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Ayurveda, the science of life, deals with the holistic view of healthy living. It covers various physiology and pathology of diseases and their therapies. Since ancient times, several diseases have been treated by administration of plant extracts based on traditional medicine. Investigation of traditionally used medicinal plants is thus valuable on two levels, firstly, as a source of potential chemotherapeutic drugs, and secondly, as a measure of safety for the continued use of medicinal plants. The rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus which are used as traditional folk medicines for the treatment of stomach, bowel disorders and inflammatory diseases. Cyperus rotundus contains essential oils, terpenes, flavonoids, b-sitosterol, and ascorbic acid. The main terpenes in Cyperus rotundus are cyperenes, which include sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. This paper explains the evidence-based information regarding the pharmacological activity of this plant. It has many ethnobotanical uses and is medicinally used in the traditional Ayurvedic system.
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International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 2010; 2(1): 20-22
Review Article
ISSN 0975 1556
Review on Cyperus rotundus - A Potential Herb
A K Meena1, A K Yadav2*, U S Niranjan2, Brijendra Singh2, A K Nagariya2, Mansi Verma2
1National Institute of Ayurvedic Pharmaceutical Research, CCRAS, Dept. of AYUSH, Patiala -147001, Punjab, India
2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shobhit University, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India
Ayurveda, the science of life, deals with the holistic view of healthy living. It covers various physiology and pathology of
diseases and their therapies. Since ancient times, several diseases have been treated by administration of plant extracts
based on traditional medicine. Investigation of traditionally used medicinal plants is thus valuable on two levels, firstly, as
a source of potential chemotherapeutic drugs, and secondly, as a measure of safety for the continued use of medicinal
plants. The rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus which are used as traditional folk medicines for the treatment of stomach, bowel
disorders and inflammatory diseases. Cyperus rotundus contains essential oils, terpenes, flavonoids, b-sitosterol, and
ascorbic acid. The main terpenes in Cyperus rotundus are cyperenes, which include sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. This
paper explains the evidence-based information regarding the pharmacological activity of this plant. It has many
ethnobotanical uses and is medicinally used in the traditional Ayurvedic system.
Keywords: Ayurveda, Pharmacological action, Phytochemistry, Cyperus rotundus.
The genus Cyperus includes common weeds found in upland
and paddy fields in temperate to tropical regions. In Asian
countries, the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus, which are used
as traditional folk medicines for the treatment of stomach and
bowel disorders, and inflammatory diseases, have been
widely, investigated. [1-4]
Cyperus rotundus (Cyperaceae) is a traditional herbal
medicine used widely as analgesic, sedative, antispasmodic,
antimalarial, stomach disorders and to relieve diarrhea. [5]
The tuber part of C. rotundus is one of the oldest known
medicinal plants used for the treatment of dysmenorrheal and
menstrual irregularities. [6] Infusion of this herb has been used
in pain, fever, diarrhea, dysentery, an emmenagogue and
other intestinal problems. [7-9]
Phytochemical studies have shown that the major chemical
components of this herb are essential oils, flavonoids,
terpenoids, mono-and sesquiterpenes. [10-11]
The plant contains the following chemical constituents-
Cyprotene (1), cypera-2, 4-diene (2), a-copaene (3), cyperene
(4), aselinene (5), rotundene (6), valencene (7), ylanga-2, 4-
diene (8), g-gurjunene (9), trans-calamenene (10), d-cadinene
*Corresponding author: Mr. Ajay Kumar Yadav,
National Institute of Ayurvedic Pharmaceutical Research,
CCRAS, Dept. of AYUSH, Patiala -147001, Punjab, India;
Tel: +919023468474, + 919453591281; +919779953364
(11), g-calacorene (12), epi-a-selinene (13), a-muurolene
(14), g-muurolene (15), cadalene (16), nootkatene (17) by
comparison with a spectral library established under identical
experimental conditions [12], cyperotundone (18) [13],
mustakone (19), cyperol (20) [14], isocyperol (21) [15] and a-
cyperone (22). [16-17]
This study evaluates mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of
aqueous, total oligomers flavonoıds (TOF), ethyl acetate and
methanol extracts from aerial parts of Cyperus rotundus with
the Salmonella typhimurium assay system. The different
extracts showed no mutagenicity when tested with
Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA1535 and
TA1538 either with or without the S9 mix. On the other
hand, our results showed that all extracts have antimutagenic
activity against Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in TA100 and TA98
assay system, and against sodium azide in TA100 and
TA1535 assay system. TOF, ethyl acetate and methanol
extracts exhibited the highest inhibition level of the Ames
response induced by the indirect mutagen AFB1. Whereas,
ethyl acetate and methanol extracts exhibited the highest
level of protection towards the direct mutagen, sodium azide,
induced response. In addition to antimutagenic activity, these
extracts showed an important free radical scavenging activity
towards the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free
radical. TOF, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts showed
IC50 value of 15, 14 and 20 g/ml, respectively. [18]
Activity-guided investigation of Cyperus rotundus tubers led
to the isolation of patchoulenone, caryophyllene or-oxide, 10,
Yadav et al. / Review on Cyperus rotundus........
IJPCR January-March, 2010, Vol 2, Issue 1 (20-22) 21
12-peroxycalamenene and 4, 7-dimethyl-l-tetralone. The
antimalarial activities of these compounds are in the range of
ECso 10-4-10 -6 M, with the novel ndoperoxide
sesquiterpene, 10, 12-peroxycalamenene, exhibiting the
strongest effect at ECso 2.33 × 10 -6 M. [19]
11 12
14 15
17 18
19 20 21
Fig. 1: Structure of chemical constituents
The methanol extract of Cyperus rotundus rhizome, given
orally at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w., showed
significant antidiarrhoeal activity in castor oil induced
diarrhoea in mice. Among the fractions, tested at 250 mg/kg,
the petroleum ether fraction (PEF) and residual methanol
fraction (RMF) were found to retain the activity, the latter
being more active as compared to the control. The ethyl
acetate fraction (EAF) did not show any antidiarrhoeal
activity. [20]
In light of the traditional claim of Cyperus rotundus in the
treatment of diabetes, investigations were carried out to
evaluate its effect on alloxan induced hyperglycemia in rats.
Oral daily administration of 500 mg/kg of the extract (once a
day for seven consecutive days) significantly lowered the
blood glucose levels. This antihyperglycemic activity can be
attributed to its antioxidant activity as it showed the strong
DPPH radical scavenging action in vitro. [21]
Cyperus rotundus has many different uses and these were
based on the different parts of plant. The medical uses of
cyperus have been used in medicine for thousands of years.
The parts of the cyperus used are its leaves, seeds and oil.
The Extraction process was carried out by steam distillation.
Optimum organic extractant determined. The collected oil
was identified via Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) using
a mixture of ethylacetate: toluene (1:9) as chromatographic
eluent. This study was designed to extract and identify of
essential cyperus oil from Cyperus rotundus .The
Antibacterial activity of Cyperus oil was studied for various
microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus , Klebsiella
pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Streptococcus pyogenes ,
Eschirichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ) using
inhibition zone method (Aromatogram). The MIC and MBC
for each microbe were estimated. The oil of C. rotundus was
shown a remarkable activity against gram-positive bacteria,
less antibacterial activity was found against gram–negative
bacteria and no activity was observed with the oil against
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris. Novel
method for extraction and identification of chemical
composition for Iraqi Cyperus oil was conducted. The study
of the biological activities of this oil is very important
because of needing to be determined whether there is any
correlation between the biological activities and one or more
of the chemical compounds purified from Cyperus rotundus
oil. [22]
Antioxidant activity of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes extract
(CRRE) was evaluveted in a series of in vitro assay involving
free radicals and reactive oxygen species and IC50 values
were determined. CRRE exhibited its scavenging effect in
concentration dependent manner on superoxide anion
radicals, hydroxyl radicals, nitric oxide radical, hydrogen
peroxide, and property of metal chelating and reducing
power. The extract was also studied for lipid peroxidation
assay by thiobarbituric acid–reactive substances (TBARS)
using young and aged rat brain mitochondria. The extract
was also effective in preventing mitochondrial lipid
peroxidation induced by FeSO4 ascorbate in concentration
dependent manner. The results obtained in the present study
indicate that C. rotundus rhizomes extract can be a potential
source of natural antioxidant. [23]
Yadav et al. / Review on Cyperus rotundus........
IJPCR January-March, 2010, Vol 2, Issue 1 (20-22) 22
The ovicidal and larvicidal efficacy of essential oils extracted
from the tubers of Cyperus giganteus and Cyperus rotundus
Linn. was studied on eggs and fourth instar larvae of Aedes
albopictus. The eggs and larvae were exposed to serial
concentration of the oils ranging from 5-150 ppm and kept
under observation for 24 h. Both the oils showed remarkable
ovicidal and larvicidal activities indicated by EC50 values of
<5 ppm and LC50 and LC90 values of <20 ppm. The results
obtained suggest that the essential oils of these Cyperus
species can serve as a potential source of natural
mosquitocidal agents. [24]
To evaluate the wound healing activity of extract of tuber
parts of Cyperus rotundus. It is a well-known plant in Indian
traditional medicine. On the basis of traditional use and
literature references, this plant was selected for evaluation of
wound healing potential. An alcoholic extract of tuber parts
of Cyperus rotundus was examined for wound healing
activity in the form of ointment in three types of wound
models on rats: the excision, the incision and dead space
wound model. The extract ointments showed considerable
difference in response in all the above said wound models as
comparable to those of a standard drug nitrofurazone
ointment (0.2 % w/w NFZ) in terms of wound contracting
ability, wound closure time and tensile strength. [25]
The above collected information regarding the use of
Cyperus rotundus in world is matched with available
literature. Recent years, ethno-botanical and traditional uses
of natural compounds, especially of plant origin received
much attention as they are well tested for their efficacy and
generally believed to be safe for human use. It is best
classical approach in the search of new molecules for
management of various diseases. Thorough screening of
literature available on Cyperus rotundus depicted the fact that
it is a popular remedy among the various ethnic groups,
Ayurvedic and traditional practitioners for treatment of
ailments. Researchers are exploring the therapeutic potential
of this plant as it has more therapeutic properties which are
not known.
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Hydrocarbons. E. B.-Verlag, Hamburg 1998.
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cyperotundone. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 1966; 14:
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... Notably, a combined analytical and morphological analysis of material extracted from dental calculus of seven burials et al-Khiday demonstrates the ingestion of Cyperus rotundus. The compound calarene (β-gurjunene), known to be present in the essential oil component of C. rotundus (Mekem Sonwa & König, 2001), together with a suite of monoterpenoid and sesquiterpenoids previously identified in the rhizomes and tubers of C. rotundus (Meena et al., 2010;Mekem Sonwa, 2000;Mekem Sonwa & König, 2001), is indicative of the plant species. It is identified in dental calculus samples from all periods, from the pre-Mesolithic, Neolithic, and Meroitic, covering more than 9000 years (Buckley et al., 2014). ...
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Al-Khiday, located on the bank of the White Nile in Sudan, offers an exceptionally preserved stratigraphic sequence, providing a unique opportunity to use organic residue analysis to investigate diet and subsistence during the Khartoum Mesolithic and the Early Neolithic, a period of nearly 3500 years (7000–4500 cal BC). While the vast and diverse Mesolithic fish assemblage indicates a strong reliance on products from aquatic habitats, floodplains, vegetated marshes, and open water, results from the lipid residue analysis suggest that the fish were not cooked in ceramic pots, but consumed in other ways. Rather, pots were more specialized in processing plants, including wild grasses, leafy plants, and sedges. These results, confirmed by experimental analysis, provide, for the first time, direct chemical evidence for plant exploitation in the Khartoum Mesolithic. Non-ruminant fauna (e.g., warthog) and low lipid-yielding reptiles (e.g., Adanson’s mud turtle and Nile monitor lizard), found in significant numbers at al-Khiday, were likely also cooked in pots. There is little evidence for the processing of wild ruminants in the Mesolithic pots, suggesting either that ruminant species were not routinely hunted or that large wild fauna may have been cooked in different ways, possibly grilled over fires. These data suggest sophisticated economic strategies by sedentary people exploiting their ecological niche to the fullest. Pottery use changed considerably in the Early Neolithic, with ruminant products being more routinely processed in pots, and while the exploitation of domesticates cannot be confirmed by a small faunal assemblage, some dairying took place. The results provide valuable information on Early and Middle Holocene lifeways in central Sudan.
... It has also been reported to possess various biological activities, such as antimalarial, antidiarrheal, antidiabetic, antibacterial, antioxidant, wound healing, ovicidal and larvicidal activities. These biological activities and several bioactive chemical compounds identified and isolated from this plant validate most of its traditional uses [53]. The n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extract of C. rotundus rhizome displayed significant free radical scavenging activity in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay with IC 50 values ranging between 28.35-111.18 ...
Background Phytochemicals and their derivatives/analogues represent over 50% of the current medicines in worldwide clinical use. Despite a significant contribution to the total bioactive natural plant products, the aquatic plants are underestimated, and several species are extinct and in endangered list. Objective The aim of this review article is to draw the attention of common people and scientists towards few important contributions of the aquatic plants to natural product chemistry and drug discovery by highlighting the chemical and pharmaceutical aspects of the same. Methods The presented data was collected and selected from the literature obtained by online search for the ethnomedicinal properties, biological activities and bioactive chemical constituents of aquatic plants using google scholar, PubMed and Scifinder chemical abstract service. Results The selected literature data revealed that the extract and compounds isolated from several aquatic plants possess significant biological/pharmaceutical properties. For example, the α-asarone (24) and asiatic acid (33) isolated form Acorus calamus and Centella asiatica respectively exhibited significant neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. The cripowellin A (59), cripowellin C (60), cripowellin B (61) and cripowellin D (62), isolated from Crinum erubescens exhibited potent antiplasmodial and antiproliferative activities with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) in nano molar range (11-260 nM). Several other alkaloids from different Crinum species have also shown anticancer properties against different cancer cell lines with IC50 <5 µM. Alkaloids and resin glycosides, isolated from different Ipomoea species have displayed significant psychotropic, psychotomimetic, anticancer, and antibacterial activities with IC50 <5 µM. Conclusion The aquatic plants play significant role in the discovery of bioactive natural products. Although, several biological activities and bioactive compounds have been reported from these plants, further assessment, and scientific validation of most of their traditional usages still need to be done. There are several other similar species which are underestimated and not much explored. Many aquatic plants, such as Ipomoea carnea Jacq., Juncus lomatophyllus Spreng., Commelina benghalensis Linn, Gunnera perpensa L., Scirpus maritimus L. and Mentha longifolia (L.) L. may be considered for further evaluation. In addition to these, one should not undermine evaluating the potential of Crinum macowanii for COVID-19 pathogenesis, as its chemical constituent lycorine has shown significant SARS-CoV-2 inhibitory potential (EC50, 0.3 μM; SI >129). Furthermore, most of the rural communities are still using the wetland resources for their cultural, medicinal, economic, domestic, and agricultural needs. Hence, the conservation of aquatic plants and wetlands is an issue of high concern.
... They are derived from the various epidermal cells on vegetative organs like stem or leaf (Choi and Kim, 2013). Phytochemical surveys of Cyperus rotundus revealed that it contained flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, furochromones, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, sitosterol, alkaloids saponins, terpenoids, essential oils, starch, carbohydrates, protein, separated amino acids (Al-Snafi, 2016), cyprotene, cyperene, aselinene, rotundene, valencene, cyperol, gurjunene, trans-calamenene, cadalene, cyperotundone, mustakone, isocyperol, acyperone (Meena et al., 2010). The tubers are used in Ayurvedic medicine and have been mentioned in ancient texts for various ailments (Sivapalan, 2013). ...
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La méditerranée est l’une des régions les plus vulnérables au changement climatique (hot-spot). La plupart des modèles climatiques prévoient, dans cette région, une augmentation de la température et une diminution des précipitations. Ces changements affecteront plusieurs propriétés de la végétation, en particulier le cycle phénologique. Dans ce contexte, la présente étude vise à étudier la dynamique de la végétation naturelle dans la forêt de Sidi Zid (Zaghouan) en utilisant les techniques de la phénologie de surface terrestre ou « Land Surface Phenology (LSP) » à partir des séries temporelles d’image NDVI-MODIS entre 2000-2017. Les résultats ont montré un retard au niveau de début de saison de croissance (SOS) de 7,8 jours et un avancement de la fin de saison (EOS) de 5 jours des différentes espèces forestières étudiées, ce qui a provoqué une diminution moyenne de la longueur de la saison végétative (LOS) de 12,8 jours. Les résultats obtenus ont montré que le NDVI et le LSP révèlent une bonne corrélation avec le climat, surtout avec la précipitation d'automne et de printemps (Pr_9; Pr_3 et P3_4), la température maximale (Tx9 + 10), et l'indice de sécheresse SPEI. L'utilisation de LSP et du NDVI permet une bonne suit de la dynamique de la végétation en fonction des variations climatiques.
... Dosud však proběhly pouze in vitro studie a experimenty na zvířatech; klinické studie, které by tyto účinky potvrdily u lidí, zatím zcela chybí. K možnému využití v medicíně je tedy ještě daleko, ale vzhledem k tomu, jaká pozornost je těmto rostlinám věnována, lze jejich uplatnění v moderní medicíně předvídat (43). Etnofarmakologický výzkum tradičně používaných léčivých rostlin je považován za cenný zdroj potenciálních léčiv a za příspěvek k "zelené chemii" (44,45), od níž je očekáván přínos pro trvale udržitelný způsob života (46). ...
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Sedges (Cyperus L.) are annual or perennial herbs of the Cyperaceae family. The genus includes about 600 species, including edible and medicinal species. Cyperus esculentus is an edible and medicinal plant, widely used for its numerous health-promoting effects, including alleviating the symptoms associated with neurological disorders. Cyperus rotundus is also widely used in traditional medicine as a nerve tonic and sedative. Several bioactive substances (for example phenolic acids, phenylpropanoids, terpenes and especially flavonoids) have been found in the rhizome extracts of these plants. These can act as modulators of immune cell function, against inflammation and oxidative stress, but also have significant neuroprotective effects, such as neurogenesis and neuronal regeneration, which lead to improved learning and memory performance.
... Phytochemical studies have shown that the major chemical components of this herb are essential oils, flavonoids, terpenoids, ©2009-2019, JGPT. All Rights Reserved -mono-and sesquiterpenes The plant contains the following chemical constituents-Cyprotene, cypera-2, 4-diene, a-copaene, cyperene, aselinene, rotundene, valencene, ylanga-2, 4-diene, g-gurjunene, transcalamenene, d-cadinene [32].Healing as well as for curing of human diseases because of the presence of phytochemical constituents. ...
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Histological structure of testes in alloxan-induced diabetic rats was investigated after daily oral administration of (Cyperus rotundus) tuber aqueous extract for one month. Therty were divided into 5experimental groups, each group contain 6 adultmale albino rats weighing 150-200 g. Testes samples were obtained and processed for microscopic evaluation after staining the prepared sections with both Heamatoxylin and Eosin. There was a found severe histopatholoigical changes belong to rats injected with alloxan showing seminiferous tubules completely destroyed and nucleus going out from the testis, also presence many bleeding area, absence the connective tissue and leydig cell while showed No histological changes were found in the examined organs belong to rats treated with Extract of Cyperus rotundus.
... Antibacterial Anti-inflammatory Analgesic Gastroprotective [29] Vidanga Embelia ribes Burn. F. Primulaceae Tannin Volatile oil Analgesic Anti-inflammatory [30] Antioxidant Anthelminthic Wound healing [31] Amalaki Emblica officinalis Gareth. ...
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Peptic-ulcer-disease is the ulceration of gasrtric or duodenal mucosa due to the digestive action of pepsin and stomach acid. Gastritis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer are included under this. It can be correlated with the condition Parinamasoola mentioned in Ayurveda. Avipathichoornam is a famous Ayurvedic formulation, mentioned in the texts Ashtanga Hridaya and Sahasrayoga. Avipathi choorna exerts its effect in Peptic ulcer disease probably through Deepana, Pachana and Saraka actions by virtue of the pharmacological properties of the ingredients with which the vitiated Pitta can get normalized. It can be deducted that Avipathi choorna probably neutralize the excess acid secretion in the gastrointestinal tract and maintain a healthy pH. The formulation also probably acts by the anti inflammatory property of most of the ingredients which can help pacify the inflamed tissue layer of the gut. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate mode of action of Avipathi choorna in peptic ulcer disease by critically analyzing the pharmacological properties as well as chemical constituent of the ingredients.
... Due to its richness in chemical constituents, Cyperus plants have been widely used in folk medicine for multiple affections [100,141,142]. Thorough screening of literature available on Cyperus plants as a popular remedy among various ethnic groups, researchers have increasingly explored their therapeutic potential [143]. However, it is also of extreme interest to evaluate the toxicological aspects of botanical drugs and products for their reliable and safe usage among consumers. ...
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Cyperaceae are a plant family of grass-like monocots, comprising 5600 species with a cosmopolitan distribution in temperate and tropical regions. Phytochemically, Cyperus is one of the most promising health supplementing genera of the Cyperaceae family, housing ≈950 species, with Cyperus rotundus L. being the most reported species in pharmacological studies. The traditional uses of Cyperus spp. have been reported against various diseases, viz., gastrointestinal and respiratory affections, blood disorders, menstrual irregularities, and inflammatory diseases. Cyperus spp. are known to contain a plethora of bioactive compounds such as α-cyperone, α-corymbolol, α-pinene, caryophyllene oxide, cyperotundone, germacrene D, mustakone, and zierone, which impart pharmacological properties to its extract. Therefore, Cyperus sp. extracts were preclinically studied and reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer, neuroprotective, antidepressive, antiarthritic, antiobesity, vasodilator, spasmolytic, bronchodilator, and estrogenic biofunctionalities. Nonetheless, conclusive evidence is still sparse regarding its clinical applications on human diseases. Further studies focused on toxicity data and risk assessment are needed to elucidate its safe and effective application. Moreover, detailed structure-activity studies also need time to explore the candidature of Cyperus-derived phytochemicals as upcoming drugs in pharmaceuticals.
... In the component of C. rotundus, the anti-inflammatory property of α-cyperone is an associate with inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX-2), and interleukin (IL-6) [105]. Phytochemical study of C. rotundus have demonstrated that the significant compounds are flavonoids, terpenoids, mono-and sesquiterpenes, cyprotene, cyperene, α-copaene, α-cyperone, caffeic corrosive, coumarin, ellagic acid, salicylic acid, linolenic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, oleanolic acid, myristic acid, catechin, quercetin, genistein, and rutin [101,102,[106][107][108][109][110] [111][112][113][114][115]. W. somnifera has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic [114,116]. Powder of ashwagandha roots was found to have a strong inhibitory effect on, and other inflammatory markers such as cytokines including interleukin (IL -6), tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) and nephritis [117,118]. ...
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Mother nature cure is the trademark sort of recovering treatment to fix diverse medical issues. Headache is started by hack, wheezing, stressing, fever, or rest; there are uncommon signs on appraisal and neurological or visual side effects. Headache is a constant indication in everybody and is a famous issue in youth and pubescence, all things considered in adulthood. A broad hunt of logical information banks, for example, Elsevier, PubMed, Medline and Scopus, has been practiced to discover results identifying with the calming, against nociceptive, and pain-relieving impacts of signified restorative herbs. We present a few herbs which their headache impacts have been assessed in clinical and trial examines. White Willow Bark, Latjira, Guduchi, Ashwagandha, Coriander, Brahmi, Nagarmotha, Jatamansi, and Imli, are some of the introduced medicinal herbs in this review. Since the treatment of cerebral pain is anything but a one-dimensional cure, this article attempts to arrive at a multidimensional restorative way to deal with headache with the assistance of natural medication and change in way of life.
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The study examined the precise properties of the Chemical content and Micromophology of pollen grains characteristers of some species belonging to the Cyperaceae family, which included four species of Cyperus L. which it: C.difformis L., C.rotundus L., C.odoratus L. and C.alternifolius L. and one species of genus Bolboschoenus maritimus L. The samples were collected from the banks and sides of the Diwaniyah River and specifically (Sania area, Dagara district, Center of Diwaniyah and al-Sedair district) beginning from 15/10/2016 to 15/3/2017 During the autumn and winter season. The Chemical content of leaves, flowers and tubers, which was characterized by its abundance in both genus, was studied. The chemical compounds were identified using Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS). The richness of the species under study in secondary metabolites, which ranged from: Terpenes, phenols, steroids, Fatty acids, alkanes, alkaloids and esters. and all phytochemicals of the species participated in five compounds which it :Hexadecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-1 (hydroxymethyl ethyl ester, Octadecanoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester, Octadecadienoic acid (Z, Z) -, gamma.-Sitosterol, and l - (+) - Ascorbic acid 2,6-dihexadecanoate. It was characterized by high concentrations of different species that helped to isolate them clearly from each other, also Some species were involved in the same compounds like: Squalene and Coumaran.Also distinguished and separated from each other by other compounds such as : Phenol, 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl and Cyperene in the species C.difformis and C.rotundus which reinforced the taxonomic importance of this study. The study examined the Micromorphology of the pollen and showed variations, which helped to isolate the taxa at the level of genus and specie. The study went on the shape and size of the polar and Equatorial view and wall thickness, using the Light Microscope (LM) besides the number of apertures and length of the grooves and the shape of the surface decoration using the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)The results showed that there was a variance of most of the above-mentioned traits. At the level of the shape, the pollen grains showed that the pollen was in two shapes: Oblate Spheroidal in specie C.alternifolius and Sub Oblate in other species. As for size, B.maritimus recorded the largest size of the pollen while the species C.difformis The smallest size also gave the number of apertures a taxonomic importance that can not be ignored as it was possible to divide the species into two groups and The prevailing model was Tetracolporate. The Ornamentation surface showed clear variations, and all species were isolated, which increased the taxonomic importance of this characteristic. The thickness of the wall did not appear to be of great importance for the separation of the species of Cyperus L. While a high taxonomic value was observed in gender segregation under study The present study concluded that five species of Cyperaceae family were diagnosed along the Diwaniyah River. Two species were recorded for the first time on the river: C.odoratus and C.alternifolius.
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RESUMO: O óleo essencial de Cyperus rotundus L. tem sido relatado em vários estudos por apresentar propriedades medicinais de grande interesse farmacológico. Neste sentido, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo realizar uma revisão bibliográfica para compilar informações sobre as atividades biológicas e os principais compostos químicos do OE desta espécie. Assim, foi realizada uma busca por artigos nas bases de dados do Google Acadêmico, PubMed, SciELO e ScienceDirect. Como critérios de inclusão, foram selecionados artigos publicados sem considerar a data de publicação. Em relação aos critérios de exclusão, foram descartados anais de congresso, e-book, trabalho de conclusão de curso, dissertações e teses. De acordo com os documentos científicos analisados, foi possível identificar 16 compostos químicos que ocorrem no óleo essencial de C. rotundus extraído principalmente em países asiáticos. Os principais compostos identificados foram: α-cyperone, cyperene, caryophyllene oxide e α-selinene. As atividades antimicrobianas, citotóxicas e antioxidantes do óleo essencial dos rizomas e tubérculos de C. rotundus foram amplamente investigadas. Estes achados são importantes para direcionar estudos futuros que tenham como intuito analisar a composição química e as atividades biológicas do óleo essencial desta espécie. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Fitoquímica, Atividades farmacológicas, Óleo volátil.
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Essential oil from the tubers of Cyperus rotundus, obtained by steam distillation, was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. In total, 33 compounds were identified. The oil was characterized by its high content of sesquiterpenes with cyperene (30.9%) being major. The antibacterial activity of oil from tubers of Cyperus rotundus, showed more important activity against Gram-positive bacteria specially Staphylococcus aureus than Gram-negative bacteria. The antimutagenic activity was tested by the “SOS Chromotest” and the “Ames” test. C. rotundus oil acted as an antimutagen against Afl atoxin B1 in both Salmonella strains (TA100 and TA98) and Escherichia coli strain (PQ37) and against nifuroxazide in Escherichia coli strain (PQ37), where its mutagenicity is not expressed. The highest rates of AFB1 mutagenesis inhibition tested by Ames assay, ranged from about 82.56% for TA100 strain to 85.47% for TA98 strain at the same dose of 50 μg AFB1 per plate. Whereas, the mutagenic effect of respectively nifuroxazide and AFB1 (50 μg/assay) were reduced by aproximately 58.19% and 81.67% when tested by the SOS chromotest assay.
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The ovicidal and larvicidal efficacy of essential oils extracted from the tubers of Cyperus giganteus Vahl and Cyperus rotundus Linn. was studied on eggs and fourth instar larvae of Aedes albopictus (Skuse). The eggs and larvae were exposed to serial concentration of the oils ranging from 5-150 ppm and kept under observation for 24 h. Both the oils showed remarkable ovicidal and larvicidal activities indicated by EC50 values of <5 ppm and LC50 and LC50 values of <20 ppm. The results obtained suggest that the essential oils of these Cyperus species can serve as a potential source of natural mosquitocidal agents.
A new monocyclic sesquiterpenic diketone, mandassidione, was isolated from the rhizomes of Cyperus articulatus, along with mustakone and isopatchoul-4(5) en-3-one. The structures were established from spectroscopic and chemical evidence.
The structure and configuration (IX) for natural (+)-α-cyperone have been confirmed by synthesis of its (+)- and (-)-form.
New sesquiterpenoids with 4,5-secoeudesmane and cyperolone carbon skeletons were isolated from Cyperus rotundus, and characterized by spectroscopic analysis. The structures were confirmed by synthesis from (+)-dihydrocarvone and (+)-cyperolone.
The rhizome of Cyperus rotundus was assessed for its cytoprotective effects against ethanol induced gastric damage. Decoctions of Rhizoma Cyperi were given orally (1.25, 2.5, 4.0 g crude drug/kg) to rats 30 min before ethanol (40% v/v, 10 mL/kg) was administered. The decoction showed an ulcer inhibitory effect in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, the activity was also observed when the decoction was given subcutaneously (0.3–0.6 g/kg), suggesting that the herb possessed systemic effects on protecting the stomach. Compared with controls, gastric motility of the ethanol-treated rats was delayed significantly by either oral (2.5–4.0 g/kg) or subcutaneous (0.3 g/kg) administration of the decoction. Pretreatment of rats with indomethacin (5 mg/kg) significantly reduced the gastric protective action of C. rotundus. Mucus content in the stomach was not affected by administration of the docoction. The findings in this study suggest that the protective action of C. rotundus is related to its inhibition of gastric motility and endogeneous prostaglandins may play an important role. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Starch was isolated from the subterraneous swollen tuberous bases and nodules of Cyperus rotundus by a wet-milling process with a yield of 24.1% on a dry weight basis. The white starch was characterized in terms of granule size, specific gravity, amylose content, cold water extracts, moisture and ash contents, paste stability, clarity, viscosity at 20°C, adhesive strength and line-spread at 50°C. Starch noodles were prepared and the quality assessed by tensile strength and solid loss during cooking. A textile sizing solution was formulated with the starch and the tensile strength of yarns sized with the solution examined. The starch granules were large-sized and comparable to the potato types, and had an appreciable amylose content, 26.73%. Solutions of the starch showed a high pasting temperature, viscosity and adhsive strength. The C. rotundus starch noodles and the sized yarns both elicited fairly good tensile strengths, comparable to standards.