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Over the last forty years researchers from
many different theoretical perspectives
have discovered that individuals develop
consistent, routinized approaches to learn-
ing called learning styles (Sims and Sims
2006). Of the models that have emerged,
Experiential Learning Theory (ELT) has
largely influenced leadership and organiza-
tion development. The experiential learn-
ing cycle is one of the most well-known
illustrations in management education and
has become the key theoretical model to
express the nature of experiential learning
(Cunningham, 1994). Experiential learn-
ing theory also forms some of the basis
for notions of the learning organization
(Vince, 1998; Casey, 1993; Senge, 1990).
Furthermore, organizational research and
practice supports the premise that when
learning is defined holistically as the basic
process of human adaptation, it subsumes
more specialized managerial processes
such as entrepreneurial learning, strategy
formulation, creativity, problem solving,
decision making, and leadership.
Learning styles are used to make sense
of the world and adapt to it. But what hap-
pens when learners over-routinize their
learning styles? Are they missing oppor-
tunities to reach their learning potentials?
This article discusses how mindfulness
techniques can enhance experiential
learning and provides tools for practice in
organizations. Mindfulness is an age old
practice used to overcome the tendency to
“sleep walk” repetitively through our lives.
In recent times it has been accepted into
mainstream psychology, social psychology,
and medicine. Empirical studies are now
finding statistical support for what many
have known for two millennia: that practic-
ing mindfulness enhances mental and
physical health, creativity, and contextual
learning. In a world of flux and rapidity,
living mindlessly can result in a host of
problems including but not limited to: tun-
nel vision, increased stress, reduced physi-
cal health, reduced creativity, and difficulty
navigating complex systems. As our sister
fields of psychology and social psychology
grow mindfulness research and practices,
our field must as well. In this article we
explore and discuss mindfulness as a tool
to assist learners in unlocking their full
learning potential in organizations.
So what exactly is mindfulness? Any
construct that has existed for thousands
of years has many definitions. We would
like to offer two of the most widely
accepted descriptions of mindfulness. In
our research with Darren Good at Case
Western Reserve University, we found
two predominant streams of mindfulness
research and practice, meditative mind-
fulness and socio-cognitive mindfulness
(Good & Yeganeh, 2006; Yeganeh, 2008).
Meditative Mindfulness. Although it is
widely used as part of a secular mindful-
ness practice, mindfulness is the core of
Buddhist meditation (Kabat Zinn, 1994).
Thich Nhat Hanh, Gunaratana, Kabat-
Zinn, and other present day authors
advocate developing mindfulness through
meditation techniques to help people heal
By Bauback Yeganeh
and David Kolb
Mindfulness and
Experiential Learning
“Non-judgment, in mindfulness theory, is accepting the current state as part of a constant flow
of changing experiences. This paradigm suggests that letting go of judgment strengthens the
mind, and it challenges the illusion that over-thinking something gives one control over it.”
8OD PRACTITIONER Vol. 41 No. 3 2009
themselves and live intentionally. A dis-
tinction of meditative mindfulness is that
it requires a discipline of anchoring the
mind in the present moment. This is often
accompanied with a practice of aware-
ness and acceptance through breathing.
Kabat-Zinn (1994) defines mindfulness
as “paying attention in a particular way:
on purpose, in the present moment, and
non-judgmentally” (p.4). Non-judgment,
in mindfulness theory, is accepting the
current state as part of a constant flow of
changing experiences. This paradigm sug-
gests that letting go of judgment strength-
ens the mind, and it challenges the illusion
that over-thinking something gives one
control over it. Authors who discuss mind-
fulness within these parameters also talk
about the antithesis of mindfulness which
is mindlessness, or a state of auto-pilot and
lack of intention. Are you aware of your
breathing right now? Try some deep calm
breaths from the diaphragm prior to read-
ing on. Try practicing acceptance of what-
ever you are experiencing in the moment
by letting go of evaluation and judgment.
Socio-cognitive mindfulness. Developed
by social psychologists, this understand-
ing of mindfulness emphasizes cognitive
categorization, context and situational
awareness (Langer 1997; Langer, 2000).
Harvard social psychologist Ellen Langer,
often relates mindfulness to learning:
“When we are mindful, we implicitly
or explicitly (1) view a situation from
several perspectives, (2) see infor-
mation presented in the situation
as novel, (3) attend to the context in
which we perceive the information,
and eventually (4) create new catego-
ries through which this information
may be understood.” (Langer,1997,
Langer (1997) argues that our school sys-
tems largely encourage mindless learning
through the accumulation of “objective”
truths, rather than mindful learning which
places a value on context, uncertainty,
and doubt. As with meditative mindful-
ness, socio-cognitive mindfulness authors
contrast mindfulness with mindlessness,
which is described as automatic behavior.
When mindless, “we act like automatons
who have been programmed to act accord-
ing to the sense our behavior made in the
past, rather than the present.” (Langer &
Moldoveanu, 2000, p.2). Mindfulness from
the socio-cognitive perspective requires
broadening one’s repertoire of cognitive
categories. The idea of creating new cat-
egories was influenced by Langer’s earlier
studies in bias and prejudice. Explaining
the practical benefits she illustrates that “If
we describe someone we dislike intensely,
a single statement usually does it. But
if, instead, we are forced to describe the
person in great detail, eventually there will
be some quality we appreciate” (Langer,
1989, p.66). One of the reasons Langer’s
work is so compelling is that it thoroughly
supports the notion that simple labels (e.g.
good and evil) do not accurately reflect the
complexity of the world. Instead they allow
for mindless rationalizations that justify
a broad range of dysfunctional behaviors,
from ineffective to criminal. Are you aware
of how you are sorting and labeling what
you are reading right now? Are you aware
of the images, memories, and thoughts
that your mind is recalling as you are read-
ing? Try exploring one or two categories
you have been using while digesting this
article thus far.
One way to distinguish the two schools
of thought is that meditative mindfulness,
with its focus on present centered aware-
ness, describes an internal process required
to maintain a mindful state, where socio-
cognitive mindfulness definitions seem to
focus on cognitive applications of mind-
fulness (e.g. how we can more effectively
sort out experiences and make sense of
the world based on new mental categories/
models). Furthermore, meditative mindful-
ness authors offer techniques in practicing
mindfulness through breathing, acceptance
and present centered awareness. Socio-
cognitive mindfulness deemphasizes medi-
tation, suggesting supplemental practices
such as placing a value on doubt, looking
for disconfirming data, and producing
new ways of thinking and acting. Each of
these approaches offer research streams
in which a person’s degree of mindfulness
is measured through statistically vali-
dated self-report assessments. Meditative
mindfulness is often measured by Brown &
Ryan’s Mindful Attention Awareness Scale
(MAAS) (Brown & Ryan, 2003) and socio-
cognitive mindfulness is measured by the
Langer Mindfulness Scale (LMS) (Bodner,
2000). A factor analyses (Yeganeh, 2006)
of these two scales completed by 314 par-
ticipants confirmed multiple and unique
dimensions to mindfulness. Our research
Figure 1:
Meditative and Socio-Cognitive Mindfulness/Mindlessness Comparison
9Mindfulness and Experiential Learning
supports the following multi-dimensional
definition of mindfulness:
Mindfulness is a state in which an individual:
1. focuses on present and direct experience
2. is intentionally aware and attentive
3. accepts life as an emergent process of
Mindfulness and Experiential Learning
Building on this research, we began to
explore the notion that mindfulness might
increase the effectiveness of learning
from experience. Specifically we designed
a study to explore the learning style(s) of
mindful individuals using the two mind-
fulness scales just described and the Kolb
Learning Style Inventory (Kolb 2007) based
on experiential learning theory (Kolb,
1984). By understanding the relationship
between mindfulness and experiential
learning styles, we could begin to design
mindful experiential learning practices to
be used in organizations.
Experiential Learning Theory (ELT)
defines learning as “the process whereby
knowledge is created through the transfor-
mation of experience. Knowledge results
from the combination of grasping and
transforming experience” (Kolb, 1984, p.41).
The ELT model portrays two dialectically
related modes of grasping experience—
Concrete Experience (CE) and Abstract
Conceptualization (AC)—and two dialecti-
cally related modes of transforming experi-
ence—Reflective Observation (RO) and
Active Experimentation (AE). Experiential
learning is a process of constructing knowl-
edge that involves a creative tension among
the four learning modes. This process is
portrayed as an idealized learning cycle or
spiral where the learner “touches all the
bases”—experiencing, reflecting, thinking,
and acting—in a recursive process that is
responsive to the learning situation and
what is being learned. Immediate concrete
experiences (experiencing) are the basis for
observations and reflections. These reflec-
tions are assimilated and distilled into
abstract concepts (thinking) from which
new implications for action can be drawn.
These implications can be actively tested
and serve as guides in creating new experi-
ences (see Figure 2).
Learning style describes the unique
ways that individuals spiral through the
learning cycle based on their preference
for the four different learning modes—CE,
RO, AC, & AE. Because of our genetic
makeup, our particular life experiences,
and the demands of our present environ-
ment, we develop a preferred way of choos-
ing among these four learning modes. We
resolve the conflict between being concrete
or abstract and between being active or
reflective in patterned, characteristic ways.
ELT posits that learning is the major deter-
minant of human development and how
individuals learn shapes the course of their
personal development. Previous research
(Kolb 1984) has shown that learning styles
are influenced by personality type, culture,
educational specialization, career choice,
and current job role and tasks.
Our hypotheses about the relationship
between mindfulness and learning style
were influenced by William James, the
originator of the theory of experience on
which ELT is based. James (1890) stated,
“no state once gone can recur and be iden-
tical with what it was before” (p.155). The
mind often neglects the rich context avail-
able for observation that makes experience
unique. Instead it often automatically labels
stimuli based on limited exposure and
moves on to the next stimulus to under-
observe. To extend this further, our labels
of work experiences such as productive,
boring, awful, successful, urgent, relaxed,
and so on are also often based in automati-
cally categorizing experience, rather than
being fully present in the unique context of
the moment. James’ emphasis on imme-
diate direct sensual experience is exactly
the focus on here and now experience that
has been characterized by mindfulness for
thousands of years. James also emphasized
the importance of attention. He defines
a spiral of interest-attention-selection
similar to the experiential learning cycle
Figure 2:
OD PRACTITIONER Vol. 41 No. 3 200910
that creates a continuous ongoing flow
of experience summarized in the pithy
statement—“My experience is what I agree
to attend to.” (1890, p. 403). This also is a
central element of mindfulness.
Supporting these links between learn-
ing from experience and mindfulness,
our research found that individuals who
scored high on Langer’s mindfulness scale
emphasized direct concrete experience in
their learning style (Yeganeh, 2006). We
also found that individuals scoring high on
mindfulness did not score high on reflec-
tive observation, suggesting that they were
not “lost in thought” or rumination but
were attentive to their experiences. The
results suggest that the practice of mind-
fulness could help individuals learn from
experience in two ways:
1. Encouraging a focus on here-and-now
experience uncluttered by preconcep-
tions and bias
2. Intentionally guiding their learning
process by paying attention to how they
are going through the phases of the
learning cycle
Mindfulness becomes important when
we consider how we choose to process and
learn from events at work. Learning style
determines the way we process the pos-
sibilities of each new emerging experience,
which in turn determines the range of
choices and decisions we see. The choices
and decisions we make to some extent
determine the events we work through, and
these events influence our future choices.
Thus, people create themselves and their
learning styles through the choices of
the actual occasions they live through.
For many, this learning style choice has
become relatively unconscious, comprised
of deeply patterned routines applied glob-
ally to learning situations. Mindfulness
can put the control of learning back in the
learner’s hands.
Practicing Mindful Experiential Learning
As it relates to mindfulness, ELT provides
a grounded explanation of the learning
processes of the mind when making sense
of the environment (Zull 2002). The mind
makes sense of complex environments
by generalizing. In doing so, rules and
guidelines are abstracted (AC) from experi-
ences (CE) which are then acted (AE) and/
or reflected (RO) on. Indeed this is what
has enabled early civilization to take shelter
when weather worsens, use fire to ward
off nocturnal scavengers, seek medicine
when ill, teach right from wrong, and so on
and so forth. It is clear that this propensity
to generalize can be a gift, enabling us to
thrive. However, the process of general-
izing from experience can also result in
rumination, bigotry, fortunetelling, stress,
and the like; all of which decrease learning
ability. The ability to generalize is neutral;
it is how we go about doing so that deter-
mines generative or degenerative outcome.
Incorporating mindfulness practices into
experiential learning processes will help
organization members become more
intentional about how and when they learn.
An underlying assumption in mindful
experiential learning is that the quality of
experiential learning increases as orga-
nization members are more intentional.
Practical examples of mindful experiential
learning in organizations are limitless. For
example organizational teams can increase
awareness of how individuals work with
one another in specific situations, and
who is best for specific kinds of work on a
team. Leaders can better manage complex
projects without making rash decisions
based on limited information. Strategy
makers can become more effective in pro-
cesses by rethinking how data is collected
and considered. Below we provide mind-
ful experiential learning tools that can be
adapted for use in organizations based on
specific needs.
Mindfulness can free the mind to
intentionally think and create in new ways.
Those with rigorous mindfulness prac-
tices routinely practice present centered
awareness. Meditation is a powerful way
to discipline the mind into practicing
mindfulness. However, there are also
ways to practice mindfulness for those
who are not dedicated to a meditation
program. One thing is certain, if organiza-
tion members are interested in develop-
ing mindful experiential learning skills,
it is vital to begin a mindfulness routine,
whether through meditation or not. For
those interested in practicing mindfulness
without meditation, it is important to find
a way to regularly attend to one’s state
in order to be intentional in subsequent
thoughts and behaviors. Self-monitoring
when coupled with practicing acceptance
creates new opportunities to think and act
in learning situations. This requires a rou-
tine of “checking-in” with the self, which
can be done through regular journaling,
questioning, and/or taking several deep
breaths from the diaphragm while accept-
ing the present moment. Some mistakenly
confuse acceptance with apathy, which it
is not. In mindfulness theory, acceptance
disallows the mind and body to suffer
from things beyond one’s control. This can
paradoxically enable one to attain goals that
may have otherwise been self-sabotaged
by stress and attempts at over-controlling.
Working toward goals is congruent with
practicing mindful experiential learn-
ing in organizations. However having an
overbearing outcome-orientation in which
preoccupation with a specific result hinders
work effectiveness, is a classic sign of
Tools for Mindful Learning
Those who use the Kolb Learning Style
Inventory to assess their learning style
often decide that they wish to develop their
capacity to engage in one or more of the
four modes of the learning cycle—expe-
riencing (CE), reflecting (RO), thinking
(AC) and acting (AE). In some cases this is
based on a desire to develop a weak mode
in their learning style. In others it may
be to increase capability in a mode that is
particularly important for their learning
tasks. Because of the dialectic relationships
among the learning modes, inhibiting
dominating modes can be as effective in
developing strengths as actively developing
inhibited modes. Overall learning effec-
tiveness is improved when individuals are
highly skilled in engaging all four modes of
the learning cycle at contextually appropri-
ate times.
We have created a practical model
(Figure 3) from mindfulness and expe-
riential learning work that answers the
following question: What are various
11Mindfulness and Experiential Learning
mindfulness practices that can be used to
develop the capacity to engage in one or
more of the four modes of the learning
cycle in organizations? The next section
provides some useful tools to improve
specific modes of experiential learning
through mindfulness. Keep in mind that
the key to being mindful when learning is
intentionality, as opposed to being on auto-
pilot in any of the phases.
Developing the capacity
for experiencing (CE).
This requires fully opening oneself to direct
experience. Direct experience exists only
in the here-and-now, a present moment of
endless depth and extension that can never
be fully comprehended. In fact, being heav-
ily biased in the thinking mode (being too
much “in your head”) can inhibit the ability
to directly sense and feel the immediate
moment. Engagement in concrete experi-
ence can be enhanced by being present
in the moment and attending to direct
sensations and feelings. This presence
and attention are particularly important
for relationships. Interpersonal skills of
leadership, relationship and giving and
receiving, can improve by developing the
experiencing mode of learning. Those who
tend to be heavy in thinking and light on
experiencing may wish to write out lists of
everything floating around in their minds.
This can include “to do’s”, ideas, concerns,
and anything else cluttering the mind. The
mind often replays these thoughts to main-
tain control over them. Once thoughts are
written out, it is easier to practice engag-
ing in the present moment, knowing that
the list is only a glance away if something
seems forgotten at a later date. Clearing
the mind is a central tool for shifting from
abstract thought into engaging present
moment experience. Additionally, any time
words are being used to think or speak,
abstract thinking is happening. Words are
symbols, representing only a fraction of
full experience. To develop the capacity
for experiencing, one can practice observ-
ing the environment while consciously
shifting the mind away from words that
arise, and back to the momentary observa-
tion. Taking deep breaths while doing this,
anchors the mind in momentary awareness
of perception: sight, sound, touch, taste,
and smell, and away from abstract thought.
If thoughts appear in the mind, one can
gently but firmly re-focus on the breath and
away from thinking in order to be more
fully present. Deep breathing is a powerful
intervention for strengthening the ability
to experience. Most of us breathe shal-
lowly, especially when engaged in tasks that
pull us away from momentary awareness.
Anchor points for creating a mindful learn-
ing routine can be as simple as routinely
taking deep breaths from the diaphragm.
In order to remember breathing, one can
practice routine self check-ins, asking “how
deeply am I breathing right now?” Creating
reminder cues such as a pen dot on the
hand, and/or a symbol at the desk can help
as well. Because the practices suggested
to engage in experience include adapta-
tions of meditation, they often come with
a host of benefits such as reduced stress,
increased clarity, improved health, calm-
ness, and creativity.
Developing the capacity
for reflecting.
Reflection requires space and time. It can
be inhibited by impulsive desires and/or
pressures to take action. It can be enhanced
by the practices of deliberately viewing
Figure 3: Mindful Experiential Learning Practice Guide
OD PRACTITIONER Vol. 41 No. 3 200912
things from different perspective and
empathy. Stillness and quieting the mind
foster deep reflection. Information skills of
sense-making, information gathering and
information analysis can aid in the devel-
opment and expression of the reflecting
mode of learning. To practice this phase
of mindful experiential learning, one can
actively discover critical times of impulsive
action and plan to suspend action during
these times through mindfulness. Focus
on the physiological cues that signal when
impulsivity is about to occur. When these
cues arise, practicing redirecting the mind
towards reflection can be a powerful tool.
Those who feel quick to judge and act can
routinely ask themselves “what actions
have I been rushing into that I can sit
with a bit longer to make sure I am being
intentional?” This can be done numerous
ways. One suggestion we offer clients is
to program their computer calendars to
announce this question on their screens
every hour or few hours. Another use-
ful practice is to hone in on one issue
that requires reflection, and spend 10-15
minutes to generate new questions to
answer about the issue. Create a question
for yourself that you normally would not
ponder, and place a value on doubt, rather
than rushing into being correct. Finally,
practice acceptance of the moment by
identifying which actions are generative
and which ones are just a way of trying to
take control of an uncontrollable aspect of
the environment.
Developing the capacity
for thinking.
Thinking requires the ability to cognitively
represent and manipulate ideas. It can
be distracted by intense direct emotion
and sensations as well as pressure to act
quickly. Engagement in thinking can be
enhanced by practicing theoretical model
building and the creation of scenarios for
action. Analytical skills of theory building,
data analysis and technology management
can aid in the development and expression
of the thinking mode of learning. From
a mindfulness perspective, questioning
assumptions can help to focus the mind in
order to make “theories-in-use” intentional
rather than automatic. Taking time to view
assumptions from multiple perspectives
can enrich thought. A way to do this is
to experiment with how one would make
sense of a situation if a current belief were
untrue. Another tool is to consider the
role that context plays in current mental
models, and how these might differ if
the context changed. Creating contextual
knowledge rather than pursuing dichoto-
mous thinking can strengthen the capacity
for abstract thought. Be aware that mind-
lessly shifting from abstract thought to con-
crete experience can interfere with learning
in some scenarios. Practicing a focused
routine of abstract questioning and seeking
shades of gray can develop the mind’s abil-
ity to fully think in learning situations.
Developing the capacity
for action.
Acting requires commitment and
involvement in the practical world of real
consequences. In a sense it is the “bot-
tom line” of the learning cycle, the place
where internal experiencing, reflecting and
thinking are tested in reality. Acting can be
inhibited by too much internal processing
in any of these three modes. Acting can be
enhanced by courageous initiative-taking
and the creation of cycles of goal-setting
and feedback to monitor performance.
Action skills of initiative, goal-setting and
action-taking can aid in the development
and expression of the acting mode of learn-
ing. Mindfulness can assist with this phase
by helping learners be intentional about
actions, especially when reflective observa-
tion is a more comfortable state for the
learner. Asking people novel and thought-
ful questions can be a safe and mindful
way to begin practicing action. Another
tool is having the learner envision all the
ideal behaviors that he/she would like to
practice. The learner then can decide which
behaviors would be generative to practice
in specific learning situations and begin
practicing one or two of them mindfully.
Learners who would like to move to action
more often or more strongly will benefit
from being aware of and releasing any
automatic self-judgments, self-schemas,
feelings and thoughts that support inac-
tion. This can be accomplished through
acceptance and breathing practices. Finally,
it is important to keep in mind that acting
isn’t just about filling space with behavior.
Intentionally suspending behavior can be a
mindful act as well.
Everybody has learning style preferences.
Cultivating mindfulness can help organiza-
tion members become more intentional
about how they think and behave in a given
learning environment. In order to be more
aware of learning processes, learners must
find unique ways to engage in routines of
momentary awareness. Regular practices
of deep breathing can help create anchor
points for learners to check in on thoughts
and behaviors. In organizations it is helpful
for learners to identify people who they
can routinely check-in with on the degree
to which they are being intentional in
learning situations. These conversational
anchors provide environmental cues to
stay focused on a mindfulness practice and
emotional support to remain optimistic.
Using coaches who are well trained in
mindfulness is also a powerful tool. Finally,
we encourage learners not to be discour-
aged when facing difficulty in starting a
mindful experiential learning practice. It
may be best to try 1 or 2 specific mind-
ful learning practices, and go from there.
Anything more can be overwhelming and
may actually inhibit progress. As tech-
niques are mastered, additional methods
can be added. In this article, we have
provided mindful experiential learning
practices that can improve the quality of
learning in the four modes of experiential
learning. These can be adapted to coaching
processes, employee development pro-
grams, dialogue sessions, cultivating emo-
tional intelligence, daily meeting practices
and much more. We have presented new
research and practical approaches to mind-
ful experiential learning in organizations.
We encourage others to develop innovative
ways to use mindfulness in organizations
and to share the results through articles
and presentations so that one day using
mindfulness in organizations becomes the
norm. We believe it is needed more now
than ever before.
Mindfulness is an age old tool to
13Mindfulness and Experiential Learning
enhance life by reducing automaticity.
Mindful experiential learning can be culti-
vated in organizations without mandating
employees to commit to specific meditation
practices. In many of our experiences with
coaching leaders, simply presenting some
of the practices discussed in this article has
been enough to generate interest, result-
ing in self-driven exploration of mindful
experiential learning. Experiential learning
theory helps us understand the mental
architecture of learning. Mindfulness helps
us understand processes by which the
mind is aware, intentional, and accepting.
Using the two together unlocks a power-
ful tool for empowered adult learning in
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Bauback Yeganeh, PhD, is the founder of B.Y. Consulting (www.byconsulting.
org) which focuses on leadership development and organizational strategy,
and Everidian (, an eco-advantage consulting group. He is
an Adjunct Professor of American University and an Affiliate Instructor of the
Weatherhead School of Management at Case Western Reserve University. Bau-
back’s work focuses on leadership development, strategy, and eco-advantage.
He has consulted to organizations in The Americas, Europe, and Asia including
The World Bank, United Nations, FIEP Brazil, Alcatel Lucent, and Progressive
Insurance. Bauback is an experienced coach and a leader in the field of Ap-
preciative Inquiry. He holds a Ph in organizational behavior from Case West-
ern Reserve University, an MS in organization development from American
University, and a BS in industrial/organizational psychology from University of
Maryland. Bauback is an author of forward thinking articles on organizational
behavior and eco-advantage, and a guitarist. He can be reached at by@bycon- or
David Kolb, PhD, is Professor of Organizational Behavior at the Weatherhead
School of Management, Case Western Reserve University. He received his BA
in psychology, philosophy and religion at Knox College and his PhD in social
psychology from Harvard University. He is best known for his research on
experiential learning and learning styles described in Experiential Learning:
Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. Other books include,
Conversational Learning: An Experiential Approach to Knowledge Creation,
Innovation in Professional Education: Steps on a Journey from Teaching to
Learning, and Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach. In addi-
tion he has authored many journal articles and book chapters on experiential
learning. Current research activities include assessment of learning flexibility,
studies of team learning, research on the cultural determinants of learning
style and research on experiential learning in conversation. He is involved in a
number of learning focused institutional development projects in education.
David has received four honorary degrees recognizing his contributions to
experiential learning in higher education.
OD PRACTITIONER Vol. 41 No. 3 200914
... According to Kolb, "learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience" (Kolb, 2014). Yeganeh and Kolb's (2009) The central research problem of this study, which is discussed in detail in the research chapters (4.1 and 4.2), focuses on answering the question of how the current market, which is undergoing digital transformation, where new technologies are being developed and highly automated industries are reflected in the workplace, the complexity and novelty of accepting these transformations, and how people lead this new global scenario: ...
... Mindfulness (Langer, 1992, Yeganeh andKolb, 2009;Djikic, 2014). One part defines ...
... The concept of Mindfulness has been used in educational assessments over the past decade. Exemplified by Yeganeh and Kolb (2009), and referring to studies on experiential learning theory, Mindfulness is a state in which an individual: Yeganeh and Kolb, 2009 As shown in Table 1, several authors point out that the practice of Mindfulness aims to look at everyday life and regular activities with new eyes and attention (Yeganeh and Kolb 2009;Rojas et al. 2015Rojas et al. , 2016Rojas et al. , 2017Langer 1992Langer , 2000. This awareness of rationality is relevant to a beneficial model of awareness from the field of Interpersonal Neurobiology. ...
This doctoral study is about Mindful Design as an approach to promoting Mindfulness. The main focus of this study is to transfer the Mindful Design approach and tools for industrial design into a higher education context that can be understood and applied by design students. Mindful Design is a design approach based on the socio-cognitive theory of Mindfulness. The concept of Mindful Design was introduced by Niedderer (2004) to describe how design products can promote and enhance mindful attention by interrupting or enhancing the user’s interaction or increase his awareness during social activities. Niedderer (2004) notes that Mindful Design can be associated with behavioural change and extends the understanding of social cognitive Mindfulness by changing the expected functions of product use. The theoretical framework addresses the differences in Mindfulness streams, their benefits, and their applicability to design context, topics that provide an important foundation for the development of Mindful Design criteria and tools. Based on this research, design criteria were selected to increase user awareness when interacting with mindful products. Furthermore, learning and teaching theories in the context of design education were discussed to support the chosen teaching strategies for the transfer of knowledge of the Mindful Design approach to design students. These themes were crucial in determining the current research question of this doctoral study. The research methodology focused on testing the applicability of the design and teaching tools developed to determine how socio-cognitive Mindfulness theory can be effectively and understandably introduced into the design context for design students in higher education. In Investigation One, a collection of tools and strategies were developed to determine student understanding and demonstrate the importance of the Mindful Design approach. As a result of this research, the Mindful Design Evaluation was developed and evaluated based on the socio-cognitive dimension of Mindfulness. Investigation Two sought to measure what students learned from the Mindful Design approach and whether the design proposals developed by students in the intervention group achieved higher levels of socio-cognitive Mindfulness than the design proposals proposed by the control group. Finally, the results of Investigation Two supported the assumptions made on the basis of the findings of the theoretical framework. The tools and strategies used to teach and apply the Mindful Design approach to design students showed significant results when applied in a higher education context.
... Bu yaklaşım ile öğrenci, sadece dinleme ve izleme gibi pasif öğrenme modundan, keşfetme gibi aktif deneyimsel öğrenme moduna geçebilmektedir (Dinis vd., 2022;O'Connor, 2021;Rong-Da Liang, 2021;Rosa vd., 2021). Ayrıca öğrenciler, aktif öğrenme ile bireysel olarak gerçek deneyimlerden bilgi üretebilmekte ve beceri geliştirebilmektedirler (Yeganeh & Kolb, 2009). Dolayısıyla aktif öğrenme ile öğrencinin turizmle ve meslekle ilgili gerçek deneyimleri yaşayarak mesleği öğrenmesi ve öğrendikleriyle mesleki analiz yapabilmesi söz konusu olacaktır (Rong-Da Liang, 2021). ...
... Bu yöntemlerden birisi de aktif öğrenmenin önemli bir bileşeni olan bilinçli farkındalık uygulamalarıdır (Bush, 2013;Edwards-Smith, 2022;Ergas, 2019;Mantzios & Egan, 2019). Bilinçli farkındalık; deneyimsel (Yeganeh & Kolb, 2009), bilinçli (Leland, 2015) ve keşifsel (Bilen, 2021) öğrenme eğitim programları ile geliştirilebilir bir insan kapasitesidir (Tortella-Feliu vd., 2020). Dolayısıyla bilinçli farkındalık, soyutlamalarla meşgul olmaktan ziyade dikkatin ve enerjinin doğrudan şimdiki anın deneyimine odaklı olduğu için deneyimsel (Williams vd., 2007) ve keşifsel (Markič & Kordeš, 2016) bir içeriğe sahiptir. ...
... Bilinçli farkındalık eğitimi ile ilgili farkındalık temelli stres azaltma (mindfulness-based Stress Reduction-MSBR) (Kabat-Zinn, 2003), farkındalık temelli bilişsel terapi (mindfulness-based cognitive therapy-MBCT) (Segal vd., 2004), bilinçli deneyimsel öğrenme (mindful experiential learning-MEL) (Yeganeh & Kolb, 2009), gündelik meşguliyetlerle bilinçli farkındalık (occupational mindfulness-OM) (Brooker vd., 2013) ve Master Mind-MM (Parker vd., 2014) gibi birçok program bulunmaktadır. Bu programlar, tüm eğitim kademelerinde (ilk, orta, lise, üniversite) uygulanan programlardır (Luiselli vd., 2017). ...
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Amaç ve Önem: Dünyada meydana gelen teknolojik, psikolojik, sosyal, ekonomik ve kültürel gelişmeler, yeni kuşak öğrencilerin öğrenim hayatlarında önemli değişikliklere yol açmaktadır. Dolayısıyla bu dönüşüme ayak uydurmak için yeni öğrenme yöntemlerinin gerekliliği ortaya çıkmaktadır. Bu yaklaşımdan hareketle, yazarlar tarafından bilinçli farkındalık ve aktif öğrenme temelli Deneyimsel Mesleki Farkındalık (DEMEF) eğitim programı geliştirilmiştir. Bu doğrultuda, bu araştırmanın temel amacı, turizm rehberliği lisans öğrencilerinin DEMEF programına yönelik tutumsal öğrenme çıktılarını belirlemektir. Yöntem: Araştırmada nitel araştırma tasarımı kullanılmıştır. Veriler, nitel form tekniğiyle toplanmıştır. Araştırma, ölçüt örneklem yöntemi tercih edilerek bir turizm fakültesi bünyesindeki turizm rehberliği bölümünde 2. ve 3. sınıfta okuyan ve DEMEF programına katılan 64 öğrenciye yönelik yapılmıştır. Araştırma verileri, MAXQDA nitel veri analiz programıyla içerik analizine tabi tutulmuştur. Bulgular: Araştırmada; DEMEF’in öğrencilere mesleki ve kişisel kaynakları kazandırarak “önce eylemde bulunma, sonra bu eylemlerden duygu ve bilgi üretme” şeklinde bir öğrenme stratejisi kazandırdığı tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca DEMEF’in, öğrencilerin mesleğe (öğrenme, tanıma ve yapma) ve kendilerine (kendini tanıma, geliştirme) yönelik tutumlarını olumlu yönde değiştirdiği ve en çok davranışsal öğrenmelerini arttırdığı saptanmıştır. Özgünlük/Bilimsel Katkı: DEMEF eğitim programının tutumsal mesleki öğrenme çıktıları, özgün bir değere sahiptir. Bunun temel sebebi, DEMEF’in turist rehberliği ve eğitim psikolojisi dikkate alınarak bilinçli deneyimsel farkındalık açısından tasarlanan yeni bir aktif öğrenme modeli olmasıdır. Ayrıca bulgular, bilinçli farkındalık eğitim uygulamalarının ilk defa turist rehberliği eğitimine uyarlanması sonucunda elde edilen özgün bulgulardır. Dolayısıyla bu araştırma, hem konu ve eğitim programı hem de bulguları açısından özgün bir araştırma niteliğinde olup, ilgili literatüre ve turist rehberliği uygulamalı eğitimine önemli katkı sağlayacaktır.
... (Pirson et al., 2018;Yeganeh & Kolb, 2009). This concept has been denominated Langerian mindfulness.In the conceptual perspective of Langer's experimental psychology, the cultivation of mindfulness is intended to improve personal effectiveness in everyday situations using positive psychology strategies (Langer, 2009). ...
Full-text available
Background and Purpose: The Langer Mindfulness Scale (LMS) is distinguished from other mindfulness scales by its dimensions, which are closely related to the awareness and experience of novelty, and by being a scale derived from a cognitive perspective of information processing. There are no mindfulness instruments of this type available in Brazil. Therefore, this study aimed to carry out a translation and cultural adaptation of the LMS into Brazilian Portuguese and to validate and assess the internal consistency and convergent construct validity of the translated instrument. Methods: The study had two distinct stages: (a) translation and cultural adaptation of the LMS into Brazilian Portuguese and (b) validation of the adapted instrument using a sample of 543 participants. Results: The Brazilian version of the LMS demonstrated acceptable internal consistency, with confirmatory factor analysis supporting the original four-factor model. Correlations between LMS, and the Five Facets of Mindfulness Questionnaire and the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale were statistically significant and in the expected directions. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the Brazilian version of LMS, with its four dimensions, presents acceptable psychometric properties and seems to be a reliable and valid instrument for assessing the state of mindfulness in a Brazilian cultural context.
... The instructor promotes an emotionally supportive classroom climate that encourages students to engage in the mindfulness practices and share and reflect in the group through instructor-student-group dialogues. Following Kolb's Experiential Learning Model (Yeganeh & Kolb, 2009), the facilitator talks with the children to (a) help them to become aware of their experiences during the mindfulness practice (i. e., thoughts, emotions, and feelings), (b) explore their behavioral and relationship patterns with their experience, and (c) explore the implications that their behaviors may have on their own lives. ...
Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) in the school context are increasingly widespread worldwide. The present study evaluates the effectiveness of a school-MBI (GrowingUp Breathing program) on children's socio-emotional and academic development. Three hundred thirteen elementary students from 7 to 12 years old from two schools in Madrid (Spain) participated. A cluster-randomized control trial was designed, assigning eight classrooms to the MBI-group (N = 155) and eight classrooms to the waiting-list control group (N = 158). Measures were evaluated at pre- and post-intervention in both groups and a 3-month follow-up was collected in the MBI-group. Children self-reported their mindfulness skills (i.e., dispositional mindfulness and psychological inflexibility) and well-being (i.e., anxiety and life satisfaction) and teachers evaluated children's social-emotional competence (i.e., emotion regulation, peer-relationship problems, and prosociality), well-being (i.e., emotional symptoms), and academic competence (i.e., student engagement and academic achievement). Mindfulness skills and emotional regulation were examined as potential mediators. Results revealed that children who received the MBI, compared to children in the WLC-group, improved their mindfulness skills, emotion regulation, prosociality, and emotional and behavioral engagement and decreased anxiety and peer-relationship problems. Positive changes in dispositional mindfulness led to reductions in children's anxiety and psychological inflexibility. Positive changes in emotional regulation led to improvements in prosociality and student engagement and decreased peer-relationships problems and emotional symptoms. Therefore, the results showed that a brief-MBI integrated in the Spanish regular school curriculum enhanced children's socio-emotional and academic development. Dispositional mindfulness and emotion regulation work as processes of change that underlie the intervention's impact.
... Düzenli derin nefes alma uygulamaları, öğrencilerin düşünce ve davranışlarını kontrol etmeleri için bağlantı noktaları oluşturmada destekleyicidir. Öğrencilerin, öğrenme durumlarında ne derece istekli olduklarını düzenli olarak kontrol etmeleri öğrenme süreci için faydalıdır (Yeganeh & Kolb, 2014 Bu araştırmanın ilerleyen çalışmalarda dönem içinde oluşturulan grafiklerde temsil edilen öğelerin Şekil 13'te analizi yapılmış tasarım elemanı ve ögelerin, güvenli bir alan tanımı ile özdeşleştirilmesinin ardındaki sebeplerin tartışılması şeklinde geliştirilmesi hedeflenmektedir. Aynı zamanda, temsil tekniklerinde bu gibi öğelerin kullanım yoğunluklarından yola çıkarak, tasarım yönelimleri de araştırılacaktır. ...
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“SELF.SAFE.SPACE” projesi, “İleri Temsil Teknikleri” seçmeli dersi kapsamında 15 öğrenci tarafından, bir akademik yarıyılda, 2 öğretim elemanı rehberliğinde geliştirilmiştir. Projenin amacı, bilinçli farkındalık yöntemlerinin pratiğiyle tasarım ve görselleştirmede yaratıcılık becerilerini artırmaktır. Dönem boyunca, öğrencinin hem geleneksel hem de dijital görselleştirme araçlarını birbiriyle harmanlayarak kullandığı ve kişisel temsil yöntemlerini keşfederek, yaratıcılığın üst sınırlarına ulaşmasına olanak tanıyan deneysel bir öğrenme prosedürü izlenmiştir. Stüdyo metodolojisi, öğrencilerin tasarım kabiliyetini, modelleme ve görselleştirme yazılımının kullanımını ve bu eksende bilişsel, beceriye dayalı ve duygusal sonuçlar geliştirmeye dayanmaktadır. Proje, öğrencilerin güvenli alan imgeleme egzersizi sonucunda oluşturdukları ütopik ve özel bir yerin yaratılmasını ve ileri anlatım teknikleriyle görselleştirilmesini hedeflemiştir. Bilinçli farkındalık egzersizleri katılımcılar tarafından ders içerisinde ve haftalık ders aralarında gönüllü olarak uygulanmıştır. Araştırmacıların gözlemlerine göre farkındalık ve dikkat düzeyleri ile yaratıcılık ölçümlerinin her hafta arttığı dönem sonunda yapılan bireysel değerlendirme envanterleri ile de doğrulanmıştır. Projenin sonunda öğrenciler, uygulamanın sonuçlarını ve kişisel gelişimlerini sınıf içinde gönüllü olarak paylaşmış ve yorumlamışlardır. Farkındalık tekniklerini düzenli olarak uygulayan öğrenciler, kendi imgeleme alanlarını oluşturup görselleştirmiş ve yaratıcılıklarını artırmaya yönelik kişisel yolculuklarına dair sıra dışı yansımalar üretmiştir.
... The best approach would be preventative, however, targeting this special population might serve as an early intervention measure. By giving these adolescents the tools and strategies to control their thoughts and actions, this strategy may work towards aiding these adolescents towards redefining themselves from identifying as someone in a detention center to someone who can redefine their destiny and choose an alternate path [79][80][81]. ...
Conference Paper
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Something surprising is that the very famous Dragon Ball animation actually adapted some Balinese culture. Adaptations of Balinese culture can be found in episodes of the Tenkaichi Budokai Tournament or the Global Martial Arts Championship series. Animation which is a cultural product, often adopts the culture of a place in the process of its creation. Moreover, Bali is very rich in culture. That fact can inspire many people including the legendary comic creator Akira Toriyama. This study aims to analyze the extent to which Balinese culture is adapted and applied in Dragon Ball animation? In what context was Balinese culture adapted? The analysis process uses a textual analysis method with a semiotic approach. The results of the study show that there are adaptations of several forms of Balinese architecture, the environment, and other Balinese identities that are used as the animated background for Dragon Ball. This adaptation of Balinese culture is inseparable from the special attraction factor for comic creator Akira Toriyama who has visited Bali, so Balinese culture has become a source of creative inspiration.
Conference Paper
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This qualitative case study uses the Capability Approach (CA) as a framework for experiential learning courses in the Faculty of Arts Humanities and Social Sciences at the University of Windsor, in Ontario, Canada. Specifically, this is a case study of two courses titled Ways of Knowing and Ways of Doing that are offered as undergraduate general credit electives. In this paper, we describe the case study context and provide a brief introduction to the CA. The lead author presents the case study courses' pedagogical framework and describes the materials and methods of the case. Next, we provide a summary of the data collection and analysis alongside thick descriptions of the CA in the context of the case. In the final section, we share reflections for further discussion.
Conference Paper
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To accommodate wider participants, the first International Conference on Languages and Arts across Cultures (ICLAAC) is launched to invite participants whose research interests range from language teaching, linguistics, design, and arts. ICLAAC is the sequel of ICEAC (International Conference of English across Cultures). As the research interest grew broader, this ICEAC was considered unable to accommodate participants beyond linguistics and language teaching within the field of humanity. The Faculty of Languages and Arts, Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha, as the host, therefore decided to widen the ICEAC mission on research dissemination by rebranding the conference name, ICLAAC.
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Mindfulness, achieved without meditation, is discussed with particular reference to learning. Being mindful is the simple act of drawing novel distinctions. It leads us to greater sensitivity to context and perspective, and ultimately to greater control over our lives. When we engage in mindful learning, we avoid forming mind-sets that unnecessarily limit us. Many of our beliefs about learning are mind-sets that have been mindlessly accepted to be true. Consideration is given to some of the consequences that result from a mindful reconsideration of those myths of learning.
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The author discusses Kolb's learning cycle and the propositions that give rise to it. The author considers the importance of the cycle within mainstream management education and development and then takes a more critical view, looking both behind and beyond the learning cycle at issues that can be developed out of its current conceptualization. The author argues that a more comprehensive picture of experiential learning in management education might be based on developments around emotional and political aspects of Kolb's model. These developments are intended to acknowledge additional, often omitted, aspects of learning from experience within management education and development. The author offers three particular areas for the development of skill and knowledge in the practice of management education.
Neurological research supports some well-known ideas about teaching, but does it suggest new-even counterintuitive-ideas?