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Abstract

Previous research into running has demonstrated consistent patterns in pelvic, lumbar and thoracic motions between different human runners. However, to date, there has been limited attempt to explain why observed coordination patterns emerge and how they may relate to centre of mass (CoM) motion. In this study, kinematic data were collected from the thorax, lumbar spine, pelvis and lower limbs during over ground running in n=28 participants. These data was subsequently used to develop a theoretical understanding of the coordination of the spine and pelvis in all three body planes during the stance phase of running. In the sagittal plane, there appeared to be an antiphase coordinate pattern which may function to increase femoral inclination at toe off whilst minimising anterior-posterior accelerations of the CoM. In the medio-lateral direction, CoM motion appears to facilitate transition to the contralateral foot. However, an antiphase coordination pattern was also observed, most likely to minimise unnecessary accelerations of the CoM. In the transverse plane, motion of the pelvis was observed to lag slightly behind that of the thorax. However, it is possible that the close coupling between these two segments facilitates the thoracic rotation required to passively drive arm motion. This is the first study to provide a full biomechanical rationale for the coordination of the spine and pelvis during human running. This insight should help clinicians develop an improved understanding of how spinal and pelvic motions may contribute to, or result from, common running injuries.

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... Movements of the pelvis, trunk and arms play an important role in running. These segments facilitate the generation of forward momentum from the lower extremities, maintain centre of mass trajectory [1] and balance angular momentum of the swinging legs [2,3]. Previous research has investigated how motions of pelvis [4,5] and thorax [4,6] adapt to changes in running speed. ...
... Speed was monitored using optical timing gates and only trials within 2.5% of the target speed used for subsequent analysis. Kinematic data were collected from skin-mounted reflective markers using the protocol described in previous publications [1,13]. With this protocol, the thoracic segment was tracked using a sternum-mounted plate, the lumbar segment tracked with four markers positioned across the low back and the pelvis tracked with markers placed over the anterior superior iliac spines and posterior superior iliac spines. ...
... With this protocol, the thoracic segment was tracked using a sternum-mounted plate, the lumbar segment tracked with four markers positioned across the low back and the pelvis tracked with markers placed over the anterior superior iliac spines and posterior superior iliac spines. Using the multi-segment model defined previously [1], the Visual 3D software was used to obtain the orientation of the thorax, lumbar spine and pelvis relative to the laboratory system across a complete gait cycle. From these data, the range of motion (ROM) for each segment and the mean sagittal inclination was calculated for each speed across all participants. ...
Article
Elite endurance runners are characterised by their performance ability and higher running economy. However, there is relatively little research aimed at identifying the biomechanical characteristics of this group. This study aimed to understand how motions of the pelvis, lumbar spine and thorax change with speed in a cohort of elite endurance runners (n = 14) and a cohort of recreational runners (n = 14). Kinematic data were collected during over ground running at four speeds ranging from 3.3 to 5.6 m s−1 and a linear mixed model used to understand the effect of speed on both range of motion and mean sagittal inclination. The results showed the two groups to exhibit similar changes in range of motion as speed was increased, with the most pronounced increases being observed in the transverse plane. However, the adaptation of thorax inclination with speed differed between the two groups. Whereas the recreational runners increased thorax inclination as running speed was increased, elite endurance runners consistently maintained a more upright thorax position. This is the first study to identify specific differences in upper body motions between recreational and elite runners and the findings may have implications for training protocols aimed at improving running performance.
... Foot strike patterns have also been evaluated during race situations in elite 6 and recreational/subelite 5 runners, but the different foot strike patterns between these groups may be attributed to running speed as opposed to training adaptations. Finally, Preece et al 15 found that recreational runners exhibited greater pelvic and thoracic inclination compared to elite runners, but no other joints and segments were studied. Thus, based on the paucity of research concerning recreational and competitive runners, further research is needed. ...
... The aforementioned studies also used an inferential statistical approach (eg, Kruskal-Wallis test, linear regression, and analysis of covariance) to compare discrete time point variables (eg, peak angle at toe-off) between groups. 5,6,14,15 These statistical approaches may be limited in their ability to appropriately discriminate between running subgroups based on the large amount of biomechanical measurements combined with the small number of between-group differences. 16 More recently, multivariate analyses, combined with machine learning methods, have been applied in running biomechanics research, and have achieved good performance to separate and classify different subgroups of runners. ...
... In partial support of this hypothesis, the top variables used as input features for the SVM to achieve cross-fold classification accuracies of 80% to 100% were extracted from pelvis and knee kinematics in the sagittal plane. This is in agreement with previous reports, where pelvic inclination angles are different between elite and recreational runners, 15 and differences in knee flexion during stance have been associated with better running economy. 11,12 Interestingly, frontal plane ankle kinematics during late stance was also an important feature used in the SVM. ...
Article
Certain homogeneous running subgroups demonstrate distinct kinematic patterns in running; however, the running mechanics of competitive and recreational runners are not well understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether we could separate and classify competitive and recreational runners according to gait kinematics using multivariate analyses and a machine learning approach. Participants were allocated to the 'competitive' (n=20) or 'recreational' group (n=15) based on age, gender, and recent race performance. Three-dimensional (3D) kinematic data were collected during treadmill running at 2.7m/s. A support vector machine (SVM) was used to determine if the groups were separable and classifiable based on kinematic time point variables as well as principal component (PC) scores. A cross-fold classification accuracy of 80% was found between groups using the top five ranked time point variables, and the groups could be separated with 100% cross-fold classification accuracy using the top 14 ranked PCs explaining 60.29% of the variance in the data. The features were primarily related to pelvic tilt, as well as knee flexion and ankle eversion in late stance. These results suggest that competitive and recreational runners have distinct, 'typical' running patterns that may help explain differences in injury mechanisms.
... A total of 9 anatomic segments were tracked following a previously published protocol by the same authors shown to have good to excellent repeatability. 28,37 Segments included the thorax, pelvis and bilateral thigh, shank, and foot segments. In addition, a further rearfoot segment was included using 3 noncollinear markers attached to the heel of the participant's shoes. ...
... Further details of the markers used to track each segment and the precise definition of the anatomic coordinate systems are provided in Appendix 2 (available online) and described in previous publications. 14,28,37 Raw kinematic data were low pass filtered at 10 Hz. Intersegmental kinematics, along with the motions of the pelvis and thorax with respect to the laboratory system, were calculated using a 6 degrees of freedom model with the commercial software Visual3D (C-Motion). ...
... 29 Lateral displacement of the patella will lead to a rise in patellofemoral joint stress, leading to PFP development, 36 while at the lower limb, increased CPD will result in a medial shift in the ground-reaction force relative to the knee joint center. 37,42 This may alter the force distribution through the lower limb, leading to increased bending forces on the medial tibia 5 and potentially alter the pressure distribution through the foot. This may contribute to the development of either MTSS or AT. ...
Article
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Background: Previous research has demonstrated clear associations between specific running injuries and patterns of lower limb kinematics. However, there has been minimal research investigating whether the same kinematic patterns could underlie multiple different soft tissue running injuries. If they do, such kinematic patterns could be considered global contributors to running injuries. Hypothesis: Injured runners will demonstrate differences in running kinematics when compared with injury-free controls. These kinematic patterns will be consistent among injured subgroups. Study design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: We studied 72 injured runners and 36 healthy controls. The injured group contained 4 subgroups of runners with either patellofemoral pain, iliotibial band syndrome, medial tibial stress syndrome, or Achilles tendinopathy (n = 18 each). Three-dimensional running kinematics were compared between injured and healthy runners and then between the 4 injured subgroups. A logistic regression model was used to determine which parameters could be used to identify injured runners. Results: The injured runners demonstrated greater contralateral pelvic drop (CPD) and forward trunk lean at midstance and a more extended knee and dorsiflexed ankle at initial contact. The subgroup analysis of variance found that these kinematic patterns were consistent across each of the 4 injured subgroups. CPD was found to be the most important variable predicting the classification of participants as healthy or injured. Importantly, for every 1° increase in pelvic drop, there was an 80% increase in the odds of being classified as injured. Conclusion: This study identified a number of global kinematic contributors to common running injuries. In particular, we found injured runners to run with greater peak CPD and trunk forward lean as well as an extended knee and dorsiflexed ankle at initial contact. CPD appears to be the variable most strongly associated with common running-related injuries. Clinical relevance: The identified kinematic patterns may prove beneficial for clinicians when assessing for biomechanical contributors to running injuries.
... 24,25 A total of nine anatomical segments were tracked following a previously published protocol. 26,27 Segments included the thorax, pelvis and bilateral thigh, shank and foot segments. Further details of the markers used to track each segment and the precise definition of the anatomical coordinate systems are provided in previous publications. ...
... Further details of the markers used to track each segment and the precise definition of the anatomical coordinate systems are provided in previous publications. 26,27 Raw kinematic data were low pass filtered at 10Hz. Intersegmental kinematics, along with the motions of the pelvis and thorax with respect to the laboratory system, were calculated using a six degrees of freedom model using the Visual 3d (C -Motion) software. ...
... Center of mass was calculated using a nine segment model comprised of bilateral feet, shank and thigh segments, as well as the pelvis, lumbar and thoracic spine. 27 A recent study identified a link between a range of lower limb running injuries and kinematics of the pelvis and trunk. 24 Therefore, kinematic parameters of the trunk, pelvis and lower limbs were included in the analysis. ...
Article
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Background: Calf muscle strain injuries are a common running injury affecting male runners and are known to have high reoccurrence rates. Currently, limited evidence exists investigating factors associated with this injury with no previous study investigating the running kinematics of male runners with a history of repeat calf muscle strain injuries. Purpose: To investigate whether male runners with a history of repeat calf muscle strain injury demonstrate differences in stance phase running kinematics when compared to healthy controls. Study design: Case-control investigation. Level of evidence: 3b. Methods: Stance phase kinematics were compared between 15 male runners with a history of calf muscle strain injury and 15 male control participants during treadmill running at 3.2m/s. Independent t-tests were used to compare differences in stance phase kinematic parameters between groups and effect sizes were calculated using Cohen's d. Results: The group with a history of calf muscle strain injury demonstrated a significant 2.1⁰ and 3.1⁰ increase in contralateral pelvic drop and anterior pelvic tilt during mid stance. In addition, this group exhibited longer stance times and a more anterior tilted pelvis, flexed hip and a greater distance between the heel and centre of mass at initial contact. Large effect sizes, greater than 0.8, were observed for all differences. No significant differences were observed for ankle and knee joint kinematics between the groups. Conclusion: This is the first study to identify kinematic characteristics associated with recurrent calf muscle strain injury. While it is not possible to determine causality, the observed kinematic differences may contribute to recurrent nature of this injury. Specifically, it is possible that neuromuscular deficits of the hip and calf muscle complex may lead to increased strain on the calf complex. Rehabilitation interventions which focus on addressing pelvis and hip kinematics may reduce the demands placed upon the calf complex and could prove clinically effective.
... Running with consistently increased trunk inclination is sometimes advocated as it results in higher SF and reduced VD step (Dallam et al., 2005). However, between 12 km/h to 20 km/h, recreational runners show trunk inclinations ranging between 5° and 7.5° (Preece et al., 2016), whereas, over the same speed range, elite runners maintain a smaller consistent thoracic inclination of around 3° (Preece et al., 2016). Accordingly, a more upright trunk posture appears to be correlated with better running performance (Folland et al., 2017). ...
... Running with consistently increased trunk inclination is sometimes advocated as it results in higher SF and reduced VD step (Dallam et al., 2005). However, between 12 km/h to 20 km/h, recreational runners show trunk inclinations ranging between 5° and 7.5° (Preece et al., 2016), whereas, over the same speed range, elite runners maintain a smaller consistent thoracic inclination of around 3° (Preece et al., 2016). Accordingly, a more upright trunk posture appears to be correlated with better running performance (Folland et al., 2017). ...
... 3) During late push-off, transverse plane pelvic rotation lengthens the step ('pelvic step'), thereby increasing the angular momentum around the longitudinal axis (Bruijn et al., 2008;Preece et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Running movements are parametrised using a wide variety of devices. Misleading interpretations can be avoided if the interdependencies and redundancies between biomechanical parameters are taken into account. In this synthetic review, commonly measured running parameters are discussed in relation to each other, culminating in a concise, yet comprehensive description of the full spectrum of running styles. Since the goal of running movements is to transport the body centre of mass (BCoM), and the BCoM trajectory can be derived from spatiotemporal parameters, we anticipate that different running styles are reflected in those spatiotemporal parameters. To this end, this review focuses on spatiotemporal parameters and their relationships with speed, ground reaction force and whole-body kinematics. Based on this evaluation, we submit that the full spectrum of running styles can be described by only two parameters, namely the step frequency and the duty factor (the ratio of stance time and stride time) as assessed at a given speed. These key parameters led to the conceptualisation of a so-called Dual-axis framework. This framework allows categorisation of distinctive running styles (coined ‘Stick’, ‘Bounce’, ‘Push’, ‘Hop’, and ‘Sit’) and provides a practical overview to guide future measurement and interpretation of running biomechanics.
... Twelve Qualisys Oqus 3D cameras (240 Hz) were used for kinematic data collection. Lower limb, pelvis and trunk segments were modelled and tracked using the approach described in Preece et al. [9]. In addition, markers were placed on the acromion processes, lateral shoulders, medial and lateral epicondyles of the humeri, styloid processes of the ulnae and radii, as well as on the 2nd and 5th metacarpal heads. ...
... The full-body model comprised of 16 segments, those in the reduced model, as well as the upper arms, forearms, hands and head. Data processing methods as outlined in Preece et al. [9] were used, in which raw marker data were first low pass filtered (10 Hz). A kinematic approach [11] was then used to define gait events for 10 consecutive gait cycles and CoM trajectories calculated using the Visual3D software. ...
... in the ML direction. If the RMSE in the CoM position is compared with the corresponding RoM during over ground running [9], it appears small in the AP (0.2%) and vertical (7%) directions, but substantial in the ML (40%) direction. Thus, it would appear that the reduced model may only be appropriate for estimating AP and vertical CoM trajectory and velocity and that a full-body model would be required for estimating ML motions. ...
Article
Accurate measurement of centre of mass (CoM) motion can provide valuable insight into the biomechanics of human running. However, full-body kinematic measurement protocols can be time consuming and difficult to implement. Therefore, this study was performed to understand whether CoM motion during running could be estimated from a model incorporating only lower extremity, pelvic and trunk segments. Full-body kinematic data was collected whilst (n = 12) participants ran on a treadmill at two speeds (3.1 and 3.9 ms⁻¹). CoM trajectories from a full-body model (16-segments) were compared to those estimated from a reduced model (excluding the head and arms). The data showed that, provided an offset was included, it was possible to accurately estimate CoM trajectory in both the anterior-posterior and vertical direction, with root mean square errors of 5 mm in both directions and close matches in waveform similarity (r = 0.975-1.000). However, in the ML direction, there was a considerable difference in the CoM trajectories of the two models (r = 0.774-0.767). This finding suggests that a full-body model is required if CoM motions are to be measured in the ML direction. The mismatch between the reduced and full-body model highlights the important contribution of the arms to CoM motion in the ML direction. We suggest that this control strategy, of using the arms rather than the heavier trunk segments to generate CoM motion, may lead to less variability in CoM motion in the ML direction and subsequently less variability in step width during human running.
... Counter rotations of the pelvis and trunk during normal walking result in the control of total body angular momentum and improved movement efficiency [3,4]. As a result, walking with a trunk constraint might result in a decreased movement efficiency and a greater total body angular momentum [26]. This momentum is created when trunk and pelvic segment move, more or less, in the same direction [26]. ...
... As a result, walking with a trunk constraint might result in a decreased movement efficiency and a greater total body angular momentum [26]. This momentum is created when trunk and pelvic segment move, more or less, in the same direction [26]. The increased total body angular momentum might result in a faster lower limb propulsion and therefore decreasing step and stride time. ...
Article
Purpose: Since the thorax and pelvis are primary determinants of normal and pathological walking, it is important to know how gait performance is influenced when the trunk is constraint. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of a thoracolumbosacral orthosis (TLSO) on gait performance in healthy adults during overground walking. Methods: Fourteen healthy volunteers walked with and without TLSO. Outcome measures consisted of spatiotemporal parameters and clinically important joint angular time profiles of the lower limbs. Joint angular time profiles were assessed in the sagittal, frontal and transversal plane. A paired t-test was used for discrete parameters and spm1d for assessing the joint angular time profiles. Results: Walking with a constraint resulted in decreased stride time and step time, increased step width and cadence. In the sagittal plane, no significant differences were observed regarding joint kinematics in the hip, knee and ankle. In the frontal plane, decreased adduction during stance and abduction during swing was observed in the hip. In the transversal plane, increased external rotation of the hip and increased internal rotation of the ankle was seen when wearing a contstraint. Conclusions: Wearing a TLSO can already bring forth significant changes in gait performance, suggesting an important relationship between trunk movements and mobility.
... A total of 9 anatomic segments were tracked following a previously published protocol. 17,31 Segments included the thorax; pelvis; and bilateral thigh, shank, and foot segments. Further details of the markers used to track each segment and the precise definition of the anatomic coordinate systems are provided in previous publications. ...
... Further details of the markers used to track each segment and the precise definition of the anatomic coordinate systems are provided in previous publications. 13,17,31 Raw kinematic data were low pass filtered at 10 Hz. Intersegmental kinematics, along with motions of the pelvis and thorax with respect to the laboratory system, were calculated using a 6 degrees of freedom model with Visual3D software (C-Motion). ...
Article
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Background Aberrant frontal-plane hip and pelvis kinematics have been frequently observed in runners with patellofemoral pain (PFP). Gait retaining interventions have been shown to improve running kinematics and may therefore be beneficial in runners with PFP. Purpose To investigate whether a 10% increase in the running step rate influences frontal-plane kinematics of the hip and pelvis as well as clinical outcomes in runners with PFP. Study Design Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods Runners with PFP underwent a 3-dimensional gait analysis to confirm the presence of aberrant frontal-plane hip and/or pelvis kinematics at baseline. A total of 12 participants with frontal-plane hip and/or pelvis kinematics 1 standard deviation above a reference database were invited to undergo the gait retraining intervention. Running kinematics along with clinical outcomes of pain and functional outcomes were recorded at baseline, 4 weeks after retraining, and 3 months. Gait retraining consisted of a single session where step rate was increased by 10% using an audible metronome. Participants were asked to continue their normal running while self-monitoring their step rate using a global positioning system smartwatch and audible metronome. Results After gait retraining, significant improvements in running kinematics and clinical outcomes were observed at 4-week and 3-month follow-up. Repeated-measures analysis of variance with post hoc Bonferroni correction ( P < .016) showed significant reductions in peak contralateral pelvic drop (mean difference [MD], 3.12° [95% CI, 1.88°-4.37°]), hip adduction (MD, 3.99° [95% CI, 2.01°-5.96°]), and knee flexion (MD, 4.09° [95% CI, 0.04°-8.15°]) as well as significant increases in self-reported weekly running volume (MD, 13.78 km [95% CI, 4.62-22.93 km]) and longest run pain-free (MD, 6.84 km [95% CI, 3.05-10.62 km]). Friedman test with a post hoc Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed significant improvements on a numerical rating scale for worst pain in the past week and the Lower Extremity Functional Scale. Conclusion A single session of gait retraining using a 10% increase in step rate resulted in significant improvements in running kinematics, pain, and function in runners with PFP. These improvements were maintained at 3-month follow-up. It is important to assess for aberrant running kinematics at baseline to ensure that gait interventions are targeted appropriately. Registration NCT03067545 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier)
... Running is a complex activity that requires a sequence of coordinated body movements, in particular, the trunk segments and lower limbs (Preece et al., 2016b). Runners are susceptible to several injuries in various body parts. ...
... During gait, the coordination between the pelvis and lumbar segments is more rigid and less variable in the transverse plane than that in the healthy controls (Lamoth et al., 2006). Certain studies investigated the lumbar kinematics in healthy runners (Preece et al., 2016b, c;Saunders et al., 2005); however, the coordination between the lumbar spine and other segments has not been studied. ...
Article
This study aimed to analyze the coordination and variability between the thorax, lumbar, and pelvis segments in runners with chronic low back pain group (LBPG) and matched control group (CG). Twenty-six recreational runners were evaluated on a treadmill at 3.3 m/s. The coordination of the pelvis–lumbar and lumbar–thorax in all three planes and between the transverse and frontal plane of the lumbar segment were evaluated using the vector coding technique. Coordination was analyzed via histograms with the percentage of each pattern and the coupling angle during the cycle. The variability coordination was calculated from the angular deviation between the cycles. Differences were observed in the coordination patterns and in the coupling angle during the cycle. Between the pelvis–lumbar in the frontal plane, the LBPG ((x ) ̅= 50.6 % (SD = 10.7)) presented more in-phase pattern than the CG (38.6 % (8.7; P = 0.05). For the lumbar–thorax, differences occurred in all planes. Between the frontal–transverse plane of the lumbar segment, the LBPG (27.6 % (7.9)) presented more in-phase pattern than the CG (38.6 % (8.7); P = 0.02). The variability did not demonstrate the differences between the groups; these differences were observed in coordination between the lumbar and adjacent segments in all planes. The model of rigid segments and the coordination analyses were sensitive to detect these differences, and the presence of more in-phase patterns could be related to the protection mechanism in order to avoid painful movements.
... Efficient running requires maintaining good postural stability and is an important requirement to conserve energy [9,10]. Coordinated movement of the thorax and pelvis during running is required to minimise acceleration at the centre of mass (COM) [10]. ...
... Efficient running requires maintaining good postural stability and is an important requirement to conserve energy [9,10]. Coordinated movement of the thorax and pelvis during running is required to minimise acceleration at the centre of mass (COM) [10]. Greater acceleration indicates greater postural sway or reduced dynamic postural stability and less efficient running movement [11,12]. ...
Article
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Background: Wireless accelerometers provide a method of performing running assessments in sports-specific environments. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in running movement using centre of mass acceleration-derived variables between runners of varying skill levels and examine fatigue-related changes during a long distance over ground run. Methods: Ninety-two runners performed a self-selected paced long distance over ground run, with a tri-axial accelerometer attached to their low back. Runners were divided into four groups (elite, advanced, intermediate and slow) based on their finishing run time. Spatiotemporal (contact time, flight time, step frequency), dynamic postural stability (ratio of root mean square of accelerations), dynamic loading (peak impact and braking accelerations) and variability (step and stride regularity), were derived from acceleration data. Speed and acceleration-derived variables were used to investigate between group differences and within group fatigue-related changes. Results: Faster runners (elite and advanced groups) exhibited significantly shorter contact times and higher step frequencies than the slow group. Fatigue-related changes throughout the run were only observed amongst the slower runners (intermediate and slow groups). The main changes in the intermediate group were an increase in ratio of root mean square in mediolateral acceleration, and a decrease in speed in the slow group. Conclusion: The shorter contact times and higher step frequencies and no fatigue-related changes exhibited by the faster runners indicate an efficient running movement pattern. Fatigue-related changes in the slower runners were a decrease in postural dynamic stability in mediolateral direction in the intermediate group and a decrease in speed in the slow group which impacted on performance. These runners would benefit from exercise interventions and pacing strategies to reduce these fatigue-related changes and improve performance.
... We chose 4 different hip flexion-extension angles (0°, 20°, 40°of hip flexion, and 20°hip extension), which correspond to a typical range of motion during running. 23,24 Although abductionadduction movements of the hip are also likely be associated with muscle movement, these motions are considerably smaller than sagittal motions during activities, such as running 23,24 and walking. 25 Therefore, for this study, we chose to focus on hip flexionextension. ...
... We chose 4 different hip flexion-extension angles (0°, 20°, 40°of hip flexion, and 20°hip extension), which correspond to a typical range of motion during running. 23,24 Although abductionadduction movements of the hip are also likely be associated with muscle movement, these motions are considerably smaller than sagittal motions during activities, such as running 23,24 and walking. 25 Therefore, for this study, we chose to focus on hip flexionextension. ...
Article
The superficial hip adductor muscles are situated in close proximity to each other. Therefore, relative movement between the overlying skin and the muscle belly could lead to a shift in the position of surface electromyography (EMG) electrodes and contamination of EMG signals with activity from neighboring muscles. The aim of this study was to explore whether hip movements or isometric contraction could lead to relative movement between the overlying skin and 3 adductor muscles: adductor magnus, adductor longus, and adductor gracilis. The authors also sought to investigate isometric torque–EMG relationships for the 3 adductor muscles. Ultrasound measurement showed that EMG electrodes maintained a position which was at least 5 mm within the muscle boundary across a range of hip flexion–extension angles and across different contraction levels. The authors also observed a linear relationship between torque and EMG amplitude. This is the first study to use ultrasound to track the relative motion between skin and muscle and provides new insight into electrode positioning. The findings provide confidence that ultrasound-based positioning of EMG electrodes can be used to derive meaningful information on output from the adductor muscles and constitute a step toward recognized guidelines for surface EMG measurement of the adductors.
... Anatomical segments of the trunk, pelvis, bilateral thighs, shank and feet were tracked using retroreflective markers attached to anatomical landmarks using a protocol described previously [11,25]. Specifically, the trunk segment was tracked using a rigid cluster containing 3 markers attached to the sternum with an anatomical reference frame defined using markers attached to the suprasternal notch, xiphoid process, 7th cervical vertebrae (C7) and 6th thoracic vertebrae (T6). ...
... Joint angles were calculated between adjacent segments for the ankle, knee and hip and segmental angles calculated relative to the laboratory system for the pelvic and trunk segments. Kinematic data were calculated using a six degrees of freedom model using the commercial software Visual 3D (C-Motion) in accordance with prior publications [11,25]. For these calculations a cardan angle sequence was used to define joint orientation using a right-hand rule and joint angle conversion of x-y-z. ...
Article
Background Kinematic parameters of the trunk, pelvis and lower limbs are frequently associated with both running injuries and performance, and the target of clinical interventions. Currently there is limited evidence reporting the between-day repeatability of discrete kinematic parameters of the trunk and pelvis during treadmill running. Investigating the repeatability of discrete kinematic parameters during treadmill running, as well as the minimal detectable change, may provide a useful reference point to determine whether between-day differences in kinematics represent true intervention effects or are the result of measurement error. Research question What is the between-day repeatability, standard error of measurement and minimal detectable change of discrete kinematic parameters of the trunk, pelvis and lower limbs during treadmill running? Methods 16 healthy participants attended two kinematic data collection sessions two weeks apart. Three-dimensional kinematic data were collected while participants ran on a motorised treadmill at 3.2 m/s. The interclass correlation coefficient, standard error of measurement and minimal detectable change were calculated for discrete kinematic parameters at initial contact, toe off, peak angles and joint excursions during the stance phase of running. Results Good to excellent repeatability with low standard error of measurement and minimal detectable change values were observed for sagittal and frontal plane kinematics at initial contact, peak angles during stance and joint excursions. Transverse plane kinematics were observed to demonstrate lower between-day repeatability with large SEM and MDC values. Significance This is the first study detailing the measurement error and minimal detectable change for discrete kinematic parameters of the trunk and pelvis during treadmill running. The reported values may provide a useful reference point for future studies investigating between-day differences in running kinematics.
... The rotator action of the hips induces contrary reaction in the athlete's upper body [35]. Running changes, the inclination of upper trunk ranging between 5° to 7.5° [36], and arm movement counteracting the rapid change in the trunks' angular moment which changes the body more gradually. Balance among the lower and upper body parts achieved by the opposite working of legs and arms, for example, right arm forward opposes the forward drive of the left leg. ...
... As the speed of locomotion increases, the elbows are flexed and the amplitude of the swing is enlarged to increase the angular momentum of the arm. In the first phase of running, during absorption (initial contact to midstance) the upper body produces propulsive force and during propulation (midstance to toe-off), the upper body produces an absorptive force [8,[35][36][37][38][39]. In the second phase of running gait, if left knee creates anticlockwise momentum to counter balance this right arm and shoulder create a clockwise momentum to reduce rotational forces. ...
Article
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This review article summarized the literature regarding running gait. It describes characteristics of running gait and running gait cycle, explains running anatomy in relation to lower and upper body mechanism; contribution of muscles, and joint running gait cycle. The concept of running kinematics and kinetics has described motion characteristics such as position, velocity, acceleration, and force applied during the running cycle. Running gait analysis techniques has discussed such as motion analysis, force plate analysis, and electromyography.
... The researchers then had to manually define the markers and compute the range of motions, with unavoidable issues of repeatability and reproducibility. During the years, improved measurement systems, such as the stereophotogrammetry (Lee et al., 1993) or the inertial and magnetic sensors (Tafazzol et al., 2014), allowed reducing the measurement uncertainties (Stagni et al., 2009) of the procedure and defining the spine kinematics in various field, as swimming (de Magalhaes et al., 2015) or running (Preece et al., 2016). The last improvement in terms of defining the spine kinematics is using MRI or CT scans (Anderst et al., 2014;Fujimori et al., 2014). ...
Thesis
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The spine is a complex structure of the human skeleton only partially explored. In the literature, a series of works defined the ranges of motion, the stiffness, the applied loads of physiological, pathological and instrumented spines. The strains instead were evaluated only on vertebrae or intervertebral discs separately. A procedure to study the spine as a whole and in details was missing. The aim of my PhD project was the implementation and improvement of methodologies to quantify the displacement and strain full-field maps, in a contactless way, on spine. The first part of the project focused on the surface measurement. After a validation and optimization of the Digital Image Correlation, where a systematic error of 10microstrain and a random error of 100microstrain were reached, the know-how was implemented on spine segments. The work showed the feasibility of this procedure and highlighted the potentiality of exploring the spine as a whole and in the details of its organs. The second part of the research instead focused on the measurement inside the specimen. In this case, the reliability of the Digital Volume Correlation is still challenging and a wide factorial design was planned evaluating the effect of imaging source, tissue type, algorithm, parameters and setting the best compromise between the precision and the measurement spatial resolution. The multifactorial study provided a measurement uncertainty below 200microstrain, useful to explore the strain associated to physiological loads. Finally, this background was moved to explore the strain gradients inside a vertebra in a stepwise loading test, showing, already in the elastic regime, the highest strain region where failure will start. In conclusion, the project highlighted the importance of a careful validation before using these measurement techniques and confirmed that after optimizing the experimental details it is possible and useful to apply these new procedures on spine.
... Clermont et al (61) analizaron los patrones cinemáticos de la marcha en corredores amateurs y corredores con buen rendimiento, obteniendo que los corredores amateurs y los de competición tienen una cinemática de carrera diferente y homogénea, además, los corredores amateur mostraron una mayor inclinación pélvica anterior durante el ciclo de la marcha estando de acuerdo con los resultados de otros estudios (60). Con una mayor inclinación pélvica anterior, el centro de masas del tronco cambia anteriormente y podría resultar en mayor activación de la musculatura extensora lumbar que controla la flexión del tronco. ...
Thesis
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El propósito de este estudio es el de valorar si existe relación entre una inestabilidad pélvica en dinámica con la cinética y cinemática del miembro inferior. También se relaciona la limitación de la flexión de tobillo con las presiones plantares. En una muestra de 47 corredores varones sanos se grabó la ejecución del test “single leg squat” para posteriormente ser valorado por un comité de expertos. Los participantes corrieron calzados sobre una pista de atletismo a 3,3m/s llevando puestos 2 acelerómetros en tibia y cabeza. También se tomaron las presiones plantares en dinámica. El rango articular de flexión de tobillo también ha sido valorado mediante el test de flexión de tobillo. Los resultados obtenidos muestran mayor presión máxima en M1 (7.9 vs 14.7N/cm2) p=0.003 y M2 (10.3 vs 16.8 N/cm2) p=0.008 en el pie derecho, entre los grupos de buena y mala estabilidad dinámica de la pelvis. Por otro lado, el grupo con limitación de la flexión de tobillo presentaron menor tiempo máximo de presión en talón medial (26.8 vs 29.8 ms) p=0.046 y M4 (117.6 vs 125.7 ms) p=0.042 del pie derecho y menor ratio de carga en M4 (0.18 vs 0.25 N/cm2s) p= 0.041 del pie izquierdo. La acelerometría no mostró resultados estadísticamente significativos asociada a la inestabilidad pélvica. La inestabilidad dinámica de pelvis produce mayor presión en la zona medial del antepié (M1 y M2) que se ha asociado con mayor pronación del pie. La limitación a la flexión de tobillo provoca menos tiempo de presión en talón medial y M4, lo que sugiere cambios en el tiempo de las presiones plantares. La acelerometría no mostró resultados significativos, esto apoya la hipótesis de que el cuerpo tiene un sistema de ajuste neuromuscular para controlar las alteraciones biomecánicas y que no modifiquen el impacto del pie contra el suelo.
... 3) During late push-off, transverse plane pelvic rotation lengthens the step ('pelvic step'), thereby increasing the angular momentum around the longitudinal axis 266,276 . ...
Thesis
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The large-scale usage of smartphone applications and sports watches in running provides the potential to lower injury risk and improve performance. To achieve these common goals, contextual factors need to be taken into account to provide users with accurate and personal feedback. This thesis aims to develop methods to improve the quality of wearable feedback and its interpretation. Within the data process from parameter detection to feedback to the user, the are several ways to improve the quality of the feedback. The studies in this thesis demonstrate various possibilities. The thesis projects concern an improved algorithm for cycle detection; a method to cross-validate speed; an approach to determine an energetic optimal running technique; highlight the importance of individual differences; and a concise, yet comprehensive description of the full spectrum of running styles. It is concluded that to further improve the quality of wearable feedback, cross-validation, self-optimization, biomechanical dependencies, and individual differences should be considered as demonstrated in the thesis.
... Greater breast support also alters trunk and pelvis biomechanics during treadmill running. During running, transverse plane rotations of the trunk and pelvis act to balance rotational momentum about the body's center of mass while pelvis rotation is an important contributor to step length and subsequently cadence (Preece et al., 2016). However, Milligan et al. (2015) reported that greater breast support was associated with increased transverse plane trunk and pelvis excursions during treadmill running. ...
Article
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IntroductionBreast pain is a major barrier to running for women. While breast support through the use of sports bras reduces breast-related discomfort, the effect of breast support on running performance is less understood. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of greater breast support on oxygen consumption and running economy during a treadmill running task.Methods Fifteen female recreational runners performed a 10-min treadmill running task at their preferred running speed in each of two sports bra conditions: low support and high support. Participants ran on an instrumented treadmill (1,200 Hz, Bertec) while indirect calorimetry was performed using a metabolic measurement system (100 Hz, TrueOne, ParvoMedics). Average VO2 (absolute and relative) from the third to 10th minutes was used to evaluate oxygen consumption. Running economy was calculated as the distance traveled per liter of oxygen consumed. Paired samples t-tests were used to compare mean oxygen consumption and running economy values between breast support conditions. Correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between breast size and change in running performance.ResultsGreater breast support was associated with reductions in absolute (p < 0.001) and relative oxygen consumption (p < 0.001; LOW: 30.9 ± 7.1 ml/kg/min; HIGH: 28.7 ± 6.7 ml/kg/min). Greater breast support was associated with increases in running economy (p < 0.001; LOW: 88.6 ± 29.1 m/L O2; HIGH: 95.2 ± 31.1 m/L O2). No changes in temporospatial characteristics of running were observed including cadence (p = 0.149), step length (p = 0.300) or ground contact time (p = 0.151). Strong positive linear correlations were observed between the change in running performance metrics and breast size (Oxygen Consumption: p < 0.001, r = 0.770; Relative Oxygen Consumption: p < 0.001, r = 0769; Running Economy: p < 0.001, r = 0.807).Conclusions Greater breast support was associated with reduced oxygen consumption and increased running economy. These findings demonstrate that greater breast support is not only associated with improved comfort but also improved running performance.
... The joint trajectories and the CoM motion during normal running were reported [20,21]. The results of the trajectories of normal running in our experiments and these conventional research results were consistent in joint angles and CoM motions. ...
Article
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Abstract This paper reports negative effects on runner’s motions which are supported by an exoskeleton attached to his/her lower limbs. A wearable assistive device has generally been developed to support motions of a wearer, while the device may disturb wearer’s motions due to physical features, including expanded his/her body outline and device’s weight. The expanded outline can exert adverse influence that limits range of motion of a wearer. In this paper, we focus on lower limb motions of a runner who puts an exoskeleton on his/her lower limbs to receive physical assistance. We simulated influence of medial parts of the exoskeleton on running through experiments with seven runners wearing one of three couples of rectangular-shaped light blocks (10 mm, 20 mm or 30 mm in thickness) on the medial sides of both thighs. These blocks increased step width but the 30 mm-thick blocks only increased net running heat rates by 6.05 bpm compared with that of running without blocks. This result shows that a wearable device which is equipped with components less than 20 mm-thick on each medial part of a runner’s thigh has little detrimental effects on running motions.
... Raw marker data were low pass filtered at 10 Hz and segment masses for each of the nine segments calculated using data from Dempster (1955). For these calculations, the pelvis, lumbar spine and thoracic segments were modelled as elliptical cylinders and each of the lower extremity segments assumed to be frustra of a cone, see Preece et al. (2016) for further details. In order to calculate segmental kinematics, and corresponding joint moments, a global optimisation algorithm was used in which each of the nine segments could rotate (three rotational degrees of freedom) but not translate relative to adjacent segments, see Mason et al., 2016) for further details and reproducibility measurements. ...
Article
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The biomechanical profile of high-level endurance runners may represent a useful model that could be used for developing training programmes designed to improve running style. This study, therefore, sought to compare the biomechanical characteristics of high-performance and recreational runners. Kinematic and kinetic measurements were taken during overground running from a cohort of 14 high-performance (8 male) and 14 recreational (8 male) runners, at four speeds ranging from 3.3 to 5.6 m s⁻¹. Two-way ANOVA analysis was then used to explore group and speed effects and principal component analysis used to explore the interdependence of the tested variables. The data showed the high-performance runners to have a gait style characterised by an increased vertical velocity of the centre of mass and a flight time that was 11% longer than the recreational group. The high-performance group were also observed to adopt a forefoot strike pattern, to contact the ground with their foot closer to their body and to have a larger ankle moment. Importantly, although observed group differences were mostly independent of speed, the tested variables showed a high degree of interdependence suggesting an underlying unitary phenomenon. This is the first study to compare high-performance and recreational runners across a full range of kinematic and kinetic variables. The results suggest that high-performance runners maintain stride length with a prolonged aerial phase, rather than by landing with a more extended knee. These findings motivate future intervention studies that should investigate whether recreational runners could benefit from instruction to decrease shank inclination at foot contact.
... Despite this, the research on these issues, as it relates to Sprint Distance triathlon, remains insufficient. For instance, efficient running requires postural stability that can enable coordinated movement of the thorax and pelvis, which then acts to minimize CoM motion (Preece et al., 2016). Greater acceleration can cause larger postural sway or reduced dynamic postural stability in the triathlete. ...
Article
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While the sport of short-distance (Sprint) triathlon provides an opportunity to research the effect of the center of mass (CoM) when cycling and running, much remains to be done. The literature has failed to consistently or adequately report how changes to hand position influence subsequent running as inferred by the magnitude of CoM acceleration. The demands of cycle training in a drops and aerodynamic position followed by running remain unquantified in Sprint Distance triathlon. Thus, far data collected indicate that the cycle to run transition (T2) is important for overall race success. While many age-groupers participate in Sprint Distance triathlon, the lack of T2 based research make comparisons between cycle hand position and ensuing running difficult. The motion of the human body when cycling and running in triathlon can be described by the motion of its CoM in a local coordinate system. Unobtrusive wearable sensors have proven to be an informative resource to monitor the magnitude of CoM accelerations in running. However, the extent to which they are used in cycling is unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyse the temporal magnitudes of CoM acceleration when cycling position and cadence is changed and to analyse these effects on running after cycling. Ten recreational triathletes completed two 20 km cycling trials at varied cadence in a drops position (parts of the handlebars that curve outward, Cycle Drops) and an aerodynamic position (arms bent, forearms parallel to the ground, Cycle Aero ) immediately followed by a 5 km run at self-selected pace. Torso kinematics by way of CoM acceleration magnitude were captured in a typical training setting using a triaxial accelerometer. CoM acceleration was quantified in m/s ² and variability was measured by the coefficient of variation (CV) and root mean square (RMS). Results from Cycle Aero indicated that acceleration of the CoM in longitudinal (CV = 1%) and mediolateral directions (CV = 3%) was significantly reduced ( p < 0.001) compared to Cycle Drops . As for rate of perceived exertion (RPE), a significant difference was observed with triathletes reporting higher values in Cycle Aero alongside a greater CoM acceleration magnitude in the anteroposterior direction. The CoM varied significantly from Run Aero with less longitudinal (CV = 0.2, p < 0.001) and mediolateral acceleration observed (CV = 7.5%, p < 0.001) compared to Run Drops . Although greater longitudinal acceleration was observed in the initial 1 km epoch of Run Aero , triathletes then seemingly adjusted their CoM trajectory to record lower magnitudes until completion of the 5 km run, completing the run quicker compared to Run Drops (22.56 min ¹ ± 0.2, 23.34 min ¹ ± 0.5, p < 0.001, CV = 1.3%). Coaches may look to use triaxial accelerometers to monitor performance in both cycling and running after cycling.
... Data was then exported to MATLAB (R2017b, The MathWorks, Inc., MA, USA) for further analysis. For a detailed description of the testing A c c e p t e d M a n u s c r i p t Journal XX (XXXX) XXXXXX Author et al 3 protocol and data processing methods readers are referred to Mason et al. (2014) and Preece et al. (2016). ...
Article
Mathematical models have the potential to provide insight into human running. Existing models can be categorised as either simple or complex, and there appears to be a lack of natural progression in model development. By sequentially adding complexity, there is the potential to determine how different mechanical components contribute to the biomechanics of running. In this study, a series of four models, of increasing complexity were developed in OpenSim: a simple spring-mass model, a two-segment model with a torsional spring at the knee and two three-segment models, one with a sprung knee and ankle and another with a sprung knee and actuated ankle. For each model, a forward simulation was developed and model predictions compared with experimental data from 10 forefoot runners. The results showed the spring-mass model overestimated the vertical displacement of the centre of mass (percentage difference: 43.6(22.4)-67.7(21.7)%) and underestimated the vertical ground reaction force (percentage difference: 13.7(8.9)-34.4(10.9)%) compared to the experimental data. Adding a spring at the knee increased the match with the vertical centre of mass displacement (percentage difference: 4.4(25.2)-18.4(40.2)%), however, geometry restrictions meant it was only possible to model approximately 60% of stance. The passive three-segment model showed a good match with centre of mass movements across most of stance (percentage difference in the vertical centre of mass displacement: 4.3(24.5)-21.3(19.2)%), however, actuation at the ankle was required to obtain a closer match with experimental kinetics and joint trajectories (e.g. vertical ground reaction force RMSD decreased by approximately 0.4BW). This is the first study to investigate models of increasing complexity of distance running. The results show that agreement between experimental data and model simulations improves as complexity increases and this provides useful insight into the mechanics of human running.
... We found that in general, GSI, especially in the vertical direction (SI z ), decreased during the course of the prolonged run. The vertical oscillation of the BCOM may result from important changes in running technique, such as knee flexion in the stance phase (Dierks et al., 2010), intersegmental coordination (Preece et al., 2016), and ground reaction forces (Gurchiek et al., 2017), as well as it suggests the presence of fatigue (Reenalda et al. 2016). Although changes in vertical direction (SI z ) were larger, changes in the SI in mediolateral direction (SI y ) have also been previously described in response to running (Seminati et al., 2013). ...
Article
Running asymmetry is considered a matter of concern for performance and injury, but the association between asymmetry and performance remain unclear. There are different strategies to address asymmetries and its relationship with performance. Here we investigated the correlation between global symmetry index and mechanical efficiency during 10 km running. Thirteen amateur trained athletes (8 men and 5 women) performed a 10 km running at a fixed pace while a 3D accelerometer attached to the pelvic region recorded position data throughout the course of the run and gas exchanges were monitored breath by breath. Global symmetry index was determined for 3 directions, and mechanical efficiency was calculated as the ratio of external work output to energy expenditure determined from gas analysis. Global Symmetry Index and mechanical efficiency decreased (-55.5% and -44.8%, respectively) during the course of the 10 km run (p<0.01). A positive correlation was observed between global symmetry index and efficiency (r = 0.66, p = 0.01). Asymmetry in the vertical direction had a relatively higher impact on the global symmetry index. The global symmetry index accounted for 43.1% of the variance in mechanical efficiency (p = 0.015). Symmetry, evaluated by the global symmetry index, directly correlates with mechanical efficiency during a 10 km run.
Article
Maintaining stability under dynamic conditions is an inherent challenge to bipedal running. This challenge may impose an energetic cost (Ec) thus hampering endurance running performance, yet the underlying mechanisms are not clear. Wireless tri-axial trunk accelerometry is a simple tool that could be used to unobtrusively evaluate these mechanisms. Here, we test a cost of instability hypothesis by examining the contribution of trunk accelerometry-based measures (tri-axial root mean square, step and stride regularity, and sample entropy) to inter-individual variance in Ec (kcal.km-1) during treadmill running. Accelerometry and indirect calorimetry data were collected concurrently from 30 recreational runners (16 men; 14 women) running at their highest steady-state running speed (80.65 ± 5.99% VO2 max). After reducing dimensionality with factor analysis, the effect of dynamic stability features on Ec was evaluated using hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Three accelerometry-based measures could explain an additional 10.4% of inter-individual variance in Ec after controlling for body mass, attributed to anteroposterior stride regularity (5.2%), anteroposterior RMS ratio (3.2%), and mediolateral sample entropy (2.0%). Our results lend support to a cost of instability hypothesis, with trunk acceleration waveform signals that are 1) more consistent between strides anteroposterioly, 2) larger in amplitude variability anteroposterioly, and 3) more complex mediolaterally, are energetically advantageous to endurance running performance. This study shows that wearable trunk accelerometry is a useful tool for understanding the Ec of running, and that running stability is important for economy in recreational runners.
Research
INTRODUCTION : La course à pied est une pratique sportive avec un nombre croissant de pratiquants du à sa facilité d’accès et la prise de conscience de l’intérêt de l’activité physique. Cette augmentation du nombre de sportifs entraîne des pathologies. La fasciopathie plantaire est la troisième pathologie la plus représentée chez le coureur à pied touchant près de 10% de ces athlètes. Cependant, il n’existe pas de traitement spécifique à cette pathologie. OBJECTIF : Réaliser un constat des différentes techniques rééducatives efficaces et prouvées que le masseur-kinésithérapeute peut mettre en oeuvre pour un traitement optimal des coureurs atteints de fasciopathie plantaire. METHODE : Une revue systématique de la littérature a été menée à travers l’interrogation de trois bases de données scientifiques en santé (PubMed, ScienceDirect, LiSSa). L’évaluation méthodologique des articles inclus est réalisée avec l’échelle PEDro. RESULTATS : 8 études correspondent aux critères d’inclusions et sont intégrées dans notre revue sur une base de 802 articles. Tous ces essais sont de bonne qualité méthodologique sur la grille PEDro. Trois essais contrôlés randomisés étudient l’efficacité des ondes de choc (ODC), deux à propos du laser de basse intensité (LLLT), un sur le renforcement musculaire des muscles du pied et de la hanche, un sur la mobilisation articulaire du pied et de la cheville et un au sujet du dry needling électrique. Les résultats semblent montrer l’efficacité des traitements combinés, ainsi que des ondes de choc face à un placebo. CONCLUSION : La combinaison de plusieurs traitements conservatifs montre son efficacité sur la douleur et la fonction du pied. De plus, les ondes de choc ont montré leur efficacité face à un placebo. Il reste tout de même des questionnements sur les modalités d’application de ces thérapies ainsi que sur le traitement spécifique du coureur à pied. Mots-clés : - Course à pied - Fasciopathie plantaire - Rééducation
Research
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INTRODUCTION : La course à pied est une pratique sportive avec un nombre croissant de pratiquants du à sa facilité d’accès et la prise de conscience de l’intérêt de l’activité physique. Cette augmentation du nombre de sportifs entraîne des pathologies. La fasciopathie plantaire est la troisième pathologie la plus représentée chez le coureur à pied touchant près de 10% de ces athlètes. Cependant, il n’existe pas de traitement spécifique à cette pathologie. OBJECTIF : Réaliser un constat des différentes techniques rééducatives efficaces et prouvées que le masseur-kinésithérapeute peut mettre en oeuvre pour un traitement optimal des coureurs atteints de fasciopathie plantaire. METHODE : Une revue systématique de la littérature a été menée à travers l’interrogation de trois bases de données scientifiques en santé (PubMed, ScienceDirect, LiSSa). L’évaluation méthodologique des articles inclus est réalisée avec l’échelle PEDro. RESULTATS : 8 études correspondent aux critères d’inclusions et sont intégrées dans notre revue sur une base de 802 articles. Tous ces essais sont de bonne qualité méthodologique sur la grille PEDro. Trois essais contrôlés randomisés étudient l’efficacité des ondes de choc (ODC), deux à propos du laser de basse intensité (LLLT), un sur le renforcement musculaire des muscles du pied et de la hanche, un sur la mobilisation articulaire du pied et de la cheville et un au sujet du dry needling électrique. Les résultats semblent montrer l’efficacité des traitements combinés, ainsi que des ondes de choc face à un placebo. CONCLUSION : La combinaison de plusieurs traitements conservatifs montre son efficacité sur la douleur et la fonction du pied. De plus, les ondes de choc ont montré leur efficacité face à un placebo. Il reste tout de même des questionnements sur les modalités d’application de ces thérapies ainsi que sur le traitement spécifique du coureur à pied. Mots-clés : - Course à pied - Fasciopathie plantaire - Rééducation
Article
Understanding the influence of load carriage on trunk-pelvis coordination and its variability has important functional implications for athletes who need to run with load. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of load carriage on trunk-pelvis coordination in running. Thirty healthy adults performed running while wearing a 20% bodyweight backpack, and without load. Vector coding was used to quantify trunk-pelvis segmental coordination and its variability during the stance phase of running. The four coordination patterns were: 1) anti-phase (segments moving in opposite directions), in-phase (segments moving in same directions), trunk-only phase (only trunk movement), and pelvic-only phase (only pelvic movement). For each plane, the percentage of stance phase spent in a specific coordination pattern was quantified. Coordination variability for each plane was averaged over the stance phase. Mixed effects models were used to analyse the effects of load, adjusted for the covariate of sex, on coordination and its variability. Running with load increased trunk-only coordination in the sagittal plane (P < 0.001), increased anti-phase coordination in the frontal plane (P <0.001), reduced trunk-only phase coordination in axial rotation (P < 0.001), and increased coordination variability in all three planes (Flexion-Extension: P < 0.001; Lateral flexion: P = 0.03; Axial rotation: P < 0.001). Future studies would benefit from investigating how trunk-pelvis coordination and its variability alters candidate end-point variability indices (e.g. COM displacement), and its functional implications in load carriage running.
Article
Across a wide range of Froude speeds, non-human primates such as macaques prefer to use grounded and aerial running when locomoting bipedally. Both gaits are characterized by bouncing kinetics of the center of mass. On the other hand, a discontinuous change from pendular to bouncing kinetics occurs in human locomotion. To clarify the mechanism underlying these differences in bipedal gait mechanics between humans and non-human primates, we investigated the influence of gait on joint kinematics in the legs and trunk of three macaques crossing an experimental track. The coordination of movement was compared with observations available for primates. Compared to human running, macaque leg retraction cannot merely be produced by hip extension, but needs to be supported by substantial knee flexion. As a result, despite quasi-elastic whole-leg operation, the macaque's knee showed only minor rebound behavior. Ankle extension resembled that observed during human running. Unlike human running and independent of gait, torsion of the trunk represents a rather conservative feature in primates, and pelvic axial rotation added to step length. Pelvic lateral lean during grounded running by macaques (compliant leg) and human walking (stiff leg) depends on gait dynamics at the same Froude speed. The different coordination between the thorax and pelvis in the sagittal plane as compared to human runners indicates different bending modes of the spine. Morphological adaptations in non-human primates to quadrupedal locomotion may prevent human-like operation of the leg and limit exploitation of quasi-elastic leg operation despite running dynamics.
Article
Despite the wide-spread use of musculoskeletal simulations and its use in estimating spinal loads, much is not known about how to best collect experimental data for modelling purposes. The primary purposes in this study were to determine the effects of tracking of running motion capture data to a model (1) with and without coupling of lumbar spine segments, and (2) with varying combinations of spinal markers. Running trials were collected from 7 participants, with each at three different speeds. The motion data was fit to the Full-Body Lumbar Spine Model (FBLS) with coupling of the lumbar spine enabled (CS) and disabled and therefore rigid (RS) in OpenSim through the Inverse Kinematics tool (IK). Different combinations of markers were chosen as tracking inputs for IK to represent experimental data collection with different marker sets. Root-mean-square (RMS) marker errors of all 13 markers along the spine for each gait cycle were calculated. The CS model resulted in 23.7% lower errors than the RS model (p<0.001). The marker subset analysis showed that increasing the number of markers in the experimental data collection decreases the error, with the four marker tracking subsets with the highest number of markers tracked having the lowest errors. The location of the marker and timing in the gait cycle did not affect marker error. When spinal mechanics are of interest, the inclusion of a coupled lumbar spine in the model and a larger spinal marker set help better track experimental kinematics when fitting to a model.
Article
INTRODUCTION : La course à pied est une pratique sportive avec un nombre croissant de pratiquants du à sa facilité d’accès et la prise de conscience de l’intérêt de l’activité physique. Cette augmentation du nombre de sportifs entraîne des pathologies. La fasciopathie plantaire est la troisième pathologie la plus représentée chez le coureur à pied touchant près de 10% de ces athlètes. Cependant, il n’existe pas de traitement spécifique à cette pathologie. OBJECTIF : Réaliser un constat des différentes techniques rééducatives efficaces et prouvées que le masseur-kinésithérapeute peut mettre en oeuvre pour un traitement optimal des coureurs atteints de fasciopathie plantaire. METHODE : Une revue systématique de la littérature a été menée à travers l’interrogation de trois bases de données scientifiques en santé (PubMed, ScienceDirect, LiSSa). L’évaluation méthodologique des articles inclus est réalisée avec l’échelle PEDro. RESULTATS : 8 études correspondent aux critères d’inclusions et sont intégrées dans notre revue sur une base de 802 articles. Tous ces essais sont de bonne qualité méthodologique sur la grille PEDro. Trois essais contrôlés randomisés étudient l’efficacité des ondes de choc (ODC), deux à propos du laser de basse intensité (LLLT), un sur le renforcement musculaire des muscles du pied et de la hanche, un sur la mobilisation articulaire du pied et de la cheville et un au sujet du dry needling électrique. Les résultats semblent montrer l’efficacité des traitements combinés, ainsi que des ondes de choc face à un placebo. CONCLUSION : La combinaison de plusieurs traitements conservatifs montre son efficacité sur la douleur et la fonction du pied. De plus, les ondes de choc ont montré leur efficacité face à un placebo. Il reste tout de même des questionnements sur les modalités d’application de ces thérapies ainsi que sur le traitement spécifique du coureur à pied. Mots-clés : - Course à pied - Fasciopathie plantaire - Rééducation
Article
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Although the mechanical function is quite clear, there is no consensus regarding the metabolic benefit of arm swing during human running. We compared the metabolic cost of running using normal arm swing with the metabolic cost of running while restricting the arms in three different ways: (1) holding the hands with the arms behind the back in a relaxed position (BACK), (2) holding the arms across the chest (CHEST) and (3) holding the hands on top of the head (HEAD). We hypothesized that running without arm swing would demand a greater metabolic cost than running with arm swing. Indeed, when compared with running using normal arm swing, we found that net metabolic power demand was 3, 9 and 13% greater for the BACK, CHEST and HEAD conditions, respectively (all P<0.05). We also found that when running without arm swing, subjects significantly increased the peak-to-peak amplitudes of both shoulder and pelvis rotation about the vertical axis, most likely a compensatory strategy to counterbalance the rotational angular momentum of the swinging legs. In conclusion, our findings support our general hypothesis that swinging the arms reduces the metabolic cost of human running. Our findings also demonstrate that arm swing minimizes torso rotation. We infer that actively swinging the arms provides both metabolic and biomechanical benefits during human running.
Article
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Running is a bouncing gait in which the body mass center slows and lowers during the first half of the stance phase; the mass center is then accelerated forward and upward into flight during the second half of the stance phase. Muscle-driven simulations can be analyzed to determine how muscle forces accelerate the body mass center. However, muscle-driven simulations of running at different speeds have not been previously developed, and it remains unclear how muscle forces modulate mass center accelerations at different running speeds. Thus, to examine how muscles generate accelerations of the body mass center, we created three-dimensional muscle-driven simulations of ten subjects running at 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0m/s. An induced acceleration analysis determined the contribution of each muscle to mass center accelerations. Our simulations included arms, allowing us to investigate the contributions of arm motion to running dynamics. Analysis of the simulations revealed that soleus provides the greatest upward mass center acceleration at all running speeds; soleus generates a peak upward acceleration of 19.8m/s(2) (i.e., the equivalent of approximately 2.0 bodyweights of ground reaction force) at 5.0m/s. Soleus also provided the greatest contribution to forward mass center acceleration, which increased from 2.5m/s(2) at 2.0m/s to 4.0m/s(2) at 5.0m/s. At faster running speeds, greater velocity of the legs produced larger angular momentum about the vertical axis passing through the body mass center; angular momentum about this vertical axis from arm swing simultaneously increased to counterbalance the legs. We provide open-access to data and simulations from this study for further analysis in OpenSim at simtk.org/home/nmbl_running, enabling muscle actions during running to be studied in unprecedented detail.
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We investigated the control and function of arm swing in human walking and running to test the hypothesis that the arms act as passive mass dampers powered by movement of the lower body, rather than being actively driven by the shoulder muscles. We measured locomotor cost, deltoid muscle activity and kinematics in 10 healthy adult subjects while walking and running on a treadmill in three experimental conditions: control; no arms (arms folded across the chest); and arm weights (weights worn at the elbow). Decreasing and increasing the moment of inertia of the upper body in no arms and arm weights conditions, respectively, had corresponding effects on head yaw and on the phase differences between shoulder and pelvis rotation, consistent with the view of arms as mass dampers. Angular acceleration of the shoulders and arm increased with torsion of the trunk and shoulder, respectively, but angular acceleration of the shoulders was not inversely related to angular acceleration of the pelvis or arm. Restricting arm swing in no arms trials had no effect on locomotor cost. Anterior and posterior portions of the deltoid contracted simultaneously rather than firing alternately to drive the arm. These results support a passive arm swing hypothesis for upper body movement during human walking and running, in which the trunk and shoulders act primarily as elastic linkages between the pelvis, shoulder girdle and arms, the arms act as passive mass dampers which reduce torso and head rotation, and upper body movement is primarily powered by lower body movement.
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Pelvic tilt is often quantified using the angle between the horizontal and a line connecting the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) and the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS). Although this angle is determined by the balance of muscular and ligamentous forces acting between the pelvis and adjacent segments, it could also be influenced by variations in pelvic morphology. The primary objective of this anatomical study was to establish how such variation may affect the ASIS-PSIS measure of pelvic tilt. In addition, we also investigated how variability in pelvic landmarks may influence measures of innominate rotational asymmetry and measures of pelvic height. Thirty cadaver pelves were used for the study. Each specimen was positioned in a fixed anatomical reference position and the angle between the ASIS and PSIS measured bilaterally. In addition, side-to-side differences in the height of the innominate bone were recorded. The study found a range of values for the ASIS-PSIS of 0-23 degrees, with a mean of 13 and standard deviation of 5 degrees. Asymmetry of pelvic landmarks resulted in side-to-side differences of up to 11 degrees in ASIS-PSIS tilt and 16 millimeters in innominate height. These results suggest that variations in pelvic morphology may significantly influence measures of pelvic tilt and innominate rotational asymmetry.
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The purpose of this study was to compare pelvis-trunk coordination and coordination variability over a range of walking and running speeds between three groups of runners; runners with low to moderate low back pain; runners who had recovered from a single bout of acute low back pain; and runners who had never experienced any symptoms of low back pain. Pelvis and trunk kinematic data were collected as speed was systematically increased on a treadmill. Coordination between pelvis and trunk in all three planes of motion was measured using continuous relative phase, and coordination variability was defined as the standard deviation of this measure. Oswestry Disability Index indicated the low back pain group was high functioning (mean 7.9% out of 100%). During walking, frontal plane coordination was more in-phase for the low back pain group compared to controls (P=0.029), with the resolved group showing an intermediate coordination pattern (P=0.064). During running, both low back pain (P=0.021) and resolved (P=0.025) groups showed more in-phase coordination in the transverse plane than the control group. The low back pain group also showed reduced transverse plane coordination variability compared to controls (P=0.022). Coordination and coordination variability results showed a continuum of responses between our three groups. Taken together, the data lend insight into increased injury risk and performance deficits associated with even one bout of low back pain, and suggest that clinicians need to look beyond the resolution of pain when prescribing rehabilitation for low back pain.
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Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. To assess pelvis and trunk three-dimensional segmental excursions and coordination differences during walking and running between runners with low back pain (LBP), runners with resolved LBP, and a control group with no history of LBP. Studies have documented differences in pelvis and trunk coordination between those with moderate to severe LBP during walking. Few studies document pelvis and trunk mechanics in those with low to moderate LBP and individuals who recover from LBP even though these individuals comprise 80% of LBP cases and are at increased risk for re-injury. Recreational runners walked and ran on a treadmill at speeds including 0.8 to 3.8 m/s at 0.5 m/s increments. Pelvis and trunk kinematic data were collected during the last 20 s of each stage. Coordination analysis quantified the portion of gait cycle each group spent in trunk only motion, pelvis-only motion, in-phase, and antiphase relationships. During walking, the LBP group spent more of the gait cycle in-phase in the frontal plane (P = 0.030). During running, the LBP group showed greater pelvis axial rotation than the control group (P = 0.014) and spent more of the gait cycle in-phase in the transverse plane (P = 0.019). Also during running, the LBP (P = 0.035) and the resolved LBP (P = 0.037) groups demonstrated reduced antiphase coordination compared to controls. Coordination analysis demonstrates a reduction in relative motion between the pelvis and trunk despite low disability levels in our LBP group and no pain in our group with a history of LBP.
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The aim of this study was to introduce a Newton-Euler inverse dynamics model that included reaction force and moment estimation at the lumbo-sacral (L5-S1) and thoraco-lumbar (T12-L1) joints. Data were collected while participants ran over ground at 3.8 m x s(-1) at three different stride lengths: preferred stride length, 20% greater than preferred, and 20% less than preferred. Inputs to the model were ground reaction forces, bilateral lower extremity and pelvis kinematics and inertial parameters, kinematics of the lumbar spine and thorax and inertial parameters of the lumbar segment. Repeated measures ANOVA were performed on the lower extremity sagittal kinematics and kinetics, including L5-S1 and T12-L1 three-dimensional joint angles, reaction forces and moments at touchdown and peak values during impact phase across the three stride conditions. Results indicated that L5-S1 and T12-L1 vertical reaction forces at touchdown and during the impact portion of the support phase increased significantly as stride length increased (P < 0.001), as did peak sagittal L5-S1 moments during impact (P = 0.018). Additionally, the transverse T12-L1 joint moment increased as running speed increased (P = 0.006). We concluded from our findings that our model was sensitive to our perturbations in healthy runners, and may prove useful in future mechanistic studies of L5-S1 mechanics.
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Disorders of the shoulder complex can be accompanied by changes in the movement pattern of the scapula. However, scapular motion is difficult to measure. A possible non-invasive method for dynamic three-dimensional kinematic measurement of the human scapula is the use of a marker cluster placed on the flat part of the acromion. A small light-weight acromion marker cluster (AMC) is presented in this study. In order to assess validity, kinematics obtained with the AMC were compared to simultaneous scapula locator (SL) recordings in a series of postures. The test/retest variability of replacement of the AMC, was also assessed. Measurement errors appeared to be sensitive for the plane of movement, the degree of humerus elevation, and replacement of the AMC. The AMC generally under-estimated scapula motion, compared to the SL. Some significant differences were found between the two methods, although the absolute differences were small (maximum mean difference 8.4 degrees in extreme position). In humerus forward flexion and abduction the maximum mean differences were 6 degrees or lower. In conclusion, the AMC is a valid method of measuring scapular movement during arm elevation that could be used in shoulder pathologies. Placement and planes of movement should be carefully considered and elevation of the humerus should not exceed 100 degrees.
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A method is proposed to facilitate the quantification and interpretation of inter-joint/-segment coordination. This technique is illustrated using rearfoot-forefoot kinematic data. We expand existing vector coding techniques and introduce a set of operational terms through which the coordinative patterns between the rearfoot segment and the forefoot segment are summarized: in-phase, anti-phase, rearfoot phase and forefoot phase. The literature on foot mechanics has characterized the stable foot at pushoff by a decreasing medial longitudinal arch angle in the sagittal plane, which is accompanied by forefoot pronation and concurrent rearfoot supination-in other words, anti-phase motion. Nine skin markers were placed on the rearfoot and forefoot segments according to a multi-segment foot model. Three healthy subjects performed standing calibration and walking trials (1.35ms(-1)), while a three-dimensional motion capture system acquired their kinematics. Rearfoot-forefoot joint angles were derived and the arch angle was inferred from the sagittal plane. Coupling angles of rearfoot and forefoot segments were derived and categorized into one of the four coordination patterns. Arch kinematics were consistent with the literature; in stance, the arch angle reached peak dorsiflexion, and then decreased rapidly. However, anti-phase coordination was not the predominant pattern during mid- or late stance. These preliminary data suggest that the coordinative interactions between the rearfoot and the forefoot are more complicated than previously described. The technique offers a new perspective on coordination and may provide insight into deformations of underlying tissues, such as the plantar fascia.
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A kinematic-based technique for the estimation of the times at which gait events occur is presented. A kinematic-based model (KM) is defined by the trajectory of a point, which has an anatomically fixed location on the subject's body, about a time at which a measurement system defined gait event takes place. The times at which subsequent occurrences of the gait event takes place are determined by identifying the kinematic pattern that best fits the previously defined KM. The results of an experiment that used the gait patterns of a normal and a pathological walker indicate that the accuracy of the algorithm is limited by the kinematic data sampling interval and that optimal kinematic predictors of gait event times occur within the primary (sagittal) plane of motion. The technique is intended to obviate the need for multiple force plates, instrumented floors and instruments which are worn by the subject for the purpose of determining the times at which gait events occur.
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The relationships between biocmechanical aspects of distance running, running economy (VO2 submax), and performance were investigated. A variety of biomechanical measures for 31 subjects running at 3.6 m/s was obtained, including three-dimensional angular and translational kinematics, ground reaction forces and center of pressure patterns, mechanical power, and anthropometric measures. Physiological measures obtained included maximal and submaximal O2 consumption, muscle fiber composition, and measures of the ability to store and return elastic energy during knee bends. A subset of 16 runners was also evaluated in relation to performance in a 10-km run. Biomechanical variables were identified which showed significant differences or consistent trends between groups separated on the basis of VO2 submax, establishing the importance of biomechanical influences on running economy. It appears that no single variable or small subset of variables can explain differences in economy between individuals but rather that economy is related to a weighted sum of the influences of many variables.
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The function of lumbar back muscles was studied by relating their activity patterns to trunk movements in 7 healthy adult males during normal walking (1.0-2.5 m/s) and running (2.0-7.0 m/s) on a treadmill. The movements of the trunk in the sagittal and frontal planes were recorded with a Selspot optoelectronic system using infrared light emitting diodes as markers. The electromyographic (EMG) activity from the two main portions of the lumbar erector spinae muscles (Multifidus and Longissimus) was recorded bilaterally with intramuscular wire electrodes. The angular displacements of the trunk showed regular oscillations, but their shape, magnitude and relation to the step cycle were different in the two planes (sagittal and frontal) and varied with speed and mode of progression. The EMG pattern in both muscles showed a bilateral cocontraction with two main bursts of activity per step cycle starting just before each foot was placed on the ground. Relating the EMG to the movements of the trunk indicated that the main function of the lumbar erector spinae muscles is to restrict excessive trunk movements. During walking this restricting action is most evident for movements in the frontal plane, whereas in running the lumbar back muscles mainly control the movements in the sagittal plane.
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This review article summarizes the current literature regarding the analysis of running gait. It is compared to walking and sprinting. The current state of knowledge is presented as it fits in the context of the history of analysis of movement. The characteristics of the gait cycle and its relationship to potential and kinetic energy interactions are reviewed. The timing of electromyographic activity is provided. Kinematic and kinetic data (including center of pressure measurements, raw force plate data, joint moments, and joint powers) and the impact of changes in velocity on these findings is presented. The status of shoewear literature, alterations in movement strategies, the role of biarticular muscles, and the springlike function of tendons are addressed. This type of information can provide insight into injury mechanisms and training strategies. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.
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It was hypothesized that certain ground reaction force (GRF) variables are positively correlated with running economy (RE; the aerobic demand at a single speed of running). Excessive momentum changes, quantified by linear impulse measures, as well the free moment applied to the running surface could be considered potentially wasteful efforts in terms of metabolic energy requirements. Recreational runners (n = 16) ran on a treadmill at 3.35 m.s-1 for physiological measurements and overground for biomechanical measurements. Correlation coefficients were calculated between RE and total vertical impulse (TVI), net impulses in three orthogonal directions, and descriptors of the free moment. The TVI and the net vertical impulse were the only GRF characteristics significantly correlated to RE (r = 0.62, r = 0.60, respectively). Greater overall muscle support requirements during ground contact, as represented by TVI, may have been responsible for greater aerobic demand.
Article
The objective of this study were to: (i) describe the typical three-dimensional (3D) angular kinematics of the lumbar spine and pelvis during running and; (ii) assess whether the movements of the lumbar spine and pelvis during running are coordinated. A cohort of 20 non-injured male runners who usually ran >20 km/week were voluntarily recruited. All trials were conducted on a treadmill at a running speed of 4.0 m/second. Reflective markers were placed over anatomical landmarks of the thoraco-lumbar spine and pelvis. Data were captured using a VICON motion analysis system. The lumbar spine and pelvis both displayed complex 3D angular kinematic patterns during running. High correlations were found for the comparisons of flexion-extension of the lumbar spine with anterior-posterior tilt of the pelvis (r=-0.84) and lateral bend of the lumbar spine with obliquity of the pelvis (r=-0.75). However, a poor correlation was found for the comparison of axial rotation of the lumbar spine with axial rotation of the pelvis (r=0.37). A phase difference of 21% of the running cycle was evident between axial rotation of the lumbar spine and pelvis. The identified coordinated kinematic patterns of the lumbar spine and pelvis during running serve as a basis for future investigations exploring the relationship between atypical kinematic patterns and injury.
Article
A telemetering device is described to record action potentials from muscles of the upper arm and the shoulder during the arm swing of natural walking. The forward swing is caused by activity in some inward rotators, the flexors remaining inactive. The posterior part of the deltoid and some outward rotators are responsible for the backward swing. During walk-turning electrical activity occurred in flexors inactive during straight walking accounting for the increased excursion of the forward swing which counteracts the torsional movement of the trunk. Step-related muscular activity persisted even when the arm was prevented from swinging.
Article
Control of the trunk is critical for locomotor efficiency. However, investigations of trunk muscle activity and three-dimensional lumbo-pelvic kinematics during walking and running remain scarce. Gait parameters and three-dimensional lumbo-pelvic kinematics were recorded in seven subjects. Electromyography recordings of abdominal and paraspinal muscles were made using fine-wire and surface electrodes as subjects walked on a treadmill at 1 and 2 ms(-1) and ran at 2, 3, 4 and 5 ms(-1). Kinematic data indicate that the amplitude but not timing of lumbo-pelvic motion changes with locomotor speed. Conversely, a change in locomotor mode is associated with temporal but not spatial adaptation in neuromotor strategy. That is, peak transverse plane lumbo-pelvic rotation occurs at foot strike during walking but prior to foot strike during running. Despite this temporal change, there is a strong correlation between the amplitude of transverse plane lumbo-pelvic rotation and stride length during walking and running. In addition, lumbo-pelvic motion was asymmetrical during all locomotor tasks. Trunk muscle electromyography occurred biphasically in association with foot strike. Transversus abdominis was tonically active with biphasic modulation. Consistent with the kinematic data, electromyography activity of the abdominal muscles and the superficial fibres of multifidus increased with locomotor speed, and timing of peak activity of superficial multifidus and obliquus externus abdominis was modified in association with the temporal adaptation in lumbo-pelvic motion with changes in locomotor mode. These data provide evidence of the association between lumbo-pelvic motion and trunk muscle activity during locomotion at different speeds and modes.
  • J Preece
J. Preece et al. / Human Movement Science 45 (2016) 110–118
  • H Pontzer
  • J H Holloway
  • D A Raichlen
  • D E Lieberman
Pontzer, H., Holloway, J. H., Raichlen, D. A., & Lieberman, D. E. (2009). Control and function of arm swing in human walking and running (vol 212, pg 523, 2009). Journal of Experimental Biology, 212. 894-894.