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The effects of creativity on advertising wear-in and wear-out

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Abstract

Both ad creativity and ad repetition play a pivotal role in advertising strategy. It is therefore of practical and theoretical importance to understand how they interact with one another on advertising effectiveness. After reviewing existing theories, we predict three-way interactions among: divergence, relevance, and repetition over six important dependent variables. Using a 2×2×3 between-subjects experimental design, we find that the classic inverted U-Shape (repeatedly found in previous repetition research) is observed only for ads with low divergence and relevance. In contrast, creative ads (high divergence and relevance) wear in immediately and show little sign of wearing-out even over repeated exposures. Mixed levels of divergence and relevance produce immediate wear-in but do show wearing-out over repeated exposures. Implications for advertising management and media programming are discussed.

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... However, limited effort has been spent on brand-related processing and responses in particular. Most previous ad creativity research demonstrates improved communication effectiveness (e.g., Ang et al. 2007;Baack et al. 2008;Chen et al. 2016;Lehnert et al. 2013;Pieters et al. 2002;Till and Baack 2005;Smith et al. 2008;Yang and Smith 2009). However, when it comes to brand-related processing and responses in particular, are we confident that more creativity is always good? ...
... We predict specific interactions between brand and execution divergence under message or execution involvement on consumer brand processing and responses. Based on previous research on ad processing and responses (e.g., Chen et al. 2016;MacInnis and Jaworski 1989;Smith et al. 2008), we identify four major stages to organize our dependent variables of interest: attention, learning, acceptance, and liking. We are interested in those four stages due to their importance in building up a strong brand. ...
... With those control variables as covariates, we are able to test if the hypothesized effects are attributed to the interaction of type of divergence. Fourth, we follow prior advertising research in using multiple pretested real ads for different levels of creativity (e.g., Chen et al. 2016;Smith et al. 2008). In sum, whereas we acknowledge the merit of creating fictitious ads, we decided to use pretested real TV ads for their advantages. ...
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This paper delineates some boundary conditions for the effectiveness of ad creativity on brand responses. By taking a closer look at the divergence factor—the core of creativity, we conceptually define two types of divergence (brand divergence and execution divergence) and empirically test their interactions on brand processing and responses. Incorporating an important factor in ad-viewing situation (consumer involvement), we predict different interaction patterns for the two types of divergence. With one pretest and one 2 × 2 × 2 between-subjects experiment, we find that under particular type of consumer involvement, more divergence of certain type could be effective or distracting, depending on the stage of processing. These findings have potential implications for brand managers to create and implement ads with appropriate combinations of brand and execution divergence.
... Amabile et al., 2005 ), or that both forms of processing happen simultaneously in response to creativity (e.g. Chen et al., 2014 ;Yang and Smith, 2009 ). ...
... As with earlier studies (e.g. Chen et al., 2014 ;Yang and Smith, 2009 ), the divergence dimensions were averaged to form a divergence score; the relevance measures were likewise averaged to form a relevance score. Chen et al. (2014) observe that it is difficult for advertising practitioners to control both divergence and relevance in ads, and suggest that despite an advertiser's best intentions, on some occasions creative ads (ads high in both divergence and relevance) are impractical to achieve. ...
... Chen et al., 2014 ;Yang and Smith, 2009 ), the divergence dimensions were averaged to form a divergence score; the relevance measures were likewise averaged to form a relevance score. Chen et al. (2014) observe that it is difficult for advertising practitioners to control both divergence and relevance in ads, and suggest that despite an advertiser's best intentions, on some occasions creative ads (ads high in both divergence and relevance) are impractical to achieve. Advertisers may have to compromise and resign themselves to ads with only divergence or only relevance -for example, ads for radically new products may not easily achieve relevance. ...
Article
Marketers in China have long used the government's system of city tiers as a de facto segmentation tool. Previous research shows that this has led to assumptions on the part of advertisers about differing levels of conservatism and uncertainty avoidance between city tiers. This in turn has resulted in advertisers’ reluctance to invest in creative advertising, particularly when it is directed at consumers in low tier Chinese cities. This paper investigates potential differences in consumer response to advertising creativity between high (Tier 1–2) and low (Tier 5–6) Chinese cities; the moderating effect of uncertainty avoidance on Chinese consumer processing of creative ads; and the efficacy of tiers as a means of segmenting the complex Chinese marketplace. Findings reveal that regardless of tier, Chinese consumers respond positively to advertising that engages their emotions. Additionally, while Chinese consumers rank high in uncertainty avoidance, this does not moderate their response to creative ads.
... Prior studies identify several aspects associated with creativity including novelty, originality, flexibility, meaningfulness, emotional content, artistic value among others (Ang & Low, 2000;Smith et al., 2007). Further to that, within the creativity domain, scholars argue for two distinct determinant dimensions of creativity namely, divergence and relevance (Smith & Yang, 2004;Chen, Yang, & Smith, 2016). Divergence refers to the originality, novelty, aesthetic representation of the advertisement, and relevance refers to the extent to which the elements of an advert or a brand are appropriate, meaningful, useful, and valuable to the customer (Smith et al., 2007). ...
... Divergence refers to the originality, novelty, aesthetic representation of the advertisement, and relevance refers to the extent to which the elements of an advert or a brand are appropriate, meaningful, useful, and valuable to the customer (Smith et al., 2007). While Smith et al. (2007) suggest divergence and relevance as second-order constructs (Smith et al., 2007), in later studies they use these two dimensions as first-order global constructs (Chen et al., 2016). Similarly, several recent studies have employed them as first-order global constructs (Lehnert, Till, & Ospina, 2014;Baccarella, Maier & Voigt, 2021). ...
... Prior research shows that both divergence and relevance substantially influence customer attitude and purchase intentions toward the brand (Chen et al., 2016;Billore, Jayasimha, Sadh, & Nambudiri, 2020). Further, research in packaging demonstrates that increased packaging creativity can lead to stronger brand attitudes and buying intentions (Sundar & Noseworthy, 2014). ...
Article
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Creativity is a growing area of retailing research. Drawing upon the optimal-arousal theory, this research examines how the dimensions of packaging design creativity, such as divergence and relevance, have varying levels of influence on customer process, persuasion, and response measures. The findings show that packaging design can evoke customer curiosity in certain conditions. Further, the results suggest that the effect of packaging design creativity differs significantly in the retail context, in contrast to earlier studies that have mostly focused on the context of advertising. The findings provide new insights and implications for retailers, brand managers, and packaging designers to understand how creativity impacts customer decision making.
... Advertising creativity is one of the most important components of advertising strategy (Rosengren et al. 2020). Although creativity means different things to different stakeholders, there is consensus that creativity is defined by two constructs -originality and relevance, that are essential for advertising effectiveness (Ang and Low 2000;Ang, Lee, and Leong 2007;Chen, Yang, and Smith 2016;Koslow 2015;Koslow, Sasser, and Riordan 2003;Pieters, Warlop, and Wedel 2002;Smith and Yang 2004;Yang and Smith 2009). The first, originality also known as distinctiveness or divergence, is about making advertising unique, surprising, and different from the norm. ...
... Repetition of creative ads (vs. regular ads) produces faster wear-in and longer wear-out (Chen, Yang, and Smith 2016;Lehnert, Brian, and Carlson 2013). Creative ads are more likable (Ang and Low 2000;Chen, Yang, and Smith 2016;Smith et al. 2007;Smith, Chen, and Yang 2008) and creativity can drive the online viral viewing of TV ads (Southgate, Westoby, and Graham 2010). ...
... regular ads) produces faster wear-in and longer wear-out (Chen, Yang, and Smith 2016;Lehnert, Brian, and Carlson 2013). Creative ads are more likable (Ang and Low 2000;Chen, Yang, and Smith 2016;Smith et al. 2007;Smith, Chen, and Yang 2008) and creativity can drive the online viral viewing of TV ads (Southgate, Westoby, and Graham 2010). In financial terms, creative ads have a positive impact on sales (Reinartz and Saffert 2013). ...
Article
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The purpose of the current research is to examine the effect of repetition upon recall and attitudes when a list of ads includes (vs. does not include) creative ads. We found significant context effects, as the presence of creative ads in a list decreased recall of, and attitudes towards, regular ads. The effects of repetition upon recall for regular ads decreased by 30% when those ads were shown alongside creative ads. When creative (vs. regular) ads were repeated, recall for non-repeated regular ads dropped by 70%. Furthermore, the current research found that regular ads were judged less favorably when a list of ads included creative ads. Overall, ad attitudes for the same regular ads were 10% lower when shown in the presence of creative ads. In order to avoid such impairment effects, the current research demonstrates why advertisers need to develop creative advertising.
... Original advertisements are capable of grabbing the viewer's attention (Chen, Yang, & Smith, 2016;Kover, Goldberg, & James, 1995;Pieters, Warlop, & Wedel, 2002) and creativity can positively influence product evaluations (see, e.g., Althuizen & Sgourev, 2014). Hence, creativity is considered to be an important success factor in today's cluttered marketplace (Smith, MacKenzie, Yang, Bucholz, & Darley, 2007). ...
... Visual or written analogies or metaphors "cause the receiver to experience one thing in terms of another" (Morgan & Reichert, 1999, p. 1) and can be used to communicate a product's key benefit claim (KBC) in a manner that is original and effective (Ang & Low, 2000;Dahl, Chattopadhyay, & Gorn, 1999;Chen et al., 2016;Kilgour & Koslow, 2009). The use of analogies or metaphors is often perceived as creative because of their capacity to connect two seemingly unrelated concepts (Lagerwerf & Meijers, 2008). ...
Article
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In today’s clutter of marketing communications, creative advertisements are capable of grabbing the viewers’ attention with the aim of conveying the product’s key benefit claim (KBC). A proven technique for drawing attention to an ad and communicating a KBC is the use of a “remote conveyor” that is seemingly unrelated to the product (e.g., a dolphin and a sports watch for conveying its waterproofness). Drawing on associative memory theory, this article investigates the potentially antagonistic relationship between five “curiosity-raising” (originality) and “benefit-conveying” (effectiveness) properties of a sample of 167 conveyors for communicating the KBC of four different products. The conveyors were generated in a nominal brainstorming session with 20 MBA students. This article also provides real-life examples to illustrate the role of the five conveyor properties in getting across the message creatively and effectively. Creatives and do-it-yourself advertisers alike can easily apply the outlined procedure for generating and selecting conveyors.
... In the second part, the respondents were asked to answer the questions in Table 1 after seeing the advertisement. The items on hedonic and sign information value are adapted from Vogt and Fesenmaier (1998), while the advertisement attitude construct uses items from Chen et al. (2016). The items on the recommendation intention are from the scale of Eisingerich et al. (2015). ...
... Be entertained Advertisement attitude (Source: Chen et al., 2016) 1. ...
Article
This study considers the effectiveness of destination-focused vis-à-vis price-focused advertisements commissioned by low-cost carriers (LCCs) through the sign and hedonic information values embedded within the advertisements, and construal level theory. Based on 2 × 2 between-subjects factorial design with temporal distance (12 months versus 2 weeks) and advertisement type (destination-versus price-focused) as independent variables, the analysis revealed that, including sign and hedonic values better explain recommendations to fly LCC than if only using advertisement attitude. The influence of sign value on recommendation intention is more limited than that of hedonic value. Influence of sign value is more prominent for destination-focused advertisements. Consumers planning leisure travel see themselves as passengers rather than being tourists, meaning price-related characteristics are their primary concern.
... Creativity is defined as that which is novel and useful (Sternberg and Lubart, 1993;Fink et al., 2010;Luo et al., 2013). Although there is no consensus on the definition of creativity in advertising, there are two major dimensions for creative advertising on which most researchers agree: divergence and relevance (Smith and Yang, 2004;Smith et al., 2007;Shirkhodaee and Rezaee, 2014;Chen et al., 2016). It is, however, important to bear in mind that the novelty and the usefulness (commonly used in the mainstream creativity research) are synonyms to the divergence and the relevance in the creative advertising research (Ang et al., 2007;Kilgour and Koslow, 2009;Runco and Jaeger, 2012). ...
... A review of the existing empirical research indicates that the research methods of advertising creativity rely primarily on questionnaire investigations (e.g., Smith et al., 2007;Ahmad and Mahmood, 2011;Shirkhodaee and Rezaee, 2014;Chen et al., 2016). There is, furthermore, no literature on creative advertising using neuroscientific methods such as electroencephalography (EEG), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and positron emission tomography (PET). ...
Article
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The electrophysiological correlates of experiencing novelty in creative advertising were studied in 28 healthy subjects using event-related potentials. Participants viewed images that were difficult to interpret until a description was presented providing either a creative description (CD) featuring an unexpected description of the image based on the original advertisement, or a normal description (ND), which was a literal description of the image (and served as a baseline condition). Participants evaluated the level of creativity of the description. The results showed that the N2 amplitude was higher for CDs than for NDs across middle and right scalp regions between 240 and 270 ms, most likely reflecting conflict detection. Moreover, CDs demonstrated greater N400 than NDs in a time window between 380 and 500 ms, it is argued that this reflects semantic integration. The present study investigates the electrophysiological correlates of experiencing novelty in advertising with ecologically valid stimuli. This substantially extends the findings of earlier laboratory studies with more artificial stimuli.
... Specifically, in an ad context, novelty refers to the incongruent and atypical elements that are depicted 27 , thereby making the ad distinct and expected to attract attention 28 . Usefulness requires an ad to be not only appropriate and meaningful but also useful 29,30 . Accordingly, based on its higher application value 29 , it is of ecological and practical importance to research the creative evaluation of advertising. ...
... Usefulness requires an ad to be not only appropriate and meaningful but also useful 29,30 . Accordingly, based on its higher application value 29 , it is of ecological and practical importance to research the creative evaluation of advertising. ...
... Specifically, in an ad context, novelty refers to the incongruent and atypical elements that are depicted 27 , thereby making the ad distinct and expected to attract attention 28 . Usefulness requires an ad to be not only appropriate and meaningful but also useful 29,30 . Accordingly, based on its higher application value 29 , it is of ecological and practical importance to research the creative evaluation of advertising. ...
... Usefulness requires an ad to be not only appropriate and meaningful but also useful 29,30 . Accordingly, based on its higher application value 29 , it is of ecological and practical importance to research the creative evaluation of advertising. ...
Article
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Although it is increasingly recognized that evaluation is a key phase for a two-fold creativity model, the neural model is not yet well understood. To this end, we constructed a theoretical model of creative evaluation and supported it with neural evidence through event-related potentials (ERPs) technology during a creative advertising task. Participants were required to evaluate the relationship between target words and advertising that systematically varied in novelty and usefulness. The ERPs results showed that (a) the novelty-usefulness and novelty-only conditions evoked a larger N1-P2 amplitude, reflecting an automatic attentional bias to novelty, and (b) these two novelty conditions elicited a larger N200-500 amplitude, reflecting an effort to process the novel content; (c) the novelty-usefulness and usefulness-only conditions induced a larger LPC amplitude, reflecting that valuable associations were formed through retrieval of relevant memories. These results propose a neural model of creative evaluation in advertising: the N1-P2, N200-500, and LPC should be the key indices to define three sub-processes of novelty perception, conception expansion, and value selection, respectively.
... Other terms used in lieu of originality are novel, divergent, distinctive, unexpected, new, and fresh. Whereas some researchers focus exclusively on originality when assessing ad creativity (Krishen and Homer 2012; Pieters et al., 2002;Rosengren et al., 2020), many ad creativity researchers argue that for a message to be creative, it must be relevant, appropriate, and meaningful (Chen et al., 2016;Rosengren et al., 2020). Appropriateness or relevance complements originality by connecting with brand strategy and the consumer (Smith et al., 2007). ...
... Hence, we define advertising creativity as original, divergent, or novel and appropriate, meaningful, or relevant. This bipartite definition of ad creativity is widely accepted in the marketing literature (Chen et al., 2016;Rosengren et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Given the media’s changing landscape for advertising, an examination of advertising creativity and its media interaction takes on increasing importance. Accordingly, we investigate within a meta-analytic framework the moderating role of media type (i.e., traditional/non-traditional) in the relationship between advertising creativity and its effects. The analysis covers 48 papers with 298 data points. First, the meta-analytic findings indicate that ad creativity is positively related to cognition, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. Second, the type of media moderates the relationship between ad creativity and its effects. Specifically, the results show that for cognition, print media exhibits a larger impact than TV and non-traditional media. For affect, there is a significant difference in the influence of print versus non-traditional media and TV versus non-traditional media. Non-traditional media produces a smaller impact than print and TV media. For conation, a comparison of TV versus non-traditional media reveals a significant difference in impact. TV media shows a larger impact than non-traditional media. Given that the motivation, opportunity, and ability to process creative ads in traditional and non-traditional media may differ, we present several directions for future research.
... In the context of online advertising, an analysis of large scale natural experiments finds that wear-out occurs in a heterogeneous manner [10]. A lab experiment reveals that ad creatives with high quality is immune to wear-out effects [5]. ...
Preprint
Selecting ad creative is one of the most important task for DSPs (Demand-Side Platform) in online advertising. DSPs should not only consider the effectiveness of the ad creative but also the user's psychological status when selecting ad creative. In this study, we propose an efficient and easy-to-implement ad creative selection algorithm that explicitly considers wear-in and wear-out effects of ad creative due to the repetitive ad exposures. The proposed system was deployed in a real-world production environment and tested against the baseline. It out-performed the existing system in most of the KPIs.
... The idea that overexposure to a certain stimulus provokes negative consequences is a well-known concept in the field of advertising and campaign research. So-called 'wear-out effects' (e.g., Chen et al. 2016) show associations between stimulus repetition and decreased purchase intention, among other variables. Recently, for example, prolonged exposure to health campaigns was found to reduce or eliminate the amount of attention paid to advertising campaigns (Kim and So 2018;So et al. 2017). ...
Article
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This paper scrutinizes the phenomenon of issue fatigue and its consequences. Issue fatigue results from overexposure to a news topic that has been on the media’s agenda for an extended period of time. Fatigued recipients become annoyed, and no longer wish to be exposed to the topic. Based on the findings of an explorative qualitative study, a quantitative online survey was conducted in Germany, Mexico, and Pakistan (N = 481). Using cluster analysis, we identified an emotional and a cognitive type of issue fatigue, and investigated how these types react. Both types of fatigued recipients avoided further news about the respective issue in traditional news media (= information avoidance). Differences were observed concerning the strategies to handle fatigue (= coping strategies): recipients of the emotional type posted about their fatigue in social media; recipients of the cognitive type turned to information in sources other than the mainstream news. Taking into account country-specific differences, we concluded that, generally, issue fatigue—via information avoidance—results in an uninformed citizenry. This can be a hurdle for the functioning of an established democracy or for the success of democratic transitions. Posting about issue fatigue, which was more frequent in Mexico and Pakistan, might ‘infect’ others, and intensify problems resulting from issue fatigue. Turning to alternative sources can be either beneficial or problematic for the development of a well-informed citizenry, depending on whether alternative sources provide reliable and truthful information.
... Prior research has generally documented favorable effects of ad creativity on consumer responses to print ads (Ang, Lee, and Leong 2007), TV commercials ( Till and Baack 2005), radio ads (Abernethy, Gray, and Rotfeld 1993), and Internet ads (Baltas 2003). These effects are observed in both single and multiple ad exposure situations (Chen, Yang, and Smith 2016). While marketers invest a great deal of time and energy in developing creative ads (Polonsky and Waller 1995), it is difficult to define exactly what such creativity entails. ...
Article
This research explores characteristics that make consumers more likely to circulate ads. We focus on (a) the main transmitters of the viral content which we refer to as propagators, consumers who are more socially connected and active, and (b) two key ad characteristics: creativity and informativeness. Results from field data and two online studies show that propagators may wish to elevate their social status and therefore circulate ads that are both creative and informative. Since propagators spread ads to many people, ads that are both creative and informative are more likely to go viral compared with ads that are only creative or informative. These results extend previous research on the role and preferences of propagators and emphasize that, contrary to common beliefs, ad creativity alone may not be enough to drive a successful viral campaign.
... The latter comparison indicates that in this setting, the CTRs effectively vary over time and that our bandit policy calibrated using stochastic gradient descent with momentum is effective in capturing these variations. Again, considering the importance of advertising dynamics in the marketing literature (Chen et al. 2016, Chae et al. 2019, in the next section we provide further analysis to understand how the effectiveness of the ads vary over time. Beyond mean rewards, the relative ordering in performance is similar if we look at the frequency in which each algorithm generates the best mean reward across scenarios, where we find that our proposed model provides the largest cumulative reward in 57.6% of the cases, whereas the Thompson-MNL version leads to more clicks in 41.3% of the scenarios (the remaining 0.1% correspond to the model with stationary rewards). ...
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A multiarmed bandit approach that uses a deep neural network to decide personalized recommendations for display in the homepage of an online retailer.
... According to prior studies, we define advertising creativity as advertising executions that are appropriate and novel (e.g., Rosengren et al., 2020) or the process of producing an advertisement that is novel and appropriate in appeal and/or performance . Because original or unique output that likely carries no use or meaning is perceived as weird or bizarre (Rosengren et al., 2020), this bipartite definition of creativity (i.e., both novel and appropriate) is necessary and has already been used in numerous studies concerning marketing (Chen et al., 2016;Kilgour et al., 2013). After reviewing the previous literature, four approaches were found to empirically assess advertising creativity. ...
Article
The present study aimed to examine the influence of advertising creativity on the effectiveness of commercial and noncommercial advertisements in a situation involving attention competitions. Consequently, a dual-task paradigm in which an additional task of time production was completed while viewing advertisements that were creative or common was used. Both memory performance and self-rated purchase intent were assessed. The results showed that advertising creativity has an impact on recognition and purchase intent, with greater accuracy and more favorable purchase intent with creative advertisements, and that the interaction between the advertisement type and creativity categories is significant, with the standard, noncommercial advertisements triggering the lowest purchase intent. These findings provide further evidence suggesting that creative advertising is a useful strategy for improving advertising effectiveness. This study also presents a novel finding resembling anchoring effects with regard to the potential difference in perceived effectiveness between commercial and noncommercial advertisements across two levels of advertising creativity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Mart 2020 ve Aralık 2020 ayları da dâhil olmak üzere COVID-19 pandemisinin ilk on ayını kapsayan süreçte en yaratıcı ve en çok izlenen reklamlar olduğu ifade edilen bu YouTube reklamları içerdikleri yaratıcı mesaj stratejilerinin yanı sıra, COVID-19 teması olup olmadığı, sektör ile yaratıcı mesaj stratejilerinin ilişkisi, COVID-19 teması varlığı ile yaratıcı mesaj stratejilerinin ilişkisi bağlamında MAXQDA 2020 veri analizi programında gerçekleştirilen içerik çözümlemesi aracılığıyla incelenmiştir. Oldukça karmaşık bir süreç olması dolayısıyla formülize etmesi ve kontrol etmesi zor olan (Goldenberg, Mazursky, & Solomon, 1999, s. 333;Yfantidou, Riskos, & Tsourvakas, 2017, s. 341) ve alanyazındaki tanımların bir özü niteliğinde olacak şekilde "özgün ve yerinde reklamcılık uygulamaları" (Rosengren, Eisend, Koslow, & Dahlen, 2020, s. 41) olarak tanımlanan reklam yaratıcılığının çoğunlukla modasının geçmediği (Chen, Yang, & Smith, 2016), hatırda daha çok kaldığı (Shen, ve diğerleri, 2020) ve hedef kitlenin tutum ve davranışlarını olumlu yönde etkilediği (Ang & Low, 2000, s. 835) yönündeki araştırma bulgularından hareketle, yaratıcı reklam uygulamaları yaratarak hedef kitlelerinin zihinlerinde yer etmek reklamverenlerin en önemli hedeflerinden biri olmaktadır. ...
Article
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Türkiye açısından bakıldığında, Mart 2020’de patlak veren COVID-19 pandemisi yüzünden, Türkiye’de insanların eve kapanıp zamanlarının çoğunu dijital medyada geçirmeleriyle birlikte reklamverenler çeşitli stratejiler yoluyla onların dikkatini çekmeye çalışmaktadır ve reklamverenlerin bu amaçla kullandıkları stratejilerden biri de yaratıcı mesaj stratejileridir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, 2020 yılında COVID-19 pandemisi sürecinde Google tarafından Türkiye’deki en yaratıcı YouTube reklamları olarak YouTube Ads Leaderboard’da listelenen markaların YouTube reklamlarının yaratıcı mesaj stratejilerini belirlemektir. Bu doğrultuda, bu çalışma Taylor’ın Altı Parçalı Mesaj Stratejisi Çarkı’na dayanarak 100 YouTube reklamını yaratıcı mesaj stratejileri açısından MAXQDA 2020 veri analizi programı aracılığıyla içerik çözümlemesine tabi tutmaktadır. Araştırma bulguları COVID-19 pandemisinde yayınlanan ve en çok izlenen yaratıcı YouTube reklamlarının en çok karma mesaj stratejisine başvurduğunu, ikinci sırada en çok kullandığı dönüştürücü mesaj stratejileri arasında en sık sosyal mesaj stratejisine ve bilgilendirici strateji arasında ise en çok mantık stratejisine yer verdiğini ve mesajlarında COVID-19 temasını kullanmaktan kaçındıklarını ortaya koymaktadır. Araştırma bulgularından hareketle, çalışmanın sonucunda hem şimdiki ve gelecekteki uygulayıcılara, hem de araştırmacılara öneriler sunularak katkıda bulunulmaktadır.
... A second stream of research adopts a consumer perspective. This perspective considers meaningfulness as the extent to which a brand message is meaningful to the audience (e.g., Chen, Yang, & Smith, 2016;Smith et al., 2008;Stathopoulou, Borel, Christodoulides, & West, 2017). According to this approach, a meaningful message is a message that is relevant, makes sense, is appropriate, and is logical for its audience (Lehnert et al., 2014;White et al., 2002). ...
Article
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A challenge in digital content marketing is to create meaningful messages on meaningful moments. To do so, brands frequently align social media messages with topical moments, also known as Real-time Marketing (RTM). While RTM aims to make meaningful connections, the creative development is subject to time pressure due to its real-time nature, which could have a negative effect on originality and craftsmanship, two other creativity dimensions besides meaningfulness which drive consumer responses. We address this tension by examining the creative crafting of RTM on Instagram and its consequences. Based on a content analysis of 516 Instagram messages, we indeed found a meaningfulness bias for RTM, such that meaningfulness comes at the expense of originality and craftsmanship. However, the findings from the content analysis, as well as an additional experiment (N = 245), showed that only craftsmanship and originality, and not meaningfulness, positively induced consumer responses. Implications are discussed.
... For an advertisement to be effective, it must contain both originality and relevance (Rosengren et al., 2020). For example, in relation to attitude towards advertisements, advertisements with divergence and relevance resist declining effectiveness, even at high levels of repetition (Chen, Yang, & Smith, 2016). Yet, others question the relative importance of one dimension over the other (Lehnert, Till, & Ospina, 2014). ...
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Purpose Marketing research mainly uses self-reported method to record respondents' perceptions of creativity, and while self-reported method has its own merits, there exists some critique, particularly in terms of its ability to adequately capture the influence of message appeal on creativity. This paper studies how viewers’ responses to message appeals in social media advertisement compare in terms of self-reported responses versus responses taken through a neurophysiological method of Electroencephalograph (EEG). Methodology Two social media advertisements are displayed through a laboratory experiment to 17 subjects observing the subjects' neurophysiological reactions as well as their self-reported responses with regard to the commercials’ emotional, informational, and brand-related content. Findings Results show that neurophysiological method offers unique details about emotional appeal, which the self-reported method fails to reflect. Furthermore, the neurophysiological measure identifies differences across the two target commercials in the emotional content part, which again are not identified through the self-reported method. Originality This paper advances advertising research in social media literature by comparing content evaluation within advertisement through neurophysiological and self-reported measure. These findings have implications for marketers to use and measure message appeals in advertisement on social media to influence consumer response.
... Duke et al. [29]; Uribe et al. [30] Creativity Act that is able to produce effective surprise [31]. Wisker et al [32]; Chen et al. [33] Credibility Degree to which consumers perceive messages of advertising believable and to the extent to which trust the source of advertisement [34]. ...
Article
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The advertising is very essential component of a well-prepared social campaign. Thanks to the occurrence of the campaign in the media, it can reach the larger number of potential customers and initiate a number of positive changes. Effectiveness of the advertising, no matter if it is commercial or social, depends heavily on the message that is communicated. An effective message should engage the recipient’s mind and shape his consciousness, as it can significantly increase the impact of social campaign. Therefore, before deciding on the final form of advertising, it is a good practice to generate some alternative messages and pretest them to find the best one. Pretesting involves using various methods to exam messages and materials with the target audience members. The traditionally used methods in this scope are based on self-report questionnaires. But due to some disadvantages of this type of methods, cognitive neuroscience tools are more and more popular in scientific advertising research. However, such tools have also their limitations so some scholars advocate using cognitive neuroscience in combination with traditional survey methods to augment data collected, for a more informed interpretation. In this context, the question arises, what is the correlation between traditional measures of social advertising effectiveness and neurophysiological measures, and how research should be conducted to make the best use of the potential of both groups of methods. Therefore, the aim of the presented article is to show what traditional metrics are used in assessing the effectiveness of social campaigns advertising and which neurophysiological measures could complement them. Additionally, a framework for assessing the effectiveness of media messages in social campaigns using triangulation of cognitive neuroscience and diagnostic survey methods is proposed.
... Meanwhile, in advertising-related psychology, the wearin/out effects are introduced concerning perceptual adaptation by repetitive visual stimuli [23]. Wear-in is a period during which users are gradually familiar with the new content [24]. ...
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... Mobile ad wear-in is a process by which consumers become familiar with the marketing and ad messages. According to Chen, Yang and Smith (2016), 'initial exposures to new ads and marketing messages create a positive feeling by reducing perceived uncertainty and serve as a medium for learning about brand and/or brand awareness' (p. 336). ...
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... This may miss capturing the reality of ad exposure, in which consumers may see the same prescription drug ad many times as they form opinions about the product. In fact, advertising literature suggests repetition is one of the keys to successful advertising (Chen, Yang, & Smith, 2016;Mack, 2005;Southwell, 2005); the number of times an ad is available in one's environment positively predicts likelihood of subsequent recognition of the ad (Southwell, 2005). ...
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Based on a review of the literature, this article presents a framework for understanding advertising creativity and asks the question “What future direction should advertising creativity research take?” We divide creativity research into work focused on creative development (CD) and creative effectiveness (CE). In each stream, we provide an overview of the key areas of research interest and identify future research directions. The study argues that research should continue to explore how individual, group, and organizational structural elements influence creative development, as well as the effect of new media. Additional work is also needed to better understand the evaluation processes given the difficulty in judging creative advertisements, as well as a better understanding of expression issues. This study also calls for additional work dealing with the specific challenges facing each stream and a better integration of the two.
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Although creativity is often considered a key success factor in advertising, the marketing literature lacks a systematic empirical account of when and how advertising creativity works. The authors use a meta-analysis to synthesize the literature on advertising creativity and test different theoretical explanations for its effects. The analysis covers 93 data sets taken from 67 papers that provide 878 effect sizes. The results show robust positive effects but also highlight the importance of considering both originality and appropriateness when investing in advertising creativity. Moderation analyses show that the effects of advertising creativity are stronger for high- (vs. low-) involvement products, and that the effects on ad (but not brand) reactions are marginally stronger for unfamiliar brands. An empirical test of theoretical mechanisms shows that affect transfer, processing, and signaling jointly explain these effects, and that originality mainly leads to affect transfer, whereas appropriateness leads to signaling. The authors also call for further research connecting advertising creativity with sales and studying its effects in digital contexts.
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Technology may facilitate health and wellbeing consumer engagement. When there is scant public health provision and socio-cultural norms marginalize consumers stigmatized from cancer, we reveal how a brand’s corporate social media campaign can support vulnerable consumers with resource constraints. Drawing from a transformative consumer research lens, we investigate five years of computer-mediated communications facilitated by the Indian brand Dabur Vatika. Through a grounded theory and an abductive reasoning approach, we unveil how vulnerable consumers directly or indirectly affected by cancer leverage brand's social media to replenish resources. First, we identify how vulnerable consumers engage to replenish depleted emotional and social support resources. We further expand consumer engagement scholarship by offering a preliminary definition of “vulnerable consumer engagement”. Second, we provide a nascent classification of vulnerable consumers in a consumer-producer role, Principal Vulnerable Consumers and Associate Vulnerable Consumers, distinguished by their proximity to the vulnerable context. Lastly, we reveal how brands may perform a transformative role, to replenish social, emotional and operant resources at the micro level through the engagement of vulnerable consumers with corporate social media. This insight is informative for policymakers, advertising practitioners and transformative consumer research academics.
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Research has showed that aligning brand messages with topical events is a success formula for evoking positive consumer responses, in which ad creativity (i.e., originality, meaningfulness, and craftsmanship) and timing (i.e., the time between the start of an event and the appearance of a Topical Advertising message) play a pivotal role. This was demonstrated in the context of short, ending topical events. Less is known about the effects of aligning brand messages with enduring events that have no anticipated end date. Relying on news value theory and creativity literature, this paper explores the effects of Topical Advertising on engagement and the role of creativity and timing in the context of an enduring event: COVID-19. Based on a content analysis of 1,454 Twitter brand messages, the results showed positive effects of Topical Advertising for enduring events too. However, brands only benefited from chiming in at the start of an enduring event, considering that the positive effects on engagement declined as time progressed. Implications are discussed.
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In a 2017 landmark reform, Saudi authorities decided to lift the ban on women driving in this conservative society. In tribute to women’s newly-gained freedom to drive, major automakers turned to Twitter to launch creative femvertising campaigns that vividly articulate the female empowering motto ‘driving is feminine’. Building on the eloquence of visual rhetoric, which combines the communicative force of figurative language with the expressive potential of visual imagery, automobile advertisers resorted to visual metaphtonymy to efficiently target prospective female consumers. The selection of this visual compound, which emerges from the intricate interplay between metaphor and metonymy, allows for a dynamic interaction between the highlighting function of metonymy and the mapping role of metaphoric thought to establish informed parallels between femininity and automobility. Analysis of survey data on the likeability, complexity and effectiveness of a representative sample of four digital automobile advertisements asserts the role and value of visual metaphtontonymy in automobile femvertising.
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Background Poor hand hygiene can contribute to increased rates of health care and community-acquired infections. Effective hand hygiene involves both a washer's technique and the duration of their wash. Methods The purpose of this longitudinal study was 2-fold: to improve the ability of hand-washers to meet the recommended handwashing duration of ≥20 seconds and to assess the effect of washer fatigue with the intervention. An innovative system of smart connected soap and towel dispensers synchronized to engaging video content was implemented to meet this objective. Results The intervention increased mean handwashing duration by 7.5 seconds (95% CI: 6.6, 8.4) and improved handwashing duration ≥20 seconds by 39.3% (P < .001). Using a similar cohort of hand-washers over 26 months, the video content had peak effect in month 1, and declined to a new steady state at month 11. Discussion Handwashing for the recommended time can be difficult to achieve. Most hand hygiene studies examine the rate of completion without measuring duration. Conclusions Video engagement can improve and sustain handwashing duration. To mitigate creative and messaging fatigue, video content refresh for this intervention should be considered at 3 months for optimal effect or at 11 months prior to full decline to new steady state.
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In a 2017 landmark reform, Saudi authorities decided to lift the ban on women driving in this conservative society. In tribute to women’s newly-gained freedom to drive, major automakers turned to Twitter to launch creative femvertising campaigns that vividly articulate the female empowering motto ‘driving is feminine’. Building on the eloquence of visual rhetoric, which combines the communicative force of figurative language with the expressive potential of visual imagery, automobile advertisers resorted to visual metaphtonymy to efficiently target prospective female consumers. The selection of this visual compound, which emerges from the intricate interplay between metaphor and metonymy, allows for a dynamic interaction between the highlighting function of metonymy and the mapping role of metaphoric thought to establish informed parallels between femininity and automobility. Analysis of survey data on the likeability, complexity and effectiveness of a representative sample of four digital automobile advertisements asserts the role and value of visual metaphtontonymy in automobile femvertising.
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In a 2017 landmark reform, Saudi authorities decided to lift the ban on women driving in this conservative society. In tribute to women's newly-gained freedom to drive, major automakers turned to Twitter to launch creative femvertising campaigns that vividly articulate the female empowering motto 'driving is feminine'. Building on the eloquence of visual rhetoric, which combines the communicative force of figurative language with the expressive potential of visual imagery, automobile advertisers resorted to visual metaphtonymy to efficiently target prospective female consumers. The selection of this visual compound, which emerges from the intricate interplay between metaphor and metonymy, allows for a dynamic interaction between the highlighting function of metonymy and the mapping role of metaphoric thought to establish informed parallels between femininity and automobility. Analysis of survey data on the likeability, complexity and effectiveness of a representative sample of four digital automobile advertisements asserts the role and value of visual metaphtontonymy in automobile femvertising.
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We argue that researchers need to move beyond the simple measure of attitude extremity to more clearly assess the impact of various advertising repetition strategies on consumer attitude. In study 1, we show that different advertising variation strategies can lead to the development of equally positive attitudes, even though the basis of the attitudes is quite different. In study 2, we show that, despite the appearance of equal effectiveness on the dimensions of extremity, persistence, and confidence, type of advertising repetition strategy differentially influences the extent to which individuals resist change in the face of a counterpersuasive attack.
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The authors provide a framework and a set of research propositions that capture and extend current theory on information processing from advertisements. The integrative attitude formation model includes antecedent levels of ability, motivation, and opportunity (AMO), processing of brand information, cognitive and emotional responses, brand attitude formation processes, and brand attitude. Key features of the framework are (1) a more complete, integrative discussion of needs and motivation, (2) a more precise specification of processing mechanisms than currently is proposed in two-routes-to-persuasion models, (3) inclusion of a new typology of emotional and cognitive responses explicitly linked to the levels of brand processing, and (4) a discussion of how alternative attitude formation models correspond to each level of brand processing. To assess the relative advantage of the framework, the authors compare the model with previous integrative models and discuss its implications for related research streams.
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The author proposes that consumers infer brand quality from the level of advertising repetition for unfamiliar brands. Consumers are posited to associate high product quality with high levels of repetition because they see repetition as costly and think higher costs reflect the manufacturer's commitment to the product. However, at very high levels of repetition, consumers may perceive the expenditures as excessive and begin to doubt the manufacturer's confidence in product quality, which would lead to an inverted-U relationship between advertising repetition and product quality perceptions. The author demonstrates that the relationship between repetition and perceived brand quality is mediated by perceptions of the manufacturer's effort and confidence in quality rather than by irritation or boredom. The hypotheses were tested in an experiment in which the level of repetition and the color of the ad were varied.
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In 1988, a joint conference of academics and industry professionals sponsored by the Marketing Science Institute considered the topic, “Evaluating the Effects of Consumer Advertising on Market Position Over Time: How to Tell Whether Advertising Ever Works.” One of the questions raised at this conference was whether there is any benefit at all to advertising. This is indicative of the pessimism that currently exists with regard to the value of advertising. At least one factor that has contributed to this pessimism is the ambiguity in the literature with regard to the value of advertising repetition. The objective of this paper is to critically review this literature so as to resolve much of the ambiguity that surrounds it. It is the thesis of this paper that many of the empirical findings regarding advertising repetition that appear to be contradictory actually are complementary. Generally, where findings appear to be contradictory, the reason is that there are fundamental differences among the studies in terms of the methods and measures used. Hence, by grouping studies according to the methods and measures used, many apparent discrepancies can be resolved.
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The role of direct versus indirect experience in the attitude-behavior consistency issue is reviewed. Using a new communications model, the authors extend the direct/indirect experience paradigm to a common marketing scenario: product trial versus product advertising. The specific contributions of attitude strength and type of behavior are examined, and results show that when attitudes are based on trial they predict purchase very well. When attitudes are based on advertising, however, attitude-behavior consistency is significantly reduced. Implications for when attitude models should be applied in marketing research and practice are discussed.
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This paper examines and compares definitions of advertising creativity held by samples of New York agency practitioners and members of the television-viewing public. Specifically, the research investigates (1) definitions of creativity, and (2) evaluations of advertising from a creative perspective. Significant disagreement between the two sets of subjects was found. Explanations and insights are offered and implications are discussed.
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An overview and perspective of advertising creativity research is offered in a "3 Ps" (person, place, and process) framework to shape future research agendas. Emerging methodologies and tools are examined to enable a paradigm shift for academic researchers and emerging scholars seeking to stimulate new advertising creativity research initiatives. A discussion of key contributions, a literature review, and a classification table summarize various approaches to creativity. An introduction to research papers appearing in this special issue offers insights for scholars.
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Using a combination of exploratory and traditional approaches, we replicate and extend previous research on creativity and memory effects. The first study examines creativity's effect on advertising recall using two nontraditional media: airport terminal and preshow cinema advertising. Results suggest that differences in how consumers interact with nontraditional media influence the effect of advertising creativity on memory. For cinema advertising, where media consumption is similar to traditional media, creativity enhanced recall. For airport advertising, where media consumption often occurs when consumers are in a distracted state, creativity had no effect. The second study continues this investigation of exposure context and extends previous creativity research by investigating the recognition dependent variable in a forcedexposure context. Recognition is measured at four time-delay intervals: no delay and delays of one-week, three-weeks, and five-weeks. Creative advertising was found to enhance recognition, and this positive effect increased over time.
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This study examines how advertising creativity affects consumer processing and response. First, traditional hierarchy-of-effects (HOE) models are reviewed and then augmented with new developments in advertising and persua- sion research to identify fi ve major stages: brand awareness, brand learning, accepting/rejecting ad claims, brand liking, and brand intentions. Theoretical links are identifi ed that predict ad creativity will impact 13 key variables in all fi ve HOE stages. An experiment is conducted that manipulates the two major determinants of ad creativity: divergence and relevance. Results confi rm the expected divergence-by-relevance interaction effect for 12 of the 13 variables demonstrat- ing the potency of creative ads (and the ineffectiveness of ads with low creativity). In addition, a test is conducted using structural equations modeling (SEM) to see whether all the effects of ad creativity are mediated through each successive HOE stage. Results show that the HOE's assumptions hold up reasonably well, although divergence is powerful enough to exert direct (unmediated) effects on brand awareness and brand liking.
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The research examines the effects of divergent and convergent creative thinking techniques on creative ideation processes. To analyze these effects an experiment is undertaken on advertising creatives, account executives, and students. Results demonstrate that divergent thinking techniques improve the idea originality of account executives, but not creatives. Alternatively, creatives produce more appropriate ideas by using convergent thinking techniques, yet account executive performance is clearly harmed by them. Few effects are seen on the student control group, who lack both knowledge of techniques and the domain. The findings suggest that creativity techniques are not a one-size-fits-all proposition but need to be tailored to the person and the situation in which they are applied. Implications for researchers and marketing managers are discussed.
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The authors review the two-factor elaboration model of message repetition effects and report a study of the model's applicability to new product advertising. The study findings do not support the hypothesized inverted-U relationship between repetition and attitude toward a novel commercial and product. However, the underlying processes of learning, tedium arousal, and elaboration were observed. Viewer knowledge and commercial length did not moderate these processes.
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This paper considers the structure of advertising effectiveness on the internet. It investigates empirically the importance of creative and media factors for banner effectiveness. Econometric modelling of actual data on banner ads demonstrates that creative factors such as banner size, animation, message length and logos, as well as media factors such as campaign length, number of host websites, use of offline media, and campaign cost, may influence the direct response of the target audience as measured by click-through rates. The results lead to important practical implications for internet advertising.
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Despite the widespread recognition of the importance of creativity in advertising by practitioners and scholars, no systematic research has been conducted to define ad creativity or examine how it relates to ad effectiveness. The present research attempts to fill this gap by reviewing past literature in psychology, marketing and advertising. From this base, a model is developed which defines a creative ad as both divergent (i.e. novel or unusual) and relevant. The effects of divergence and (to a lesser extent) relevance on consumer processing and response are examined and a series of theoretical propositions are developed. Next, a general theory of creativity in advertising is developed that calls for research in five primary areas: advertising as a communication process, management process, societal process, group process, and personal process. Finally, contributions to advertising theory and implications for future research are discussed, along with commentary from a prominent advertising executive.
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The development and selection of research designs too often reflects thinking which is technique-oriented. This article looks at advertising research from another viewpoint. It starts with the questions: What is advertising supposed to do? What are its functions? The authors then show the implications of these questions in relation to measurements of the effectiveness of proposed advertisements.
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The creative strategies employed in an advertising campaign can have a significant impact on its effectiveness. Each advertising medium imposes certain constraints which limit the execution of a creative strategy; however, few studies have examined radio advertising from this perspective. This study examines several of the message elements used to build creative strategies in radio advertising and audits their use in a sample of ads collected from fifty hours of radio programming.
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The seminal work that led to the "Yale Studies in Attitudes and Communication," reporting a series of experiments on communicator credibility, general persuasibility, role playing, fear arousal, order of presentation, and group norms. Much of the later work in attitude change flows directly from this early volume. Harvard Book List (edited) 1971 #487 (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The topics that are to be treated in this book were unduly neglected by psychology for many years but are now beginning to come to the fore. My own researches into attention and exploratory behavior began in 1947, and at about the same time several other psychologists became independently impressed with the importance of these matters and started to study them experimentally. It is interesting that those were also the years when information theory was making its appearance and when the reticular formation of the brain stem was first attracting the notice of neurophysiologists. During the last ten years, the tempo of research into exploratory behavior and related phenomena has been steadily quickening. The book is prompted by the feeling that it is now time to pause and take stock: to review relevant data contributed by several different specialties, to consider what conclusions, whether firm or tentative, are justified at the present juncture, and to clarify what remains to be done. The primary aim of the book is, in fact, to raise problems. The book is intended as a contribution to behavior theory, i.e., to psychology conceived as a branch of science with the circumscribed objective of explaining and predicting behavior. But interest in attention and exploratory behavior and in other topics indissociably bound up with them, such as art, humor and thinking, has by no means been confined to professional psychologists. The book has two features that would have surprised me when I first set out to plan it. One is that it ends up sketching a highly modified form of drive-reduction theory. Drive-reduction theory has appeared more and more to be full of shortcomings, even for the phenomena that it was originally designed to handle. The second surprising feature is the prominence of neurophysiology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study explored the influence of dimensions of creativity—novelty (expectancy), meaningfulness (relevancy), and emotion (valence of feelings)—on attitude toward the ad, attitude toward the brand, and purchase intention. The results indicate that unexpectedness enhanced ad effectiveness over expectedness when the ad has positive feelings. When the ad contains negative feelings, attitude toward the ad was diluted with unexpectedness vs. expectedness. Relevance was not critical in encouraging favorable responses when the ad is unexpected. With an unexpected–relevant–positive-feeling ad used as the baseline, a creative ad generated more favorable attitude toward the ad than other ad conditions. However, ad creativity resulted in more favorable brand attitude and purchase intention only against selected ad conditions. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed and directions for future research furnished. © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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Two experiments, in which Ss were exposed to sequences of colored shapes, investigated effects on ratings of “pleasingness” and “interestingness” of variables that had previously been shown to affect ratings of “novelty.” The results indicate, on the whole, that both pleasingness and interestingness increase with novelty. These findings run counter to those of experiments indicating an inverse relation between novelty and verbally expressed preference. Two further experiments examined effects of some variables that might account for this apparent discrepancy. Homogeneous sequences declined in judged “pleasantness” more than sequences in which several stimuli were interspersed, and simple stimuli became less pleasant as they became less novel, while complex stimuli declined less or became more pleasant. The findings are related to hypotheses regarding mechanisms of hedonic value. Two crucial predictions were confirmed in a fifth experiment.
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While creativity in advertising is a growing area of marketing research, relatively little is known about how the effects of creativity are produced. Accordingly, this research explores the basic persuasive (i.e., desire to postpone closure) and emotional (i.e., positive affect) mechanisms through which creative ads exert their influence on consumer viewing and purchase intentions. In addition, the model hypothesizes that the level of involvement with the ad moderates the desire to postpone closure effects but not the emotional impact. An overall model of the impact of ad creativity is developed and tested using structural equations analysis. Results from three experiments show the model receives good support.
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Strategic market planning -- Industrial marketing -- Research for marketing decisions -- Global marketing management -- Marketing management -- Strategic marketing for nonprofit organizations -- Principles of marketing -- Services marketing -- Marketing research and knowledge development -- The strategy and tactics of pricing -- Kleppner's advertising procedure -- Marketing channels -- Legal aspects of marketing strategy -- Design and marketing of new products
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This research examines whether or not repetition of features of a stimulus are subject to wear-out effects that have until now only been tested for the stimulus as a whole. When consumers process features in either a shallower or deeper manner, the level of processing performed dictates the effect of repeated feature exposure on their judgments. When repeated exposures to features are processed in a shallower fashion, there is an enhancement in evaluations with no subsequent downturn, whereas repeated exposure to features that are processed more deeply results in evaluations that exhibit the classic inverted U-shaped pattern. Copyright 2002 by the University of Chicago.
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The influence of advertising repetition on several non-evaluative dimensions of attitudes and the strength of the relationship between attitudes and behavior are examined. The results indicate that attitudes formed on the basis of repeated ad exposure are similar to those formed on the basis of direct experience in that they are more accessible from memory, held with more confidence, and are more predictive of subsequent behavior than are attitudes based on a single ad exposure. The results are consistent with the propositions that attitude accessibility and attitude confidence moderate the attitude-behavior relationship. Copyright 1989 by the University of Chicago.
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We present the results of a study designed to test several hypotheses concerning the effects of intrinsic and situational sources of personal relevance on felt involvement and on the amount of attention and comprehension effort, the focus of attention and comprehension processes, and the extent of cognitive elaboration during comprehension. Felt involvement is a motivational state that affects the extent and focus of consumers' attention and comprehension processes, and thus the specific meanings that are produced. The results of the study provide strong evidence that felt involvement plays a motivational role in consumers' attention and comprehension processes.
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This article examines how consumers' attitudes toward advertisements are affected by their previous exposure to them. The results of our experiment suggest that the effects of exposure on ad attitudes may be moderated by the complexity of the advertisement: evaluations of complex ads become more positive with exposure, while those of simple ads do not. This finding may help explain why previous studies of ad exposure effects have yielded mixed results.