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The Problems and Reform of Art and Design Education in Colleges and Universities in China

Creative Education, 2015, 6, 2216-2220
Published Online November 2015 in SciRes.
How to cite this paper: Dou, X. D. (2015). The Problems and Reform of Art and Design Education in Colleges and Universi-
ties in China. Creative Education, 6, 2216-2220.
The Problems and Reform of Art and Design
Education in Colleges and Universities in
Xiangdong Dou
College of Fine Arts, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an, China
Received 12 October 2015; accepted 23 November 2015; published 26 November 2015
Copyright © 2015 by author and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).
The modern art education was originated from Germany Faculty of Bauhaus, dating back more
than 100 years, while our art and design education is still at primary stage, only with a history of
50 years. But we are enjoying a good development trend in art and design education and it devel-
ops fast. In such a fast developmental course, it is inevitable to produce various problems. This
paper mainly analyzed the problems in art and design education in our colleges and universities
and put forward some feasible reform programs.
Art and Design, Art and Design Education, Problems, Countermeasures
1. Introduction
Art and design education has a long history. Since the establishment of Germany Faculty of Bauhaus in the last
century, Eaton has opened many professional courses. His education methods have a great significance to art
and design education. The art and design education in our domestic colleges and universities is established on
this basis. Modern art and design education is the fruits of many people’s efforts. Modern education attaches
importance to giving full play of students’ personal ability, and further improving the teaching system. But there
are still many problems in this process, and it is worth the attention of this cycle.
2. The Concept of Art and Design Education
Before we understand “art and design education”, first we need to clear a concept: what is “art and design” on
earth? In fact, art and design refers to the design process of daily things by art methods before processing, in-
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volving people’s life equipment, applied tools, clothes and jewelry and so on. In other words, the art and design
is actually earlier than the creation activity. It is a kind of subjective plan, always adhering to the principle of
creating things according to the law of beauty”. Art and design is closely related to people’s life, involving food,
clothing, traveling and etc. (Chen, 2012).
Art and design education is also known as design education. The scope of design education is very exten-
sive, including professional education for the cultivation of professionals, basic knowledge for the improvement
of quality, and general education for the cultivation of basic skills and aesthetic ability. First of all, art and de-
sign education is based on the relevant theoretic and basic knowledge. It stresses on the cultivation of design
ability and concept, focuses on the training of students’ design methods and skills in daily study, and thus im-
proving students’ innovation ability and future development potential. In this way students can meet the needs
for the development of art and design, creation, teaching and other related fields. Secondly, the art and design
education is not specifically for a certain industry, so learning of skills and related experience shall not be
treated as main route in the teaching, and the vocational education shall not be considered as the only goal of the
course. Colleges and universities should develop their courses based on personality education, develop students
sense and reason, and place the artistic conception, connotation and culture as the key points in the teaching of
modern art and design activities, improve studentsprofessional quality and aesthetic level. This is the goal of
the art and design education that colleges and universities should realize.
3. The Existing Problems of Art and Design Education in China
3.1. Treating Art and Design as a Branch of Fine Arts
There is no uniform standard for modern art education, which is the difference from other disciplines. This
mainly depends on a different market conditions for design. Art and design involves a wide range of fields, such
as product design, industrial design, tool design, logo design, advertising design, fashion design, layout design,
architectural environment design, and so on. This discipline often has strong application hue and has relative
high technical requirements (Jiang, 2011). At present, this circle often treats technical design as a typical com-
prehensive discipline. Its scope of knowledge is not just confined to a certain field, but it has a close relationship
with science and technology, engineering technology and etc, which is very different from the modality of fine
arts. Due to the rapid development of information technology, it gradually produces certain distinction between
art and design and painting. Art and design uses painting as a means or medium, but its essence is different from
that of painting. As a typical art style, fine arts has obvious hue of human nature, for it reflects and expresses the
emotions of artists. But design is different. Its service object is the mass and the society. So the difference be-
tween them is still very obvious. Therefore, we can not simply consider art and design as art education. But our
current domestic art and design education is a simple art education. It is only the replica of traditional arts and
crafts education, and does not realize the value of modern art and design education, for it does not accord with
the practical needs of art and design education. The idea that takes the educational method of fine arts in place of
the education of design is the crux of domestic art and design education.
3.2. The Unreasonable Structure of Teacher Team
At present, there are mainly two types of teachers for art and design in our colleges and universities. One is the
teachers graduated from the fine arts colleges and universities. Most of their education background is pure fine
arts, such as Chinese painting, oil painting, sculpture and so on. They were assigned to different colleges and
universities to work on art and design education after graduation. Some of them give professional training in the
art and design education (Kang, 2013). Some of them need to learn relevant knowledge by themselves. The oth-
er is the teachers graduated from the industrial arts colleges and universities. Such teachers are more in line with
the requirements of art and design compared with teachers majoring in fine arts, because they have good profes-
sional knowledge of art and design and practical ability. But this kind of talent is relatively few. Gradually it has
become a common view in domestic art and design colleges and universities, although domestic art education
has some excellent teachers, such as Overseas Returnee Lei Guiyuan and Zheng Ke of last century, who have
strong art and design professional ability. In last century, China has cultivated a number of professionals by our
own strength. These professionals later became the backbone of domestic art and design education. In the 1980s,
the state had sent a group of students to study abroad, of which some students were special to learn professional
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art and design. These students have introduced advanced foreign practice methods, practical information and
teaching methods, and have provided certain experience for domestic education. Based on the experience, we
reformed our previous curriculum setting and shortened the gap between domestic art and design level and for-
eign art and design level. It provides a guarantee for the progress of domestic design education. However, the art
and design education system wholly is not scientific. Many domestic art institutions have no professional teach-
ers for teaching, among which excellent teacher is fewer. Most of the teachers teach students in a perfunctory
manner, which is certainly related to the unreasonable teacher formation in colleges and universities, but mainly
depends on the limitation of teachers’ professional level. Our art and design education has no characteristics,
profundity, accuracy and extention, for it has been accustomed to stay on the surface. This leads to students
lack of confidence, and they do not dare to participate in the important design task. It is difficult for them to se-
ize a favorable position in the fierce social competition. This increases the difficulty for students to fit into so-
ciety. And there are still some drawbacks in their design thinking and creativity, which is the most important
challenge in the domestic design education.
3.3. The Unscientific Education Management Mode
Under the guidance of economic interests, our universities and colleges are experiencing the large and com-
pletedepartments and sectors construction. We started to set a variety of majors since the end of last century.
Under the guidance of the concept that we can start if we have conditions and we can create conditions and then
start if we have no conditions, many domestic colleges and universities started to set up art and design major.
This kind of situation spreads in a short time with obvious expansion and strong willfulness. They have no spe-
cific system or regulations to control subject setting, professional conditions, teaching target, cultivation pro-
gram and direction and etc. The start of domestic art and design was such a bit hasty. Many colleges and univer-
sities even set up curriculum and carry out teaching according to teachers’ conditions rather than strictly ac-
cording to the teaching plan. They even can reduce or add class hours at their will, which makes teaching lack of
scientificity and systematicness. In addition, the unreasonable setting of art and design education in our colleges
and universities results in waste of talent resources. For example, many local colleges and universities often use
a large number of “malarkey” and polite formula due to restrictions on outlay and teacher resources when they
determine their teaching objective of art, and they did not really consider their school characteristics and style
during the process of objective design, so teachers do not know which aspect they should emphasize in their
teaching activities and so they hardly find the difference of graduates in ability level and speciality (Li, 2011).
4. Reform and Innovation of Domestic Art Education
4.1. Improve the Level of Theory Accomplishment, Change Education Concepts
What urgently need to be solved by domestic advanced art education is not to set up different specialties ac-
cording to artistic phenomenon. Facing all kinds of phenomena, we need to use rigorous attitude in academic
research to build scientific and systematic basic disciplines containing humanistic spirit to improve students’
overall literacy level and let them find the value and significance of humanities. No matter art theory or natural
science and social science, all of them are treasures in human history. Theoretical study can help designers to
improve their literacy. If students cannot form profound cognition and feelings in practice, they are very short of
theoretical study.
With constant deepening of domestic education reform and rapid market operation, domestic colleges and
universities begin to increase the number of student enrollment of art and design education specialty. But the
educational condition of most colleges and universities still rests on the level of the last century, without good
software condition: the team structure of professional teachers is very unreasonable. Existing for more than 50
years, domestic art and design education has relatively solid foundation through unceasing efforts of many
people and has provided a lot of outstanding professionals for domestic economic construction. However, hav-
ing the whole world in view, there is no small gap between domestic art and design education specialty and oth-
er countries’. The basic condition to set up an art and design colleges and universities in a leading position is the
level and quality of teachers.
Looking from the perspective of art and design education, although people emphasize the importance of crea-
tive education long before, most schools cannot realize this point and they still follow the old method. When
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some schools do course arrangement, courses of skills training can account for more than eighty percents but
they don’t arrange disciplines of basic literacy, which make students have good painting ability but lack of hu-
manistic feelings. They can only imitate without innovation. The primary cause is that the art and design educa-
tion in schools still uses traditional art education mode, without considering actual requirements of design spe-
cialty. For students in art and design, creativity is of vital importance. Theory is the root of creativity and its
richness directly determines whether designers have ideas. It needs artists to spend a lifetime in practicing and
studying constantly. These ideas are the most precious soul in art and design field and educators must not neg-
lect its value. Only through correct understanding of art and design can colleges and universities cultivate excel-
lent art and design talents that meet the requirement of social development (Liu, 2014).
4.2. Reform Course Setting
How should we help students to establish good creative ability? It can be realized gradually by professional
schools to use scientific course setting and teaching contents in the process of training. In course setting, except
for setting related courses in accordance with national requirements, colleges and universities should classify the
specialized courses. Specialized courses mainly include the following parts: basic modeling course, design basis,
professional design and theory on design. Basic modeling course is composed of several aspects: sketch, color,
modeling and craft. The significance of this kind of course is to help students to improve the ability of observa-
tion and then acquire better artistic performance ability. Some colleges attach importance to the teaching of
structure sketching. In practice, the requirements of it and painting specialty are the same: the sketch of painting
specialty also pays attention to structure. But it needs to be noticed that the sketch in design specialty also covers
utensils and tools, etc. This kind of course of some design colleges and universities in western countries covers
little class hours. Some schools even just don’t set up this kind of course. The significance of basic training of
modeling is to improve students’ expressive ability as well as aesthetic judgment ability and creativity. Under
normal conditions, people with modeling ability can better express their aesthetic idea.
Design basis also covers many contents, such as traditional pattern, three components, font, design represen-
tation and model making, etc. The significance of setting such course is that: first of all, it can help students to
master design skills; secondly, it helps students to have more profound understanding of design fields. The re-
lated fields mentioned here mainly include material, craft, creation method, space, form and color, etc. Know-
ledge of these aspects will lay solid foundation for design. Some colleges and universities place the contents of
three components in the key position of basic course of design. They think students can learn design well if they
master three components. It makes students put more emphasis on form and neglect the true meaning of practice.
When teaching basic course of design, computer has become the most important tool, so the design method has
changed obviously. But teachers still should attach importance to manual training.
4.3. Improve the Form of Education Management
Domestic specialty of art and design education has a relatively short history and most of them are established in
the 1980s. The specialty in domestic colleges and universities is young, without considering its own situation.
Most schools adopt unified mode of “teaching of architecture design”, lack of characteristics. With rapid
progress of market economy, the setting of this specialty in our country obvious cannot meet domestic require-
ments, which lead to the fact that talents cultivated by schools become unqualified after stepping into society
and the waste of talents appears. Domestic colleges and universities attach importance to theory teaching while
neglect the value of practice. Domestic art and design education often adopt the method of arts and crafts educa-
tion, pay attention to traditional theoretical study and neglect the characteristic of learning. But problems in
teaching just need to be found in practice. So for the practical teaching of art and design, it has very significant
value and meaning. Without specialized practice opportunities and professionals as teachers, students’ design
almost relies on imagination. In this way, students cannot know the real needs of society and get effective con-
nect, which make theory cannot be applied in practice (Tu, 2014).
5. Conclusion
The era that belongs to design has quietly come. The art and design education in colleges and universities has
ushered in the key stage of its own development history. It has very important significance and value to reform
X. D. Dou
the art and design education in colleges and universities, improve the overall educational level of domestic art
and design talents and promote its long-term and healthy development in our country. The origin of modern art
education is Staatliches Bauhaus in Germany, which has more than hundred years of history before present.
With a history of about fifty years, domestic art and design education is still in its infancy. Now the education
method pays attention to fully exerting students’ personal abilities and perfecting the teaching system. But dur-
ing this process, many problems still exist for us to pay close attention to. Domestic art and design education has
good and rapid development momentum. In such a rapid process of development, it is inevitable to appear dif-
ferent kinds of problems. This article mainly analyzes the existing problems in art and design education in do-
mestic colleges and universities as well as the feasible reform measures. We should create a good learning envi-
ronment for students, introduce advanced educational ideas and concepts and correctly know the existing prob-
lems and challenges in the process of art and design education. Today, with rapid economic development and
industrialization of education, domestic colleges and universities make great efforts to establish higher education
of high quality all the time. For the overall level of higher education, it has fundamental and important effect for
art and design education to truly find a method that meets the requirements of its own and the society as well.
Chen, Q., & Zhang, G. X. (2012). Discussion on the Reform of Art and Design Education in Local Colleges and Universities.
Journal of Hunan University of Art and Science (Social Science Edition), No. 04, 258.
Jiang, S. M. (2011). Thinking on the Current Situation and Reform of Art and Design Education in Domestic Contemporary
Colleges and Universities. Bilingual Learning, No. 11, 369.
Kang, J. (2013). Discussion on Contemporary Art and Design Education from the Evolution of Related Concepts. Sci-Tech
Information Development & Economy, No. 10, 251.
Li, J. (2011). Creating Platform for Art and Design Education and Building Studio Teaching Group ModeAnalysis on
Studio Teaching Group Mode under Credit System in Art Institute of Higher Learning. Art Education, No. 08, 963.
Liu, C. (2014). Current Situation of Art and Design Education and Market Requirements. Pioneering with Science & Tech-
nology Monthly, No. 09, 85.
Tu, S. G. (2014). Problems and Countermeasures of Current Domestic Artistic Design in Postgraduate Education. Journal of
Nanjing Art Institute (Fine Arts & Design), No. 03, 159.
... It is constantly developing and going beyond the limits. Thus, a more in-depth study of art will allow students to learn to think critically and look for the new ways of self-expression [49,64]. This will not only increase the intelligence level of individuals and expand their worldview, but also encourage creative thinking while traditional art education, which is solely focused on creating beautiful paintings, will help to express the talents of only certain students without providing a platform for alternative ways of self-development for everyone [16]. ...
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The study of contemporary art is one of the main means of implementing aesthetic education in China. This discipline allows a student to develop a system of spiritual values, reveal talents and acquire skills needed for professional growth. Chinese art is an integral part of the global cultural space, and Chinese contemporary art performs the functions of cultural reflection, occupying an important place in developing the state’s cultural identity. In the process of globalization, it is extremely important to study not only Chinese, but also world contemporary art, as well as the peculiarities of its teaching in the educational institutions of the PRC within the framework of the multiculturalism movement. The study objectives are to develop a unique online platform for teaching and learning contemporary art in China, to identify the features of art teacher training, to identify the methods of and trends in teaching contemporary art in the Chinese system of secondary and higher education, as well as to determine the most effective method of teaching contemporary art in China based on the experiment. In the course of the study, a plan and structure of the website containing audio and video materials, graphic editors and a conference system for students and teachers were developed. An innovative classification of the contemporary art movements was made in accordance with the tools and methods of creating art works. The styles of contemporary art were divided into groups: painting, sculpture/architecture, photography, cybernetic art, literature, optical art, theatrical art, mass culture, and hybrid art. The database was compiled by the masters of Art from China and Ireland, which emphasizes the internationality and multiculturalism of the project. An experiment was conducted to determine the level of effectiveness of different methods of teaching contemporary art in China. In the course of the experiment, the Spark platform developed for the study purpose was recognized as the most effective (56.1%). The effectiveness of the active method and passive method of teaching was 27.2% and 16.7%, respectively. The study results can be used in the study of various trends in contemporary art in the process of modernization and within the framework of pedagogical and commercial activities related to the work of exhibitions and galleries. In addition, they can be used to improve the methods of teaching contemporary art online and offline to the broad public audience and improve the professional skills of graphic or UI/UX designers, 3D modeling experts, engineers, editors, and IT developers. The practical significance of the developed online platform lies in the possibility of database use, practical application of the knowledge gained, and taking online lessons with Chinese and foreign teachers as part of a multicultural experience exchange.
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Fashion clothing has a fundamental link to what is generally called global society. However, fashion as a social phenomenon does not only co-create and shape society's image, it also reflects its current status and responds to the changes taking place in it. [1] In the past few years, Design Education has gained more and more importance. As our clothing consumption has reached an all-time high, and in response, advocates for creative, mindful, eco-friendlier design are screaming their message louder than ever. And it seems the fashion industry is finally listening: More and more fashion designers with formal education are engaging in the practical field. Thus as the demand for more creative designers increases among production side. [2]. In the world of globalization almost every country in the world wants their education system to be the best, so their students can obtain the necessary skills and knowledge taught by the schools/universities that meets the challenges of the 21st century. [4]. South Asian countries including Pakistan, Bangladesh and India play a very prominent role in cotton and Garnet production. The textiles and clothing sector has been one of the leading manufacturing sectors of South Asia in terms of its contribution to output, employment and trade. The sector collectively employs over 55 million people directly and more than 90 million indirectly in the region. [5]. Besides the availability of raw material, south Asia still deprived in the value addition in Textile, Apparel and fashion products. Parallel to the other factors associated with competitiveness like poor state of trade facilitation, high transaction costs associated with cross-border exchanges and supply chains this region also lacks in creative, innovative and value added products. [6] The presented research explores how Pakistan and UK way of higher education system works in the domain of Apparel Design in which way both the countries differ and how they are leading in the field of higher education and it also highlight the different pathway that leads to the different type of man power in this domain. Presented research will focus on the study of different modules of textile & Apparel Design Higher Education in Pakistan & UK. Its relation and comparison will be an important area of study. Research work document the Educational modules, its implementation and impact on industry. Afterwards this data was used for comparative study between higher education systems in Textile & Fashion Design
Thinking on the Current Situation and Reform of Art and Design Education in Domestic Contemporary Colleges and Universities. Bilingual Learning
  • S M Jiang
Jiang, S. M. (2011). Thinking on the Current Situation and Reform of Art and Design Education in Domestic Contemporary Colleges and Universities. Bilingual Learning, No. 11, 369.
Discussion on Contemporary Art and Design Education from the Evolution of Related Concepts
  • J Kang
Kang, J. (2013). Discussion on Contemporary Art and Design Education from the Evolution of Related Concepts. Sci-Tech Information Development & Economy, No. 10, 251.
Creating Platform for Art and Design Education and Building Studio Teaching Group Mode-Analysis on Studio Teaching Group Mode under Credit System in Art Institute of Higher Learning
  • J Li
Li, J. (2011). Creating Platform for Art and Design Education and Building Studio Teaching Group Mode-Analysis on Studio Teaching Group Mode under Credit System in Art Institute of Higher Learning. Art Education, No. 08, 963.
Current Situation of Art and Design Education and Market Requirements
  • C Liu
Liu, C. (2014). Current Situation of Art and Design Education and Market Requirements. Pioneering with Science & Technology Monthly, No. 09, 85.
Problems and Countermeasures of Current Domestic Artistic Design in Postgraduate Education
  • S G Tu
Tu, S. G. (2014). Problems and Countermeasures of Current Domestic Artistic Design in Postgraduate Education. Journal of Nanjing Art Institute (Fine Arts & Design), No. 03, 159.