músicos del Estado Español que tenían una relación consolidada con la actividad musical (tanto estudiantes, profesionales, como aficionados). En segundo lugar, se utilizó el instrumento para evaluar el estado de Fluidez en personas con Altas Capacidades Intelectuales cuando interpretan música. Este estudio se realizó como un estudio piloto, dado que no existe en la literatura un trabajo previo en el que se haya medido el estado de Fluidez en estas personas. En tercer lugar, se utilizó el instrumento para evaluar un programa de intervención específico de entrenamiento de habilidades de autorregulación psicológica diseñado para músicos intérpretes. El objetivo principal fue desencadenar la respuesta de Fluidez y el afrontamiento de la Ansiedad Escénica Musical durante la interpretación. De los resultados obtenidos en los tres estudios se puede concluir, en primer lugar, que se dispone de una herramienta validada para evaluar el estado de Fluidez en músicos intérpretes. La validación de este instrumento puede tener implicaciones clínicas y educativas, ya que el uso del cuestionario permite identificar aspectos importantes de lo que facilita o inhibe una actuación musical o del mismo aprendizaje. También puede utilizarse para futuras investigaciones donde se desee medir la variable estado de Fluidez. En segundo lugar, los resultados del segundo estudio sugieren una relación entre las personas con altas capacidades, la experiencia de Fluidez, concretamente en la experiencia de la pérdida de la autoconciencia, y aspectos de la personalidad creativa. Los resultados también sugieren que las personas con altas capacidades podrían controlar mejor su atención, disfrutar más durante el aprendizaje y, por tanto, aprender mejor. Para finalizar, los resultados del programa de intervención mostraron que los músicos intérpretes que participaron en el programa aumentaron los niveles del estado de Fluidez y disminuyeron los niveles de Ansiedad Escénica Musical de forma estadísticamente significativa. Ello sugiere que los programas que contemplen en su diseño una combinación de todas las técnicas y métodos que se utilizaron en el programa y que provienen de la Psicología científica podrían ser útiles para tratar la problemática de la Ansiedad Escénica Musical o prevenirla; y, además, podrían facilitar el estado de Fluidez, un mayor disfrute durante la interpretación y potencialmente una mejor calidad interpretativa. Se exponen las limitaciones y se señalan direcciones futuras de investigación. 1 EFRN, 2014: Red Europea de Investigadores de Fluidez (European Flow-Researchers’ Network) 2 Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975). Beyond boredom and anxiety. Jossey-bass.
... Research has identified the different components involved in Flow. These components are usually conceptualized as those elements that phenomenologically configure FS and the factors that are considered to be the conditions for that FS to occur (Nakamura and Csikszentmihalyi, 2009). With regard to these previous conditions, the following have been noted: (1) There is a balance between the skills and the challenge to be faced (balance). ...
... Chirico et al., 2015;Tan and Sin, 2021), more and more studies are being found in the field of music education and/or related to musical performance (Custodero, 2002(Custodero, , 2005Fritz and Avsec, 2007;Sinnamon et al., 2012;Fullagar et al., 2013;Marin and Bhattacharya, 2013;Wrigley and Emmerson, 2013;Iusca, 2015;Cohen and Bodner, 2019a,b;Moral-Bofill et al., 2020b). In educational and training contexts, it is considered a source of motivation that can promote learning and the development of skills over time (Nakamura and Csikszentmihalyi, 2009). In the field of music, it has been considered a rewarding and motivating experience that promotes the desire to continue doing the activity that is being carried out (Custodero, 2002(Custodero, , 2005. ...
Article
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Positive Psychology has turned its attention to the study of emotions in a scientific and rigorous way. Particularly, to how emotions influence people’s health, performance, or their overall life satisfaction. Within this trend, Flow theory has established a theoretical framework that helps to promote the Flow experience. Flow state, or optimal experience, is a mental state of high concentration and enjoyment that, due to its characteristics, has been considered desirable for the development of the performing activity of performing musicians. Musicians are a population prone to health problems, both psychological and physical, owing to different stressors of their training and professional activity. One of the most common problems is Musical Performance Anxiety. In this investigation, an electronic intervention program was carried out for the development of psychological self-regulation skills whose main objective was to trigger the Flow response in performing musicians and the coping mechanism for Musical Performance Anxiety. A quasi-experimental design was used with a control group in which pre- and post-measures of Flow State, Musical Performance Anxiety and, also, Social Skills were taken. Sixty-two performing musicians from different music colleges in Spain participated in the program. Results indicated that the intervention significantly improved Flow State (t = –2.41, p = 0.02, d = 0.36), and Sense of Control (t = –2.48, p = 0.02, d = 0.47), and decreased Music Performance Anxiety (t = 2.64, p = 0.01, d = 0.24), and self-consciousness (t = –3.66, p = 0.00, d = 0.70) of the participants in the EG but not CG. The changes in the EG after the program showed the inverse relationship between Flow and Anxiety. Two important theoretical factors of both variables (especially in situations of performance and public exposure), such as worry and the feeling of lack of control, could be involved. The results are under discussion and future lines of research are proposed.
... More specifically, one facet of intrinsic motivation that could be affected by learners' achievement motives is the feeling of flow. The feeling of flow refers to the immersion and focused concentration experienced by learners during an activity for overviews see; Engeser, 2012;Nakamura & Csikszentmihalyi, 2009) and has been found to be linked to achievement motives (e.g., Engeser & Rheinberg, 2008; and performance (e.g., for an overview see Landhäußer & Keller, 2012). Investigating the connection of intrinsic motivation (here: the feeling of flow) to both achievement motives and learning outcomes in quizzing could be a first step towards understanding how the appeal of quizzing helps influence learning outcomes and thus to create a more comprehensive picture of the underlying mechanisms of quizzing effects. 1 ...
... However, our data provide one clue concerning the variable feeling of flow. Flow is a highly energised motivational state during which learners experience immersion in the task at hand and highly focussed concentration for overviews see; Engeser, 2012;Nakamura & Csikszentmihalyi, 2009). There is evidence that flow is linked to both achievement motives 132 (e.g., Engeser & Rheinberg, 2008; and performance for an overview see Landhäuser & Keller, 2012). ...
... Considering the above participants' experiences, two additional aspects of their flow state are reflected that indicate even more clearly their emotional energy in dramatic play: the sense that time passes faster than normal, and that one can control their own actions (Nakamura & Csikszentmihalyi, 2009). This esoteric aspect of flow suggests that dramatic play can concurrently cause a physical, emotional and intellectual activation, which is a requisite for flow. ...
... This esoteric aspect of flow suggests that dramatic play can concurrently cause a physical, emotional and intellectual activation, which is a requisite for flow. Nakamura and Csikszentmihalyi (2009) verify this, by asserting that when a person undergoes flow, their '[t]houghts, feelings, wishes, and action are in harmony ' (p. 197). ...
Article
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This study investigates the nature of playfulness as a personal virtuous disposition influential to the practice and growth of virtues. It is conducted within the playful space of dramatic play, in the context of the drama course of a teacher preparation programme. It combines two qualitative approaches, a single case study and a narrative inquiry. A small group of student primary teachers participated in the data collection process that rested both on direct and indirect narrative text-based methods: reflective diaries, the teacher’s journal, a semi-structured interview and photographs of the course’s workshops. The findings overall demonstrate that a nexus of internal and external conditions of the participants’ embodiment of dramatic play in synergy with their flow experiences encouraged the constitution of their playfulness as a virtuous disposition. In this aretaic space of their playfulness, they grew three virtues: parrhesia, friendship and self-knowledge.
... Considering the peculiarities of social media sites (i.e., interactivity, instant feedback, and information richness), individuals must perceive a balance between available capabilities and task challenges and must receive immediate feedback [44,106,[133][134][135][136]. In this process, social media users concentrate solely on the task at hand and act with deep, effortless, and total involvement [44,51,137]. Being an enjoyable experience [106,138], they perceive a sense of control over their activities [44,51,106], and become immersed in the activity due to self emerges with action [44,51,106,[139][140][141]. ...
Article
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Social media has triggered an increase in fake news spread about different aspects of modern lives, society, politics, societal changes, etc., and has also affected companies' reputation and brands' trust. Therefore, this paper is aimed at investigating why social media users share fake news about environmentally friendly brands. To examine social media users' behavior towards environmentally friendly brands, a theoretical research model proposed and analyzed using structural equations modeling in SmartPLS on a convenience sample consisting of 922 questionnaires. Data was collected by means of a quantitative-based approach via a survey conducted among social media users from an emerging market. The results show that social media flow has a mediated impact on sharing fake news about environmentally friendly brands on social media. Considering the critical consequences of fake news, the paper argues that understanding the dissemination process of this type of bogus content on social media platforms has important theoretical and managerial implications. Understanding the psychological mechanisms that influence people's behavior in sharing fake news about environmentally friendly brands on social networking sites (SNS) could help in better understanding the factors and the effects of this phenomenon. The originality of this research consists of proposing flow theory from positive psychology to be used as a theoretical framework to explain users' behavior of sharing fake news about environmentally friendly brands on social media.
... Vygotsky's definition was characterized by providing students with a task that challenges an individual while falling just beyond that same individual's skill level in the activity (1978). The "zone of proximal development" is generally based on the model of "flow" or optimal learning experiences with assumptions that: (1) there is a balance between perceived skills and perceived task demands; (2) there are clear proximal goals; and (3) there is immediate feedback associated with the task (Nakamura & Csikszentmihalyi, 2009). ...
... Considera-se que, nesse instante, a diminuição do habitual estado de vigília promove o aparecimento de um outro estado ainda de vigília, mais profundo, ampliado e mais subtil. [45][46][47] São esses momentos criativos a unidade base do insight, da descoberta de novos significados, da transformação da personalidade ou de acessos a autoconsciência. Estes correlacionam-se diretamente com alterações da estrutura molecular de proteínas no cérebro, associadas à criação de novas ligações celulares, memória e aprendizagem. ...
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Introduction: Recently, neuropsychiatry has focused almost exclusively on the correction of pathophysiological changes, inevitably neglecting certain psychosomatic factors of chronic diseases in the community. It is thus necessary to develop and apply mental health that uses a more comprehensive approach in the treatment of disabling diseases and in primary health care. Aim: This study aims to review the effect of self-awareness and awareness of morbidity, as described subjectively by patients during psychotherapeutic interventions or by healthy adults in meditative practices. Materials and Methods: To assess the effect described, a conceptual analysis is proposed as a method. Reviewing the current literature on the «state of the art” of brain dynamics and the psychoneuroimmunological axis, the correlation between the patient’s subjective experience and affective and cognitive neuroscience was tested. As a research hypothesis, it was intended to highlight the scientific paradigms used to study the effect described above. Results: The current limitation on the integration of psychotherapeutic approaches in understanding well-being and mental health prevention is presented, as well as the need for its implementation in general and family medicine and in the community psychiatry. Self-awareness and awareness of morbidity promotes physical and mental well-being and contributes to the development of non-pathological emotional traits. Classical psychotherapy, as well as meditation, allows the individual to access his internal representations, providing the mental space necessary to work on affections and cognitions. The clinical access to these internal representations is important not only in the treatment of disabling diseases, but also indispensable in primary health care. Conclusion: The physician, by promoting the physical and mental health of the individual, his family and the community, has a predominant role in the adhesion to the assumptions of good clinical practices. The research hypothesis defended by this conceptual analysis presents ground for the debate of a community medicine more focused on inducing policies for mental wellbeing, for self-awareness and for morbidity awareness. These mental health policies in the community are currently considered to be objectives of the general and family medicine health program, namely the person-centered approach, which aims at training and empowering the patient or healthy individual as the prime agent responsible for his own health.
... Zanos je ena od mogočih poti do sreče, saj je globoka zatopljenost v neko dejavnost lahko izredno prijetna ali jo vsaj naknadno ocenjujejo kot prijetno (Nakamura in Csikszentmihalyi, 2009;Peterson idr., 2007), zato je pričakovana njegova povezanost s hedonskimi vidiki blagostanja. Različne študije so podprle povezanost zanosa s pozitivnimi čustvi takoj po doživljanju zanosa (npr. ...
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V monografiji avtorice predstavljajo ugotovitve več raziskav, ki so jih izvedle v zadnjih desetih letih, in jih umestijo na področje pozitivne psihologije, ki se je kot znanstvena disciplina uveljavila po letu 2000. Kot teoretični okvir v prvem poglavju predstavijo raziskave laičnega pojmovanja sreče in teoretične modele subjektivnega blagostanja. Poudarek na znanstveni ustreznosti merskih instrumentov v pozitivni psihologiji je spodbudil interes za konstrukt subjektivnega blagostanja tudi na drugih področjih psihologije.
... Novelty-seeking was suggested to energize approach behavior via curiosity and exploration that leads to skill mastery, information attainment, or learning (Kaplan & Oudeyer, 2007). Interest and enjoyment in an activity might boost intrinsic motivation by engendering 'flow', a prolonged state of focus and enjoyment during task engagement that stretches one's skillset (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975;Nakamura & Csikszentmihalyi, 2009). Finally, self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1980) proposed that human needs for competence, achievement, and autonomy drive intrinsic motivation, aligning with observations that intrinsic motivation stems from an internal perceived autonomy during task engagement (DeCharms, 1968;Lamal, 2003). ...
Article
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Motivational processes underlie behaviors that enrich the human experience, and impairments in motivation are commonly observed in psychiatric illness. While motivated behavior is often examined with respect to extrinsic reinforcers, not all actions are driven by reactions to external stimuli; some are driven by ‘intrinsic’ motivation. Intrinsically motivated behaviors are computationally similar to extrinsically motivated behaviors, in that they strive to maximize reward value and minimize punishment. However, our understanding of the neurocognitive mechanisms that underlie intrinsically motivated behavior remains limited. Dysfunction in intrinsic motivation represents an important trans-diagnostic facet of psychiatric symptomology, but due to a lack of clear consensus, the contribution of intrinsic motivation to psychopathology remains poorly understood. This review aims to provide an overview of the conceptualization, measurement, and neurobiology of intrinsic motivation, providing a framework for understanding its potential contributions to psychopathology and its treatment. Distinctions between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are discussed, including divergence in the types of associated rewards or outcomes that drive behavioral action and choice. A useful framework for understanding intrinsic motivation, and thus separating it from extrinsic motivation, is developed and suggestions for optimization of paradigms to measure intrinsic motivation are proposed.
... Third, there may have been mismatches between mission difficulty and student level. According to Nakamura et al. [26], if the task difficulty does not match with the user level, the users feel burdened by the task and may easily give up. Learners may give up on learning because their ability does not correspond to the difficulty level of the mission or game. ...
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This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of learning gamification in developing sustainable educational environments. To this end, gamified class data were analyzed to identify students’ learning performance patterns. The study sample comprised 369 data points collected across four point domains: Activity, Game, Project, and Exam Points, which students obtained in their gamified college courses conducted between 2016 and 2019. A K-means data clustering algorithm and silhouette analysis were utilized to evaluate student performances and determine differential learning styles in gamified environments. Cluster analysis revealed three types of learning patterns centered on performance, mastery, and avoidance. Based on our findings, we propose suggestions regarding class design for instructors considering using gamification strategies to support a sustainable educational environment. We also highlight the scope for future research in both in-person and online gamified learning.
... Engagement in video games is notion linked to many others as immersion [3] and the flow state which is a state where the player is neither bored nor frustrated while playing a game [4]. Calleja (2010) states that games are engaging by their own nature as they are a great way for users to escape from the reality. ...
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The last few decades serious games, a genre that does not have entertainment, enjoyment, or fun as its primary purpose, have emerged to be a great way to educate, especially since more and more people are familiar with playing games and are fond of them. The purpose of our study was to create a serious game designed and developed to help young students enhance both their typing and spelling skills, based on the expert's recommendations and guidelines. As this game is destined to be played by kids in primary school, apart from being educational it should also be entertaining enough for them and not frustrate them. To achieve this, after developing the game it was evaluated by 30 children and an experts’ evaluation was held as well. All things considered there were no major problems that emerged from the evaluation of the game. However, there are some future work that should be done to make the game meet the user’s needs. At first, a beginners’ vocabulary could be useful for children that do not have basic knowledge of the English language and maybe a progress bar of the levels remaining to be played so as to help the children not get discouraged while playing it. Moreover, several alterations to the difficulty level of the game will be made incorporating a dynamic difficulty adjustment solution. KeywordsSerious gamesTypingEvaluation
... Flow is one of the factors that contribute to the success of learning situations, and it may be applied to the framework on the induction of environment-oriented behaviors, which is the subject of this study. Originally, flow is described as a state of being 'in the zone', which is achieved when the learner is cut off from the external world and concentrates on the task at hand [36]. In other words, flow theory is argued to be a state produced by being cut off from the outside world, eliminating noise, and concentrating on a single point (Figure 11). ...
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This study uses qualitative research methods of text mining to elucidate the potential and prospects for community-based learning opportunities for raising environmental awareness and bringing about healthy behaviour change among university students and local residents. In particular, we focus on the importance of community-based learning in raising environmental awareness and inspiring action to support healthy living and harmony with nature. The three groups were triangulated using semi-structured questionnaires to model the ways in which education for sustainable development (ESD) can contribute to the promotion of environmental education in local communities. In order to collect in-depth data, the authors themselves were present at the study sites and collected textual data based on semi-structured questionnaires in a participatory observation framework, where they had a common experience to understand the observations. Analysis was carried out using NVivo12. The two community learning initiatives studied were in Okayama and Tokyo, which are leading ESD policy areas. The two case studies are both university student-led projects that aim to raise environmental awareness in local communities through environmentally conscious behaviour change and the creation of a foundation for healthy living. This study focuses on “youth” and “community” among the five priority areas proposed in the 2015 ESD report and discusses the potential and prospects for community learning initiatives and the triggering of the nudge effect on environmentally conscious behaviour change and health behaviours. The results of the textual analysis with triangulation show that, while policymakers and teachers and leaders driving the initiative acknowledge the importance of ESD in a comprehensive way, their attention is more focused on the design of specific projects and curricula. In contrast, university students engaged in ESD activities rated the social education facilities (local community centres, community learning centres) as “lively” and “motivating”. It was found that there are high expectations for “public living rooms”, which are important as a base for learning to promote healthy and sustainable communities and environmentally conscious behaviour change.
... During sports and leisure, members unconsciously and synchronously imitate the emotional expressions of others (Hatfield et al., 1994). Using sports spectating as an example, emotional contagion allows individuals to be intensely focused on watching the game, which is in line with the phenomenon of flow (as mentioned in the theory of flow), which is to be in a state of enthusiasm and total concentration, forgetting one's self (Nakamura & Csikszentmihalyi, 2009). ...
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The purposes of the study were to test the mediating role of leisure involvement and flow on the relationship between emotional contagion and leisure benefits in sports and leisure. The participants were college student in Taiwan selected by the purposive sampling method. Sports and Leisure Emotional Contagion Scale, Sports and Leisure Involvement Scale, Sports and leisure Flow Scale, and Sports and Leisure Benefits Scale, are used as instuments after compiled by authors, and retested using PLS-CFA. The CFA results showed that four scales have a good reliability and validity. The data were analyzed using PLS-SEM. Results of the study indicate that leisure involvement and flow had full mediating effects between emotional contagion and leisure benefits. The results could be applied in both sports and leisure area of mathematics instruction, and emotional contagion could elevate leisure benefits by leisure involvement and flow.
... Thus, flow states might be encouraged by slow practice through cultivating an optimal skill-challenge balance. Another key component of flow is receiving immediate feedback on progress (Nakamura & Csikszentmihalyi, 2009). This may also be supported by slow playing, facilitated by increased time to process auditory and tactile feedback (Hay & Bard, 1984). ...
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Practicing slowly is a commonly used, intuitive approach to music learning, and is widely considered the bedrock of musical skill acquisition. Yet, little is known about the different approaches and techniques musicians use when practicing slowly. This study investigated instrumental musicians’ perspectives on the uses, limitations, and specific techniques of slow music practice, through qualitative thematic analysis of responses to an online questionnaire. Generally, slow practice was perceived as a useful, and often necessary, part of learning. Furthermore, we identified four perceived functions of slow practice. They were managing information load; building a foundation for motor learning; creative and critical problem-solving; and regulating emotional, mental, and perceptual states. We propose a possible underlying mechanism of these functions: reduction of extrinsic cognitive load and stimulation of germane cognitive processes. Respondents also perceived potential technical-practical and emotional-cognitive malfunctions of slow practice, as well as possible strategic pitfalls of using slow practice. Specific techniques of slow practice included the use of tempo organization methods and strategies to complement slow practice. This provided insight into how biomechanical differences between slow and fast playing might be bridged. Findings have implications for music education and understanding the psychology of musical skill acquisition.
... Moreover, this study, specifically, suggests that PE and trust are the main studied factors that influence BIs to use chatbots designed for online shopping purposes, mitigating risk. Besides supporting the examination of both emotional and cognitive responses, the results also support the inclusion of the flow theory (Nakamura and Csikszentmihalyi, 2009) in a more integrated theoretical framework. This support is based on our findings regarding trust and its positive effect on enhancing the flow experience when using the chatbot. ...
Purpose Chatbots represent an undeniable player between online retailers and customers as they boost operational efficiency and bring cost savings to businesses while offering convenience for customers in terms of timing and immediacy. However, as chatbots represent a new-born online touchpoint in retailing, especially when it comes to online pre-purchase and purchase experience, this study examines whether and how effort expectation, facilitating condition, performance expectancy, social influence, trust, perceived risk and flow affect consumers' intention to use chatbots for online shopping. The purpose of this paper is to address this issue. Design/methodology/approach A total of 226 respondents participated in an online survey. Participants were asked to try a new online service and interact with a chatbot designed using Chatfuel, a platform within the Facebook Messenger setting. Structural equation modelling was used to test the proposed research model regarding the intention to use chatbots. Findings This study discusses the importance of offering useful and trustworthy conversational agents for online shopping and argues and explains the insignificant paths amongst other studied factors and intention to use chatbots concluding with the need to explore more drivers for such contemporary technologies. Moreover, the findings indicate that trust turns out to be an important predictor of behavioural intention towards chatbots, in addition to its role in mitigating perceived risk and enhancing flow experience. Originality/value Given the lack of empirical evidence related to chatbots applied for business purposes, this paper fills a gap in this research field and provides a deeper understanding of what leverages consumers' intention to use chatbots for online shopping.
... For every customer that is served, the user earns a certain amount of coins, while for every lost customer, some coins are deducted. In the case that the user has chosen to play the game with the adaptivity component, in order to keep the user engaged and not feel either bored or anxious, based on the theoretical model of the flow state [8], a parameter of the game is modified according to his/her emotional state, as found in Section 3.2.1. The element that instantly affects the difficulty of the game and is the one that changes according to the player's emotions is the rate of decrease in the waiting time of the customer. ...
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Difficulty in video games is an essential factor for a game to be considered engaging and is directly linked to losing in a game. However, for the user to not feel bored or frustrated, it is necessary for the difficulty of the game to be balanced and ideally tailored to the user. This paper presents the design and development of a serious game that adjusts its difficulty based on the user’s bio signals, so that it is demanding enough to match his/her skills, in order to enter the flow state. The serious game is accompanied by a server that uses machine learning algorithms to analyze the user’s bio signals and classify them into different affective states. These states are later used to adjust the difficulty of the serious game in real-time, without interfering with the user’s game experience. Finally, a heuristic evaluation was conducted in order to measure its usability and highlight the good practices and to draw attention to some elements of the game that should be changed in a future version.
... Additional theories are drawn from sociotechnical disciplines, such as distributed cognition (Hollan et al., 2000) and activity theory (Engeström, 2000;Kaptelinin & Nardi, 2018). In addition, "theories of change" (Bowen et al., 2020), flow theory (Nakamura & Csikszentmihalyi, 2009), and color theory (Kimmons, 2020) were presented. Further, Gray (2020) suggests a "critical praxis" at the nexus of researcher positionality, learning theory, and HCI. ...
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Researchers of learning design and technology (LDT) adopt theories from outside the field to design and evaluate educational technologies in a human-centered manner. We therefore propose a theory of Learning Experience Design (LXD) that draws from multiple traditions (i.e., user experience, learning design, and educational technology). The suggested LXD theory has the aim to guide designers, researchers, and educators in crafting effective learning experiences while taking into account the sociocultural, pedagogical, and technological dimensions of technology-mediated learning.
... In such status, one would experience positive emotions aligned with the task at hand. This concept has been found influential in various fields including sports (as mentioned in a review by Swann et al., 2012), gaming (e.g., Bressler and Bodzin, 2016), research activities (Hudock, 2015), and work-related activities (e.g., Nakamura and Csikszentmihalyi, 2009). Khan and Pearce (2015) correlated this state with concentration, intrinsic motivation, and enjoyment to perform actions at hand, which would affect learners' perceived learning (Hung et al., 2015) and satisfaction (Buil et al., 2018). ...
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Given the fundamental role of emotional intelligence (EI) in learning, especially in virtual learning contexts where individuals experience more stress and anxiety, the need to understand and recognize one’s own feelings and the mutual feelings of peers has gained more importance. Flow as the ultimate state in harnessing emotions in the service of performance and learning has been introduced as the main reason for one’s willingness to perform activities which are connected to no external motivation. In this regard, the present study was conducted to first introduce a new educational program to enhance the EI level in the English as a foreign language (EFL) online education environment and next to investigate the possibility of raising EFL learners’ perceived flow. To achieve these goals, the study recruited a sample of 67 EFL learners who were next divided into experimental (n = 32) and control (n = 35) groups. The experimental group received the EI intervention over ten weeks and the control group received the ordinary online EFL instruction. Data were collected through EI and flow questionnaires and semi-structured interviews which focused on learners’ perception of the EI intervention and signs of enhanced flow. Statistical analysis of the data showed a positive effect of the program on the learners’ EI and their perceived flow. The study emphasizes the role of applying positive emotions in making language learners more engaged in online classroom tasks.
... In fact, one of the top cited barriers to productivity mentioned by faculty is lack of time to dedicate to writing and conducting research (Hagan et al., 2019;Yarris et al., 2014). Unlike other tasks or occupations (e.g., answering emails, administrative tasks), productive scholarly activity relies on blocking off dedicated time, which is consistent with the ability of faculty members to achieve flow, or a state of total involvement in an activity that consumes one's full attention (Nakamura & Csikszentmihalyi, 2009). The mental energy needed to synthesize information, conduct complex analyses, or generate new knowledge can be challenging to complete when work interruptions occur, or unexpected time away is needed due to caregiving responsibilities. ...
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Navigating a career while raising a family can be challenging, especially for women in academia. In this study, we examine the ways in which professional life interruptions due to child caregiving (e.g., opportunities not offered, professional travel curtailed) affect pre- and post-tenure faculty members’ career satisfaction and retention. We also examine whether sharing caregiving responsibilities with a partner affected faculty members’ (particularly women’s) career outcomes. In a sample of 753 tenure track faculty parents employed at a large research-intensive university, results showed that as the number of professional life interruptions due to caregiving increased, faculty members experienced less career satisfaction and greater desire to leave their job. Pre-tenure women’s, but not pre-tenure men’s, career satisfaction and intention to stay were negatively affected when they experienced at least one professional life interference. Pre-tenure men’s desire to stay in their job and career satisfaction remained high, regardless of the number of professional life interferences they experienced. Sharing parenting responsibilities with a partner did not buffer the demands of caregiving on pre-tenure women’s career outcomes. Our work highlights the need to consider the varied ways in which caregiving affects faculty members’ careers, beyond markers such as publications, and how institutions can support early career stage women with family-friendly practices.
... Csikszentmihalyi's (1990) original conceptualization of flow consists of nine dimensions. According to this framework (Nakamura and Csikszentmihalyi, 2009), three dimensions are preconditions for flow to occur: (1) "challenge-skill balance, " which refers to the perceived balance between the situational challenge represented by the activity and the personal skills necessary to overcome it; (2) "unambiguous feedback, " which concerns the clear and immediate feedback regarding the activity's failure or success; and (3) "clear goals, " which relates to the clarity of what was expected to complete the task. The other six flow dimensions describe the flow state experience itself: (4) "action-awareness merging, " which alludes to the automaticity of actions with no separation of the self from the task; (5) Frontiers in Psychology 03 frontiersin.org ...
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Flow describes a state of intense experiential involvement in an activity that is defined in terms of nine dimensions. Despite increased interest in understanding the flow experience of musicians in recent years, knowledge of how characteristics of the musician and of the music performance context affect the flow experience at the dimension level is lacking. In this study, we aimed to investigate how musicians' general music performance anxiety (MPA) level (i.e., the general tendency to experience anxiety during solo music performances) and the presence of an audience influence the nine flow dimensions. The participants were 121 university music students who performed solo a music piece once by themselves (private performance) and once in front of an audience (public performance). Their general MPA level was measured with an adapted version of the STAI and ranged from 27 (very low MPA) to 76 (very high MPA). The level of the nine flow dimensions was assessed with the Flow State Scale-2 after each performance. The levels of "concentration on task at hand," "sense of control," and "autotelic experience" decreased significantly with increasing general MPA level. The levels of "unambiguous feedback" and "loss of self-consciousness" decreased significantly with increasing general MPA level during the public performance only. The level of "sense of control" was significantly lower during the public performance than the private performance across participants. The level of "unambiguous feedback" was significantly lower during the public performance than the private performance for participants with a general MPA level higher than 47. The level of "loss of self-consciousness" was significantly lower during the public performance than the private performance for participants with a general MPA level higher than 32. In contrast, the general MPA level and TYPE Original Research PUBLISHED
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Sailing is a prime example of an activity that causes flow. But what is flow exactly? My claim is that flow is a kind of emotion. Starting with a detailed description of flow, I argue that flow involves the typical features of emotions: phenomenal properties, intentional objects, appraisals, formal objects and motivation. I suggest that flow is kind of enjoyment, which we take in activities. As a result, flow contributes to psychological happiness understood as a positive balance of emotions and more generally of affective states.
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A significant number of studies suggest that engagement with music, in its different forms, can play an important role in terms of health and well-being for a diverse range of people, including older adults. Research focusing on the impact of these activities on the practitioners, namely the musicians carrying out the interventions, is at a more preliminary stage. This study investigated how tertiary-level music students experienced group music making with residents in nursing homes. A music team delivered ten weekly music sessions in four nursing homes, focusing on singing, rhythm-based activities with percussion instruments and listening to short, live performances. The team was composed of an experienced workshop leader, a researcher and nine student musicians enrolled in an elective seminar. Qualitative data were collected from the students through semi-structured interviews and oral diaries and analysed using thematic analysis. The results show that the overall experience had a positive impact on students in both professional and personal dimensions. The findings are discussed using the lenses of mutual recovery and the PERMA model of well-being.
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This study uses self-determination and flow theories as a theoretical framework to investigate the role of need for competence satisfaction (NCS) and autonomous motivation (AM) in balance between challenge and skills (BCS) and dispositional flow (DF) in international junior elite tennis players. A sample of 114 (62 girls and 52 boys) junior elite players (15.62 ± 1.36 years) representing 24 countries competing in International Tennis Federation junior tournaments completed measures on the NCS using the Basic Needs Satisfaction in Sport Scale, AM with the Sport Motivation Scale and DF State scale to measure the BCS and their DF. Values of Cronbach α >.80 and the rhô Jöreskog coefficients were shown to be satisfactory and >0.89. The independent sample t-test analysis revealed no significant gender differences in any of them ( p > .05). Simple regression analysis showed that there was a significant positive linear correlation between BCS and DF (r = .46; F = 29.31, p < .001). Multiple regression analysis indicated that AM and NCS explained 50.8% of the variance of BCS (F = 57.30, p < .001). Canonical correlation analysis indicated that a lack of NCS and AM was associated with a lack of DF and BCS. Wilks’ lambda = .38, F = 34.11, p < .001, accounted for 99% (r c = .79) of the overlapping variance. It can be concluded that NCS and AM contribute effectively to the BCS and then to DF in the sample studied.
Article
The article describes the theoretical premises and the logic of the emergence of the Flow concept and its development in almost half of the century. The article presents an overview of the current state of arts in Flow theory being developed by M. Csikszentmihalyi and his followers. Different models of Flow are described, main directions of Flow research are analyzed, an overview of research methods and techniques are highlighted, including qualitative (interviews) and quantitative methods (questionnaires, experience sampling method (ESM). The possibilities and directions of further development of the Flow ideas and research, including interdisciplinary ones, are discussed. The ideas and concepts of representatives of modern Russian psychology, most close to the ideas of M. Csikszentmihalyi and their contribution to flow understanding are listed.
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Purpose The objectives of the study are to assess the application of corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives in three hotel companies of similar standing by interviewing the unit general managers and to analyse the well-being of the three general managers and explore if their CSR initiatives align with the dimensions of quality of life and well-being. The article concludes with a review of the likely impact of employee well-being on the concept of the circular economy and overall sustainability. Design/methodology/approach Explores the potential relationship between the well-being of hotel general managers and its impact on the CSR initiatives of their hotels, three luxury hotels located in Dubai, Portugal and India provide case study examples. The hotels are similar in size and scale of operations and are positioned as leisure hotels. All three hotels have a workforce of 300–400 employees on permanent contracts with an additional 150–200 on temporary contracts. This is indicative of the significant responsibilities of general managers in fostering well-being in the workplace. Findings Findings suggest that a hotel general manager’s own well-being does not necessarily translate into high levels of CSR activity at the unit level. However, case study analysis of the three hotels seems to indicate a correlation between enhanced sustainable initiatives and competitive advantage that is advantageous for the businesses. Originality/value Using a combination of the positive emotion, engagement, relationships, meaning, achievement (PERMA) well-being profiler and three in-depth interviews, this study examines the relationship between well-being, as measured by PERMA, CSR practices, and awareness of CSR implementation. In addition, the potential role of the circular economy is considered in fostering hospitality for employee well-being.
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Creativity, that is the creation of ideas or objects considered both novel and valuable, is among the most important and highly valued of human traits, and a fundamental aspect of the sciences. Dreams and hypnagogic states have been highly influential in promoting scientific creativity and insight, contributing to some important scientific breakthroughs. Phenomenologically, the latter states of consciousness share a great deal of overlap with the psychedelic state, which has also been associated with facilitating scientific creativity on occasion. The current article proposes that the dream, hypnagogic and psychedelic states share common features that make them conducive to supporting some aspects of scientific creativity and examines the putative underlying neurophenomenological and cognitive processes involved. In addition , some notable occurrences of scientific insights that have emerged from these types of altered states are reviewed and shared common features are presented, providing a ground for future research. The psychedelic state may have its own characteristic features making it amenable to creativity enhancement, such as brain hyperconnectivity, meta-cognitive awareness, access to a more dependable and sustained altered state experience, and potential for eliciting sustained shifts in trait openness. The contextual factors which may contribute to enhancement of scientific creativity and insight will be evaluated. While research in this area is limited, further work to elucidate how psychedelics may best contribute to scientific creativity enhancement is warranted.
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Anxiety and self-regulation are the most common problems among the college student population. There are few attempts found in the literature to promote the development of students’ cognitive and metacognitive abilities in online learning environments. In addition, mechanisms for overcoming or reducing individuals’ anxiety in a computer-mediated environment is yet to be fully characterized. This study was conducted to investigate the potential of integrating the concept of flow into the design of a Metalearner (MTL) to help reduce anxiety and increase self-regulation among students. The design of MTL was based on the development of adaptive strategies to balance between the challenge of the task and user skills. A total of 260 participants were asked to use the system and respond to an online questionnaire that asked about flow antecedents, experience, and consequences. The structural model results showed that incorporating flow into the design of MTL can help reduce anxiety and improve self-regulation among students. Our findings can be used to enrich students’ online learning experience and inform designers and developers of learning systems about the importance of regulating task complexity according to the challenge/skills balance. This would help learners to process the presented information meaningfully and to make the inferences necessary for understanding the learning content.
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The present study adopted a mixed-methods approach using a convergent parallel design to focus on the role that positive and negative emotions have in the Foreign Language (FL) classroom on the ontogenesis of positive flow. Participants were 1,044 FL learners from around the world. They provided quantitative and qualitative data on FL enjoyment (FLE), classroom anxiety (FLCA) and experience of flow via an on-line questionnaire (Dewaele, Jean-Marc & Peter D. MacIntyre. 2014. The two faces of Janus? Anxiety and enjoyment in the foreign language classroom. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching 4. 237–274). FLE was a significantly stronger predictor of frequency of flow experience than FLCA. Further statistical analyses revealed that flow experiences are typically self-centred, infrequent and short-lived at the start of the FL learning journey and when the perceived social standing in the group is low. They become an increasingly shared experience, more frequent, stronger and more sustained as learners reach a more advanced level in their FL. What starts as an occasional individual spark can turn into a true fire that extends to other group members. The findings are illustrated by participants’ reports on enjoyable episodes in the FL classroom in which some reported complete involvement in an individual or collective task, merging of action and awareness, joyful bonding with classmates, intense focus and joy, loss of self-consciousness, sense of time and place.
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El libro “Investigación+Creación a través del Territorio” nace de la reflexión participativa resultante del Salón Binacional de Investigación+Creación SABIC 2019, realizado en la ciudad de Pasto en noviembre de 2019. Este espacio, creado para divulgar y reconocer proyectos de investigación con un enfoque en la Investigación+Creación (sintetizada como I+C de aquí en adelante y haciendo uso del signo (+), como lo siguiere Antonio Stalin García), permitió abrir diferentes formatos de discusión alrededor de este interesante tema. Una de las principales conclusiones obtenidas por los organizadores del salón fue la necesidad de ofrecer un producto académico diferente a las memorias de un evento, que permitiera escuchar las voces de los investigadores sobre sus percepciones particulares alrededor de la I+C. El resultado es este libro compilado con proyectos de I+C desde el territorio colombiano, el cual tiene dos objetivos principales, a saber: el primero de ellos, identificar una línea base que sirva de insumo para un posible estado del arte sobre proyectos de investigación que hayan sido realizados bajo el precepto de la Investigación+Creación en Colombia, especialmente desde las disciplinas creativas relacionadas con el diseño, el arte y la arquitectura; el segundo de ellos, intentar comprender cómo los investigadores implementan la Investigación+Creación en el territorio, con la idea de ofrecer el insumo suficiente para establecer una futura definición basada desde la práctica. A su vez, para hacer mas efectiva la aproximación hacia estos objetivos, se ha partido de dos preceptos importantes acerca de la interpretación que tienen los editores del libro sobre la Investigación+Creación (I+C). El primer criterio es que toda I+C contiene una Experiencia Creativa que puede ser definida en algún momento por un producto plástico-sensorial. Y el segundo, es que esta experiencia creativa produce una serie de reflexiones que permiten responder una pregunta de investigación o justificar una hipótesis de acción.
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The following chapter contributes further thought about how to empower students and teachers in their educational process. Agile learning promotes, supports, and enriches the personal development of students and teachers in different ways. These paths seem to evoke different specific experiences known as flow experiences. We look at three theories of flow connected with eduScrum practical experiences gathered in over 40 countries worldwide. This chapter presents a well-chosen agile learning project in more detail and introduces the model of Sangen (taken from martial arts) for understanding eduScrum holistically. By drawing similarities between the Product Owner role within the Scrum Framework and the teacher role within the eduScrum framework, it becomes clear that Product Owners in Scrum maximize the value of product developments. Teachers in eduScrum maximize the educational value of the personal development of their student teams and individual students. Within the eduScrum ‘educational value matrix,’ three learning and teaching approaches are combined with supporting teachers in their mission of increasing the educational value for their students. The given practical insights should encourage investigating the impact and effectiveness of the methodological framework eduScrum and show why and how eduScrum can give wings to the students and teachers.KeywordsAgile learningAgile teachingeduScrumScrum in educationFlow experience
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The aim of our study was to explore the connection between improvisation and flow. Data were collected from 252 tertiary music students from Slovenia and Croatia (121 male and 131 female musicians), who filled in The Questionnaire on Attitudes to Music Improvisation, The Inventory on Feelings associated with Music Improvisation, and the Work-related Flow Inventory. The results show that the female students have significantly more negative feelings and attitudes toward improvisation, and they experience less flow while improvising. Differences were even more pronounced when comparing students who only played classical music with those who played other genres, as well. Regression analysis showed that we can explain 71% of the variance in flow with attitudes toward improvisation.
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The present study focuses on the experience of flow among 168 Arab and Kurdish English Foreign Language (EFL) learners in both in-person and emergency remote teaching (ERT) classes. Statistical analyses of questionnaire data revealed that learners did experience flow in their ERT classes but for a significantly shorter time than in the pre-pandemic in-person classes. Those who experienced flow in in-person classes were also more likely to experience it in ERT classes. In the in-person classes, the proportion of time in flow was linked to age, self-rated proficiency, attitudes toward English, attitudes toward the teacher, and the teacher frequency of use of English. In contrast, in ERT classes, the proportion of time in flow was only linked to attitude toward the teacher. This is interpreted as evidence that the ERT does not just cause physical and social isolation but also mental isolation.
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Bu araştırma, üniversite öğrencilerinde Covid-19 korkusu ile rekreasyonel akış (flow) yaşantı düzeyleri arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi amacıyla gerçekleştirilmiştir. Çalışmada, betimsel nitelikte yer alan ilişkisel tarama modeli kullanılmıştır. Çalışma grubu, Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Yüksekokulu’nda eğitim gören 337 öğrenciden oluşmaktadır. Veri toplama aşamasında; ‘‘Flow Yaşantı Ölçeği’’, ‘‘Covid-19 Korkusu Ölçeği’’ ve kişisel bilgi formu kullanılmıştır. Analiz aşamasında, verilerin normal dağılım kriterlerine uygun olduğu tespit edilerek, ikili karşılaştırmalarda Independent Samples T-Test uygulanırken; üç ve daha fazla grup kıyaslamalarında One Way ANOVA testi uygulanmıştır. Üniversite öğrencilerinde Flow Yaşantı Ölçeği ile Covid-19 Korkusu Ölçeği arasındaki ilişki Pearson Korelasyon analizi ile belirlenmiştir. Analiz sonucunda bölüm ve aktif spor durumu değişkenine göre flow yaşantı ölçeği ve Covid-19 korkusu ölçeği puanları arasında anlamlı fark saptanmamıştır. Haftalık katıldıkları etkinlik gün sayısı değişkenine göre Covid-19 korkusu ölçeği ve flow yaşantı ölçek puanları arasında anlamlı farklılık belirlenmiştir. Korelasyon analizi sonucunda, öğrencilerin Covid-19 korku düzeyleri ile flow yaşantısı akış düzeyleri arasında anlamlı ilişki bulunmadığı, Covid-19 korku düzeyleri ile flow yaşantısı kaygı düzeyleri arasında pozitif ve düşük düzeyde anlamlı ilişki olduğu, flow yaşantısı akış düzeyleri ile flow yaşantısı kaygı düzeyleri arasında pozitif ve orta düzeyde anlamlı ilişki olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Bu hususta üniversite öğrencilerinin farklı tür ve alanlardaki rekreasyonel etkinliklere yönelmeleri ve mental destek almalarının faydalı olabileceği öngörülmektedir.
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The authors compared the experiences of college students during cooperative learning and large-group instruction. Undergraduate educational psychology students were assigned to small groups to discuss how they could apply important psychological principles to teaching-learning projects. Students were interrupted during cooperative learning and large-group instruction so that the authors could measure perceptions of their experiences with the experience sampling method (M. Csikszentmihalyi, K. Rathunde, & S. Whalen, 1993). Overall quality of experience was greater during cooperative learning; benefits occurred specifically for thinking on task, student engagement, perceptions of task importance, and optimal levels of challenge and skill. Students were more self-conscious and reported more difficulty concentrating during cooperative learning. Quality of experience did not differ across instructional contexts for high- vs. low-achieving students; high-achieving students experienced greater overall quality of experience in both instructional contexts, particularly in the areas of engagement, perceived skill, and self-esteem.
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The authors reviewed the research on challenge as a motivator, with a view toward application in mathematics classrooms. The authors conclude that traditional motivational research, with its focus on individual differences and decontextualized tasks, is not readily applicable to classrooms. They argue that a combination of challenging instruction and positive affective support is necessary for promoting motivation in mathematics classrooms. The authors describe the kinds of classroom contexts that are likely to support challenge seeking and learning in mathematics and illustrate an example of a teacher who used challenge effectively in her 7th-grade mathematics classes. Finally, the authors suggest that a focus on creating contexts that support challenge seeking offers a powerful application of this motivational tool for all learners.
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The aim of this article is to clarify the concept of subjective experience and, by illustrating some of the ways in which it has been successfully investigated, to encourage further research on specific experiential states and processes. Clarification has been undertaken by discussing the conceptual status of subjective experience, the methods available for its investigation, and its broader psychological significance.
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This paper introduces the concept of flow to occupational therapists who may not be familiar with this body of literature and offers principles for the application of this knowledge to clinical practice. Flow is defined as a subjective psychological state which occurs when one is totally involved in an activity (M. Csikszentmihalyi, 1975). Elements of the flow experience include the focusing of attention on a clear goal, a loss of self-consciousness, an altered sense of time, and a sense that the activity in itself is rewarding. Through a review of the literature, the author presents conditions linked to the experience of flow that pertain to traits of the person, properties of the activity, and the interaction between the two. The relevance of flow theory to occupational therapy and occupational science is discussed. Considerations for research on flow and occupation are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The present study investigated the relationship between intrinsic motivation and the subjective experience of time passing. The Work Preference Inventory, which measures trait intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, was administered to 75 undergraduate participants. Measures of time awareness, time estimation, checking of time, and perceived speed of time were collected using the experience sampling method. Participants carried electronic schedulers for five days and completed questionnaires each time the scheduler sounded (eight times per day). Results showed that higher intrinsic motivation was associated with checking and thinking about time less often, a subjective experience of time passing more quickly, and more of a tendency to lose track of time. The experience of time awareness was accompanied by a subjective sense of time moving slowly, a tendency to overestimate the time, and a more negative affective experience. These findings suggest that time perception is an important dimension of motivational experience.
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Thirty adolescents and their parents participated in a study of family interaction and optimal experience. Family members completed questionnaires, and discussed 7 topics for approximately 30 minutes while being videotaped. The audio portion of the tape was replayed after the discussion, with pauses after each topic segment to allow family members an opportunity to complete a modified form of the Experience Sampling Method. Family interaction was coded by independent observers, and compared to family members' experiential reports. Results showed that family communication complexity (i.e., interaction characterized jointly by integrating and differentiating responses) was associated with family members' reports of more optimal experience (i.e., feelings of interest and/or flow experience). Segment-to-segment analyses added that increases and descreases in family members' interest were associated with upward and downward changes in communication complexity, respectively. These findings, and the novel methodological approach, are discussed in terms of their relevance for studying adolescent development in the family.
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Flow Theory predicts that state intrinsic motivation peaks in activities characterized by the simultaneous perception of high challenges and high skills. Self-Determination Theory predicts that the flow model is more descriptive of persons who have more trait intrinsic motivation. Both theories postulate that the flow model is substantially invariant across cultures. Drawing from cross-cultural research pointing out the comparatively more prudent and knowledge-based approach that Chinese students adopt toward learning and exploration, it was hypothesized that for Chinese the optimal challenge/skill ratio is biased toward skills, and that the bias is stronger for those Chinese who have a more collectivist model of the self. The Experience Sampling Method was used to measure state intrinsic motivation in everyday activities on samples of 269 Hong Kong Chinese college students and 533 U.S. 12th graders. Chinese participants also completed the Work Preference Inventory, measuring trait intrinsic and extrinsic motivations, and Gudygunst's Self-Construal Scale, measuring independent and interdependent self-construals. Multilevel modeling indicated that the optimal challenge/skill ratio is biased toward skills in both samples, but the bias is markedly stronger in the Chinese sample. In the Chinese sample, a high level of trait intrinsic motivation and a low level of interdependent self-construal offset the bias. Findings reveal a cultural variation of the flow model in that Chinese tend to experience the highest level of state intrinsic motivation in mastery-practice (low-challenge/high-skill) conditions rather than in flow-conducive (high-challenge/high-skill) conditions, and this variation is partially explained by the internalization of collectivist values. The findings call for a multi-cultural development of Flow Theory and Self-Determination Theory.