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Chemical evaluation and nutritive values of Tetracarpidium conophorum (Nigerian walnut) seeds

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... possesses a bitter taste, which is usually observed upon drinking water immediately after eating. This could be attributed to the presence of chemical substances such as alkaloid, as other researchers have identified [13]. Walnuts are of a high economic interest for the food industry [44] and its nuts are highly appreciated for its unique organoleptic characteristics [3], hypocholesterolemic effects [45][46][47][48][49] and antihypertensive effect [45,50,51]. ...
... Walnut, including the tree, nut, shell and kernel (commonly consumed part) are of invaluable economic importance to human. Tetracarpidium conophorum is a climbing shrub 10-20 ft long [13][14] and climbs any available tree it is planted close to. Figure 1, describes walnut plant climbing a cocoa tree close to where it was planted. ...
... Figure 1, describes walnut plant climbing a cocoa tree close to where it was planted. Figure 1: Walnut tree as a climber (climbing cocoa tree) [13] The nut consists of the shell and the kernel, otherwise known as the seed. Figures 2 and 3 respectively show nut of walnut samples with shelled and kernel i.e nut whose shell has been removed. ...
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Walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum) is majorly cultivated principally for its nuts in Southern Nigeria, they are cooked and eaten as snacks. They are a great source of unsaturated fatty acids, vitamin E, fiber, magnesium and potassium and are known to be considerably rich in omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids which are highly beneficial to to human health. The current review appraises the elemental (Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, Iron, copper, zinc lead) and proximate (ash content, moisture content, fat content, protein content, total carbohydrate) analyses of the Nigerian walnut, as well as other composition contents such as ascorbic acid content, alkaloid, tocopherols, sterols and dietary fibres. The therapeutic properties ranging from its ability to be used traditionally as a curative agent for fever, asthma, rheumatismal pains, diabetes etc. have also been properly discussed.
... Walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum) is a small flowering plant which produces a popular nut commonly known as African walnut because of its African origin [1,2]. African walnut grows in parts of Nigeria and Cameroon. ...
... The colour of walnut shell is either black or brown. After the shell is cracked, the whitish nut which has thin layer between two halves becomes visible [1]. ...
... This could be attributed to alkaloids present in the walnuts [3,7]. The nutritional composition of African walnuts has been determined by several researchers [1,8,9]. Studies by Igara et al. [10] reported that the nuts contain 9.64 mg/100 g vitamin A, 0.04 mg/100 g vitamin B 1 , 0.08 mg/100 g vitamin B 2 , 0.02 mg/100 g vitamin B 3 , 6.98 mg/100 g vitamin C and 96.42 mg/100 g vitamin E. According to Ros [11], nuts which include African walnut could be described as nutrient dense foods associated with health benefits. ...
... Nwauzoma and Dappa (2013) reported ethnobotanical uses of T. conophorum seed in the treatment of fibroids; the boiled seeds are also eaten to improve sperm count in men while the leaf juice is used to improve fertility in women and regulate menstrual flow. Ayoola et al. (2011) reported the use of T. conophorum in the treatment of stomach disorders and for controlling high blood pressure. The bark is brewed as a tea for use as a laxative and is chewed for toothache. ...
... Source: Ayoola et al. 2011 FIGURE 1: Tetracarpidium conophorum in its natural habitat (a) and seed nuts (b). ...
... They are believed to stop asthma and are prescribed to be taken between bouts of asthma but not for acute asthma. They are used by the elderly to cure constipation and flatulence (Ayoola et al. 2011;Ogundolie et al. 2017). The leaves and young shoots are occasionally eaten with cooked rice in some parts of West Africa. ...
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The use of medicinal plants to cure many ailments has been a tradition in different parts of the world. Tetracarpidium conophorum (African walnut) belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. It is an edible seed that is widely cultivated for its delicacy. All parts of the plant have been used ethnomedically. This article reviewed the ethnomedicinal, nutritional, phytochemical and some pharmacological activities of T. conophorum, because medicinal plants are our hope in achieving sustainable global statutory of health for all and a last resort in healthcare management in African countries. This review reveals previous findings and other pharmacological benefits of the African walnut towards its potential as food and drug development.
... The lowest amounts of calcium were found in DBWN 60 min and FBWN 60 min, and were 569.00 and 671.50 mg/100 g, respectively. Globally, the concentration of calcium obtained in this study is higher than 433.5 mg/100 g as reported by Ayoola, Onawumi, and Faboya (2011). This mineral, together with the phosphorus are very essential for bone metabolism (Nwaoguikpe, Ujowundu, & Wesley, 2012 during processing through the diffusion process. ...
... The amount of magnesium obtained in this study was higher than 171.12 mg/100 g as previously reported by Ayoola et al. (2011) in the same nuts. ...
... during cooking compared to the control (DWN). However, their concentrations were significantly higher than 625 mg/100 g and 26 mg/100 g as reported by Ayoola et al. (2011) and Nwaoguikpe et al. (2012), respectively. The presence of these minerals in African walnut is also beneficial, due to their direct relationship with hypertension in humans. ...
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The effect of boiling and roasting on the lipid quality, proximate composition, and mineral content of African walnut seeds (Tetracarpidium conophorum) was assessed. Results indicated that the quality of walnut oil significantly (p < .05) reduces with the treatments. Oils extracted from DBWN 60 min (Dried and boiled walnuts 60 min) and FBWN 60 min (Boiled fresh walnuts 60 min) were the most altered. The proximate composition and mineral content of walnut seeds was also significantly affected (p < .05) by the treatments. This study reveals that, thermal processing has significant effects on the nutrients and quality of lipids of walnut oil. DTRWN 60 min (Dried and traditionally roasted walnuts 60 min), DORWN 60 min (Dried and oven roasted walnuts 60 min), and TRFWN 30 min (traditionally roasted fresh nuts 30 min) are the best methods for cooking walnut because they preserve the quality of its lipids and some of the nutrients.
... The presence of oxalates, phytates, tannins as well as proteins, fibres, oil and carbohydrate in Tetracarpidium conophorum has been reported [7]. The phytochemical and nutrient evaluation of Tetracarpidium conophorum (Nigerian walnut) root has also been reported [8]. ...
... Table 1 showed the percentage proximate composition of the walnut leaf extract. These results were in agreement with earlier reports of proximate compositions of the seeds by [13,8]. The moisture content is an important parameter as it affects the percentage yield of the seed oils during extraction [14]. ...
... Though the leaf extract of T. conophorum did not show significant effect on the testosterone level, there were observed differences on the sperm viability among the rats in the different groups which could be attributed to the abundant amount of vitamin E and zinc present in the extract, which are known male fertility agents as reported by [6]. The seeds of T. conophorum have been reported to contain reasonable amounts of zinc and vitamin E [8,15]. However, the observed effect of the walnut on the level of testosterone was in accordance with the trend observed in the testicular histopathology. ...
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This study determined the effect of Tetracarpidium conophorum (black walnut) leaf extract on the male reproductive organs of albino rats. The effects of the leaf extracts were determined on the Epididymal sperm concentration, Testicular histology, and on testosterone concentration in the rat serum by a micro plate enzyme immunoassay (Testosterone assay). A total of sixteen (16) male albino wistar rats were divided into four (1, 2, 3 and 4) groups of four rats each. Group 1 served as the control and was fed with normal diet only, while groups 2, 3 and 4 were fed with 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight (BW) of the extract for a period of two weeks. The Epididymal sperm concentration were not significantly affected (p>0.05) across the groups. The level of testosterone for the treatment groups 2 and 4 showed no significant difference (p>0.05) compared to the control while group 4 showed significant increase compared to that of the control (p<0.05). Pathologic changes were observed in testicular histology across the treatment groups. Robust seminiferous tubular lumen containing sperm cells and increased production of Leydig cells and Sertoli cells were observed across different treatment groups compared to that of the control.
... The presence of oxalates, phytates, tannins as well as proteins, fibres, oil and carbohydrate in Tetracarpidium conophorum has been reported [7]. The phytochemical and nutrient evaluation of Tetracarpidium conophorum (Nigerian walnut) root has also been reported [8]. ...
... Table 1 showed the percentage proximate composition of the walnut leaf extract. These results were in agreement with earlier reports of proximate compositions of the seeds by [13,8]. The moisture content is an important parameter as it affects the percentage yield of the seed oils during extraction [14]. ...
... Though the leaf extract of T. conophorum did not show significant effect on the testosterone level, there were observed differences on the sperm viability among the rats in the different groups which could be attributed to the abundant amount of vitamin E and zinc present in the extract, which are known male fertility agents as reported by [6]. The seeds of T. conophorum have been reported to contain reasonable amounts of zinc and vitamin E [8,15]. However, the observed effect of the walnut on the level of testosterone was in accordance with the trend observed in the testicular histopathology. ...
Article
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This study determined the effect of Tetracarpidium conophorum (black walnut) leaf extract on the male reproductive organs of albino rats. The effects of the leaf extracts were determined on the Epididymal sperm concentration, Testicular histology, and on testosterone concentration in the rat serum by a micro plate enzyme immunoassay (Testosterone assay). A total of sixteen (16) male albino wistar rats were divided into four (1, 2, 3 and 4) groups of four rats each. Group 1 served as the control and was fed with normal diet only, while groups 2, 3 and 4 were fed with 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight (BW) of the extract for a period of two weeks. The Epididymal sperm concentration were not significantly affected (p>0.05) across the groups. The level of testosterone for the treatment groups 2 and 4 showed no significant difference (p>0.05) compared to the control while group 4 showed significant increase compared to that of the control (p<0.05). Pathologic changes were observed in testicular histology across the treatment groups. Robust seminiferous tubular lumen containing sperm cells and increased production of Leydig cells and Sertoli cells were observed across different treatment groups compared to that of the control.
... According to [2], synthetic drug consumers in developed countries are becoming disillusioned and disenchanted with modern health-care and are therefore seeking for alternatives. This suggests a paradigm shift towards exploring, exploiting and optimizing our forest reservoir African walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum) is a climbing shrub in the family of Euphorbiaceae [3]. The plant is locally cultivated mainly for the nuts which are cooked and consumed as snacks [4]. ...
... The seeds are also incorporated into livestock feed formulation [6]. They are used as tonic for the kidneys, strengthening of back and knees, and moistening of intestine [3]. The barks are used in coffee as laxative and also chewed for reducing toothache. ...
... Tesosterone, estradiol and luteinizing hormone (LH) were not also significant among the rats in the different groups. It is interesting to mention the fact that the seeds of T.conophorum contains important bioactive component [3] whose effect can singly or synergistically enhance the biosynthetic processes underlying hormonal production. This presupposes that the said bioactive components in the seeds might have probably enhanced FSH in the rats. ...
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Herbal plants have been found to be effective in traditional medicine for healthcare. However, the full potentials of these natural resources are yet to be fully explored. This research was coined at investigating the effects of Tetracarpidium conophorum seeds on the hormone and sperm profile of male albino rats. Forty eight albino rats of about twelve weeks weighing between 130-180g each were divided into four groups (A, B, C and D) with twelve rats in each group. The test extract was obtained from the seeds and incorporated into the feed of the rats. Group A served as the control (without test substance) while groups B, C and D were fed with of 4, 8 and 12g/kg body weight (BW) of the test substance for the period of 63 days. Respectively the results obtained from hormonal analysis show that there are significant difference (p<0.05) in the serum level of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) of the rats between the different treatment groups while the serum levels of testosterone and estradiol were not significant (p>0.05). Results of semen quality show that there are significant differences (p<0.05) in the sperm count, sperm morphology, sperm viability and semen pH among rats between the different groups. Sperm motility and organ weights (testes and epididymides) were not significantly affected (p>0.05). The results indicate that the seeds of T. conophorum can enhance the production of reproductive hormones and may be used in the formulation of useful fertility drugs.
... Also, the presence of oxalates, phytates, tannins as well as proteins, fibres, oil and carbohydrate in Tetracarpidium conophorum has been reported (Enujiugha, 2003). The phytochemical and nutrient evaluation of Tetracarpidium conophorum (Nigerian walnut) root has also been reported (Ayoola et al., 2011). Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the proximate, phytochemical, mineral and vitamin constituents of the seed sample of Tetracarpidium conophorum. ...
... kcal) respectively. These values were fairly in agreement with earlier reports on proximate compositions of these seeds by Ayoola et al., 2011 andOkwu, 2004. The moisture content is an important parameter as it affects the percentage yield of the seed oils during extraction (Mansor, et al., 2012). ...
... Deficiency of ascorbic acid is associated with pains in the joint and defect in skeletal calcification, anaemia, manifestation of scurvy haemorrhage from mucous membrane of the mouth and gastrointestinal track (Hunt et al., 1980). Report also indicates that walnut could be used in treatment of indigestion, constipation and diarrhea (Ayoola et al., 2011). The vitamin E content of walnut was exceptionally high and this supports its use in Southern Nigeria ethno-medicine as a male fertility agent (Ajaiyoba and Fadare, 2006). ...
Article
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This study evaluated the phytochemical, proximate, vitamin and mineral element composition of Tetracarpidium conophorum (black walnut) seeds. The
... According to [2], synthetic drug consumers in developed countries are becoming disillusioned and disenchanted with modern health-care and are therefore seeking for alternatives. This suggests a paradigm shift towards exploring, exploiting and optimizing our forest reservoir African walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum) is a climbing shrub in the family of Euphorbiaceae [3]. The plant is locally cultivated mainly for the nuts which are cooked and consumed as snacks [4]. ...
... The seeds are also incorporated into livestock feed formulation [6]. They are used as tonic for the kidneys, strengthening of back and knees, and moistening of intestine [3]. The barks are used in coffee as laxative and also chewed for reducing toothache. ...
... Tesosterone, estradiol and luteinizing hormone (LH) were not also significant among the rats in the different groups. It is interesting to mention the fact that the seeds of T.conophorum contains important bioactive component [3] whose effect can singly or synergistically enhance the biosynthetic processes underlying hormonal production. This presupposes that the said bioactive components in the seeds might have probably enhanced FSH in the rats. ...
Article
Herbal plants have been found to be effective in traditional medicine for healthcare. However, the full potentials of these natural resources are yet to be fully explored. This research was coined at investigating the effects of Tetracarpidium conophorumseeds on the hormone and sperm profile of male albino rats. Forty eight albino rats of about twelve weeks weighing between 130-180g each were divided intofour groups (A, B, C and D) with twelve rats in each group. The test extract was obtained from the seeds and incorporated into the feed of the rats. Group A served as the control (without test substance) while groups B, C and D were fed with of 4, 8 and 1 2g/kg body weight (BW) of the test substance for the period of 63 days .Respectivelytheresults obtained from hormonal analysis show that there are significant difference (p 0.05). Results of semen quality show that there are significant differences (p 0.05). The results indicate that the seeds of
... The amount of iron provided by walnut can help alleviate or prevent nutritional anemia associated with iron deficiency. Although the amounts of potassium and sodium decreased in values during boiling compared to fresh nut, their concentrations were higher than 625 and 26 mg/100g reported by Ayoola et al. (2011) and Djikeng et al. (2017), respectively. The minerals in African walnut are beneficial to human health due to their direct relationship with hypertension in human. ...
... The decrease in the quantity of magnesium in boiled nut could be attributed to the loss of this mineral during processing through the diffusion process. The amount of magnesium obtained in this study was higher than 171.12 mg/100g as previously reported by Ayoola et al. (2011) and Djikeng et al. (2017) in walnut. ...
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Nut collection expeditions of Plukenetia conophora L. were made to 10 locations in southwestern Nigeria. Seeds extracted were cooked or not and were assayed for phytochemical and mineral contents. Data obtained were statistically analyzed. Omuwo-Oke accession had highest phenol and tannin whereas Ijan had highest phytate; alkaloids and glycosides were higher in Ara accession than others. Accession obtained from Aramoko gave highest iron concentration while the lowest was in Ogotun accession. The concentrations of K, Mg and Na were higher in Ogotun accession while the lowest was found in Alafe, Agbado and Aba-Oyo, respectively. Alafe accession had highest concentration of phosphorus but lower concentration was obtained in Ogotun. Zinc was highest in collection from Aramoko while Abgado accession had the lowest. Phenol, phytate, alkaloids and glycosides were higher in boiled nuts than fresh nuts but tannin was higher in fresh nuts. K, Mg, Zn and Na were higher in fresh nuts than boiled nuts. Higher concentration of Fe and P were recorded in boiled nuts. Genotype x traits biplot analysis revealed that cooked nuts from Agbado, Alafe, and Aramoko had higher values for glycosides. Alkaloid was more pronounced in fresh nut from Ara. Fresh nuts from Aba-Oyo and Agbado gave higher values for phytate. Tannin was highest in fresh nuts from Omuo-Oke and boiled nuts from Igbara-Odo while phenol was higher in boiled nut from Omuo-Oke. Biplot analysis for minerals revealed higher concentration of Zn, NFE, Na and P in boiled nuts from Aramoko, Omuo- Oke, Igbara-Odo, Ogotun and Ijan. Mg was highest in fresh nuts from Ara and Igbara-Odo. Tannin and alkaloids had negative significant relationship (r = –0.581*) but the relationship between glycosides and alkaloids was positive and significant (r = 0.520*). Zn had significant relationships with Mg and P (r = 0.590* and –0.551*, respectively). Similarly, Na had positive relationships with K and Mg (r = 0.599** and 0.491*, respectively). Mg and K had an r-value of 0.502*. Inter-correlative responses between the phytochemicals and minerals revealed that only glycosides had significant relationships with K, Mg and Zn (which were negative) as well as with P (which was positive). Data obtained suggested sufficient genetic diversity in nuts of Plukenetia sourced from southwestern Nigeria, indicating posibility for selection. Besides, cooking had signifcant (in some cases, positive) effect on the phytochemicals and minerals assayed. Key words: African walnut, accessions, phytochemical, minerals, processing
... TC, like many plants in Africa and other parts of the world has been proven to have decorative, nutritive, medicinal, agricultural and industrial values over the years. Several studies on TC indicates that it contains bioactive compounds such as oxalates, phylates, tannins, saponins and alkaloids which partly shows the use of the seeds, leaves and roots in herbal medicine [3,6]. TC is considered to be a herb in Traditional Chinese Medicine. ...
... [13] reported that TC possesses antioxidant activities. A chemical evaluation of TC nuts revealed it can be useful to manage cardiovascular disease due to the presence of tocopherol [6]. However, despite the various medicinal values of TC there is paucity of information on its antihypertensive properties. ...
Article
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This work was designed to investigate the antihypertensive properties of aqueous extract of Tetracarpidium conophorum (TC) in salt-induced hypertensive rats. A total of thirty (30) male wistar rats were used for this study. The rats were randomly divided into six groups (A-F) of five rats each. Hypertension was induced in the rats except group A which served as the normotensive control group. The rats in groups (B-F) were placed on 8% NaCl in the diet/drinking water for 21 days and then treated with 70 mg/kg, 140 mg/kg, 210 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract of Tetracarpidium conophorum (AETC) and lisinopril 5 mg/kg respectively for additional 21 days. Acute toxicity studies using LD 50 assays showed AETC to be virtually non-toxic (LD 50 >700mg/kg body weight). Phytochemical analysis of crude extract indicates the presence of flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids and Phenols. Salt loading significantly increased the systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP),mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate. Treatment showed significant (p < 0.05) decrease in SBP, DBP, MAP, heart rate, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein and increased high density lipoprotein and body weight as compared with the salt-loaded untreated group. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in SBP, DBP, MAP, heart rate and body weights of salt-loaded groups treated with AETC and the salt loaded group treated with lisinopril. These results indicate that AETC (African walnut) possesses antihypertensive effect in hypertensive rats.
... In the T. conophorium treated group (experimental subgroup D), a significant increase in FSH level was observed. It is interesting to mention the fact that the seeds of walnut important bioactive component [31] whose effect can synergistically or singly enhance the biosynthetic processes underlying hormonal production. This presupposes that the said bioactive components in the seeds might have probably enhanced FSH in the rats. ...
... Also, the elevated FSH level observed may be due to a disruption in the spermatogenic proce thus leading to decrease in sperm production [32], an imbalance in gonadal-pituitary feedback treated group (experimental subgroup D), a significant increase in FSH level was observed. It is interesting to mention the fact that the seeds of walnut contain important bioactive component [31] whose effect can synergistically or singly enhance the synthetic processes underlying hormonal production. This presupposes that the said bioactive components in the seeds might have probably enhanced FSH in the rats. ...
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Aims: This study aims to comparatively investigate the effects of Cimetidine, Ascorbic acid (Vit C), Citrus aurantifolia and Tetracarpidium conophorium on male fertility hormones in adult male albino Wistar rats. Study Design: 96 Albino rats randomly assigned into 6 groups (A – F), the first 4 groups (A – D) further sub-divided into 3 Subgroups of 6 rats each and the last 2 groups (E –F), sub-divided into 2 Subgroups of 6 rats each. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Clinical pharmacology Animal house, University of Uyo, Nigeria. Methodology: Group A – D had sub-groups1 as control groups, sub-group2 and 3 as experimental groups which received medium and high doses of Cimetidine, Vit C, Citrus aurantifolia and Tetracarpidium conophorium respectively, while Groups E – F also had Control sub-groups and experimental sub-groups treated with medium doses of Cimetidine and Vit C, Citrus aurantifolia and T. conophorium respectively. Treatment was performed daily for 21 days; serum reproductive hormonal assay was carried out. Results: Vit C significantly (P<0.05) increased follicle stimulating hormone levels in Vit C high dose sub-group3 compared to control and Vit C low dose sub-group2, significantly (P<0.05) increased testosterone serum levels in Vit C low dose sub-group2 and Vit C high dose sub-group3 compared to control, also significantly (P<0.05) decreased Luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in Vit C low dose group compared to control. Combination treatment of Cimetidine and Vit C significantly (P<0.05) increased follicle stimulating hormone levels when compared to control, also significantly (P<0.05) decreased LH levels in sub-group2 compared to control. Combination treatment of Citrus aurantifolia and T. conophorium significantly (P<0.05) increased follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone levels when compared to control. Conclusion: Vitamin C and T. conophorium can boost fertility. Citrus aurantifolia at high doses affects fertility negatively having a mild effect at medium doses. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
... This result conforms to what was reported by Obianime and Uche, 33 but differs from what was reported in the plant seed. 34 Our findings also revealed that the leaves contain appreciable amounts of phenolic compounds as shown by the total phenol and flavonoid contents. This result correlates with our previous report on the high-performance liquid chromatography phenolic fingerprinting of African walnut leaf. ...
... 8 Previous experimental investigations have shown that these phytochemicals are strong antioxidants and free radical scavengers that can prevent oxidative damage to hepatic and renal cells. 8,34,35 Conclusion This study revealed that aqueous extract from the leaves of African walnut enhances the activities of serum AST and ALT and improves liver and kidney function with no toxicological evidence on the tested organs of the rats. The leaf extract could be used as it contains several secondary metabolites with diverse pharmacological activities. ...
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Tetracarpidium conophorum leaves are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of male infertility, without considering its toxicity and side effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of T conophorum leaves on some biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, albumin, creatinine, and uric acid. Histology of the liver and kidney were also assessed. The result revealed that the alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels of the control group were not significantly different from the experimental groups. There was no significant difference in the albumin and bilirubin levels of the control and experimental groups. Similarly, the uric acid and creatinine levels of the experimental rats were not significantly different from the control. The examination of liver and kidney sections did not show any morphological changes and inflammatory cell infiltrations. These findings suggest that the leaves did not induce any pathological changes at the doses tested.
... The macerated leaves and roots are used traditionally in the treatment of asthma and hypertension (Okafor and Okorie, 1990). A recent study by Ayoola et al. (2011) showed the rich phytochemical, vitamin and mineral content of the root of Plukenetia conophorum which explains the usefulness in traditional medicine and the potential in the formulation of new drugs. ...
... For instance, the oil content of the seeds (48.9%) is high enough for commercial exploitation (Enujiugha, 2003). At the moment, the species is yet to be fully domesticated although the need for this has been emphasized (Egarhevba et al., 2005;Ayoola et al., 2011). ...
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A study of the physical and proximate traits of seeds of African walnut (Plukenetia conophorum) from four locations (states) in southeastern Nigeria was carried out in 2011. The locations considered were Enugu, Anambra, Abia and Rivers. Results of statistical analysis showed remarkable variation (p < 0.05) in all the seed physical traits across the sampled locations. Accessions from Anambra were outstanding in seed weight, seed circumference and seed diameter. However, the Enugu accession was the best in terms of seed edible proportion, followed by that of Abia, while seeds obtained from Anambra had the least percentage edible proportion. The accession from Rivers had the least seed weight, kernel weight, seed circumference and seed radius. Correlation coefficients among the physical traits indicated that seed weight had significant statistical linkage with all the other physical traits except seed coat thickness. Seed coat thickness, just like the seed edible proportion had poor statistical linkage with most of the seed physical traits; whereas kernel weight recorded a high significant positive relationship (r = 0.913**) with seed weight. Kernel weight, seed volume, seed circumference and seed diameter showed more or less similar pattern of relationship. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) results identified five physical traits including seed weight, kernel weight, seed volume, seed circumference and seed diameter as the most discriminatory traits among the accessions. Location significantly (p < 0.05) influenced only moisture, fat and ash content of the seeds. Fat concentration of the Anambra and Abia accessions were higher than those of the other two accessions. Boiling lowered the moisture content of seeds and significantly (p < 0.05) increased the fibre content. Location × processing interaction had no remarkable effect on the proximate attributes of the seeds. Correlation analysis linked high fat content with large kernel diameter. Thus, seeds with large kernels could be selected for fat content and those with small size could give higher percentage edible proportion. Seeds of African walnut in the sampled zone have adequate nutritional content to qualify as a protein-rich oilseed and have shown enough variability to warrant selection for further improvement.
... African walnut seed oil (AWSO), for example, is a rich source of essential dietary fatty acidsoleic, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids [12]. Dietary minerals such as potassium, magnesium, and calcium have been found in significant quantities in walnut seed [13]. Its polyphenols content is also higher than other common nuts [14]. ...
... All parts of African walnut plant have been used ethnomedically (Janick and Paul, 2008). Nwauzoma and Dappa (2013) reported ethnobotanical uses of African walnut seed extract in the treatment of fibroids, high blood pressure, malaria (Ayoola et al., 2011;Ogunyinka et al., 2015;Uhunmwangho and Omoregie, 2017b). The nut oil contains 48 to 50% dry weight of oil, is golden yellow in colour, with a taste resembling linseed oil (Negi et al., 2011). ...
... The fruits are edible and used for various purposes, including masticatory, thrush, anti-helminth, and syphilis and also as an antidote against snake bites. [30] The phytochemical analysis of the nuts, leaves, and roots indicated that it has bioactive compounds such as oxalates, phytates, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, and terpenoids, [31,32] and the medicinal effect of the plant has been attributed to these phytoconstituents. ...
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Background: The increased prevalence of uterine fibroid (UF) and its life-threatening impact among women of reproductive age led to the development of this study. The study investigated the antifibrotic potential of Tetracarpidium conophorum aqueous extract on UF-induced rats. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four female Wistar rats, with an average weight of 200 g, were used for the study. The rats were randomly divided into eight groups of eight animals each. UF was induced by oral administration of diethylstilbestrol (DES) and intramuscular injection of progesterone at dosages 1.35 and 1.0 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Group 1 was administered normal saline orally for 8 weeks. Groups 2 and 3 were treated with progesterone and a combination of DES and progesterone, respectively. Groups 4 and 5 were pretreated with 200 and 400 mg/kg T. conophorum extract, respectively, for 3 weeks before the administration of DES and progesterone for 5 weeks. Groups 6 and 7 were administered DES and progesterone for 5 weeks before being treated with 200 and 400 mg/kg T. conophorum extract, respectively, for 3 weeks. Group 8 was the self-recovery group-administered DES and progesterone for 5 weeks after which they were given normal saline orally for 3 weeks. Results: After the treatment period, the rats were euthanized, and blood was collected, while the uteruses were harvested. Co-administration of DES and progesterone produces UF conditions. However, pre-and post-treatment with 200 mg/kg of extract mitigated the effects that were induced by DES and progesterone, but no remarkable preventive and curative effects were observed with the higher dosage (400 mg/kg). There were a reduction of the serum prolactin level in the treatment groups and an increased serum progesterone level in the posttreatment group. Conclusion: The study has shown that T. conophorum has both preventive and curative effects on UF at low dosage (200 mg/kg).
... Ezealisiji et al. [25] and Anosike et al. [26] showed anti-ulcer, cytoprotective, and wound healing properties in their studies. The utilize of Nigerian walnut in the therapy of gastrointestinal ailments and the control of high blood pressure was described by Ayoola et al. [27]. Nwachoko and Jack [28] also found that a hot aqueous extract of Nigerian walnuts protected rats from castor oil-induced diarrhea. ...
... Ezealisiji et al. [25] and Anosike et al. [26] showed anti-ulcer, cytoprotective, and wound healing properties in their studies. The utilize of Nigerian walnut in the therapy of gastrointestinal ailments and the control of high blood pressure was described by Ayoola et al. [27]. Nwachoko and Jack [28] also found that a hot aqueous extract of Nigerian walnuts protected rats from castor oil-induced diarrhea. ...
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Nigerian walnuts (Tetracarpidium conophoram) are used as a diet and medicine is on the increase to the extent that it is almost scarce in various regions where they are marketed. This study took a brief review on the nature, classification, properties, phytochemical components, nutritional values, and medicinal properties. There is rapid growth towards research and developments involving Nigerian walnut for drug development. From this study, it is discovered that Nigerian walnut has shown anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-chelating nature, and high blood pressure control activities. Also, it has shown anti-lipidemic, anti-diabetes, anti-malarial, antimicrobial /antibacterial, and anticancer nature. The walnut has given reproductive assistance and aided sperm production and sperm quality, wound healing, anti-ulcer, and stomach disorders treatment features. The Nigerian walnut has energizing and weight management and diseases prevention capacity. It aids in bone health, skin or other tissues repairs, and could go a long way to assist in other health challenges. There has also encouraged usage in the aspect of complementary and alternative medicine. There seems to be a close relationship between walnut and bitter kola in nature, diet and medicinal properties Researchers and drugs producing companies should improve in their studies for more drug discoveries that could involve Nigerian walnut as it could assist in a Nobel discovery for treatment of difficult to treat diseases in the world
... This could be attributed to the high percentage of protein content of the walnut flour as reported in literature which are 35.6% [14] 21.6% [15], and 21.65 [16]. This result indicated that the aim of supplementation which was to increase the protein content was achieved while producing a more shelf stable product due to its lower moisture content. ...
... Therefore, Tetracarpidium conophorum seeds could play a role, considering its crude protein and carbohydrate contents. Previous reports by [28], have also shown that the Tetracarpidium conophorum seeds contain rich sources of mineral elements, such as; Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, Sodium, Iron, Zinc, Manganese, and Copper, which are very useful in the body. The sodium and potassium content of Tetracarpidium conophorum seeds is an added advantage, because of the direct relationship of sodium intake with hypertension in human. ...
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Aim: This work attempts to determine the bioactive agents’ groups probably responsible for the diverse growth characteristics and medicinal uses of (Tetracarpidium conophorum) Nigerian walnut. Methodology: The following analyses were carried out in the study proximate, phytochemical and mineral were analyzed. Results: The result for proximate analysis of the raw and cooked walnut seed extract contained the following parameters 42.57% and 40.91% moisture content, 20.54% and 23.03% protein, 4.51% and 4.27% Fat content, 7.26% and 7.05% crude fiber, 5.02% and 5.16% Ash content, 20.12% and 19.59% carbohydrate respectively. The phytochemical analysis results obtained revealed the presence of bioactive compounds containing 0.92 mg/100 g Tannin, 1.69 mg/100 g Saponin, 2.78 mg/100 g Flavonoid, 0.41 mg/100 g Alkaloid for cooked walnut while raw walnut contained 1.10 mg/100 g Tannin, 3.09 mg/100 g Oxalate, 2.63 mg/100 g Phytate, 3.43 mg/100 g Saponin, 3.19 mg/100 g Flavonoid and 1.34 mg/100 g Alkaloid. This study has shown the phytochemical, mineral and proximate compositions of boiled Tetracarpidium conophorum seeds. Conclusion: The study revealed that the boiled seeds contain concentrations of alkaloids and also contain moderate quantities of tannins. These bioactive compounds could be responsible for the reported medicinal properties of Tetracarpidium conophorum seeds. This partly shows the use of this seed in herbal medicine.
... Cardiac glycosides are phosphodiesterase inhibitors and direct adenylate cyclase stimulants. Alkaloids present in the seeds of T. conophorum are responsible for the bitter taste noticed when one drinks water after eating the nut [24]. The blood-glucose-lowering effect of the study plant could be a result of the presence of phytochemicals like flavonoids, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides and steroids. ...
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Background and aims: The study evaluated protective potentials of Tetracarpidium conophorum seed (TECOSE) against liver damage in rats treated with single intraperitoneal dose of 75 mg/kg/bwt streptozotocin. Material and method: The rats were divided into five (n=5) groups: A- normal control, B- diabetic control, C- diabetic rats treated orally with TECOSE extract (500 mg/kg/bwt), D- diabetic rats treated orally with 7 mg/kg/bwt metformin and E- diabetic rats treated subcutaneously with 0.3 IU/kg/bwt HumulinR. Treatment was done once daily for 2 weeks. Blood sample was collected for biochemical estimations. Liver and pancreas were also harvested for biochemical/histological studies. Results: Percentage blood glucose reduction was 41 %, 34 % and 36 % in rats treated with TECOSE, metformin and insulin respectively. TECOSE significantly reduced (p<0.05) levels of thiobarbituric reactive substances, serum transaminases, gamma glutamyl transferase and percentage hepatic fragmented DNA while it significantly increased (p<0.05) reduced glutathione level and superoxide dismutase activity. Histological observations showed varying degree of liver and pancreas damage in the diabetic untreated group while administration of TECOSE significantly improved general histoarchitecture of the tissues relative to control group and other treatment groups. Conclusions: In conclusion, TECOSE possessed good glycemic control of diabetes mellitus and protected liver against oxidative damage induced by hyperglycemia.
... Cardiac glycosides are phosphodiesterase inhibitors and direct adenylate cyclase stimulants. Alkaloids present in the seeds of T. conophorum are responsible for the bitter taste noticed when one drinks water after eating the nut [24]. The blood-glucose-lowering effect of the study plant could be a result of the presence of phytochemicals like flavonoids, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides and steroids. ...
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ntroduction:This study evaluated the protective potential of Tetracarpidium conophorum seeds against liver damage in rats treated with a single intraperitoneal dose of 75mg/kg/bodyweight of streptozotocin.Materials and Methods:The rats were divided into five(n=5) groups:A-normalcontrol,B-diabetic control,C-diabetic rats treated orally with a Tetracarpidium conophorum seeds extract (500mg/kg/bodyweight),D-diabetic rats treated orally with 7mg/kg/bodyweight of metformin and E-diabetic rats treated subcutaneously with0.3IU/kg/bodyweightofHumulinR.Treatmentwasdoneoncedailyfor2 weeks.Abloodsamplewascollectedforbiochemicalestimations.Theliverandpancreaswerealsoharvestedforbiochemi- cal/histologicalstudies.Results:Thebloodglucosereductionpercentagewas41%,34%,and36%inratstreatedwithTetra- carpidiumconophorumseeds,metforminandinsulin,respectively.Tetracarpidiumconophorumseedssignificantlyreduced (p<0.05)thiobarbituricreactivesubstances,serumtransaminases,gamma-glutamyltransferaselevels,andthepercentage ofhepaticfragmentedDNAwhileitsignificantlydecreased(p<0.05)glutathionelevelsandincreasedsuperoxidedismutase activity.Histological observations showed varying degrees ofliver and pancreas damage in the diabetic group that was un-treated,while the administration of Tetracarpidiumconophorum seeds significantly improved the general histoarchitecture of tissues relative to control group and other treatment groups.Conclusions:Tetracarpidium conophorum seeds possess good glycemic control of diabetes mellitus and protect the liver against oxidative damage induced by hyperglycemia.
... Substances capable of interfering adversely with the level of LH will consequentially have negative effect on steroidogenesis. Some medicinal plants cause decrease in sperm count, sperm viability, sperm motility and reproductive hormones by disrupting spermatogenic pathways [28]. This may be the case in our study, as A. vogelli decreased the sperm count of rats significantly. ...
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A number of medicinal plants have been found to influence the level of reproductive hormones and thus affect fertility in the overall. This work evaluated the effects of ethanol leaf extracts of A. gangetica and A. vogelli respectively on some reproductive system parameters in male Wistar rats. A total of sixteen (16) male albino rats were grouped into four (four rats in each group): group A served as normal control, group B received Immunace (Vitabiotics) group C and D received 400 mg/kg body weight of A. gangetica and A. vogelli extracts respectively. Extracts were administered orally to rats for 21 days, after which they were sacrificed by cervical dislocations and blood samples drawn by cardiac puncture. The effect of the extracts on testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and semen analysis of the test rats were determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and standard techniques. Data collected were analyzed using Graph pad prism V6 and p values < 0.05 were adopted as significant. There was no significant (p>0.05) change in testosterone, FSH and luteinizing hormones in the group administered A. gangetica plant extract relative to the control. There was also no visible difference in the testes weight and sperm morphology relative to the control group. In contrast, administration of A. vogelli extract caused significant (p<0.05) decrease in testosterone and follicle stimulating hormone concentrations from: 1.12 ± 0.20 to 0.89 ± 0.05 and 1.41 ± 0.07 to 1.35 ± 0.12 respectively relative to the control group. While significant (p<0.05) decrease in luteinizing hormone (1.71 ± 0.15) was observed relative to the standard drug group (1.76 ± 0.05). A significant (p<0.05) decrease in sperm count and testes weight was also observed in rats treated with A. vogelli extract relative to the normal control.The results suggest that, A. vogelli extract may cause decreased fertility in male albino rats and could be developed further into potent male contraceptives. A. gangetica on the other hand, had no effect on male reproductive hormones.
... Indications and contraindications need to be determined as well as dosage and timing. Ascertaining any interactions with prescribed pharmaceuticals is fundamental [1][2][3][4][5][6]. ...
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During a vicennial period, 1967-1987, the application of Nigerian traditional herbal remedies was observed for their effects on cardiovascular, metabolic, and tropical disorders as well as applications for other conditions. Some of these remedies were noted as useful for their specific applications; however, there were no scientific studies performed to evaluate the mechanisms of these traditional treatments or if any remissions or cures were coincidental, due to faith, a placebo effect, or resolved on their own. Many of these purported "cures" and cure-alls were toxic and harmful, especially to children; the use of some potions resulted in death. At that time, patients receiving drugs frequently used traditional herbal concoctions concurrently, which resulted in adverse reactions or reduced the efficacy of the prescribed drugs. There were many reasons for the use of traditional therapies including poverty, ignorance, and questionable drug availability and quality-combined with the ubiquitous presence and acceptance of local healers and their potions. Nonetheless, some of these traditional remedies showed favorable results and stood the test of time. From these traditional beginning with formal scientific scrutiny and research-some of these remedies may find a place in the treatment or prevention of cardiovascular disease, metabolic disorders, and specific tropical diseases.
... The African walnuts are reported to be rich in substances known to lower the risk of gaining unwanted weight [8], such as resveratrol, a phytochemical found in grapes and walnuts, with the ability to activate STRT1 gene, which in turn, boosts the body's metabolic rate, leading to increased energy expenditure. Amongst other reported pharmacological properties of the nuts are; management of gastric abnormality and hypertension [9], anti-cholesterolemic activity [10], anti-hyperlipidemic activity in rats when used as feed supplements [11], and anti-peroxidative action on male reproductive organs [12]. ...
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Aims: African walnuts were previously shown to modulate hepatic lipid bio-accumulation in obesity. Herein, we investigated the impact of the nuts on fat accumulation in adipose and ectopic regions, and associated oxidatiive stress status in obese rats. Materials and methods: Whole ethanol extract (WE) of the nuts, and its liquid-liquid fractions-ethyl acetate (ET) and residue (RES) were separately administered to obese rats for 6 weeks. The normal (NC) and obese (OC) controls received normal saline and the standard control (SC), orlistat (5.14 mg/kg b.w.), during the same period. Thereafter, the animals were euthanized and the adipose, brain, kidneys and heart tissues were studied. Results: The change in body weight to naso-anal length which increased by 63.52 % in OC compared to NC (p < 0.05), decreased by 57.88, 85.80 and 70.20 % in WE, ET and RES-treated groups, respectively, relative to the OC (p < 0.05). Also, adipose tissue weights were lowered upon treatment with the extracts and fractions versus OC (p < 0.05). Total lipids, phospholipids, triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations in the studied tissues which were higher in OC (p < 0.05) were lowered (p < 0.05) and compared favorably with SC. Further, malondialdehyde levels in the tissues were lowered upon treatment, compared to the OC (p < 0.05). Glutathione level and activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase which were decreased (p < 0.05) in OC, were restored upon treatment with the extracts, relative to the obese control (p < 0.05). Significance: African walnuts assuaged lipogenesis, oxidative stress and peroxidation in extra-hepatic tissues of obese rats, hence, may attenuate ectopic fat accumulation and its associated pathogenesis.
... This could be attributed to the high percentage of protein content of the walnut flour as reported in literature which are 35.6% [14] 21.6% [15], and 21.65 [16]. This result indicated that the aim of supplementation which was to increase the protein content was achieved while producing a more shelf stable product due to its lower moisture content. ...
... This could be attributed to the presence of chemical substances such as alkaloid, tannin saponins oxalate etc. which is refers to as anti-nutrient. This anti-nutrient, when consumed can upset the digestive process and interfere with the absorption of beneficial essential organic nutrients and inorganic minerals [3]. They either bind to nutrients to prevent their absorption or react with nutrient so it can't be used by the body [4]. ...
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The natural and inoculation fermentation of carrot-enriched and non- enriched walnut was carried out for 5 days. Freshly prepared Bacillus subtilis b17a, Lactobacillus lactis strain SFL8, and consortium of both organisms were used as starter cultures. The invitro antimicrobial assay of fermented samples on Shigella dysenteriae was carried out using agar well diffusion method. The therapeutic properties of fermented walnut were studied in S. dysenteriae infected wistar albino rats by checking for the physical appearance and haematological parameters of blood of wistar albino rats. Unfermented African walnut had the highest diameter zones of inhibition on S. dysenteriae. Fermented broth cultures had the highest diameter zone of inhibitions on S. dysenteriae on the third day of fermentation and among the fermented samples, African walnut fermented with L. lactics had the highest zone of inhibition on S. dysenteriae (26.3 ± 0.19). Invivo therapeutic assay revealed that the groups of rat orogastrically dosed with S. dysenteriae had albino rats with symptoms of shigellosis 24 hours after infection. Following treatment, all the groups infected and treated on the third day had fully recovered except the groups treated with unfermented walnut, walnut fermented with B. subtilis and walnut fermented with L. lactics. Also, the white blood cell (WBC) of group treated with unfermented walnut (12.47 ± 0.13h × 109/L) was within the normal range (6.6-12.6 × 109/L) of WBC for an apparently healthy rat but was significantly higher when compared with the groups treated with fermented samples. Findings from this study have justified the use of the seed, bark and leaves of African walnut in traditional medicine to ease dysentery and other diseases.
... It is known as conophor (English), ukpa (Igbo-Eastern Nigeria), awusa or asala (Yoruba-Western Nigeria), eporo (Efik-Southern Nigeria) and ngak in the Western Cameroon [1]. In Nigeria, walnut plant is majorly found in Akwa Ibom, Cross River, Lagos, Kogi, Osun and Oyo [2]. Freshly harvested walnut seed on a dry weight basis contains 29.09% protein, 6.34% fibre, 48.9% oil, 3.09% ash and 12.58% carbohydrates [3]. ...
... Walnut oil also maintained the histological architecture of the testes, increased the proliferative activity of spermatogonia, and maintained cells of the spermatogenic series when compared to controls. Walnut has been reported to contain reasonable amounts of zinc and vitamin E (Ayoola et al., 2011;Ojobor et al., 2015), which decrease lipid peroxidation. From our findings, when walnut oil was co-administered with nitrite, it protected the testes from the harmful effects of nitrite. ...
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Objective: To determine the impact of walnut oil on nitrite-induced testicular toxicity in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Available evidence suggests that walnut oil contains high levels of important unsaturated fatty acids including alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and omega-3; nitrite is a reproductive toxicant that causes the loss of germ cells in the seminiferous tubules and generates oxidative stress in the testes, thus reducing sperm counts and affecting sperm morphology. Methods: This study included 24 male and 24 female adult SD rats. The male rats randomly assigned to Group A (controls) were given normal saline 2 ml/kg. The rats in Groups B, C, and D were given 50mg/kg body weight (bwt) of walnut oil, 0.08 mg/kg bwt of nitrite, and 0.08 mg/kg bwt of nitrite + 50 mg/kg of walnut oil respectively for 28 days via gastric gavage. Tested parameters included: testicular histology, sperm parameters, reproductive hormones, fertility, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione, and catalase (CAT). Results: A severe decrease in spermatogenic cell series, hypocellularity, tubular atrophy, decreased sperm quality, and increased MDA levels were observed in the rats given nitrite only when compared to controls. Rats given 50 mg/kg of walnut oil had significant growth of seminiferous epithelium compared to controls. The rats given walnut oil and nitrite had significant growth of seminiferous epithelium, improved sperm quality, and had decreased MDA levels. Conclusion: Walnut oil attenuated the deleterious effects of nitrite to the testes, reduced oxidative stress, and promoted spermatogenesis.
... The concentration of Fe in the immune booster is way above the iron content of selected formulations reported by Mtunziet al. 34 as shown 0.007 ± 0.03 -3.47 ± 0.01 ppm. Zinc was found to be 0.7193 ± 0.02 ppm, which is lower than the concentration found in the other formulation by Mtunzi et al. 33 Zinc is very important for nerve function, male fertility, stimulation of vitamins and formation of red and white corpuscles 32 , healthy function of the heart and normal growth of cell organs. 34 The FAO/WHO permissible limit (PL) set for zinc in herbal medicines is 0.3 mg⋅kg −1 . ...
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In recent times, the utilisation of medicinal plants for their immune boosting potential have been preferred over pharmaceutical drugs due to their low toxicity and costs. A herbal immune booster was formulated by the traditional health practitioners (THPs) from the Vaal Region, South Africa for immune health development. This study is aimed at evaluating the phytochemicals and the mineral elements in this immune booster formulation. The elemental analysis was conducted using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The phytochemicals screening of the immune booster revealed that the formation contained alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols and saponins while steroids, tannins and glycosides were absent. Immune booster formulation showed a good antioxidant activity for ABTS radical (IC50 = 0.026 ± 0.021 mg/mL) than for DPPH radical (IC50 = 0.191 ± 0.025 mg/mL). The mineral studies showed that the immune booster possesses a significant amount of Fe (14.7328 ±2.01 ppm), Na (8.6633 ±1.81 ppm) and Mg (5.3083 ±0.88 ppm). The calcium content was found to be 1.3466 ±0.31 ppm and Co, Cu and Zn were all less than 1.00 ppm whilst Pb was 1.2146 ±0.07 ppm and K was absent. The high concentration of minerals such as Fe, Na and Mg which are essential for the normal functioning of the body, could well mean the immune booster can be taken as dietary supplement.
... Ukpabi, et al. (2015) also reported the hypoglycaemic effect of Vernonia amygdalina on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Ayoola, et al. (2011) reported the presence of tannins, saponins, alkaloids, phenols and oxalate on Tetracarpidium conophorum nut. According to Ukpabi, et al. (2015), Vernonia amygdalina is rich in alkaloid, tannins, saponins, flavonoids and glycosides. ...
... While cardiac glycoside and steroid were absent. This present work agrees with previous studies by [40] and [41] except for resin, as well as [42] except for flavonoid. This justifies the need for further investigation. ...
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Antibacterial activity of the methanolic leaf extract of Plukenetia conophora Mull. arg. (African walnut) on selected urinary isolates: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella aerogenes and Proteus mirabilis, was investigated using the agar punch-hole diffusion and agar broth dilution methods to verify claims by the locals of its medicinal value in the treatment of urinary tract infection. The extract exhibited bactericidal activity against the uro-pathogens in varying degrees at different concentrations tested. In the agar diffusion test, P. aeruginosa showed the highest zone of inhibition (18 mm) at the highest concentration tested (200 mg/mL); while P. mirabilis, K. aerogenes and E. coli showed zones of inhibition of 15, 13 and 12 mm respectively. E. coli and K. aerogenes did not show any zone of inhibition, while P. aeruginosa (14, 12, 10 and 8 mm) and P. mirabilis (13, 11, 8 and 7 mm) showed varied zones of inhibition at extract concentration of 150, 100, 50 and 25 mg/mL, respectively. P. aeruginosa had the least minimum inhibitory concentration (6.25 mg/mL), followed by P. mirabilis (12.5 mg/mL); while E. coli and K. aerogenes has the same MIC (150 mg/mL). The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) gave a range of (6.25 – 200) mg/mL. All the isolates had MBC higher than MIC except, P. aeruginosa with sensitivity significantly higher than that of E. coli and K. aerogenes at P<0.01, except P. mirabilis (P>0.05). There was no significant difference between the sensitivity of E. coli and K. aerogenes to the extract (P>0.05). Phytochemical screening of the extract, revealed the presence of tannins, anthraquinones, saponins, flavonoids, resins and alkaloids, while cardiac glycosides and steroids were absent. The result further strengthening earlier works on the efficacy of the plant, and it therefore stands a chance for clinical trial as an alternative treatment option for urinary tract infection, though; the molecular mechanism behind its antibacterial activity would require further investigation.
... Qualitative phytochemistry screening of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of plant materials was conducted using standard methods described by Harborne, [6]; Sofowora, [17] and Ayoola et al., [2]. ...
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Jatropha caurcas (Euphorbiaceae) is used in folklore medicine to cure various ailments in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Present study investigated the phytochemical components and antimicrobial activities of Jatropha caurcas against some selected clinical isolates. The leaf and stem bark was macerated successively in ethanol and aqueous solvent for 24 hrs each. Qualitative phytochemistry screening of aqueous and ethanolic solvent extracts of plant materials was conducted using standard methods. The antibacterial susceptibility assay was carried out on three clinical isolates by preparing discs of a standard concentration of aqueous extracts of Jatropha caurcas. Result obtained indicates the presence of some secondary metabolites which are glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, tannin, steroids, reducing sugar and terpenoids. It was observed that alkaloids and saponins were absence in aqueous extract of leaves and stem bark solvent extract but present in stem bark extracts. However, ethanolic leaves extract contains no alkaloids and saponins. Susceptibility pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Shigella dysentriae was measured to be 17mm, 23mm and 24mm respectively. Present investigation could serve as a panacea for emergence of multidrug resistance bacteria and also, the analysis of the secondary metabolites will provide the pharmacognosy and drug development sector preliminary information about the phytochemical constituent of Jatropha caurcas (Euphorbiaceae).
... These include prostaglandins, proton pump inhibitors, histamine receptor antagonists and mucoprotectives (Jothi et al. 2012). Tetracarpidium conophorum (African walnut) nuts have a bitter taste and are used in Nigeria ethno medicine for the treatment of stomach ache (Ayoola et al. 2011) .The anti-ulcer activity of methanol extract of T. Conophorum nuts against gastric ulcers in rats has been reported (Kenneth et al. 2014). The aim of the present study is to evaluate the anti-ulcer activity of fixed oil of Tetracarpidium conophorum in pylorus ligation and ethanol induced models. ...
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Esealisiji and Nwoke. Anti-ulcerogenic properties of fixed oil of African walnut in albino Wistar rats. ABSTRACT The anti-ulcerogenic properties of fixed oil of Tetracarpidium conophorium (Mull. Arg.) was investigated in pylorus ligated and ethanol induced model in albino Wistar rats. Parameters such as gastric volume,pH, total and free acidity, and ulcer index were used to study the anti-ulcerogenic activity in both models. Oil of Tetracarpidium conophorium at doses of 0.5 and 1.0ml/kg orally was used to investigate the level of significant protection of the gastric lesions by pylorus ligation and ethanol. At the above dose levels, the oil produced significant (p<0.05) decrease in the gastric volume (7.80 and7.40 ml), total and free acidity (50.01±0.10, 24.60±0.22 and 30.01±0.20,16.04±0.25) while pH of gastric juice was significantly (p<0.05) increased (5.50±0.01 and 5.90±0.12)in pylorus ligation induced gastric ulceration model, (table 1) when compared to a standard drug ranitidine. In conclusion, the oil of Tetracarpidium conophorium showed a remarkable anti-ulcerogenic and cytoprotective activity which could be attributed to the presence of essential fatty acids such as omega-6 and omega-9 fatty acids (oleic acid) and other cytoprotective principles which include methylcyclopentanone, a congener in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins.
... The extraction of total alkaloids and tannins from T. conophorum (Nigerian walnut) seeds have been reported (Ayoola, Onawumi and Faboya 2011). Additionally, the phytochemical analysis of the aqueous extracts of the seeds of T. conophorum has been investigated (Uche, Obianime and Aprioku 2010). ...
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Objective: To determine the anti-ulcer activity of methanol extract of Tetracarpidium conophorum (Mull. Arg.) (METC) nuts in albino Wistar rats. Methods: METC was investigated in pylorus ligation and ethanol induced models in experimental animals. Parameters such as gastric volume, pH, total and free acidity, and ulcer index were used as indicator for antiulcerogenic activity in both models. METC at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg orally was used to determine whether the extract could produce significant protection of the gastric lesions by pylorus ligation and ethanol. Results: The extract at dose levels of 250 and 500 mg/kg exhibited significant (P
... According to Babalola (2011), the sale of cooked nuts of African walnut, either by displaying in trays or tying in transparent polythene is common in most urban centres of southern Nigeria. Besides its use as food, the species is also highly rated in ethnomedicine where it is credited with the cure of a number of human ailments (Okafor and Okorie, 1990;Ayoola et al., 2011). ...
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Seeds of African Walnut (Plukenetia conophorum Muell Arg.) obtained from four (4) states – Enugu, Anambra, Abia, Rivers – in southeastern Nigeria were assayed for amino acid contents of the raw and cooked seeds using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Results indicated significant (p ≤ 0.05) variation in both essential and non-essential amino acid content across locations. Among the essential amino acids, the accession from Abia had the highest arginine and lysine content; Rivers had the highest concentration of histidine and valine, while Enugu showed the highest methionine and threonine content, though statistically similar with that of Abia. Boiling significantly (p < 0.05) increased the amount of tryptophan, but all the other essential amino acids did not respond significantly to boiling. Among the non-essential amino acids, alaninie, asparagine, glutamine, glutamic acid and glycine responded significantly to location. Boiling reduced the quantities of cysteine and glutamic acid; but increased those of glutamine and lysine. Among the essential amino acids, only histidine and lysine were significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by interaction effects of location and processing such that boiling drastically reduced the levels of histidine in the seeds from Anambra and Rivers but enhanced the level of histidine in the seeds from Abia. Boiling also increased the amount of lysine in the Anambra seeds but reduced the lysine level in all the other accessions. In the case of the non-essential amino acids, asparagine, glutamine and glutamic acid responded significantly (p < 0.05) to interactive effect of the two factors. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) explained close to 50% of the total variability in amino acid composition, identifying arginine, asparagine, lysine, methionine, valine, glutamic acid, leucine, cysteine, threonine, alanine and isoleucine as the key amino acids for describing African walnut seeds in the southeastern zone of Nigeria. It was clear from the study that seeds of this under-utilized forest species have full complement of the amino acids in sufficient amounts to meet the amino acid requirements of its teeming consumers.
... Furthermore, the lumen of their seminiferous tubules showed evidences of hyper-spermatozoa formation in fish fed diets D4 and D5. The improvement in the testicular histology of fish fed on dietary T. conophorum seed powder could be due to antioxidative properties such as vitamin A and vitamin E present in the seed[24]. Vitamin A protects the testis against lipid peroxidation, hence, promotes spermatogenesis and improves structural differentiation of epithelial cells of the epididymis[25]. ...
Article
Objective: To investigate the effect of Tetracarpidium conophorum (T. conophorum) seed powder as dietary supplementation on the reproductive indices in male Clarias gariepinus (C. gariepinus) broodstocks. Methods: Fifteen outdoor concrete tanks consisting of triplicates for each treatment group were used. Triplicate groups of male C. gariepinus [(303.22 ± 1.89) g body weight] were fed with four diets supplemented T. conophorum seed powder respectively, a control diet without T. conophorum seed powder 2 times a day at 3% of body weight for 70 days. Male C. gariepinus broodstocks [average individual weight, (303.22 ± 1.89) g] were randomly distributed with density of 10 fish into 15 outdoor concrete tanks. At the end of the 70-day experiment, gonadosomatic index and reproductive indices were determined. Results: Fish fed experimental diets showed significantly improved gonado-somatic index and reproductive indices over the control treatment. Higher gonado-somatic index and reproductive indices were recorded for the fish fed diet of 200 mg/kg T. conophorum seed powder compared to other experimental diets. The results indicated that supplement diets with medicinal plant (T. conophorum) enhanced growth and improved gonadosomatic index, and reproductive indices of male C. gariepinus broodstocks. Conclusions: T. conophorum have a potential pro-fertility property which can be exploited in fish seed production by hatchery operators.
... The extraction of total alkaloids and tannins from T. conophorum (Nigerian walnut) seeds have been reported (Ayoola, Onawumi and Faboya 2011). Additionally, the phytochemical analysis of the aqueous extracts of the seeds of T. conophorum has been investigated (Uche, Obianime and Aprioku 2010). ...
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The African walnut is used in Nigerian folkloric medicine for the treatment of bacterial infections and ailments caused by oxidative stress. The n-hexane and methanol extracts of cooked African walnut Tetracarpidium conophorum (Mull. Arg.) were investigated to evaluate the rate of wound healing in Wistar rats. Treatment of wounds with placebo (5%, 10% T. conophorum extracts or gentamicin) significantly (p=0.05) showed accelerated rate of healing compared with that of the pure ointment. When compared to the standard group, the percentage of wound contraction on day 4 was significant for the 10% n-hexane group, while no significant (p=0.05) difference was observed in the wound contraction activity of the other groups before the 16th day. The percentages of mean wound contraction on day 18 were 69.18%, 84.14%, 90.60%, 88.36%, 96.50% and 98.09%, respectively, for the negative control, 5% n-hexane, 10% n-hexane, 5% methanol, 10% methanol and gentamicin, respectively. The present study thus establishes the dose-dependent wound healing activity of extracts of the T. conophorum nut, most likely due to their inherent antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities.
... In traditional medicine, the seeds are considered as herbs and are used to tonify kidneys, strengthen the back and knees, moisten the intestines as well as to motivate bowel movement by the use of concotions made from the raw seeds (Ayoola et al., 2011). It is also possible that the conophora seed may be utilized for animal feeds because of its ready availability and cost. ...
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A sample of boiled Tetracarpidiumconophorum (African walnut) seeds was analyzed for the phytochemical and proximate compositions. The result of the phytochemical [qualitative] screeningrevealed the presence of high concentrations of Alkaloids and Steroids, and moderate concentration of Tannins. There were no traces of Saponins, Phlobotannins, Flavonoids, Phenols and Glycosides. The proximate analysis showed that the boiled seeds contained 5.5% moisture, 19.3% carbohydrate, 17.9% protein, 53.4% crude fat, 1.24% crude fiberand 2.67% ash. Data from thisstudy showedthat theboiled Tetracarpidiumconophorum seeds contain some bioactive compounds and have good nutritional composition. They could be useful in pharmaceutical formulations and as food.
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