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Abstract

Ayurveda, the science of life, deals with the holistic view of healthy living. It covers various physiology and pathology of diseases and their therapies. Since ancient times, several diseases have been treated by administration of plant extracts based on traditional medicine. Investigation of traditionally used medicinal plants is thus valuable on two levels, firstly, as a source of potential chemotherapeutic drugs, and secondly, as a measure of safety for the continued use of medicinal plants. The rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus which are used as traditional folk medicines for the treatment of stomach, bowel disorders and inflammatory diseases. Cyperus rotundus contains essential oils, terpenes, flavonoids, b-sitosterol, and ascorbic acid. The main terpenes in Cyperus rotundus are cyperenes, which include sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. This paper explains the evidence-based information regarding the pharmacological activity of this plant. It has many ethnobotanical uses and is medicinally used in the traditional Ayurvedic system.
Available online at www.ijpcr.com
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 2010; 2(1): 20-22
20
Review Article
ISSN 0975 1556
Review on Cyperus rotundus - A Potential Herb
A K Meena1, A K Yadav2*, U S Niranjan2, Brijendra Singh2, A K Nagariya2, Mansi Verma2
1National Institute of Ayurvedic Pharmaceutical Research, CCRAS, Dept. of AYUSH, Patiala -147001, Punjab, India
2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shobhit University, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India
ABSTRACT
Ayurveda, the science of life, deals with the holistic view of healthy living. It covers various physiology and pathology of
diseases and their therapies. Since ancient times, several diseases have been treated by administration of plant extracts
based on traditional medicine. Investigation of traditionally used medicinal plants is thus valuable on two levels, firstly, as
a source of potential chemotherapeutic drugs, and secondly, as a measure of safety for the continued use of medicinal
plants. The rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus which are used as traditional folk medicines for the treatment of stomach, bowel
disorders and inflammatory diseases. Cyperus rotundus contains essential oils, terpenes, flavonoids, b-sitosterol, and
ascorbic acid. The main terpenes in Cyperus rotundus are cyperenes, which include sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. This
paper explains the evidence-based information regarding the pharmacological activity of this plant. It has many
ethnobotanical uses and is medicinally used in the traditional Ayurvedic system.
Keywords: Ayurveda, Pharmacological action, Phytochemistry, Cyperus rotundus.
INTRODUCTION
The genus Cyperus includes common weeds found in upland
and paddy fields in temperate to tropical regions. In Asian
countries, the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus, which are used
as traditional folk medicines for the treatment of stomach and
bowel disorders, and inflammatory diseases, have been
widely, investigated. [1-4]
Cyperus rotundus (Cyperaceae) is a traditional herbal
medicine used widely as analgesic, sedative, antispasmodic,
antimalarial, stomach disorders and to relieve diarrhea. [5]
The tuber part of C. rotundus is one of the oldest known
medicinal plants used for the treatment of dysmenorrheal and
menstrual irregularities. [6] Infusion of this herb has been used
in pain, fever, diarrhea, dysentery, an emmenagogue and
other intestinal problems. [7-9]
PHYTOCHEMISTRY
Phytochemical studies have shown that the major chemical
components of this herb are essential oils, flavonoids,
terpenoids, mono-and sesquiterpenes. [10-11]
The plant contains the following chemical constituents-
Cyprotene (1), cypera-2, 4-diene (2), a-copaene (3), cyperene
(4), aselinene (5), rotundene (6), valencene (7), ylanga-2, 4-
diene (8), g-gurjunene (9), trans-calamenene (10), d-cadinene
*Corresponding author: Mr. Ajay Kumar Yadav,
National Institute of Ayurvedic Pharmaceutical Research,
CCRAS, Dept. of AYUSH, Patiala -147001, Punjab, India;
Tel: +919023468474, + 919453591281; +919779953364
E-mail: ajaypharma2010@rediffmail.com;
ajaysheera@gmail.com
(11), g-calacorene (12), epi-a-selinene (13), a-muurolene
(14), g-muurolene (15), cadalene (16), nootkatene (17) by
comparison with a spectral library established under identical
experimental conditions [12], cyperotundone (18) [13],
mustakone (19), cyperol (20) [14], isocyperol (21) [15] and a-
cyperone (22). [16-17]
BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY
ANTIMUTAGENS AND RADICAL SCAVENGERS
This study evaluates mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of
aqueous, total oligomers flavonoıds (TOF), ethyl acetate and
methanol extracts from aerial parts of Cyperus rotundus with
the Salmonella typhimurium assay system. The different
extracts showed no mutagenicity when tested with
Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA1535 and
TA1538 either with or without the S9 mix. On the other
hand, our results showed that all extracts have antimutagenic
activity against Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in TA100 and TA98
assay system, and against sodium azide in TA100 and
TA1535 assay system. TOF, ethyl acetate and methanol
extracts exhibited the highest inhibition level of the Ames
response induced by the indirect mutagen AFB1. Whereas,
ethyl acetate and methanol extracts exhibited the highest
level of protection towards the direct mutagen, sodium azide,
induced response. In addition to antimutagenic activity, these
extracts showed an important free radical scavenging activity
towards the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free
radical. TOF, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts showed
IC50 value of 15, 14 and 20 g/ml, respectively. [18]
ANTIMALARIAL
Activity-guided investigation of Cyperus rotundus tubers led
to the isolation of patchoulenone, caryophyllene or-oxide, 10,
Yadav et al. / Review on Cyperus rotundus........
IJPCR January-March, 2010, Vol 2, Issue 1 (20-22) 21
12-peroxycalamenene and 4, 7-dimethyl-l-tetralone. The
antimalarial activities of these compounds are in the range of
ECso 10-4-10 -6 M, with the novel ndoperoxide
sesquiterpene, 10, 12-peroxycalamenene, exhibiting the
strongest effect at ECso 2.33 × 10 -6 M. [19]
H
H
H
H
H
3
5
10
9
1
2
4
7
6
11 12
H
H
8
H
H
H
H
H
O
H
H
O
HO HO H
O
13
14 15
17 18
19 20 21
22
OH
16
Fig. 1: Structure of chemical constituents
ANTIDIARRHOEAL
The methanol extract of Cyperus rotundus rhizome, given
orally at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w., showed
significant antidiarrhoeal activity in castor oil induced
diarrhoea in mice. Among the fractions, tested at 250 mg/kg,
the petroleum ether fraction (PEF) and residual methanol
fraction (RMF) were found to retain the activity, the latter
being more active as compared to the control. The ethyl
acetate fraction (EAF) did not show any antidiarrhoeal
activity. [20]
ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY
In light of the traditional claim of Cyperus rotundus in the
treatment of diabetes, investigations were carried out to
evaluate its effect on alloxan induced hyperglycemia in rats.
Oral daily administration of 500 mg/kg of the extract (once a
day for seven consecutive days) significantly lowered the
blood glucose levels. This antihyperglycemic activity can be
attributed to its antioxidant activity as it showed the strong
DPPH radical scavenging action in vitro. [21]
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY
Cyperus rotundus has many different uses and these were
based on the different parts of plant. The medical uses of
cyperus have been used in medicine for thousands of years.
The parts of the cyperus used are its leaves, seeds and oil.
The Extraction process was carried out by steam distillation.
Optimum organic extractant determined. The collected oil
was identified via Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) using
a mixture of ethylacetate: toluene (1:9) as chromatographic
eluent. This study was designed to extract and identify of
essential cyperus oil from Cyperus rotundus .The
Antibacterial activity of Cyperus oil was studied for various
microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus , Klebsiella
pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Streptococcus pyogenes ,
Eschirichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ) using
inhibition zone method (Aromatogram). The MIC and MBC
for each microbe were estimated. The oil of C. rotundus was
shown a remarkable activity against gram-positive bacteria,
less antibacterial activity was found against gram–negative
bacteria and no activity was observed with the oil against
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris. Novel
method for extraction and identification of chemical
composition for Iraqi Cyperus oil was conducted. The study
of the biological activities of this oil is very important
because of needing to be determined whether there is any
correlation between the biological activities and one or more
of the chemical compounds purified from Cyperus rotundus
oil. [22]
ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY
Antioxidant activity of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes extract
(CRRE) was evaluveted in a series of in vitro assay involving
free radicals and reactive oxygen species and IC50 values
were determined. CRRE exhibited its scavenging effect in
concentration dependent manner on superoxide anion
radicals, hydroxyl radicals, nitric oxide radical, hydrogen
peroxide, and property of metal chelating and reducing
power. The extract was also studied for lipid peroxidation
assay by thiobarbituric acid–reactive substances (TBARS)
using young and aged rat brain mitochondria. The extract
was also effective in preventing mitochondrial lipid
peroxidation induced by FeSO4 ascorbate in concentration
dependent manner. The results obtained in the present study
indicate that C. rotundus rhizomes extract can be a potential
source of natural antioxidant. [23]
Yadav et al. / Review on Cyperus rotundus........
IJPCR January-March, 2010, Vol 2, Issue 1 (20-22) 22
OVICIDAL AND LARVICIDAL ACTIVITIES
The ovicidal and larvicidal efficacy of essential oils extracted
from the tubers of Cyperus giganteus and Cyperus rotundus
Linn. was studied on eggs and fourth instar larvae of Aedes
albopictus. The eggs and larvae were exposed to serial
concentration of the oils ranging from 5-150 ppm and kept
under observation for 24 h. Both the oils showed remarkable
ovicidal and larvicidal activities indicated by EC50 values of
<5 ppm and LC50 and LC90 values of <20 ppm. The results
obtained suggest that the essential oils of these Cyperus
species can serve as a potential source of natural
mosquitocidal agents. [24]
WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY
To evaluate the wound healing activity of extract of tuber
parts of Cyperus rotundus. It is a well-known plant in Indian
traditional medicine. On the basis of traditional use and
literature references, this plant was selected for evaluation of
wound healing potential. An alcoholic extract of tuber parts
of Cyperus rotundus was examined for wound healing
activity in the form of ointment in three types of wound
models on rats: the excision, the incision and dead space
wound model. The extract ointments showed considerable
difference in response in all the above said wound models as
comparable to those of a standard drug nitrofurazone
ointment (0.2 % w/w NFZ) in terms of wound contracting
ability, wound closure time and tensile strength. [25]
CONCLUSION
The above collected information regarding the use of
Cyperus rotundus in world is matched with available
literature. Recent years, ethno-botanical and traditional uses
of natural compounds, especially of plant origin received
much attention as they are well tested for their efficacy and
generally believed to be safe for human use. It is best
classical approach in the search of new molecules for
management of various diseases. Thorough screening of
literature available on Cyperus rotundus depicted the fact that
it is a popular remedy among the various ethnic groups,
Ayurvedic and traditional practitioners for treatment of
ailments. Researchers are exploring the therapeutic potential
of this plant as it has more therapeutic properties which are
not known.
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... In the component of C. rotundus, the anti-inflammatory property of α-cyperone is an associate with inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX-2), and interleukin (IL-6) [105]. Phytochemical study of C. rotundus have demonstrated that the significant compounds are flavonoids, terpenoids, mono-and sesquiterpenes, cyprotene, cyperene, α-copaene, α-cyperone, caffeic corrosive, coumarin, ellagic acid, salicylic acid, linolenic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, oleanolic acid, myristic acid, catechin, quercetin, genistein, and rutin [101,102,[106][107][108][109][110] [111][112][113][114][115]. W. somnifera has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic [114,116]. Powder of ashwagandha roots was found to have a strong inhibitory effect on, and other inflammatory markers such as cytokines including interleukin (IL -6), tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) and nephritis [117,118]. ...
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