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Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils of bitter fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var. vulgare) and dill (Anethum graveolens L.) against the growth of food-borne and seed-borne pathogenic bacteria



In the present study, the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils of bitter fennel [Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var. vulgare) and dill [Anethumgraveolens L.) were investigated against food-borne and seed- borne pathogenic bacteria. The chemical composition of bitter fennel and dill essential oils was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The major compounds found in the essential oils of bitter fennel and dill were estragole (37.6%) and limonene (33.1%), respectively. These essential oils have antibacterial activity against food-borne as well as seed-borne pathogenic bac-teria. Fennel essential oil had the highest antibacterial activity against the food-borne bacterial pathogen Staph- ylococus aureus, while dill essential oil had the highest antibacterial activ-ity against seed-borne pathogenic Cla- vibacter michiganensis subsp. michi- ganensis. Amongst all the bacterial species tested, the plant pathogenic agent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato had the greatest resistance to both essential oils. Considering the significant level of bacterial growth inhibition of seed-borne and food-borne pathogens, essential oils or their components could be promising seed disinfectants or food additives in appropriate products.
short communication
Ital. J. Food Sci. n. 3, vol. 21 - 2009 347
chEmicaL comPosition anD
antiBactEriaL actiVitY oF EssEntiaL
GroWth oF FooD-BornE anD sEED-
BornE PathoGEnic BactEria
s. soYLu*, E.m. soYLu anD G.a. EVrEnDiLEK1
Department of Plant Protection, Mustafa Kemal University,
31034 Antakya, Hatay, Turkey
1 Department of Food Enginering, Abant İzzet Baysal University,
14280 Bolu, Turkey
* Corresponding author: Tel. +90 326 2455845, Fax +90 326 2455832
- Key words: Anethum graveolens L., antibacterial activities, essential oils, Foeniculum vulgare Mill.,
plant pathogens -
In the present study, the chemical
composition and antibacterial activi-
ty of essential oils of bitter fennel (Foe-
niculum vulgare Mill. var. vulgare) and
Nel presente lavoro è stato studiato
l’effetto della composizione chimica e
l’attività antibatterica sulla crescita di
batteri patogeni di origine alimentare e
348 Ital. J. Food Sci. n. 3, vol. 21 - 2009
dill (Anethum graveolens L.) were inves-
tigated against food-borne and seed-
borne pathogenic bacteria. The chemi-
cal composition of bitter fennel and dill
essential oils was analyzed by gas chro-
matography-mass spectroscopy. The
major compounds found in the essen-
tial oils of bitter fennel and dill were es-
tragole (37.6%) and limonene (33.1%),
respectively. These essential oils have
antibacterial activity against food-borne
as well as seed-borne pathogenic bac-
teria. Fennel essential oil had the high-
est antibacterial activity against the
food-borne bacterial pathogen Staph-
ylococus aureus, while dill essential
oil had the highest antibacterial activ-
ity against seed-borne pathogenic Cla-
vibacter michiganensis subsp. michi-
ganensis. Amongst all the bacterial spe-
cies tested, the plant pathogenic agent
Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato had
the greatest resistance to both essen-
tial oils. Considering the significant lev-
el of bacterial growth inhibition of seed-
borne and food-borne pathogens, es-
sential oils or their components could
be promising seed disinfectants or food
additives in appropriate products.
sementiera, di oli essenziali di finocchio
amaro (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var.
vulgare) e di aneto (Anethum graveolens
L.). La composizione chimica degli oli
essenziali di finocchio amaro e di ane-
to è stata analizza per via gas-croma-
tografica accoppiata alla spettrometria
di massa. I principali composti ritrovati
negli oli essenziali di finocchio amaro e
aneto erano rispettivamente l’estrago-
lo (37,6%) e il limonene (33,1%). Que-
sti oli essenziali presentano una attivi-
tà antibatterica nei confronti dei batte-
ri patogeni di origine alimentare e se-
mentiera. L’olio essenziale di finocchio
presentava l’attività antibatterica più
alta nei confronti del batterio patoge-
no di origine alimentare Staphylococus
aureus, mentre l’olio essenziale di ane-
to presentava l’attività antibatterica più
alta nei confronti del patogeno di origi-
ne sementiera Clavibacter michiganen-
sis subsp. michiganensis. Fra tutte la
specie batteriche testate l’agente pato-
geno delle piante Pseudomonas syrin-
gae pv. Tomato presentava la maggio-
re resistenza nei confronti di entrambi
gli oli essenziali. Considerando la signi-
ficativa inibizione della crescita batte-
rica dei patogeni di origine alimentare
e sementiera, gli oli essenziali o i loro
componenti potrebbero risultare, quan-
do inseriti in appropriati prodotti, pro-
mettenti disinfettanti delle sementi o
additivi alimentari.
Food-borne bacterial disease agents
are the cause of dangerous infections
in humans. It has been estimated that
as many as 30% of the people in devel-
oping countries suffer from food-borne
disease each year. Plant diseases caused
by a range of bacteria are also one of the
major problems in the cultivation of sev-
eral crops. In many countries, quick and
effective management of plant diseases
and microbial contamination is gener-
ally achieved by using synthetic pesti-
cides and antibiotics. Chemical control
of plant disease is based on the use of
antibiotics (such as streptomycin) in the
USA or copper compounds in the rest of
Ital. J. Food Sci. n. 3, vol. 21 - 2009 349
the world. These methods prevent bac-
terial multiplication, but are not always
adequate for controlling seed-borne inoc-
ulum. Unfortunately, the frequent use of
pesticides and antibiotics against plant
and human pathogenic bacteria has led
to the selection of bacterial populations
that are resistant to antibiotics (URECH
et al., 1997). Factors including the high
cost of pesticides, the development of
pesticide-antibiotic-resistant food-borne
and plant pathogenic isolates, govern-
mental restrictions on the use of anti-
biotics against plant pathogens in the
European countries, including Turkey,
and concern for the environment high-
light the need to find alternative control
Secondary metabolites from aromatic
and medicinal plants and essential oils
have been used empirically for a wide
variety of purposes for many centuries.
Many of them have potential uses in
medical procedures, and in the cosmet-
ic, food preservation and pharmacologi-
cal industries as well as for crop protec-
1997; RICE et al., 1998). The antimicro-
bial properties of essential oils and their
major constituents from a wide range
of aromatic plant species have been as-
sessed against the comprehensive range
of microorganisms including bacteria,
fungi and viruses (reviewed by JANSSEN
et al., 1987; DORMAN and DEANS 2000;
ISMAN 2000; BURT 2004; BAKKALI et al.,
2008). Bactericides of plant origin could
be one approach to bacterial plant dis-
ease management because of their eco-
friendly nature.
The Eastern Mediterranean region of
Turkey has a flora that is rich in indige-
nous aromatic and medicinal plant spe-
cies. Bitter fennel (Foeniculum vulgare
Mill. var. vulgare) and dill (Anetheum gra-
veolens L.), belong to the parsley family
(Apiacaea). They have been widely grown
in the Mediterranean basin of Turkey
since antiquity and are known for their
medicinal and aromatic properties. The
seeds and essential oils of fennel are
commonly used in the perfume indus-
try, as a natural remedy against diges-
tive disorders and to flavor foods and li-
quors. Dill plants are cultivated and the
leafy tops are used for fresh consump-
tion and food dressing. After flowering at
the end of the harvest period, both plant
species are left in the field for domestic
animal consumption.
The objectives of this study were (a)
to identify the chemical composition of
the essential oils isolated from two re-
lated plant species, bitter fennel (F. vul-
gare var. vulgare) and dill (A. graveolens)
grown in the region and (b) to investigate
the in vitro antibacterial activities against
ten bacterial species of Gram-positive
and Gram-negative food-borne (Salmo-
nella Thyphimirium, Listeria monocyto-
genes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Staph-
ylococus aureus and Salmonella Enter-
itidis) and seed-borne pathogenic bacte-
ria (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato,
Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicato-
ria, Erwinia carotovora, Clavibacter mich-
iganensis subsp. michiganensis, Agro-
bacterium tumefaciens).
Plant material and extraction
of essential oils
The plants used in this study were
identified and a voucher specimen was
deposited in the herbarium of the Plant
Protection Department of Mustafa Ke-
mal University (No. FvAu2 and AgSc4).
For the extraction of essential oils, dill
plants and fennel seeds were collect-
ed in the Samandağ (36° 16 N; 35° 48’
E, 38 m) and Narlıca (36° 14 N; 36° 13
E, 104 m) districts, respectively, in the
Eastern Mediterranean region of Tur-
key. The annual average temperatures
in Samandağ and Narlıca were 20.1° and
18.1°C; rainfall was 750 and 1,124 mm,
respectively. The characteristic soils of
350 Ital. J. Food Sci. n. 3, vol. 21 - 2009
Samandağ and Narlıca are aquic xe-
rofluent and calcixerept, respectively.
The leaves and stems of the dill plants
were used for the extraction of the es-
sential oils, while the seeds were used
for the extraction of the fennel essen-
tial oil. Three different lots of air-dried
plant material were used separately for
extraction. For each lot, the air-dried
plant material (200 g) was placed in a
5 L round-bottom distillation flask and
3 L of double-distilled water were add-
ed. The essential oils were obtained by
steam distillation using a Clevenger -
type apparatus (Ildam, Ankara, Tur-
key) for 3 h. The oils were separated,
dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate
and stored in an amber bottle at 4°C
until used.
GC-MS analysis of the essential oil
The essential oil analysis was per-
formed using a Hewlett-Packard 6890
(Waldbronn, Germany) GC linked to
a Hewlett-Packard 5973 mass selec-
tive detector equipped with a HP-5 MS
(Crosslinked 5% Phenyl Methyl Silox-
ane) capillary column (30 m x 0.25 mm
i.d., 0.25 µm film thickness). The carri-
er gas was helium, at a ratio of 1.0 mL
min-1. The amount of the sample inject-
ed was 0.1 µL in split mode (50:1). The
initial oven temperature was 50°C, in-
creased at a rate of 2°C min-1 to 90°C,
5°C min-1 to 210°C and finally isother-
mal for 5 min. The injector and detector
temperatures were maintained at 250°
and 280°C, respectively. The quadru-
pole mass spectrometer was scanned
over the 50-550 amu range at 1.53 scan
s-1, with an ionizing voltage of 70 eV.
The major components of the essential
oils were identified by comparing the re-
tention indices and mass spectra with
those of authentic samples or published
data (ADAMS, 2001). They were then
matched with the Wiley275.L Registry
of Mass Spectral Data (MCLAFFERTY,
1994). The retention indices were cal-
culated for all of the volatile constitu-
ents using a homologous series of n-al-
kanes C8-C20.
Test microorganisms
and culture methods
The food-borne and human patho-
genic bacteria used were Escherichia coli
O157:H7 (ATCC 35218), Salmonella ty-
phimurium (RHSM 1996), Listeria mono-
cytogenes (NCTC 2167), Staphylococcus
aureus (ATCC 43300) and Salmonella en-
teritidis (OSU 799). Stock cultures were
maintained at 4°C on Tryptic Soy Broth
(Merck) amended with 5 g L-1 Yeast Ex-
tract (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) and
15 g L-1 agar agar (Merck, Darmstadt,
Germany). Cultures of the plant patho-
genic bacterial isolates of Pseudomo-
nas syringae pv. tomato (PstHd1), Xan-
thomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria
(XavMd3), Erwinia carotovora pv. caroto-
vora (EccMd17), Clavibacter michiganen-
sis subsp. michiganensis (CmmAd12)
and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (AtAd2)
used in the study were isolated from in-
fected leaves, fruit and stems of toma-
to and pepper plants growing in the re-
gion. They were identified on the basis of
fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis
as described by SASSER (1990). Pst was
grown and maintained on King’s medi-
um B (KB) agar (Merck, Darmstadt, Ger-
many), while other isolates (Xav, Cmm,
Ecc and At) were grown on yeast glucose
chalk (YDC) agar. Stock cultures were
maintained on appropriate media at 4°C
and sub-cultured once a month.
Active cultures were prepared for the
experiments by transferring a loopful
of cells from the stock cultures to 10
mL flasks of appropriate nutrient broth
which were then incubated for 24 h at
37°C (food-borne pathogen) or 26°C
(plant pathogen). The cultures were di-
luted with an appropriate fresh broth to
achieve optical densities corresponding
to 108 CFU mL-1. These suspensions were
used as required.
Ital. J. Food Sci. n. 3, vol. 21 - 2009 351
Determination of antibacterial
activity of the essential oil
The antibacterial activity of the essen-
tial oils was determined by using the pa-
per disc diffusion technique. Briefly, the
test was performed in sterile Petri dishes
(100 mm diameter) containing an appro-
priate solid and sterile media. The sur-
face of the plates was inoculated with
200 µL of bacterial suspension prepared
as described previously. Sterile filter pa-
per (Whatman No. 1) discs (6 mm in di-
ameter) containing 10 µL of the test-
ed essential oils were placed in the cen-
tre of the agar surface. A disc contain-
ing the 10 µL of sterile broth media was
used as the negative control. Two differ-
ent reference antibiotic, rifampicin and
tetracycline, (Sigma, Taufkirchen, Ger-
many) amended discs, at 100 µg mL-1
concentrations, were used as the posi-
tive control for comparison. Each indi-
vidual Petri dish was immediately cov-
ered to prevent eventual evaporation. Af-
ter allowing the essential oils to diffuse
across the surface for 1 h at room tem-
peratures, the plates were sealed with
sterile parafilm and incubated at 26°C
(for plant pathogens) or 37°C (for food-
borne pathogens) for 48 h. The antibac-
terial activities of the oils and antibiot-
ics were demonstrated by a clear zone
of inhibition around the disc. The zone
of inhibition was measured using Ver-
nier calipers.
Statistical analysis
All experiments were performed twice
using five replicate plates of each es-
sential oil for each bacterium. The data
were subjected to analysis of variance
(ANOVA) using the SPSS statistics pro-
gram (Version 11.5). The significance be-
tween treatments was determined using
Tukey’s Test (P≤0.05). The data from two
independent experiments were analyzed
separately but were not significantly dif-
ferent (P>0.05).
The average essential oil yields of bit-
ter fennel and dill were about 7.9 and
0.9% (v/w), respectively. The qualitative
and quantitative analyses of essential oil
constituents were identified by GC-MS
and the results are reported in Table 1,
together with their relative percentages
in the order of elution from the column.
The bitter fennel essential oil is made
up of 13 constituents, which account
for the total amount. The major com-
ponent was estragole (37.6%), followed
by limonene (35.4%), fenchone (12.8%)
and carvone (3.4%). The composition of
the bitter fennel oil analysed was typi-
cal of the variety of Foeniculum vulgare
Mill. var. vulgare (bitter fennel) (BARAZ-
ANI et al., 2002). While some variations
were observed, the composition of the
bitter fennel essential oil was general-
ly in agreement with that reported from
different countries.
The essential oil of dill had a very dif-
ferent chemical composition with a to-
tal of 16 constituents, which accounted
for 99.1% of the total amount. Accord-
ing to GC-MS analysis, limonene was
the most abundant volatile compound,
comprising 33.1% of the total volatiles,
followed by α-phellandrene (24.9%), car-
vone (16.8%), dillapiole (9.6%), p-cy-
mene (3.7%) and α-pinene (3.0%). The
properties of dill oil depend largely on
the proportions of limonene, carvone
and α-phellandrene; the characteristics
of the essential oil predominated if the
carvone content was less than 35%. The
aroma of dill herb oil from the leaves and
stems is due to phellandrene and dill
ether. Minor components like apiole or
myristicin may be typical of some variet-
ies which allow the chemotypes to be dis-
tinguished (KRÜGER and HAMMER 1996).
Notable quantities of apiole were detect-
ed in this study. Myristicin accounted for
1.38% of the total oil. Quantitative dif-
ferences in the essential oil components
in F. vulgare and A. graveolens from dif-
352 Ital. J. Food Sci. n. 3, vol. 21 - 2009
Table 1 - Chemical constituents of essential oils of bitter fennel (F. vulgare var. vulgare) and dill (A. gra-
veolens). The compounds are listed in order of elution time from a HP-5MS column.
Fennel Dill
No. Compounds RI
% MS
% MS
1 α-Pinene 935 2.6±0.03 3.0±0.08
2 Sabinene 971 1.5±0.02 0.4±0.03
3 Myrcene 990 0.8±0.02 0.5±0.02
4 α-Phellandrene 1002 0.4±0.03 24.9±0.3
5 p-Cymene 1021 - 3.7±0.25
6 Limonene 1025 35.4±0.69 33.1±0.17
7 trans-β-Ocimene 1035 2.1±0.02 -
8 γ-Terpinene 1060 0.4±0.02 0.4±0.03
9 Fenchone 1081 12.8±0.26 -
10 Terpinen-4-ol 1180 - 0.2±0.01
11 Dill ether 1187 - 0.6±0.03
12 cis-Dihydrocarvone 1191 - 1.1±0.07
13 Estragole 1193 37.6±0.59 -
14 trans-Dihydrocarvone 1197 - 1.7±0.02
15 Carvone 1242 3.4±0.05 16.8±0.24
16 p-Anisaldehyde 1250 0.3±0.02 -
17 trans-Anethole 1286 2.0±0.07 -
18 β-Caryophyllene 1417 - 0.4±0.03
19 Germacrene D 1477 0.1±0.01 0.9±0.04
20 Myristcin 1518 - 1.8±0.05
21 Dillapiole 1623 - 9.6±0.04
The retention index was calculated using a homologous series of n-alkenes C
The values (±SE) are expressed as means of three different determinations and were obtained from electronic in-
tegration measurements using selective mass detector.
Dash indicates the compound was not found.
ferent countries indicate that environ-
mental and genetic factors strongly in-
fluence its chemical composition (MA-
ROTTI et al., 1994).
The antibacterial activities of the es-
sential oils measured by the agar disc
diffusion method are given in Table 2.
The essential oils isolated from both
plant species showed varying levels of
antibacterial activities and significant
differences in microbial susceptibility.
The essential oil of F. vulgare showed
the highest and lowest activities against
food-borne bacterial pathogens S. aere-
us (13.4 mm) and P. syringae pv. tomato
(6.5 mm), respectively. The essential oil
of A. graveolens had the highest activity
against gram-positive plant pathogenic
bacterial agent C. michiganensis subsp.
michiganensis (19.4 mm). Gram-nega-
tive bacterial agent P. syringae pv. syrin-
gae was the most resistant bacterial spe-
cies to the dill essential oil just like fen-
nel (6.3 mm). Volatile compounds from
plants, especially essential oils, have an-
timicrobial activity against a variety of
food-borne, human and plant pathogens
(BAKKALI et al., 2008). A relatively limit-
ed number of reports were found in the
literature regarding plant extracts and/
or essential oils against phytopathogenic
bacteria. To our knowledge no research
has been conducted to evaluate the ef-
ficacy of the essential oils used in this
study against plant pathogenic bacteria.
The results of this study confirm that es-
Ital. J. Food Sci. n. 3, vol. 21 - 2009 353
sential oils from the Turkish specimens
of F. vulgare and A. graveolens have an-
tibacterial activity against food-borne
and economically important seed-borne
plant pathogenic bacteria. Similar anti-
bacterial activities of essential oils and/
or major components of dill and fennel
plants from different countries against a
variety of food-borne and human patho-
gens have been reported (AGGRAWAL et
al., 2002; DELAQUIS et al., 2002; DADA-
al., 2003; RUBERTO et al., 2000; SINGH
et al., 2005; SCHELZ et al., 2006). On
the other hand, very few studies have
shown the antibacterial activities of es-
sential oils against plant pathogenic bac-
teria (SATISH et al., 1999; LO CANTORE
et al., 2004).
The chemical methods of plant dis-
ease management are expensive and can
damage the beneficial microbial popula-
tion present in the ecosystem. The obvi-
ous pollution problems that result from
indiscriminate use of synthetic pesti-
cides and their toxic effect on non-tar-
get organisms have prompted investiga-
tions on the use of pesticides of plant or-
igin. Natural plant products are impor-
tant sources of new agrochemicals for
the control of plant diseases. Further-
more, biocides of plant origin are non-
phytotoxic, systemic and easily biode-
gradable (BAKKALI et al., 2008).
Among the bacteria, six species
showed similar sensitivity to both essen-
tial oils, whereas four bacteria showed
differences in the sensitivity to fen-
nel and dill oils. The size of the inhibi-
tion zone recorded for A. tumefaciens,
C. michiganensis subsp. michiganen-
sis, and L. monocytogenes in Petri dish-
es with fennel oil added was significant-
ly less than that recorded in the petri
dishes with dill oil added (Table 2). The
size of the inhibition zone recorded for
Staphylococus aureus was significantly
greater in fennel oil-added Petri dishes
than that in the dill oil-added Petri dish-
es. The mode of action of essential oils
against bacterium is unclear. The essen-
tial oil and its components may disrupt
the cell membrane of the fungal and bac-
terial pathogen and change its permea-
bility (COX et al., 2000). Given the broad
spectrum activities of fennel and dill es-
sential oils and the general membrane-
damaging effects of essential oils, this
Table 2 - Antibacterial activities of bitter fennel (F. vulgare var. vulgare) and dill (A. graveolens) essen-
tial oils against plant pathogenic and food-borne bacterial species.
Inhibition zone (mm)
Microorganisms Bitter Fennel Dill Tetracycline Rifampicin
Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato 6.5 aA 6.3 aA 20.6 bC 15.8 bB
Erwinia carotovora pv. carotovora 6.9 abA 6.78 aA 41.4 cdC 21.1 cB
Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria 10.9 efA 12.9 eA 42.6 dB 49.7 eC
Agrobacterium tumefaciens 8.5 cdA 10.4 cdB 50.7 eD 29.6 dC
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis 9.6 deA 19.4 fB 18.7 bB 53.0 fC
Listeria monocytogenes 7.4 abcA 10.1 cdB 39.6 cD 12.4 aC
Staphylococcus aureus 13.37 gC 10.8 dB 8.4 aA 12.6 aC
Escherichia coli 11.8 fB 11.4 deB 8.3 aA 16.6 bC
Salmonella Enteritidis 8.1 bcA 8.8 bcA 9.4 aAB 16.5 bC
Salmonella Thyphimirium 8.6 cdA 8.4 bA 9.6 aB 11.6 aC
Includes diameter of disc (6 mm). Mean values (n=5) followed by the same small or capital letters within the col-
umn or row, respectively, are not signicantly different according to Tukey’s test (P≤0.05).
354 Ital. J. Food Sci. n. 3, vol. 21 - 2009
variability is probably due to the rate at
which their active components diffuse
through the cell wall into the phospho-
lipid regions of the cell membrane struc-
ture as suggested by COX et al. (2000).
In addition to their antibacterial activ-
ities, the F. vulgare essential oil show an-
tiviral activity that has inhibitory prop-
erties against PVX (potato virus X), TMV
(tobacco mosaic virus) and TRSV (to-
bacco ring spot virus). The essential oil
at a concentration of 3000 ppm totally
inhibited the formation of local lesions
(SHUKLA et al., 1989). Similar studies
were conducted previously to assess the
efficacy of essential oils from medicinal
plants, including sweet fennel, which is
rich in trans-anethole, against phyto-
pathogenic fungi (SOYLU et al., 2006;
In summary, it can be concluded that
the essential oils of bitter fennel and dill,
rich in estragole (37.6%) and limonene
(33.1%), respectively, possess signifi-
cant antibacterial activities against not
only food-borne, but also seed-borne
pathogenic bacterial agents. Copper-
based preparations are generally ap-
plied to fight against plant pathogen-
ic bacterial agents using foliar spray-
ing, which only controls leaf symptoms.
However, the development of fungicide
resistance requires that new fungicides
be developed that have different modes
of action. Since essential oils and/or
their main components have been re-
ported to possess fungicidal and bac-
tericidal activities, the treatment of
seeds with essential oils or their compo-
nents could be used as a seed disinfec-
tant against seed-borne plant bacteri-
al agents. However further experiments
are needed to obtain information about
the economic aspects and antibacteri-
al activities of essential oils in vivo and
determine if there are phytotoxic effects
on seed germination. It is also likely that
these essential oils could be used as an-
timicrobial agents to prevent the spoil-
age of food products.
We thank Dr. Yesim AYSAN, from Cukurova Uni-
versity, Department of Plant Protection, Adana,
for providing plant pathogenic bacterial isolates
and Dr. Ilhan Uremis from Mustafa Kemal Uni-
versity, Department of Plant Protection, Hatay,
for identification of the plant species used in the
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Revised paper received November 28, 2008 Accepted January 7, 2009
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... Plant pathogenic bacterial species cause many problems before and after crop harvest. Today, chemical pesticides, antibiotics and food additives were used in the control against food and plant pathogenic bacterial species problem in agriculture and food industries (Soylu et al. 2009). However, due to the emergence of pesticideresistant pathogen species and the negative impact of pesticides on the environment and human health, several environmentally friendly studies carried out on alternative control methods (Soylu et al. 2009, Dadaşoğlu 2016. ...
... Today, chemical pesticides, antibiotics and food additives were used in the control against food and plant pathogenic bacterial species problem in agriculture and food industries (Soylu et al. 2009). However, due to the emergence of pesticideresistant pathogen species and the negative impact of pesticides on the environment and human health, several environmentally friendly studies carried out on alternative control methods (Soylu et al. 2009, Dadaşoğlu 2016. Plant essential oils, extract and major components can be used in the control against fungal and bacterial plant diseases since they do not create residues on the product and don't have a negative effect on the environment (Belgüzar et al. 2016;. ...
... It has been determined that essential oils show different effects on different bacterial disease agents. Differences in antibacterial activities of essential oils against different bacterial and fungal species could be due to differences in major chemical components as reported in previously published studies (Soylu et al. 2009, Mengüllüoğlu & Soylu, 2012, Bozkurt et al. 2020. It is thought that plant extracts of tannin have a growth inhibitory effect on the plant pathogen bacteria, but the effect would increase even more when the appropriate concentration and density of tannin are adjusted. ...
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Kahramanmaras region is suitable for pome fruits, vine and pepper cultivation. This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial effects of 6 different commercial essential oil (thyme, mint, cinnamon, clove, orange and ginger) and 3 different commercial tannin (Artutan, Artutan K and Farmatan) extracts against several isolates of different plant pathogenic bacterial species (Rhizobium spp. (syn. Agrobacterium), Xanthomonas spp. and Erwinia amylovora) by using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) was determined by using broth micro-dilution method for plant extracts which caused > 5 mm inhibition zones. Thyme and cinnamon essential oils were determined as the most effective essential oils but ginger essential oil was the least effective oil determined. The activity of essential oils also varied statistically according to bacterial species tested. The most susceptible isolate was determined Rhizobium sp. CU5-4/6 and the most resistant isolates were Xanthomonas spp. MB7-5 and MB6-3. Xanthomonas spp. isolates were found to be more resistant to essential oils than Rhizobium spp. and E. amylovora isolates. MIC value of mint and thyme essential oils against Rhizobium spp. isolates varied between 10-20 µl/ml; thyme 10 µl/ml for Xanthomonas spp. isolates and mint 20 µl / ml for Xanthomonas spp. MB6-6 isolate. MIC value of cinnamon essential oils against Rhizobium spp. isolates CU5-4/6 and CU5-4/10 was determined as 20-40 µl/ml. Clove essential oil caused inhibition at 10 µl/ml against Xanthomonas spp. isolates. Our results clearly shown that plant extracts may be used as an alternative control method in sustainable and organic farming against pathogens.
... Fennel seeds and EO are commonly used as a natural remedy for indigestion, to flavour foods, liqueurs and in the perfume industry [17]. EO of fennel has also been reported to possess antifungal and antibacterial activities against human, food and plant pathogenic fungal and bacterial microorganisms [18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25]. ZnO-NRs enriched with plant-derived EOs may provide synergistic antibacterial activity, chemical stability and increased bioavailability of EOs and their constituents. ...
... A voucher specimen of the plant was deposited in the herbarium of the BISAK unit of Hatay Mustafa Kemal University (FvA141). The essential oil (EO) was extracted from fennel seeds (100 g) by steam distillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus (Ildam, Ankara) for 3 h according to the method recommended by Soylu et al. [20]. The EO was separated, dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate, and stored in an amber GC vial at 4 • C until use. ...
In the present work, bare, Ag- and Cu-substituted ZnO nanorods (ZnO-NRs) were prepared by a simple, low-cost synthesis temperature and inexpensive solution-based growth method with low synthesis temperature. In addition to the physical properties of the bare, Ag- and Cu-substituted ZnO-NRs, the antibacterial activities of fennel essential oil (EO) incorporated into the ZnO-NRs against opportunistic food (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis) and plant pathogenic (Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola) bacterial disease agents were also investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns showed the hexagonal wurtzite phase of ZnO. FESEM images confirmed the production of nanorod-like morphology with an average diameter of about 200 nm. The antibacterial activities of the bare, Ag- and Cu-substituted ZnO NRs varied depending on the bacterial isolates tested. The highest antibacterial activity was detected against the Gram-positive bacterial isolate Bacillus subtilis. The antibacterial activities were significantly enhanced by doping the bare ZnO NRs with Cu and Ag. This enhancement is more pronounced for Cu-substituted ZnO-NRs (up to 160.1 %) than for Ag-substituted ZnO-NRs (up to 32.1 %). Although fennel EO and bare ZnO-NRs possess antibacterial activities, the antibacterial activities of bare, Ag- and Cu-substituted ZnO-NRs increased dramatically after the incorporation of fennel EO. This increase is more significant for EO incorporated Cu-substituted ZnO-NRs (212.1 %) than for Ag-substituted ZnO-NRs (up to 52.1 %). In conclusion, doping bare ZnO-NRs with Cu and Ag resulted in superior antibacterial activity, while incorporating fennel EO into bare, Cu- and Ag-substituted ZnO-NRs led to a synergistic effect in terms of their antibacterial activities.
... Earlier studies have demonstrated the antibacterial activities of essential oils obtained from different plant species to retard and inhibit not only the growth of gal forming bacterial disease agent R. radiobacter (Basim Badawy and Abdelgaleil, 2014), Erwinia chrysanthemi , Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis Soylu et al., 2009), Erwinia amylovora (Basim et al., 2000), Pseudomanas viridiflava (Basim et al., 2000), Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria (Basim et al., 2000), Pseudomonas syringae pv. ...
... vesicatoria (Basim et al., 2000), Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Soylu et al., 2009), Acidovorax citrulli (Mengulluoglu and Soylu, 2012). The results of this investigation clearly showed that essential oils obtained from medicinal plants growing in the region have the antibacterial potential against all gall forming bacterial species. ...
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The aims of this study were to determine chemical composition of essential oils from different plant species and their antibacterial activities against gal-forming plant pathogenic bacterial disease agents Rhizobium radiobacter, Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi and P.savastanoi pv. nerii. The chemical compositions of essential oils were identified by GC/MS. The major constituents of the essential oils were carvacrol in Thymbra spicata var. spicata (66.88%) and Origanum syriacum (79.8%), thymol in Thymus serpyllum (41.03%), geranial in Thymus sipyleus (13.72%) and Melissa officinalis (30.4), 4-terpineol in Origanum majorana (31.67%), linalool in Ocimum basilicum (30.23%), carvone in Mentha spicata (55.58%), 1,8 cineole in Lavandula stoechas var. stoechas (35.5%), Laurus nobilis (35.5%) and Rosmarinus officinalis (18.47%), camphor in Salvia officinalis (24.59%) and trans-anethole in Foeniculum vulgare (82.8%) essential oils, respectively. Based on inhibition zone diameter values, essential oils showed very strong antibacterial activities against P.savastanoi pv. savastanoi (7.0-44.67 mm), followed by R.radiobacter (9.6-37.67 mm) and P.savastanoi pv. nerii (6.33-18.33 mm). Essential oils of plants belong to Lamiaceae family were generally found to be more efficient than those belong to Lauraceae and Apiaceae families. The essential oils of O.syriacum, T.serpyllum and T.spicata var. spicata were found to be the most promising essential oils displaying the highest antibacterial activities against all tested bacterial species. The findings of the present study revealed that essential oils have a potential to be used as antibacterial agents against gall forming bacterial disease agents. ÖZET Bu çalışmanın amacı, farklı bitki türlerinden elde edilen uçucu yağların kimyasal bileşimini ve gal (ur) oluşturan bitki patojenik bakteriyel hastalık etmeni Rhizobium radiobacter, Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi ve P.savastanoi pv. nerii'ye karşı antibakteriyel etkinlerini belirlemektir. Thymbra spicata var. spicata, Thymus serpyllum, Thymus sipyleus, Origanum syriacum, Origanum majorana, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Melissa officinalis, Lavandula stoechas var. stoechas, Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Laurus nobilis ve Foeniculum vulgare uçucu yağlarının kimyasal bileşenleri GC/MS ile tanımlanmıştır. Carvacrol Thymbra spicata var. spicata (% 66.88) ve Origanum syriacum (% 79.8), thymol Thymus serpyllum (% 41.03), geranial Thymus sipyleus (% 13.72) ve Melissa officinalis (30.4), 4-terpineol Origanum majorana (31.67 %), linalool Ocimum basilicum (% 30.23), carvone Mentha spicata (% 55.58), 1,8 cineole Lavandula stoechas var. stoechas (% 35.5), Laurus nobilis (% 35.5) ve Rosmarinus officinalis (% 18.47), camphor Salvia officinalis (% 24.59) ve trans-anethole ise Foeniculum vulgare (% 82.8) Araştırma Makalesi 1475 uçucu yağlarının ana bileşenleri olarak belirlenmiştir. Engelleme zon çapı değerlerine dayanarak, uçucu yağlarıP.savastanoi pv. savastanoi (7.0-44.67 mm), ardından R.radiobacter (9.6-37.67 mm) ve P.savastanoi pv. nerii (6.33-18.33 mm) ye karşı oldukça güçlü antibakteriyel etkinlik göstermiştir. Lamiaceae familyasına ait bitkilerin uçucu yağlarının genellikle Lauraceae ve Apiaceae familyalarına göre daha etkili olduğu bulunmuştur. O.syriacum, T.serpyllum ve T.spicata var. spicata, test edilen tüm bakteri türlerine karşı en yüksek antibakteriyel aktiviteleri gösteren umut verici uçucu yağlar olarak belirlenmiştir. Bu çalışmanın bulguları uçucu yağların gal oluşturan bakteriyel hastalık etmenlerine karşı antibakteriyel ajan olarak kullanılma potansiyeline sahip olduğunu göstermiştir.
... (F. vulgare Mill.) is a perennial flavored herb belonging to the family Umbelliferaceae (5). The plant has oval or spindle-shaped seeds and studies indicated antimicrobial activity of fennel and spices containing fennel (6,7). ...
... Doğada kolay bir şekilde parçalanan ve bitkilerde kalıcılığı olmayan uçucu yağların antimikrobiyal etkileri araştırmacılar tarafından rapor edilmiştir (Al-Reza et al. 2010, Mondal andKhalequzzaman 2009). Bitki hastalık ve zararlıları ile mücadelede bitkilerden elde edilen ekstraktların ve uçucu yağların kullanılmasıyla ilgili çalışmalar bulunmaktadır (Altundağ ve Aslım 2005, Belgüzar et al. 2016b, Daferera et al. 2003, Görmez et al. 2014, Iacobellis et al. 2005, Kızıl and Uyar 2006, Kotan et al. 2010, Mengulluoglu ve Soylu 2012, Sertkaya et al. 2010, Soylu et al. 2009, Şahin et al. 2003, Şahin et al. 2004, Yanar et al. 2016, Yılmaz et al. 2014 ...
Natural anti-bacterial materials have received particular attention due to their higher food protection. The recent research was performed to evaluate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer impacts of methanolic extract of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seeds. To this aim, the methanolic extract was made following preparation of the Fennel seeds. The chemical compounds of the extract was determined using Gas–Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. To evaluate the antioxidant impact of the methanolic extract of fennel, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl technique was applied for 7 concentrations of 200, 100, 50, 25, 22.5, 6.25 and 3 ppm. The antimicrobial impacts of the extract were evaluated using the inhibition zones process on isolates, including Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumonia, Klebsiella, pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. In order to assess the anticancer activity of the extract in A549 cell line (Human lung cancer cell line), MTT assay (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay) was done. According to the obtained findings, an increase in the antioxidant activity of the Fennel extract was observed with increasing the concentration. Moreover, S. pyogenes and P. aeruginosa strains had the most and least level of tolerance to the methanolic extract of Fennel, respectively. On the other hand, anticancer activity of the extract was confirmed against A549 cancer cells. According to our findings, the methanolic extract has antibacterial, antioxidant and anticancer effects. Therefore, it can be applied to protect food from oxidative processes and microorganisms, causing contamination and intoxication. Moreover, it can be applied as a therapeutic target of cancer in the future.
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Diseases caused by various drug-resistant strains in plants are increasing in many countries of the world, so many efforts have been made to find new compounds as a suitable alternative to chemical drugs and pesticides. In this study, the antimicrobial effect of essential oils and ethanolic extracts of 10 medicinal plants were investigated on Rathayibacter tritici and Xanthomonas translucens. Alcoholic extracts of medicinal plants were extracted using a rotary apparatus. Two standard bacteria R. tritici and X. translucens were prepared from Persian Type Culture Collection. The minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimum inhibitory concentration of essential oils and ethanolic extracts of plants used at a concentration of 50 mg/ ml were determined by dilution in liquid medium on pathogens. Based on the results, the lowest inhibitory concentration of thyme essential oil was 6.25 ppm, which was inhibited by R. tritici, and the lowest concentration of Hypericum perforatum essential oil against X. translucens was 6.25 ppm. The lowest concentrations of essential oils of yew and fennel were 6.25 ppm, which were inhibited by both bacteria. Rubia tinctorum leaf essential oil in a concentration of 6.25 only inhibited R. tritici bacteria. The antibacterial properties of the essential oils of the studied plants were higher than the extract. Essential oils of yew and oleander were the most effective against R. tritici and X. translucens, followed by thyme and rosemary against R. tritici and herring flower against X. translucens. Although the clinical use of ethanolic extracts and essential oils of the studied plants seems valuable due to side effects, but for : Plant Biotechnology Persa 2022; 4(1); 10-17. Original Article [ Downloaded from on 2022-04-03 ]
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After the understanding of the harm caused by unconsciously used antibiotics to humans, animals and nature, the interest in medicinal and aromatic plants has increased all over the world. For this reason, perhaps the first of the most remarkable and intense working subjects in the field of agriculture, veterinary medicine and food in the last two decades has been essential oils obtained from aromatic plants. It is also known by a number of different names such as aromatic-scented oils obtained from aromatic plants, essential oils, essential oils, herbal extracts and essential oils. The concept of essential oil has been preferred in the present book in order to set an example and to prevent misuse. The use of the concept of essential oil for the term essential oil also causes misunderstandings. Because the term essential oil will lead to the understanding of fatty acids such as linoleic and linolenic acid that cannot be synthesized in the body. Based on this understanding, this work has emerged as a result of the gathering of experts from different departments of different universities in Turkey (Field, Plant Protection, Animal Science, Veterinary Medicine, Food, Chemistry, Aquaculture). In the essential oils book, very extensive and comprehensive information about the cultivation, analysis and use of medicinal and aromatic plants in different sectors is presented in a way that includes the current literature. The work has been studied by academics at different levels. We hope that it will contribute to students and all interested parties who want to benefit from essential oils.
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The origin of this study which tries to analize commodification of seed by today is the commodity form as a cell form of society that is a large organism. By following evalution of commodity form, it is claimed the use value that is product of labour process have some new forms with relation of production that is established with developing forces of production and changing mode of production. In addition, it is tried to discuss how to realize of commodificiation. In this way, process of labour is becoming carrier of process of creating value and volarization. Ultimately, like everything, seed is becoming a product of capital and conditions of production is created for producing commodity that has a surplus value. Fundemental mechanism that provides those conditions is primitive accumulation of capital. It should be pointed out that unique aspect of this study is presumably come in view here. After that, social aspect of producers who were broken off objective conditions of production will be viewed. This process will be tried to show as spesificially in Turkey. Key Words: Commodity Form, Commodification Surplus Value, Capital, Seed, Primitive Accumulation , UPOV, Seed Law, TİGEM, TÜRKTO
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The antimicrobial effect of 11 selected Turkish spice essential oils was investigated against seventeen pathogenic bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of six spices (cumin, fennel, laurel, mint, marjoram. oregano, pickling herb, sage, savory, thyme (black) and thyme) was tested at four concentrations (0.2, 0.4, 1 and 2%) on various microorganisms (E. aerogenes, E. coli, E. coli O157:H7, K. pneumoniae, P. vulgaris, S. enteritidis, S. gallinarum, S. typhimurium, S. aureus, Y. enterocolitica, A. hydrophila, C. xerosis, M. luteus, M. smegmatis, E. feacalis, P. aeruginosa and P. fluorescens). All preparations showed antibacterial activity against at least one or more bacteria. The inhibitory effect of the essential oils was evaluated through paper disc diffusion method. In general, the essential oils at 1 and 2% levels were effective. The most active essential oils were marjoram, thyme and oregano. According to the results, the studied essential oils potentially might be used as antibacterial agents to prevent the spoilage of food products, although further research is needed.
The essential oils of the seeds (fruits) of 66 cultivars of dill, which were obtained by hydrodistillation and hexane extraction, have been examined by GC. The oil content was found to vary from 1.91% to 7.25%. The three known chemotypes were observed, but there were also transition types. In addition, a new chemotype which contained limonene (43.7%), dihydrocarvone (3.1%), carvone (41.2%) and myristicin (11.7%) was found in the assortment of dill cultivars. No dillapiole was found in this type.
: The antioxidant, antifungal, and antibacterial potentials of essential oil and acetone extract of Anethum graveolens L. were investigated in the present study. The extract has shown excellent activity for the inhibition of primary and secondary oxidation products for rapeseed oil in comparision with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), which were evaluated using peroxide, thiobarbituric acid, p-anisidine, and carbonyl values. The activity of extract was further confirmed using other antioxidant properties such as ferric thiocyanate method inlinoleic acid system, which reducing power and scavenging effect (%) on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Using inverted Petri plate method, the volatile oil completely inhibited the growth of Fusarium graminearum at 6 μL dose. Moreover, using poison food technique, the essential oil was found to be highly effective for controlling the growth of Penicillium citrinum and Aspergillus niger. In antibacterial investigations, using agar well diffusion method, the extract has shown better activity for Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus in comparison with commercial bactericide. However, essential oil has shown better activity for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopy studies on essential oil resulted in the identification of 35 components, which account for the 98.9% of the total amount. The major component was carvone (55.2%) followed bylimonene (16.6%), dillapiole (14.4%), andlinalool (3.7%). The analysis of acetone extract showed the presence of 25 components, which account for 94.5% of the total amount. The major components were dill apiole (43.2%), linoleic acid (23.1%), trans-anethole (11.0%), 2-propanone, 1-(4-methoxyphenyl) (4.6%), carvone (3.1%), p-anisaldehyde (2.7%), and myristicin (1.5%). In conclusion, the results presented here show that dill essential oil could be considered as a source for natural antimicrobial, whereas its extract could be considered as an alternative source of natural antioxidant.
The essential oils obtained from three varieties of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (dulce, vulgare and azoricum) harvested at three ontogenic stages (early, late waxy and ripe seed) were evaluated for their chemical composition and biological activity. (E)-anethole, limonene and fenchone contents were greatly influenced by the varieties and by the harvesting times. The antibacterial activity of the various oils against 25 microorganisms was evaluated. The inhibition of Aeromonas hydrophila, Alcaligenes faecalis and Clostridium sporogenes was of particular interest and there was a marked antifungal potency against Aspergillus niger.
The paper discusses the use of natural products and biological control agents in crop protection from an industrial viewpoint. The criteria which must be satisfied are noted. Examples are given from the genetic engineering of baculoviruses and proteins. The final section considers the utility of natural products as a source of leads for conventional agrochemicals, and the screens needed. © 1998 SCI.
Plants provide a rich source of novel biologically active compounds. Biological and chemical screenings are complementary approaches for the rapid detection and isolation of interesting new plant constituents. Biological screening followed by activity-guided fractionation has been used successfully in our laboratories for the discovery of antifungal, larvicidal and molluscicidal compounds. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to UV spectroscopy (LC/UV), mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (LC/NMR) has proved to be highly efficient for the chemical screening of crude plant extracts. In particular LC/MS and LC/MS/MS used with different ionisation techniques such as thermospray (TSP), continuous flow-FAB (CF-FAB) and electrospray (ES) have proved to be very efficient for the early recognition of molluscicidal saponins in Swartzia madagascariensis and Phytolacca dodecandra. The combination of LC/UV/NMR/MS was of great value for the investigation of polyphenols and bitter principles in Gentianaceae species. Among other examples, LC/NMR analysis of the antifungal crude extract of the African plant Swertia calycina is presented. ©1997 SCI
This paper reviews the impact of resistance to fungicides and insecticides/acaricides on the way crop protection is practised. It is now clear that resistance can develop to virtually any crop-protection product, in any pest, fungal pathogen or even weed. As a limiting factor in crop protection, it is a fact of life. A positive side-effect is the precision with which products are used today, with increasing implementation of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programmes. This is a vital step towards sustainability. This paper describes: past experiences; current status of resistance; how resistance management influences current crop protection practices; regulatory aspects; and the outlook for the future. It concludes that EU regulations on resistance management must be simple and workable. Chemicals will continue to have a central role in optimising yields from the world's crops, as new tools, including biotechnology, become available for crop protection and resistance management. The crop-protection industry's innovations and product stewardship programmes will contribute to sustainable agriculture. This will provide continued benefits to users, the environment and society. ©1997 SCI
The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Mentha spicata L. and Anethum sowa Roxb. (Indian dill) were studied. The major chemical constituents of the hydrodistilled essential oils and their major isolates from cultivated M. spicata and A. sowa were identified by IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR and GC: (S)-(−)-limonene (27.3%) and (S)-(−)-carvone (56.6%) (representing 83.9% of the spearmint oil) and (R)-(+)-limonene (21.4%), dihydrocarvone (5.0%), (R)-(+)-carvone (50.4%) and dillapiole (17.7%) (together 76.9% in Indian dill oil), respectively. In vitro bioactivity evaluation of the isolated oil components revealed that both the optical isomers of carvone were active against a wide spectrum of human pathogenic fungi and bacteria tested. (R)-(+)-limonene showed comparable bioactivity profile over the (S)-(−)-isomer. The activity of these monoterpene enantiomers was found to be comparable to the bioactivity of the oils in which they occurred. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Aqueous extracts from leaves of 30 higher plants, collected from different localities, were screened in vitro for antibacterial activity against different pathovars of the phytopathogenic bacterium, Xanthomonas campestris. Eight plant species showed antibacterial activity, based on the zone of inhibition in a diffusion assay. Significant antibacterial activity was observed in the aqueous extracts of Prosopis juliflora, Oxalis corniculata and Lawsonia inermis. The susceptibility of different pathovars of X. campestris to these plant extracts varied. The antibacterial activity of extracts of a few plants was comparable with that of the synthetic antibiotics, bacterimycin and streptocycline. The study indicates the potential of these plant extracts in the management of diseases caused by X. campestris in several important crop plants.