ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

Infrastructure development and industrialisation have led to an ever increasing demand for energy and tremendous generation of industrial and municipal solid wastes in India. With indiscriminate human encroachments, the impact of disasters such as rainfall-induced landslides, river/coastal erosion, flash floods and cloud bursts is quite high. In order to minimise the harmful impact of these issues, there needs to be development of sustainable optimal solutions, which are best suited to the regions concerned, employment of new construction materials like geosynthetics and state-of-the-art techniques. As such, in dealing with such problems that have direct bearing on geoenvironment, an interdisciplinary approach needs to be developed, which is the starting point of environmental geotechnology as ‘applied science to research and resolve’. In view of this, this paper discusses a few key geoenvironmental engineering issues and challenges pertaining to the Indian context.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Environmental geotechnology:
an Indian perspective
1Sathiyamoorthy Rajesh PhD
Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of
Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, India
2Bendadi Hanumantha Rao PhD
Assistant Professor, School of Infrastructure, Indian Institute of
Technology Bhubaneswar, Bhubaneswar, India
3Sekharan Sreedeep PhD
Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute
of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, India
4Dali Naidu Arnepalli PhD
Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of
Technology Madras, Chennai, India
1 2 3 4
Infrastructure development and industrialisation have led to an ever increasing demand for energy and tremendous
generation of industrial and municipal solid wastes in India. With indiscriminate human encroachments, the
impact of disasters such as rainfall-induced landslides, river/coastal erosion, ash oods and cloud bursts is quite
high. In order to minimise the harmful impact of these issues, there needs to be development of sustainable
optimal solutions, which are best suited to the regions concerned, employment of new construction materials like
geosynthetics and state-of-the-art techniques. As such, in dealing with such problems that have direct bearing on
geoenvironment, an interdisciplinary approach needs to be developed, which is the starting point of environmental
geotechnology as applied science to research and resolve. In view of this, this paper discusses a few key
geoenvironmental engineering issues and challenges pertaining to the Indian context.
A growing population and rapid industrialisation without adequate
growth in basic infrastructure have imposed signicant penalties on
the environment of India. There has been an ever-growing demand
for energy, unimaginable production of municipal and industrial
wastes, including e-wastes that are not safely contained, high
impact of both natural and man-made disasters due to unjustied
and unplanned human encroachments, and signicant degradation
of the atmosphere due to greenhouse gases, leading to undesirable
global warming (IPCC, 2007; NIDM, 2009). While most of these
issues are the same all over the world, an inadequate level of
involvement for nding a sustainable solution makes environmental
geotechnology the subject of interest in the Indian context.
Therefore, geoenvironmental engineers in India have a predominant
role for outlining holistic and case-specic solutions to meet energy
demand, manage waste and water, mitigate and minimise disasters,
and produce a clean atmosphere.
Future growth of conventional energy sources is limited by
the availability of fossil fuels and undesirable impacts on the
environment associated with their usage (Balat and Kirtay, 2010;
Lior, 2008). There are several initiatives for clean energy from
sources, such as gas hydrate sediments, energy geostructures, coal
bed methane extraction, coal gasication, hydraulic fracturing for
gas extraction (fracking), etc., that need an in-depth understanding
of the concepts of geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering
in addition to hydrogeology (Reddy, 2013). All the above-
mentioned problems are quite complex in nature and may pose
unexpected challenges during execution. A systematic analysis of
various possible scenarios during implementation and risk analysis
become mandatory, which needs thorough involvement of
geoenvironmental engineers. Another branch of energy geotechnics
is to explore the possibility of subsurface geology for storing
captured greenhouse gases from the atmosphere, thereby mitigating
global warming (Baines and Worden, 2004; Gniese et al., 2014;
Kapila and Haszeldine, 2009; Zheng et al., 2015). This would
necessitate the study of thermo-hydro-mechanical-geochemical
behaviour of geomaterials under complex and extreme conditions of
energy capture or energy storage. Such complex interaction studies
are multidisciplinary and are becoming urgent in the Indian context,
due to the exponential growth in energy demand.
Another perturbing scenario in India is the indiscriminate disposal
and improper management of both municipal and industrial
wastes. There are several instances where uncontrolled waste
dumping sites have already caused severe impact on the
geoenvironment (Dwivedi et al., 2014; Kale et al., 2010; Rajput
et al., 2009). There need to be quick initiatives to safely convert
the unplanned surface waste dump sites into controlled disposal
sites, to minimise the further degradation of atmosphere, surface
Environmental Geotechnics
Environmental geotechnology: an Indian
Rajesh, Hanumantha Rao, Sreedeep and
Environmental Geotechnics
Paper 14.00047
Received 11/12/2014; accepted 04/09/2015
Keywords: geoenvironment/sustainable development/waste containment and
disposal system
ICE Publishing: All rights reserved
Downloaded by [ Indian Institute of Technology - Bhubaneswar] on [01/10/15]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
and subsurface environment due to the pollution associated
with uncontained wastes and remediate the already polluted
groundwater. These engineering efforts need to be effectively
supplemented by the knowledge from interdisciplinary science
for nding a holistic solution. While signicant efforts are
already in progress for safe containment of industrial wastes,
it still demands an observational corrective design approach
taking into account the modern synthetic materials and a careful
monitoring during implementation and execution stages. Further,
safe disposal and containment of nuclear wastes is a challenging
twofold geoenvironmental problem. In general, low- and intermediate-
level radioactive wastes are secured in near-surface disposal facilities
(NSDFs), whereas high-level radioactive wastes are contained
in deep geological repositories (DGRs) (USNRC, 2002; Wattal,
2013). Construction of both these facilities necessitates careful
design, stringent quality control, and vigilant monitoring that requires
the involvement of geoenvironmental engineering concepts and
Uncontrolled human interventions, which disturb natural ow
paths and natures harmony, have drastically increased the
frequency and intensity of disasters associated with heavy rainfall
and runoff (Baioni, 2011; Ghosh and Mistri, 2015; Huong and
Pathirana, 2013; IPCC, 2014; Teang and Lim, 2010). India
receives moderate to high rainfall and has a huge source of surface
water to its advantage. However, unplanned human encroachments
and developments, including indiscriminate exploitation of hills,
as well as poor vegetation, and climate change have resulted in
reduced buffer capacity of subsurface, leading to rain-induced
instability of geostructures and widespread erosion of geomaterials
(Baioni, 2011; Choi and Cheung, 2013). This is further intensied
by frequently occurring ash oods, high-intensity rainfall and
cloud. Conventional solutions to mitigate rain-induced landslides
and river/coastal erosion have limitations in such adverse and
intense situations. It is a highly multidisciplinary hydrogeological
problem requiring a holistic solution. The potential of new
construction techniques with less disturbance and employing
modern synthetic materials need to be explored completely. This
research area would require systematic studies to develop real-
time early warning systems, evolve reliable design and execution
procedures, followed by timely corrective measures through
careful monitoring of the performance of geostructures used for
mitigating rainfall-induced landslides and/or river bank/coastal
erosion. In view of the above-mentioned issues, this paper aims to
highlight the critical geoenvironmental engineering issues and
challenges pertaining to the Indian context.
Sustainable solid waste management
Figure 1 shows the current scenario of annual waste generation in
India by various sources. Sustainable municipal solid waste
(MSW) and industrial waste management are one of the major
geoenvironmental challenges in developing countries like India.
The composition and the quantity of MSW forms the basis on
which the management system needs to be planned, designed and
operated. Although varieties of waste types are being generated
across India, by and large, MSW invites the major attention of
engineers. This is because MSW differs greatly with regard to the
composition and toxic nature compared with waste generated in
Western countries, apart from being voluminous in nature. The
composition of MSW at generation sources and collection points
17·814·514·5 12 11·5 11 10 65·6 5·5 4·5 4·5 430·15
Rice husk
Jute bre
C&D waste
Iron tailing
Waste gypsum
Plastic waste
Red mud
Hazardous waste
Lime sludge
Copper tailings
Zinc tailings
Plastic waste
CCR: Coal combustion residue
CMW: Coal mine waste
MSW: Municipal solid waste
SBFS: Steel and blast furnace slag
LSW: Limestone waste
RWS: Rice wheat straw
C&DW: Construction and demolition waste
GMW: Granite and marble waste
GNSW: Groundnut shell waste
Waste generation: Mt/year
Figure 1. The present scenario of waste generation in India by
various sources and a variety of industries
Environmental Geotechnics Environmental geotechnology: an Indian
Rajesh, Hanumantha Rao, Sreedeep and
Downloaded by [ Indian Institute of Technology - Bhubaneswar] on [01/10/15]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
was determined on a wet weight basis, and it consists mainly of a
large organic fraction (4060%), ash and ne-grained earth
material (3040%), paper and plastic (36%), and glass and
metals (each <1%).
The per-capita generation rate of MSW in India ranges from 0·2
to 0·5 kg/d (CPCB, 2000, 2004). With increasing urbanisation
and changing lifestyles, Indian cities are now generating eight
times more MSW than in 1947. Further, per-capita generation
is estimated to increase at a rate of 11·33% annually (Shekdar,
1999). The sustainable solid waste management is complex not
only because of an increase in the waste generation rate but
also because of the issues related to safe disposal of waste and the
land needed for ultimate disposal (Idris et al., 2004; Pappu et al.,
2007). Although integrated/sustainable solid waste management
is employed and tested in many countries, these are yet to be
implemented in India, largely because their nancial viability and
sustainability are still being tested (Sharholy et al., 2008). Recently,
a few cities in India have developed their own integrated/
sustainable solid waste management plans to reduce the waste, to
process the waste to generate energy, and to dispose of waste
residue in engineered landlls (FICCI, 2009). In Panki, an
engineered landll located in Kanpur, India, one such initiative has
been successfully implemented. The technology used at Kanpur
landll includes segregation and treatment at sites with less than
10% residual waste disposed of in the engineered landll. The
wastes generated from Kanpur city were screened by rotary
trammels so as to separate large- (>100 mm) and small-size waste
particles (<100 mm). Small-size waste particles mainly contain
organic components, so are easily biodegradable and, hence, t
for composting. In the process of composting, small-size waste
particles were kept in wind roses for 28 d after which the waste was
screened through a 4-mm sieve. Material of size less than 4 mm is
termed as pure compost and forms a major by-product, which is
subsequently commercialised as manure for agricultural purposes.
Particles larger than 4 mm after composting are used for energy
generation. Large-sized particles retained on rotary trammels
(>100mm size) are termed as semi-nished refuse derived fuel
(SRDF), which contains a higher percentage of moisture. Hence,
it needs to be passed through the dryer for reduction in moisture
content. Ballistics separator was used to separate inert and non-
combustible material like stones from the SRDF. The remaining
materials were burned/incinerated for energy generation. The
residue from the incineration process (termed as ash residue),
compost process and the inert materials were disposed of to
engineered landll (Rajesh and Puniya, 2014).
The geotechnical properties of MSW are of prime importance for
the design and maintenance of engineered landlls. Heterogeneity
of waste adds complexity in evaluating the engineering properties
and, hence, in understanding the deformation behaviour of
MSW landlls. Even though there has been gradual increase in
the literature on the measurement of engineering properties of
MSW, because of a lack of a universal classication system and
test methods, it is difcult to interpret published results (Dixon
and Jones, 2005). Moreover, as the nature of waste generation and
its composition and management plans are site specic, the
properties of waste which are to be disposed of in landll
will also be location specic and hence need to be critically
studied to understand the behaviour of Indian MSW landll
Apart from MSW, India also produces substantial quantities
of industrial wastes from numerous and varied sources across
the country. Figure 1 depicts the present scenario of industrial
waste generation in India. It can be noted that most industries
(e.g., aluminium, plastic, marble and granite industries) are
non-environmentally friendly as they do not comply with the
guidelines provided by the Ministry of Environment and
Forest (MoEF, 2009). The impact of the coal industry on the
environment includes issues such as land use, waste management,
water and air pollution. In addition to atmospheric pollution,
coal combustion produces millions of tons of by-products and
causes severe health effects. Further, ue-gas desulfurisation
sludge contains toxic metals such as mercury, uranium, thorium,
arsenic, and other heavy metals, which are hazardous to humans
and the environment. Studies of mine tailings have revealed that,
in addition to elemental contamination, operations create an acidic
environment (pH 6·26·3) around the area (Kumar et al., 1998;
Rai et al., 2012; Sawant and Thakur, 2011).
The disposal of waste is not only an arduous task and cost-
intensive, but managing the waste disposal sites is also
increasingly recognised for their impact on the geoenvironment
and climate. However, compared with MSW, dealing with
industrial wastes seems advantageous as a partial fraction of waste
can be recycled and reused. The concepts of reuse and recycling
have greater potential for achieving sustainable management of
industrial waste. For example, the construction industry and
geotechnical engineering are the two major sectors that have a
signicant potential to consume the sizable amount of industrial
by-products such as y ash, red mud, blast furnace slag,
construction and demolition waste (C&D), scrap tyres, and others.
Reuse of y ash and slag is advantageous as they can reduce
the fast-depleting limestone; conserve fossil fuels like coal, oil
and gas (2530%); save electrical energy (~1520%); and reduce
carbon dioxide emissions (~1 t for each tonne used of y ash).
Previous studies demonstrated that iron and steel slag poses no
meaningful threat to human health, plant life or the environment
(Julli, 1999; Wintenborn and Green, 1998) and can be employed
safely in the aquatic environment without inuencing water
quality or aquatic life (HHRA, 2011; NSA, 2003). Past studies
have also focused on utilising biosolids such as municipal sludge
and dredged material for geotechnical projects (Arulrajah et al.,
2013a; Disfani et al., 2014; OKelly, 2005). Signicant efforts
need to be made to research and gain condence in the use of
such biosolids for geotechnical infrastructure projects in India.
The ever-growing infrastructure development in India, growing
at a signicant rate of 10% per annum, has lead to generation
Environmental Geotechnics Environmental geotechnology: an Indian
Rajesh, Hanumantha Rao, Sreedeep and
Downloaded by [ Indian Institute of Technology - Bhubaneswar] on [01/10/15]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
of tremendous quantities of C&D waste. According to TIFAC
(2001), new construction sites are generating 4060 kg/m
, repair
and renovation of existing buildings are producing 4050 kg/m
and demolition of structures are producing 300500 kg/m
this waste. Several studies have been undertaken to analyse the
properties of recycled aggregates and to establish its suitability
for sustainable usage in civil and geotechnical engineering
applications (Sivakumar et al., 2004). Currently, it is being used
as a partial replacement of aggregate in structural concrete, ll in
drainage projects, sub-base material in pavements, and others
(Arulrajah et al., 2013b; Poon and Chan, 2006). Incidentally,
the component of material cost comprises nearly 4060% of
the project cost in India (TIFAC, 2001). Hence, any material
waste generation has huge nancial implications. So recycle
and subsequent usage of this waste by adopting suitable waste
management measures can save millions of rupees, apart from
reducing the demand for virgin construction materials whose
availability is becoming increasingly scarce. At present, only 50%
of C&D waste is being reused and recycled in India and the
remainder is mostly land lled. A study commissioned by TIFAC
(2001) reveals that 70% of the construction industry is not aware
of recycling techniques.
Development of environmentally acceptable methods of scrap/
waste tyre disposal is one of the greatest challenges that waste
management experts face today. Scrap tyres are non-degradable,
and because of their shape, quantity and compaction resistance,
they require a large amount of space for stockpiling and land
lling. Moreover, the concept of 3Rs (reduce, reuse and recycle)
is difcult to implement with waste tyres owing to their complex
nature, durability, varying size, numbers involved and different
dimensions. Recovering energy from waste tyres is a signicant
way to reuse them as they are a high-grade energy source because
of their composition, that is, 85% carbon, 5% cord and 10% steel.
Thus, it can effectively be used as an alternative fuel in kilns.
Although disposal of scrap tyres in landll has been banned in
many countries to save landll space and avoid geoenvironmental
problems, they are generally reused, incinerated or disposed of in
engineered landll in India. The usage of shredded scrap tyres
as construction materials in civil engineering has emerged as a
socioeconomic priority in many developed countries. In the recent
past, shredded tyres are being used as lightweight embankment
ll, lightweight retaining wall backll, drainage layers for roads
and landlls, thermal insulation to limit frost penetration beneath
roads, insulating backll to limit heat loss from buildings,
vibration damping layers for rail lines, and replacement for soil or
rock in other ll applications (ASTM, 2012; Bosscher et al.,
1997; Edil and Bosscher, 1994; Mashiri et al., 2015; Pierce and
Blackwell, 2002; Warith et al., 2004). Even though scrap tyres
have a potential of replacing the natural materials, its long-term
performance needs to be systematically studied further (Rowe and
McIsaac, 2005).
However, lack of standardisation, not listing types of waste that
can become partial substitutes for natural resource materials in the
Indian Standard Codes and/or the Schedule of Rates (SOR), poor
policy push, and lack of awareness are the key barriers for
effective utilisation of many of the waste types.
India is at an incipient stage with regard to the reuse of waste
materials ranging from domestic to industrial. For example,
although the country is massively recycling waste materials, a
study reported by the Institute of Customer Experience (ICE)
shows that it is annually losing 6·7 Mt of recyclable materials and
9·6 Mt of compost only because of absence of segregation of waste
at source. In addition, India is also losing 58 million barrels of oil
energy equivalent in residues of composting operations merely due
to the absence of waste to energy concept (ICE, 2013). Overall,
waste utilisation in India is considerably lower than its generation.
It is also evident that importance has been accorded only to those
waste types that are considered harmless to the environment
and climate. Of the remaining unutilised waste, a fraction of it is
scientically disposed of into an encapsulating facility, while the
rest is dumped indiscriminately onto open dump sites.
In India, open, uncontrolled and poorly managed dumping of
MSW and industrial wastes is commonly practised, giving rise to
serious environmental degradation. More than 80% of MSW and
industrial wastes in cities and towns are directly disposed on low-
lying areas in an unsatisfactory manner, even though it is against
the guidelines proposed for nal disposal (FICCI, 2009). In
addition, several disposal sites are devoid of a leachate collection
system or landll gas monitoring and collection system that would
severely impact the geoenvironment (Gupta et al., 1998). Such
already existing disposal sites need to be safely converted into
controlled disposal sites at least by providing a proper capping
system. The proposed new landlls need to be carefully designed,
constructed and monitored strictly as per the guidelines provided
by Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) (2000, 2009).
According to MoEF (2000), solid waste meant for nal disposal
needs to be isolated from the subsurface by providing a suitable
lining system. The minimum liner specications shall be a
composite barrier having 1·5-mm high-density polyethylene
(HDPE) geomembrane (GM) or equivalent, overlying 0·9m of soil
(clay or amended soil) having hydraulic conductivity not greater
than 1 × 10
m/s. Similarly, the nal cover shall have a barrier soil
layer comprising 0·6 m of clay or amended soil with hydraulic
conductivity less than 1 × 10
m/s. The use of geosynthetic clay
liner (GCL) is also encouraged.
The factors which inuence the longevity of geosynthetic liners
(GM/GCL) depend on the composition of the polymeric material
used for manufacturing, the method of handling, the construction
technique followed, chemical compatibility and the environmental
conditions that may prevail throughout its service life (Rowe et al.,
2004). Many efforts were made by researchers to evaluate the
service life of geosynthetic liner materials, using both eld and
simulated laboratory experiments, by considering the most probable
selective degradation mechanism, but not the synergistic degradation
phenomena (Suits and Hsuan, 2003). However, in reality, the
Environmental Geotechnics Environmental geotechnology: an Indian
Rajesh, Hanumantha Rao, Sreedeep and
Downloaded by [ Indian Institute of Technology - Bhubaneswar] on [01/10/15]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
combination of various potential degradation mechanisms may
prevail simultaneously. In view of the above, attempts must be made
to highlight the various mechanism(s) by which the majority of
geosynthetic liners degrade and study their long-term performance
under realistic eld conditions (Abdelaala et al., 2014; Arnepalli
and Rejoice, 2012; Liu et al., 2013; Rajesh and Viswanadham,
2012; Rajesh et al., 2014; Viswanadham et al., 2012).
Role of nuclear energy for sustainable
development and strategies for safe
radioactive waste management
Because of economic growth, natural resource scarcity and
increase in population, there is a need to tap non-conventional
energy resources. The resources being used in Indias energy mix
for producing electricity are presented in Figure 2 (Bhardwaj,
2013). Even though hydro and coal-red thermal power plants
remain the mainstay for electricity production, there is a huge
need to supplement Indias available energy resources with
additional resources to assure long-term energy security as well as
environmental protection.
The world over, nuclear power provides about 16% of electricity
through 440 nuclear power plants with a total installed capacity
of 361·582 GW. Today, 22 of the last 31 nuclear power plants
connected to the world energy grid have been built in Asia (Jain,
2004). In view of this, the nuclear power industry in India has
grown substantially over the past few decades and is the fth
largest source of electricity generation.
Indias nuclear power programme commenced in 1969 with the
building of the twin reactor units of the Tarapur Atomic Power
Station, employing boiling water reactors. Presently, there are
19 nuclear power reactors in operation with a capacity of
4560 MW. The various processes of the nuclear industry lead
to the generation of low-, medium- and high-level radioactive
wastes (denoted as LLW, ILW and HLW), which are categorised
as hazardous (AERB, 2001; IAEA, 1994).
In the nuclear industry, utmost emphasis is laid to minimise
the waste generation at all stages of design, operation and
maintenance. In general, radioactive waste management involves
three principles: (a) dilute and disperse, (b) concentrate and
contain and (c) delay and decay. The disposal of LLW and ILW
is relatively easy as they can be disposed of in concrete trenches
at shallow depths called NSDFs. The extremely hazardous
high-level radioactive waste resulting from reprocessing plants
is less in quantity because of the closed fuel cycle adopted in
Indian nuclear reactors. Because of the presence of long-lasting
radioactive transmutation reactions, HLWs cannot be subjected to
similar disposal practices. Due to the hazardous nature of these
wastes, they are rst calcinated to immobilise them and then
vitried using borosilicate glass, sealed in stainless steel
containers (canisters), and stored for three to four decades in
engineered vaults under stringent surveillance. After sufcient
reduction of half-life and cooling, the waste-contained canisters
are to be transferred to the Deep Geological Repositories
(DGRs). In order to isolate the canisters from the surrounding
geoenvironment and to control the migration of radionuclides
from the canisters, both engineered multibarriers as well as
natural barriers have been considered (Komine and Ogata, 2004).
It is obvious that the present and future growth of the nuclear
industry require geoenvironmental engineers to research and
produce appropriate solutions for safe and efcient nuclear waste
To minimise the migration of waste in NSDF, low permeable
compacted backlls are provided below the trenches, which act as
a barrier and ensure safe containment of radioactivity. These
structures are closely monitored over a period of time with the
help of boreholes and instrumentation laid out around these waste
Hydropower 21·69%
Thermal power 54·20%
energy 10·94%
Figure 2. Installed energy mix in India as of 31 January 2011
Environmental Geotechnics Environmental geotechnology: an Indian
Rajesh, Hanumantha Rao, Sreedeep and
Downloaded by [ Indian Institute of Technology - Bhubaneswar] on [01/10/15]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
containment structures. All these tasks need to be studied by
geoenvironmental engineers for effective planning and execution.
Any liquid waste emerging from such containment needs to be
treated by various physicochemical techniques, which require a
thorough knowledge of environmental chemistry (Rowe et al.,
After reaching its full capacity, the NSDF needs to be secured
and isolated from the environment. One of the challenges
is to prevent rainwater interaction with the waste by providing
a multilayered cap over the disposal facility. The nal
conguration and design of such a multilayered cover system is
case specic and essentially depends on the climatic conditions,
necessitating intense research. This cover system is a typical
example of a soil-atmosphere interaction problem where the
concepts of unsaturated soil mechanics play an important role.
The inuence of rainwater on the erosion of surface layers,
inltration of rainwater and desiccation during the summer
make it a complex geoenvironmental problem where alternate
wetting-drying cycles add to the ageing of geomaterials. Such
ageing may result in underperformance of the multilayer cover
system for which it was initially designed. Therefore, efforts are
required to design and monitor such facilities in order to gain
condence before its nal execution in the eld.
Siting appropriate DGR and studying its geological characteristics
are highly complex, which needs well-planned in situ studies
complemented by laboratory characterisation and mathematical
modelling. Several such studies are under way in India for
handling the HLW produced (Mathur et al., 1998). The in situ test
for the assessment of the rock mass response and related fatigue
due to thermal load from disposed waste-contained canisters was
carried out at a depth of 1000 m in an abandoned section of Kollar
gold mine for a duration of 8 years. Laboratory investigations for
geochemical characterisation, rock mechanical characterisation and
nite element modelling of thermomechanical response in granite
were also conducted. As a whole, the investigations were mainly
focused on the development of methodology for assessment of
thermomechanical behaviour of the host rock and to develop
and validate the mathematical models (Mathur et al., 1998). As far
as waste conditioning is concerned, metallic melter technology and
ceramic-based technology is pursued for HLW (Misra, 2011).
In order to demonstrate the safe containment of waste in DGR with
minimal impact on the environment, the proper characterisation of
barrier/buffer materials holds primary importance. The efcacy of
DGR to contain these canisters can be evaluated from the long-
term performance of the buffer materials under the combined
inuence of physical, chemical and thermal loadings. The essential
characteristics of a buffer material are as follows: (a)itshould
facilitate the heat transfer from the canister to the surrounding
geoenvironment effectively; (b) it should have low contaminant
transport properties; and (c) it should have sufciently high
sorption afnity towards radionuclides and heavy metals. In
addition, the buffer material is also expected to maintain its
physical and engineering properties at elevated temperatures and
saline environments anticipated in a waste disposal facility.
Therefore, the long-term performance of DGR can be evaluated by
understanding the fundamental behaviour of buffer materials over a
wide range of environmental conditions.
In addition, studies are required to understand the thermo-hydro-
mechanical response of engineered barriers such as bentonite
and bentonite-sand mixtures provided around the barrier
containers. These materials are designed to perform for hundreds
of years. Therefore, it is essential to understand the degradation
characteristics of such materials and natural rocks with time
when it is subjected to a repository environment. It is important
to appraise the physico-chemico-mineralogical transformation
of these materials. This obviously necessitates accelerated
ageing tests, which are complex. Further, the efcacy and long-
term performance of the high-level radioactive disposal facility
against the leakage of nuclides is often governed by the diffusion
characteristics of buffer material for gases (Rannaud et al.,
2009). Hence, radioactive waste management practices adopted
for the disposal of HLW and the associated radon gas transport
are another area where the geoenvironmental engineers need
to study the fundamental geomaterialgas interaction and the
resulting gas outow.
Mitigation of greenhouse gases using novel
carbon sequestration techniques
To meet the high energy demand, several nations, including
India, depend on a nite amount of fossil fuel sources which
includes mineral organic compounds extracted from the earth,
which include coal, petroleum, shale oil, tar sands and natural gas.
The high-level recovery, handling and combustion of fossil fuels
deteriorate the earths environment in the form of emissions
of greenhouse gases which contribute signicantly to global
warming. The severity of the damage due to global warming and
the emission of greenhouse gases may ultimately cause many
plant and animal species to become extinct, if the current rate of
fossil fuel use continues (Diesendorf, 2006).
Reduction of greenhouse gases emissions into the geoenvironment
is the greatest challenge that the world is currently facing. To
mitigate this problem, geosequestration of greenhouse gases such
as carbon dioxide, methane and carbon monoxide into geological
formations are considered to be a technically viable and feasible
option (USDOE, 1999). According to Diesendorf (2006),
geosequestration plays a major role in mitigating the problems in
the coal industry by reducing carbon dioxide emissions and
transforming the power industry into an eco-friendly one.
The process of geosequestration involves systematic trapping
of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, methane, carbon
monoxide and sulfur dioxide, from the sources, and safe
transportation and storage in potential geological formations or
geological sinks. These processes be such that the disposal
methodologies offer long-term protection by increasing the
Environmental Geotechnics Environmental geotechnology: an Indian
Rajesh, Hanumantha Rao, Sreedeep and
Downloaded by [ Indian Institute of Technology - Bhubaneswar] on [01/10/15]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
residence time for these greenhouse gases. In view of this, the
United States Department of Energy (USDOE) has initiated
technology development programmes for carbon dioxide
sequestration in geological formations and a wide variety of
research programmes at different national laboratories in the
United States (Klara et al., 2003).
The success of geosequestration techniques depends largely on the
degree of compatibility of greenhouse gases with the surrounding
geoenvironment, in terms of materialcarbon dioxide interaction.
With this in view, previous researchers have evaluated a wide
variety of geological formations including saline deep ocean beds,
aquifers, depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs and abandoned coal
mines for safe disposal of large quantities of these greenhouse
gases using various disposal techniques (Bachu et al., 1993;
Bouchard and Delaytermoz, 2004; Holloway and Savage, 1993;
Morishita et al., 1993; Winter and Bergman, 1993). Systematic
investigations were carried out to predict storage capacity of
deep oceans (Dilmore et al., 2008; Gunter and Perkins, 1993;
Hendriks and Blok, 1995; Hoffert et al., 1979; Holloway and
Savage, 1993; Vandermeer, 1996). Simulated laboratory as well
as numerical studies were conducted to understand the long-term
fate of the disposed of greenhouse gases into these reservoirs
and to assess the resulting change of sea water chemistry
(Cole et al., 1993; Masutani et al., 1993; Morishita et al., 1993).
The outcome of these studies cautioned that continuous disposal
of greenhouse gases into oceans may affect its aquatic life
(Golomb, 1993).
Further, various geological formations including saline aquifers,
depleted oil and gas reservoirs and abandoned coal mines were
evaluated for their suitability to contain greenhouse gases. For
this purpose, capacity estimation studies were conducted by
considering mineral tapping potential and sorption afnity of the
formations (Busch et al., 2003; Holt et al., 1995; Koide et al.,
1993). The geochemical interactions occur between the disposed
of greenhouse gases and surrounding media including the cap
rock leading to formation of complex chemicals which may
further demineralise and destabilise the formation (Mehic et al.,
2006; Rosenbauer et al., 2005).
The disposal of carbon dioxide into abandoned coal mines and
depleted oil and gas reservoirs leads to methane recovery from
the coal seams and made it possible to enhance oil and gas
production. The quantity of carbon dioxide that can be disposed
into these formations depends on the relative afnity of carbon
dioxide towards the potential sorption sites when compared to that
of methane and hydrocarbons.
Many attempts have been made by previous researchers to
estimate the capacity of various geological formations by
considering mere physical interaction of the disposed of gases and
the media (Gunter and Perkins, 1993; Li et al., 2006; Mito et al.,
2008). However, the efciency of geological formations to contain
these disposed of gases depends greatly on the fundamental
interaction between the materials and greenhouse gases under
variable environmental conditions (Azmi et al., 2006; Bae and
Bhatia, 2006; Day et al., 2007, 2008; Majewska et al., 2009;
Mito et al., 2008; Wang et al., 2008). This interaction is
quite complex in nature and may alter the physicochemical
characteristics of the newly formed materials (Bertier et al., 2006;
May, 2005).
Comparison of various disposal methods reveals that ocean
sequestration is mainly suitable for disposal of carbon dioxide
from large sources nearer to the coastal region, while geological
sequestration is considered to be the most suitable storage
technique for disposals within the land area. Since ocean
disposal causes disruption to oceanic ora and fauna life, this
is less preferred than geological sequestration (Benson and
Myer, 2002).
For geological sequestration, the disposal mechanisms may vary
from mineral trapping to preferential sorption. Mineral trapping is
one of the advanced and harmless disposal mechanisms adopted
in the case of saline and chemically rich aquifers in which the
reaction time decides the stability and longevity of the disposal.
Similarly, coal bed sequestration makes use of the absorption
capacity of coal seams by the displacement of methane gas (due
to the preferential sorption of carbon dioxide). Enhanced coal bed
methane (ECBM) recovery and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) are
the advantages of this technique which employs a preferential
sorption mechanism for the containment of carbon dioxide by
recovering the entrapped oil and gas. The amount of disposed gas
depends on the afnity of carbon dioxide towards coal or oil-
saturated porous media, and the rate of release of methane gas or
oil from these formations depends greatly on their diffusion and
sorption characteristics (Busch et al., 2003). For ensuring safe,
efcient and economical disposal of carbon dioxide and other
greenhouse gases into various geological formations, it is essential
to understand the fundamental interaction of disposed of gas with
various materials such as different soils, coal seams, oil-bearing
sediments, and others, under simulated reservoir conditions, in
terms of their sorption and diffusion characteristics (Aswathy,
2012; Aswathy et al., 2012).
Apart from carbon sequestration, geothermal energy is well
positioned to play an important role in mitigating global climate
change and safeguarding national energy security. Geothermal
energy is an environmentally friendly, clean, renewable and
sustainable source of electricity. Moreover, emission rates
associated with this technology are insignicant because no fossil
fuels are consumed (EPA, 2012). India has potential resources to
harness geothermal energy for various purposes from its seven
provinces including Himalayan (Puga, Chhumathang), Sahara
Valley, Cambay Basin, Son-Narmada-Tapi (SONATA) lineament
belt, West Coast, Godavari basin and Mahanadi basin. It has been
estimated from geological, geochemical, shallow geophysical and
shallow drilling data that these provinces have the capacity to
produce 10 600 MW of power (Chandrasekharam, 2000). However,
Environmental Geotechnics Environmental geotechnology: an Indian
Rajesh, Hanumantha Rao, Sreedeep and
Downloaded by [ Indian Institute of Technology - Bhubaneswar] on [01/10/15]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
despite India being one of the rst countries to begin geothermal
projects way back in the 1970s, there is no installed geothermal
electricity-generating capacity. The power generation through
geothermal resources is still at the experimental stage in India.
Realising the potential and importance of this technology, the
Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun, has started a
major research programme to study geothermal systems of the
Himalaya covering Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh and Leh-
Ladakh regions of India (Rai et al., 2015).
Rainfall-induced landslides and river/coastal
Two major mechanisms triggering a landslide or a mass
movement of earth are incessant rainfall and earthquake. Figure 3
shows the landslide hazard zonation map of India. According
to the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) of
India, the regions which are widely prone to landslides are the
Himalayas, the Western Ghats and the North-Eastern hills of India
(NDMA, 2015). The Himalayan belt includes one of the highest
10º0'0"N 14º0'0"N 18º0'0"N 22º0'0"N 26º0'0"N 30º0'0"N 34º0'0"N
68º0'0"E 72º0'0"E 76º0'0"E 80º0'0"E 84º0'0"E 88º0'0"E 92º0'0"E 96º0'0"E
76º0'0"E 80º0'0"E 84º0'0"E 88º0'0"E 92º0'0"E
10º0'0"N 14º0'0"N 18º0'0"N 22º0'0"N 26'0'0'N 30'0'0'N 34'0'0'N
Indian Administrative Boundary Data Base (ABDB) from Survey of India, 2001
Landslide Hazard Zonation
Map of India
(modied Lambert conformal conic projection) 1:15,000,000
100 200 300 400 500
very high Unlikely
Figure 3. Landslide hazard zonation map of India (source:
Environmental Geotechnics Environmental geotechnology: an Indian
Rajesh, Hanumantha Rao, Sreedeep and
Downloaded by [ Indian Institute of Technology - Bhubaneswar] on [01/10/15]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
mountain chains on earth with a relatively new and unstable
geology, often subjected to seismic activity. This, along with
heavy rainfall and snowfall, adds to the triggering mechanism
of landslides. The location of landslides in northeast India
range from West Bengal, Sikkim, Mizoram, Tripura, Meghalaya,
Assam, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh. The western hilly
regions are characterised by steep slopes of lateritic origin, which
are again high landslide-prone areas during monsoon. Most of the
landslides in the eastern and western parts of India occur every
year during the monsoon season.
Signicant research has taken place in the last century to identify
the mechanism of landslides, mud ow, and delineating landslide
vulnerable zones. This has obviously helped the authorities
to relocate human settlements and any other developmental
activities to safer locations. While it is understood that landslides
cannot be fully prevented, recent advances in geotechnical,
geoenvironmental, hydrological, geological and geophysical
engineering have paved the way for innovative methods of
landslide mitigation to be proposed. What best can be done
during heavy rainfall to minimise mud ow or how to delay the
triggering of landslides are some of the important challenges
ahead. Real-life monitoring and forecasting of landslides and
methods of landslide mitigation are the least researched topics in
landslide management. It is important to focus on the scientic
aspects of landslide engineering to reveal more insights into
the mechanisms of landslides. A comparative assessment of soil
and rock needs to be taken up to understand the role of the
degradation of soil, mineralogy and chemical and physical
weathering of soil on the landslide process. This would help
to identify the susceptibility of certain soil types to landslide
occurrence along with the engineering causes.
Several national-level initiatives are underway in India to use
spatial technology and database management for preparing a
landslide database. Several site-specic projects are routinely
undertaken for heritage locations such as Vaishno Devi and
Amarnath (NDMA, 2015). A new centre of landslide research has
opened through the Ministry of Mines, India. Specic focus has
been laid on landslide mitigation by exploring methods such as
surface and subsurface drainage for minimising pore water
pressure; development of early warning systems; return period
modelling of landslides; effect of climate change on landslides;
slope geometry correction; providing toe protection using earth-
retaining structures; slope stabilisation by nailing, bolting,
anchoring, micro piling; reinforced earth structures; bioengineering
and afforestation. The use of subsurface drainage for landslide
mitigation is hardly practised in India. Hill slope hydrology
integrated with geotechnical and geological engineering can
provide innovative solutions to minimise landslides and at the same
time preserve rainwater. It is essential to understand the interplay
of rainfall intensity, rainfall duration, inltration rate of top soil,
permeability of subsurface soil, subsurface soil layers, depth of
soil layer to the bedrock and pore-water pressure development for
different soils leading to the triggering of landslides. There has to
be a national initiative in this direction for all the three zones of
India, as depicted in Figure 3, where landslides are prominent.
Another important aspect is to study the effect of cloud burst
on landslides as this phenomenon is becoming more frequent.
The conventional methodology such as afforestation, which is
currently referred to as bioengineering, may become a sustainable
and ecologically viable solution for landslide mitigation.
Bioengineering is an important method for landslide mitigation by
using plant species to perform some engineering function, leading
to enhanced surface stability and reduced erosion problems. The
appropriate plant species offering maximum support for slope
stability need to be understood. The suitability of local ora for the
said purpose and its longevity can be determined only through an
interdisciplinary study involving geoenvironmental engineers,
hydrologists, biotechnologists and agriculturists. There are several
bioengineering techniques such as live pole drains, live silt fences,
live gully breaks, live staking, wattle fences and modied brush
layers (Polster, 2003), which are appropriate for a particular case
depending on steepness of the slope and type of soil. Some of
the biotechnical systems include nets of various materials anchored
by soil nails that preserve soil seeded with grass. Research has
been done on identifying appropriate plant species for stabilising
soil to prevent excessive erosion and also to mitigate the effect
of landslides. Guidelines need to be developed by generating a
database using several planned eld studies for the use of hybrid
methodologies such as bioengineering along with reinforced earth
stabilisation. The assessment of viability, sustainability and cost-
effectiveness of such methods is an important research area for
minimising landslides in the Indian region.
Similar to landslides, another challenging problem faced by the
Indian region is the excessive river bank and coastal erosion
where the role of owing water or waves is more prominent.
Like landslides, the task of protecting river banks and coastal
areas falls under the purview of geoenvironmental engineering,
where there needs to be an integrated approach of geotechnical,
hydrological and spatial technology for developing a suitable
solution. Bank erosion is a global problem, and hence, a local
measure taken for river bank conservation without an in-depth
study would aggravate the problem elsewhere. For recommending
a globally effective solution, there should be intense modelling of
water ow, which is essentially three dimensional to take into
account the effect of secondary water waves. There is a need for a
comprehensive assessment of ood protection measures to know
their inuence downstream, which is possible with a lot of recent
developments in computational facilities. This, along with a
proper understanding of geotechnical characteristics of river
banks and coastal area, helps to arrive at a sustainable solution
to prevent excessive erosion. A lot of initiatives are taken by the
Indian government to promote innovative solutions for river bank
protection and preservation of coastal areas, which include the
utilisation of reinforced earth and geosynthetic structures. The
longevity and environmental viability of such structures need to
be researched in detail. There should be ways and means to
protect embankments and levees by resorting to proper modelling
Environmental Geotechnics Environmental geotechnology: an Indian
Rajesh, Hanumantha Rao, Sreedeep and
Downloaded by [ Indian Institute of Technology - Bhubaneswar] on [01/10/15]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
of the study area and providing adequate reinforcement. Despite
several efforts taken for ood protection, the damage caused by
ooding increases year after year. This clearly indicates that the
deciency is in assessing the complexity of the problem or
inadequate analysis leading to improper design of ood protection
measures. With the unexpected contribution of climate change
leading to erratic rainfall and ooding, there need to be innovative
and sustainable strategies developed to protect river bank and
coastal areas, thereby minimising loss of life and property.
Concluding remarks
This paper highlights some of the key geoenvironmental issues
in the Indian context and how the subject of environmental
geotechnology, an emerging interdisciplinary research area, could
potentially help in tackling them. The paper also emphasises the
role of geoenvironmental engineers for outlining a holistic approach
and postulating case-based scientic methodologies for sustainable
infrastructure development in India.
There are also noticeable initiatives by the government of India to
extract clean energy from gas hydrate sediments, coal bed methane,
coal gasication, hydraulic fracturing for gas extraction and so on.
Also, signicant efforts are in progress towards carbon sequestration
and mitigating emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.
However, in-depth concepts and methodical approaches are needed
to address wider-spectrum problems that may involve complexity
and unexpected challenges during execution. Further, India is at an
early stage in scientically dealing with disposing of municipal and
industrial waste or waste containing nuclear material. As such, for
sustainable management of wastes, the country must promote with
greater urgency and on a larger scale well-advanced concepts like
recycling and reuse of wastes.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the Building Materials &
Technology Promotion Council (BMTPC), Ministry of Housing
and Urban Poverty Alleviation, Government of India, for kind
permission to publish the landslide hazard zonation map of
Abdelaala FB, Rowe RK and Islamb MZ (2014) Effect of leachate
composition on the long-term performance of a HDPE
geomembrane. Geotextiles and Geomembranes 42(4):
AERB (Atomic Energy Regulatory Board) (2001) India Report:
Liquid and Solid Radioactive Waste Management in
Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors. AERB Safety Guide No.
AERB/SG/D-13. AERB, Mumbai, India.
Arnepalli DN and Rejoice AA (2012) Durability and long-term
performance of high density polyethylene geomembrane. In
Proceedings of ASCE Conference on Geosynthetic Lining
Solution and Related Issues (Sivakumar Babu GL, Pradeep KP
and Sireesh S (eds)). Master Builder, Chennai, India,
pp. 7291.
Arulrajah A, Disfani M, Suthagaran V and Bo M (2013a)
Laboratory evaluation of the geotechnical characteristics
of wastewater biosolids in road embankments. Journal
of Materials in Civil Engineering 25(11): 16821691.
Arulrajah A, Piratheepan J, Disfani MM and Bo MW (2013b)
Geotechnical and geoenvironmental properties of recycled
construction and demolition materials in pavement subbase
applications. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 25(8):
ASTM (2012) D 6270: Standard practices for use of scrap tires in
civil engineering applications. ASTM Standard. American
Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA.
Aswathy K (2012) Geosequestration of Carbon Dioxide:
Material-Gas Interaction. M.S. thesis, Department of Civil
Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai,
Aswathy K, Arnepalli DN and Rajkumar M (2012) Gas
permeability characteristics of sand Bentonite mixtures.
Proceedings of Indian Geotechnical Conference 2012.
New Delhi, India.
Azmi SA, Yusup S and Mohammed S (2006) The inuence of
temperature on adsorption capacity of Malaysian coal.
Chemical Engineering and Processing 45(5): 392396.
Bachu S, Gunter WD and Perkins EH (1993) Aquifer disposal of
: hydrodynamic and mineral trapping. Energy Conversion
and Management 35(4): 269279.
Bae JS and Bhatia SK (2006) High pressure adsorption of methane
and carbon dioxide on coal. Energy & Fuels 20(6):
Baines SJ and Worden RH (2004) In Geological Storage of
Carbon Dioxide (Baine SJ and Worden RH (eds)). Geological
Society of London Special Publication, Geological Society of
London, London, UK, vol. 233, pp. 16.
Baioni D (2011) Human activity and damaging landslides and
oods on Madeira Island. Natural Hazards and Earth System
Sciences 11(11): 30353046.
Balat H and Kırtay E (2010) Hydrogen from biomass: present
scenario and future prospects. International Journal of
Hydrogen Energy 35(14): 74167426.
Benson SM and Myer L (2002) Monitoring to ensure safe and
effective geological storage of carbon dioxide.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
Workshop on Carbon Sequestration, 1822 November, Regina,
Saskatchewan, Canada.
Bertier P, Swennen R, Laenen B, Lagrou D and Dreesen R
(2006) Experimental identication of CO
interactions caused by sequestration of CO
in Westphalian
and Buntsandstein sandstones of the Campine basin,
NE-Belgium. Journal of Geotechnical Exploration 89(13):
Bhardwaj SA (2013) Indian nuclear power programme past,
present and future. Sadhana 38(5): 775794.
Bosscher PJ, Edil TB and Kuraoka S (1997) Design of highway
embankments using tire chips. Journal of Geotechnical and
Geoenvironmental Engineering 123(4): 295304.
Environmental Geotechnics Environmental geotechnology: an Indian
Rajesh, Hanumantha Rao, Sreedeep and
Downloaded by [ Indian Institute of Technology - Bhubaneswar] on [01/10/15]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
Bouchard R and Delaytermoz A (2004) Integrated path towards
geological storage. Energy 29(910): 13391346.
Busch A, Krooss BM, Gensterblum Y, Bergen FV and Pagnier HJM
(2003) High-pressure adsorption of methane, carbon dioxide
and their mixtures on coals with a special focus on the
preferential sorption behaviour. Journal of Geochemical
Exploration 7879: 671674.
Chandrasekharam D (2000) Geothermal energy resources of
India. IBC Conference on Geothermal Power-Asia 2000.
Manila, Philippines.
Choi KY and Cheung RWM (2013) Landslide disaster
prevention and mitigation through works in Hong Kong.
Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering
5(5): 354365.
Cole KH, Stegen GR and Spencer D (1993) The capacity of deep
oceans to absorb carbon dioxide. Energy Conversion
Management 34(911): 991998.
CPCB (Central Pollution Control Board) (2000) Status of
Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Collection, Treatment and
Disposal in Class I Cities. ADSORBS/31/19992000. CPCB,
New Delhi, India.
CPCB (2004) Management of Municipal Solid Waste. Ministry of
Environment and Forests, New Delhi, India.
Day S, Duffy G, Sakurovs R and Weir S (2007) Effect of coal
properties on CO
sorption capacity under supercritical
conditions. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control
2(3): 342352.
Day S, Sukurovs R and Weir S (2008) Supercritical gas sorption
on moist coals. International Journal for Coal Geology
74(34): 203214.
Diesendorf M (2006) Can geosequestration save the coal industry.
In Transforming Power: Energy as a Social Project (Byrne J,
Glover L and Toly N (eds)). Energy and Environmental Policy
Series, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, NJ, USA, vol.
9, pp. 223248.
Dilmore R, Allen D, Jones JRM, Hedges SW and Soong AY (2008)
Sequestration of dissolved CO
in the Oriskany formation.
Environmental Science and Technology 42(8): 27602766.
Disfani MM, Arulrajah A, Maghoolpilehrood F, Bo MW and
Narsilio GA (2014) Geotechnical characteristics of stabilised
aged biosolids. Environmental Geotechnics: Proceedings of
the Institution of Civil Engineers,
Dixon N and Jones RDV (2005) Engineering properties of municipal
solid waste. Geotextiles and Geomembranes 23(3): 205233.
Dwivedi PR, Augur MR and Agrawal A (2014) A study on the
effect of solid waste dumping on geoenvironment at Bilaspur.
American International Journal of Research in Formal,
Applied & Natural Sciences 6(1):8690.
Edil TB and Bosscher PJ (1994) Engineering properties of tire
chips and soil mixtures. Geotechnical Testing Journal 17(4):
EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) (2012) Air Emission
Sources. See
affect/air-emissions.html (accessed 16/04/2012).
FICCI (Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and
Industry) (2009) Survey on the Current Status of Municipal
Solid Waste Management in Indian Cities and the Potential of
Landll Gas to Energy Projects in India. New Delhi, India,
pp. 118.
Ghosh S and Mistri B (2015) Geographic concerns on ood
climate and ood hydrology in monsoon-dominated
Damodar River Basin, Eastern India. Geography Journal
2015(2015). Article ID 486740.
Gniese C, Bombach P, Rakoczy J et al. (2014) Relevance of deep-
subsurface microbiology for underground gas storage and
geothermal energy production. In Geobiotechnology II
(Schippers A, Glombitza F and Sand W (eds)). Advances in
Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology, Springer, Berlin,
Germany, vol. 142, pp. 95121.
Golomb D (1993) Ocean disposal of CO
: feasibility, economics
and effects. Energy Conversion and Management 34(911):
Gunter WD and Perkins EH (1993) Aquifer disposal of CO
gases: reaction design for added capacity. Energy Conversion
and Management 34(911) : 941948.
Gupta S, Krishna M, Prasad RK, Gupta S and Kansal A (1998)
Solid waste management in India: options and opportunities.
Resource, Conservation and Recycling 24(2): 137154.
Hendriks CA and Blok K (1995) Underground storage of
carbon dioxide. Energy Conversion and Management
36(69): 539542.
HHRA (Human Health Risk Assessment) (2011) Human
Health Risk Assessment for Iron and Steel Slag. A report
prepared for National Slag Association, Pleasant Grove,
Utah, USA.
Hoffert MI, Wei YC, Callegari AJ and Broecker W (1979)
Atmospheric response to deep sea-injections of fossil-fuel
carbon dioxide. Climatic Change 2(1):5368.
Holloway S and Savage D (1993) The potential for aquifer
disposal of carbon dioxide in the UK. Energy Conversion and
Management 34(911) : 925932.
Holt T, Jensen JI and Linderberg E (1995) Underground storage
of CO
in aquifers and oil reservoirs. Energy Conversion and
Management 36(69): 535538.
Huong HTL and Pathirana A (2013) Urbanization and
climate change impacts on future urban ooding in Can Tho
City, Vietnam. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 17(1):
IAEA (International Atomic Energy, Agency) (1994)
Classication of Radioactive Waste. IAEA Safety Series
No.111-G-1.1 (STI/PUB/950). IAEA, Vienna, Austria.
Idris A, Inanc B and Hassan MN (2004) Overview of waste
disposal and landlls/dumps in Asian countries. Journal of
Material Cycles and Waste Management 6(2): 104110.
ICE (Institute of Customer Experience) (2013) Sustainable futures:
a waste management perspective India. See http://ice. (accessed 08/09/2015).
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (2007)
Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth
Environmental Geotechnics Environmental geotechnology: an Indian
Rajesh, Hanumantha Rao, Sreedeep and
Downloaded by [ Indian Institute of Technology - Bhubaneswar] on [01/10/15]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change. In Climate Change 2007: A Synthesis Report on
Climate Change (Core Writing Team, Pachauri RK and
Reisinger A (eds)). IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland.
IPCC (2014) Climate change 2014: synthesis report. In Contribution
of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report
of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Pachauri
RK and Meyer LA (eds)). IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland.
Jain SK (2004) Nuclear power in India the fourth revolution.
An International Journal of Nuclear Power 18(23):1320.
Julli M (1999) Ecotoxicity and chemistry of leachates from blast
furnace and basic oxygen steel slags. Australian Journal of
Ecotoxicology 5(2): 123132.
Kale SS, Kadam AK and Kumar S (2010) Evaluating pollution
potential of leachate from landll site, from the Pune
metropolitan city and its impact on shallow basaltic aquifers.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 162(14):
Kapila RV and Haszeldine RS (2009) Opportunities in India for
carbon capture and storage as a form of climate change
mitigation. Energy Procedia 1(1): 45274534.
Klara SM, Srivastava RD and McIlvried HG (2003) Integrated
collaborative technology development programme for CO
sequestration in geologic formations United States
Department of Energy R&D. Energy Conversion &
Management 44(17): 26992712.
Koide HG, Tazaki Y, Noguchi Y, Iijima MKI and Shindo Y (1993)
Carbon dioxide injection into useless aquifers and recovery of
natural gas dissolved in fossil fuel water. Energy Conversion
and Management 34(911) : 921924.
Komine H and Ogata N (2004) Predicting swelling characteristics
of bentonites. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental
Engineering 130(8): 818829.
Kumar R, Srivastava JP and Premchand (1998) Utilization of iron
values of red mud for metallurgical applications. In
Proceedings of Environmental and Waste Management
(Bandopadhyay A, Goswami NG and Rao PR (eds)). National
Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur, India, pp. 108119.
Li Z, Dong M, Li S and Huang S (2006) CO
sequestration in
depleted oil and gas reservoirs cap rock characterization and
storage capacity. Energy Conversion and Management
47(1112): 13721382.
Lior N (2008) Energy resources and use: the present situation and
possible paths to the future. Energy 33(6): 842857.
Liu Y, Gates WP and Bouazza A (2013) Acid induced degradation
of the bentonite component used in geosynthetic clay liners.
Geotextiles and Geomembranes 36:7180.
Majewska Z, Stefanska GC, Majewsky S and Zietek J (2009)
Binary gas sorption/desorption experiments on a bituminous
coal: simultaneous measurements on sorption kinetics,
volumetric strain and acoustic emission. International Journal
of Coal Geology 77(12):90102.
Mashiri MS, Vinod JS, Sheikh MN and Tsang H (2015) Shear
strength and dilatancy behaviour of sand-tyre chip mixtures.
Soils and Foundations 55(3): 517528.
Masutani SM, Kinoshita CM, Nithos GC, Ho T and Vega LA
(1993) An experiment to simulate ocean disposal of carbon
dioxide. Energy Conversion and Management 34(911):
Mathur RK, Narayan PK, Joshi MR and Rakesh RR (1998) In situ
Multi Heater Thermo-Mechanical Experiments in Mysore
Mines, Kolar Gold Fields. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre,
Mumbai, India. BARC/1998/I/015.
May F (2005) Alteration of wall rocks by CO
-rich water
ascending in fault zones: natural analogues for reactions
included by CO
migrating along faults in siliciclastic
reservoir and cap rocks. Oil & Gas Science and Technology
Mehic M, Ranjith PG, Choi SK and Haque A (2006) The
geochemical behaviour of Australian black coal under the
effects of CO
injection: uniaxial testing. In Advances in
Unsaturated Soil, Seepage and Environmental Geotechnics
(Lu N, Hoyos LR and Reddi L (eds)). ASCE, Reston, VA,
USA, pp. 290297.
Misra SD (2011) Developments in back end of the fuel cycle of
Indian thermal reactors. Energy Procedia 7: 474486.
Mito S, Xue Z and Ohshumi T (2008) Case study of geochemical
reactions at the Nagaoka CO
injection site Japan.
International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 2(3):
MoEF (Ministry of Environment and Forest) (2000) Municipal
Solid Waste Management and Handling Rules. MoEF,
Government of India, New Delhi, India.
MoEF (2009) Hazardous Waste Management Handling and
Transboundary Movement Rules. Second Amendment. MoEF,
Government of India, New Delhi, India.
Morishita M, Cole KH, Stegen GR and Shibuya H (1993)
Dissolution and dispersion of a carbon dioxide jet in the deep
ocean. Energy Conversion and Management 34(911):
NDMA (National Disaster Management Authority) (2009)
National Disaster Management Guidelines: Management of
Landslides and Snow Avalanches. National Disaster
Management Authority, New Delhi, India.
NIDM (National Institute of Disaster Management) (2009)
Proceedings of Second India Disaster Management Congress,
46 November, New Delhi, India.
NSA (National Slag Association) (2003) Iron and steel making
slag environmentally responsible construction aggregates.
Environmental Technical Bulletin. NSA, Pleasant Grove, UT,
OKelly BC (2005) Consolidation properties of a dewatered
municipal sewage sludge. Canadian Geotechnical Journal
42(5): 13501358.
Pappu A, Saxena M and Asolekar SR (2007) Solid wastes
generation in India and their recycling potential in building
materials. Building and Environment 42(6): 23112320.
Pierce CE and Blackwell MC (2002) Potential of scrap tire rubber
as lightweight aggregate in owable ll. Waste Management
Journal 23(3): 197208.
Environmental Geotechnics Environmental geotechnology: an Indian
Rajesh, Hanumantha Rao, Sreedeep and
Downloaded by [ Indian Institute of Technology - Bhubaneswar] on [01/10/15]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
Polster DF (2003) Soil bioengineering for slope stabilization and
site restoration. Proceedings of International Conference on
Mining and the Environment III. Laurentian University,
Sudbury, Ontario, Canada.
Poon CS and Chan D (2006) Feasible use of recycled concrete
aggregates and crushed clay brick as unbound road sub-base.
Construction and Building Materials 20(8): 578585.
Rai S, Wasewar KL, Mukhopadhyay J, Yoo CK and Uslu H (2012)
Neutralization and utilization of red mud for its better waste
management. Archives of Environmental Science 6:1333.
Rai SK, Tiwari SK, Bartarya SK and Gupta AK (2015) Geothermal
systems in the Northwest Himalaya. Current Science 108(9):
Rajesh S and Puniya PR (2014) Municipal solid waste
characteristics and management in Kanpur city. In Proc. 7th
International Congress on Environmental Geotechnics,
7ICEG-2014 (Bouazza A, Yeun STS and Brown B (eds)).
Engineers Australia, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 289296.
Rajesh S and Viswanadham BVS (2012) Modeling and
instrumentation of geogrid reinforced soil barriers of landll
covers. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental
Engineering 138(1):2637.
Rajesh S, Gourc JP and Viswanadham BVS (2014) Evaluation of
gas permeability and mechanical behaviour of soil barriers of
landll cap covers through laboratory tests. Applied Clay
Science 9798: 200214.
Rajput R, Prasad G and Chopra AK (2009) Scenario of solid waste
management in present Indian context. Caspian Journal of
Environmental Sciences 7(1):4553.
Rannaud D, Cabral A and Allaire SE (2009) Modelling methane
migration and oxidation in landll cover materials with
TOUGH2-LGM. Water Air Soil Pollution 198(1): 253267.
Reddy KR (2013) Evolution of geoenvironmental engineering.
Environmental Geotechnics 1(3): 136141,
Rosenbauer RJ, Koksalan T and Palandri JL (2005) Experimental
investigation of CO
brinerock interactions at elevated
temperature and pressure: implications for CO
in deep-saline aquifers. Fuel Processing Technology
86(1415): 15811597.
Rowe RK and McIsaac R (2005) Clogging of tire shreds and gravel
permeated with landll leachate. Journal of Geotechnical and
Geoenvironmental Engineering 131(6): 682693.
Rowe RK, Quigley RM, Brachman RWI and Booker JR (2004)
Barrier Systems for Waste Disposal Facilities. CRC Press,
London, UK.
Sawant AD and Thakur VA (2011) Environmental impact of mine
tailings in Redi mines, Sindhudurg District, Maharashtra (India).
Journal of Environmental Sciences Engineering 53(3): 325334.
Sharholy M, Ahmad K, Mahmood G and Trivedi RC (2008)
Municipal solid waste management in Indian cities a review.
Waste Management 28(2): 459467.
Shekdar AV (1999) Municipal solid waste management the
Indian perspective. Journal of Indian Association for
Environmental Management 26(2): 100108.
Sivakumar V, McKinley JD and Ferguson D (2004) Reuse of
construction waste: performance under repeated loading.
Proceedings of the ICE Geotechnical Engineering 157(2):
Suits LD and Hsuan YG (2003) Assessing the photo-degradation
of geosynthetics by outdoor exposure and laboratory
weatherometer. Geotextile and Geomembran 21(2):111122.
Teang P and Lim P (2010) Spatial analysis of human activities
performed in Cheung Ek inundated lake, Cambodia.
International Journal of Environmental and Rural
Development 1(1):4349.
TIFAC (Technology Information, Forecasting and Assessment
Council) (2001) Utilization of Waste from Construction Industry.
Department of Science & Technology, New Delhi, India.
USDOE (United States Department of Energy) (1999) Working
Paper on Carbon Sequestration Science and Technology.
USDOE, Washington, DC, USA.
USNRC (United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission) (2002)
Radioactive Waste, Production, Storage, Disposal. NUREG/
BR-0216, Rev. 2. USNRC, Washington, DC, USA.
Vandermeer LGH (1996) Computer modeling of underground
storage. Energy Conversion and Management 37(68):
Viswanadham BVS, Rajesh S and Bouazza A (2012) Effect of
differential settlements on the sealing efciency of GCL
compared to CCLs: centrifuge study. Geotechnical
Engineering Journal of the SEAGS & AGSSEA 43(3):5561.
Wang Y, Zhou Y, Liu C and Zhou L (2008) Comparative studies of
and CH
sorption on activated carbon in presence of
water. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and
Engineering Aspects 322(13):1418.
Warith MA, Evgin E and Benson PAS (2004) Suitability of
shredded tires for use in landll leachate collection systems.
Waste Management 24(10): 967979.
Wattal PK (2013) Indian Academy of Sciences Indian programme
on radioactive waste management. Sadhana 38(5): 849857.
Wintenborn JL and Green JJ (1998) Steel Making Slag: A Safe
and Valuable Product. National Slag Association (NSA),
Washington, DC, USA.
Winter EM and Bergman PD (1993) Availability of depleted oil
and gas reservoirs for disposal of carbon dioxide in the United
States. Energy Conversion and Management 34(911):
Zheng H, Feng XT and Pan PZ (2015) Experimental investigation
of sandstone properties under CO
NaCl solution-rock
interactions. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control
37: 451470.
To discuss this paper, please submit up to 500 words to
the editor at Your contribution
will be forwarded to the author(s) for a reply and, if
considered appropriate by the editorial panel, will be
published as a discussion in a future issue of the journal.
Environmental Geotechnics Environmental geotechnology: an Indian
Rajesh, Hanumantha Rao, Sreedeep and
Downloaded by [ Indian Institute of Technology - Bhubaneswar] on [01/10/15]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
... Infrastructure projects consume a wide variety of materials. Of late, the use of conventional natural materials became exhaustive, prompting not only increasing the impact on the environment but also causing depletion of quality resource materials [1][2][3]. In order to overcome these negative aspects, there is a need to imbibe waste or by-product or locally available materials as an alternative to conventional materials to keep maintaining the face of sustainable infrastructure development. ...
... In order to overcome these negative aspects, there is a need to imbibe waste or by-product or locally available materials as an alternative to conventional materials to keep maintaining the face of sustainable infrastructure development. In India, the vast network of existing industries spread across the length and the breadth and many more to set up in the near future is certainly going to generate millions of tons of a variety of wastes and by-products [1]. Consequently, it is inevitable to minimize their physical presence by appropriately consuming in civil engineering applications and infrastructure projects [2,4]. ...
Full-text available
Scarcity of quality conventional materials and jeopardized environment are the prime factors that have been compelling toward the progression of alternate materials to sustain the ever-increasing infrastructure development. The use of locally available industrial wastes as a substitute for natural construction materials can alleviate the demand for such natural materials consumption. In this paper, efforts are made to characterize ferrochrome slag aggregates (FeCr) for assessing its suitability as a replacement to natural aggregates and propose relevant applications linking with characteristics. Mechanical and geoenvironmental properties are established using conventional testing methods as well as advanced macro-level characterization techniques in order to assess the environmental soundness of ferrochrome aggregates. The results in compliance with the relevant road standards demonstrate that the ferrochrome aggregates possess superior properties, rendering them as useful resource materials. Overall, the results highlight that ferrochrome aggregates are environmentally safe to be used as an alternative to natural aggregates, in particular, in road applications.
... Many studies have revealed that industrial wastes/ by-products (viz. RM, fly ash, slag and jarosite) could become valuable substitutes for natural materials (Rajesh et al., 2015;Reddy and Rao, 2016). A few attempts have also been made in the past to explore the potential of RM as a geomaterial after stabilising with traditional additives (viz. ...
... Lime or cement stabilisation produces heat, leading to the formation of cracks, which has a noticeable effect on engineering properties such as permeability and shear strength (Rezaeimalek et al., 2017), apart from affecting the long-term performance (Chang et al., 2015a). The reaction products of traditional stabilisers can lead to emission of greenhouse gases, leaving a carbon dioxide footprint on the environment (Rajesh et al., 2015), besides increasing the alkalinity of media with which they are interacting (Chang et al., 2016a). Furthermore, the addition of these additives is reported to be effective in imparting desired strength but fails in mitigating other associated problems such as dispersion. ...
In this study, the usefulness of two biopolymers (guar gum and xanthan gum) in improving the strength properties of two types of red muds was explored. Experiments were performed to determine the unconfined compressive strength and to establish the morphological and mineralogical compositions of stabilised samples cured for 7, 28, 45 and 90 d. The obtained results were interpreted to understand the red mud–biopolymer interactions. Considerable improvement in the compressive strength of stabilised samples, by four to five times, vis-à-vis that of the untreated samples was observed. Based on the results obtained for different admixture contents (i.e. 0·5, 1·0, 2·0 and 3·0%), the optimum dosage of biopolymers was found to be 0·5%. The morphological analysis revealed the formation of gels and their role in the aggregation of particles by the combined action of binding and pore filling. However, no changes in mineralogical compositions were identified from the diffraction patterns of stabilised samples. Both biopolymers proved effective in improving the strength characteristics, but the efficacy of xanthan gum was found to be superior over that of guar gum. Despite extreme alkalinity in the media, biopolymers were still able to impart reasonably good strength to the treated samples, demonstrating their usefulness and applicability.
... Various industries, considered as the backbone of a nation and responsible for making it powerful and self-reliant, viz., manufacturing, pharmaceutical, oil and gas exploration, thermal power plants, atomic power generation, research and medication installations, dredging and mining, generate huge amount of hazardous and/or toxic waste [56,136,144,152,153,173]. Furthermore, activities like agriculture, construction and demolition, and 'domestic discharges' are responsible for generation tremendous amount of the municipal solid waste, MSW. ...
... In case of the fluid that is a liquid, the setup employed for quantifying the HOW would be similar to the one used by professionals that work on cementitious materials and admixtures, i.e., a calorimeter or a heat of hydration setup. However, when the liquid gets replaced with the gas, more intricate setups that would facilitate its adsorption and/or sorption on the geomaterials (this process is a precursor to sequestration) need to be created or employed [136]. ...
Generation of huge amount of the toxic and hazardous wastes coming out of various industrial and domestic activities is becoming a major threat to the society. In the long run, mainly because of nonscientific storage, disposal and closure, and due to the presence of undesirable concentration(s) of chemicals and radionuclides, elevated temperatures and microbial activity, these wastes (read contaminants) interact with geomaterials, viz., soils, rock mass, groundwater. This interaction, termed as contaminant-geomaterial interaction, depending upon the severity of the contaminant(s) and interaction time, might alter overall characteristics of the geomaterials. Unfortunately, conventional laboratory and field instrumentation techniques are not well equipped to capture such interaction(s) and the mechanisms that prevail in the geomaterials. Hence, to achieve these objectives, evolving adequate and workable strategies, and modalities, that are nondestructive, noninvasive and economical is desirable. In this context, author’s association with several industries resulted in development of innovative, cost-effective, yet efficient techniques that facilitate laboratory and/or in situ simulation and monitoring of such interaction(s). Details of these techniques, the philosophy behind their creation and the way they can be employed for safeguarding geoenvironment, from deterioration, are presented and discussed in this paper. Also, a brief discussion on some of the real-life situations where such techniques can be applied easily, by suitably modifying them, is presented for the benefit of the aspiring researchers and professionals.
... But there are many challenges for efficient C&D waste recycling, such as the lack of integrated waste management technology, unstable source, waste characteristics, and absence of explicit legislation and policies (Pariatamby 2008). Many other nonhazardous solid wastes from recycling companies, such as scrap tire, waste plastic, crushed glass, and textile waste, can be suitable raw materials for specific construction applications (Rajesh et al. 2015;Rahman et al. 2022). Several studies have proved that using such scraps as secondary resources in concrete, roads and pavements, composite building materials, etc., (Siddique and Naik 2004;Siddique et al. 2008;Reis 2009) is a sustainable waste management option and effective solution for amassing waste stockpiles. ...
In the last decades, the environmental sustainability problem has been pronounced due to the rapid industrialization and urbanization and ever-increasing quantities of waste materials. The construction industry is a principal consumer of natural reserves, resulting in a fast depletion of non-renewable resources, accumulating more waste, and creating considerable environmental, esthetic, economic, and social problems. With increasing environmental awareness, a more responsible approach to the environment is to increase the use of waste by-products from one industry as raw material for another industry. The efficient waste recycling and valorization for a wide range of applications can make a big step toward the economy and obviously toward the nation’s progress, simultaneously abating further pollution. Extensive utilization of recycled waste as eco-friendly raw materials in construction is considered an innovative, thoughtful strategy to divert significant volumes of waste from landfills, conserve natural raw materials, and contribute to environmental sustainability and protection. Recently, the recycling domain researchers have tried to produce alternative next-generation building materials incorporating non-hazardous “green” wastes as mineral additions, in harmony with the sustainability of the environment. However, the stringent environmental regulations, lack of user guidelines and public awareness, and property inconsistencies impeded the large-scale waste utilization for potential applications. This chapter discusses the various solid waste byproducts generated from industrial activities and their environmental implications. The chapter highlights the recycling potential of major industrial waste materials, focusing on the possible use in geotechnical systems, highway pavements, and construction materials. Finally, this chapter is an effort to develop the awareness and importance of industrial waste management and its utilization in a productive manner.KeywordsIndustrial waste recyclingSmart building materialsCircular economyCleaner technologyCarbon sequestration
... Author copy for personal use, not for distribution concerning the potential degradation of certain materials can be used to determine the eventual state of components through the phases of disposal. This finding is particularly important for determining long-term conditions and the complete decomposition and degradation of waste (Rajesh et al., 2015). Langer (2005) presented a draft recommendation using certain assumptions about the potential degradation of waste components to define the state of the component in relation to the disposal phase. ...
Full-text available
The geotechnical classification system presented in this paper utilises municipal waste from two landfills in Serbia. Sorting and separating was performed according to the instructions outlined in the Solid Waste Analysis Tool (S.W.A.-Tool), and the composition of the municipal waste was defined based on the results. The material was grouped according to particle shape, which was identified through visual inspection. Three characteristic particle shapes were isolated: ‘three dimensional’ (bulky, compact), ‘two dimensional’ (flat, platy, flakes, foils) and ‘one dimensional’ (elongated, acicular, fibrous). The separated materials were further grouped according to the dominant influence in relation to the three most important mechanical properties (compressible – C; incompressible – IC; and with a reinforcement function – R), and the results are presented in a triangular diagram.
... Fly ash is an industrial solid waste generated by thermal power plants where coal is used as fuel material, due to the need for the development, the production of fly ash is increasing rapidly. In India, more than 175 million tonnes of fly ash is being produced by the thermal power plants every year [5]. The accumulation of this waste presents considerable environmental effect and occupies an appreciable area of land, this can be minimised by utilising fly ash in construction such as embankments, road material, and structural fills. ...
The properties of tropical black clay (also known as black cotton soil, BCS) treated with cement kiln dust (CKD) and locust bean waste ash (LBWA) was studied. Tests performed include index and compaction using British Standard light (BSL); West African Standard (WAS) (or Intermediate) and British Standard heavy (BSH) energies. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) incorporated in Microsoft excel software. Results obtained show that the specific gravity value of the natural BCS (2.4) reduced to a minimum value of 2.33 at 2% CKD/10% LBWA treatment. Peak liquid limit (LL) value of 55.6% was recorded at 3% CKD/6% LBWA treatment, minimum plastic limit (PL) value of 15.6% recorded for 3% CKD/6% LBWA treatment, while plasticity index (PI) value recorded a peak value of 40.0% at 3% CKD/6% LBWA treatment. The compaction characteristics, that is, maximum dry density (MDD and optimum moisture content (OMC) decreased and increased, respectively, with higher CKD/LBWA treatment. Generally, ANOVA results show that CKD and LBWA had significant effects on BCS. Although CKD/LBWA treatment improved the properties of BCS; however, the Nigerian General Specifications requirements of LL ≤ 35.0% and PI ≤ 12.0% for sub-base material in road construction were not met. It is recommended that BCS be minimally treated with 1% CKD/10% LBWA for use as subgrade material for the construction of low-volume roads.
Full-text available
Generated hazardous or toxic waste posses a serious threat if dumped into ponds or low lying areas which leads to contamination, this necessitates the effective landfill liner system. Mainly compacted clayey soils are used as an engineered barrier. Recently, composite materials have gained popularity as landfill liner materials, including the use of waste materials amended with low permeable soils. Though, studies on the composite optimum mix and its corresponding thickness are very scarce. Here, we evaluated the unconfined compressive strength and hydraulic conductivity of fly ash–bentonite composites. Efforts were also made to determine the thickness of landfill liner composite using a finite difference method (i.e. MATLAB). The results reveal that composite consists of 30% bentonite and 70% fly ash is suitable for landfill liner, which meets strength and permeability criteria. Numerical simulation for five major contaminants shows that the composite plays a crucial role in reducing the leaching of heavy metals and suggests an optimum thickness in the range of 126–154 cm. Overall, the findings of the study indicate that fly ash–bentonite composite can be used to solve real-life challenges in a sustainable way.
Full-text available
Methane gas can be generated from the Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill due to the presence of organic fraction and bacterial activity occurring over a period. Methane production in landfills and the resulting emissions to the atmosphere, representing the second largest anthropogenic methane source; hence, there is a need to estimate methane generation rate accurately followed by devising various technique to mitigate the emission. As the methane generation rate is governed by various factors like waste temperature, waste composition and density, pH within landfill, concentration of substrate, moisture content and toxins, several numerical and mathematical tools have been developed considering one or more of the outlined factors to estimate the landfill gas generation. Moreover, the estimation of methane gas generation and emission is also essential for predicting the settlement, in specific, differential settlement that could occur in the engineered landfills. The differential settlement could lead to the initiation and propagation of cracks on the soil barrier. This in turn, might be able to set a free drainage path for the escape of methane gas. In this chapter, a brief assessment on various existing models to predict the estimation of methane generation rate is discussed. The accuracy of the predicted values obtained from various models is estimated from the experimentally observed dataset. This chapter also highlights the need for the evaluation of methane gas generation rate in modeling the settlement of MSW landfills. In addition, various techniques used to mitigate the emission of the methane from the landfill are also discussed.
Integrated solid waste management plan (ISWMP) developed in Kanpur city involves activities related to waste generation, storage, collection, transport to landfill site, processing (compost, incineration), and final disposal. The waste products generated from various phases of ISWMP which have insignificant reuse capabilities (named as processed waste) have been disposed of in engineered landfills. At times, fresh waste is also being disposed of in separate cells of engineered landfill. As the characteristics of municipal solid waste (MSW) play a major role in the design and proper functioning of waste disposal facilities, it is desirable to understand the variation in the characteristics of the fresh and processed MSW. In this study, comprehensive characteristics of fresh and processed MSW generated in Kanpur city are assessed through gradation, compaction, and compressibility behavior. A significant variation in the characteristic behavior has been noticed between fresh and processed wastes.
Full-text available
Urban development increases flood risk in cities due to local changes in hydrological and hydrometeorologi-cal conditions that increase flood hazard, as well as to urban concentrations that increase the vulnerability. The relationship between the increasing urban runoff and flooding due to increased imperviousness is better perceived than that between the cyclic impact of urban growth and the urban rainfall via microclimatic changes. The large-scale, global impacts due to climate variability and change could compound these risks. We present the case of a typical third world city – Can Tho (the biggest city in Mekong River Delta, Viet-nam) – faced with multiple future challenges, namely: (i) the likely effect of climate change-driven sea level rise, (ii) an expected increase of river runoff due to climate change as estimated by the Vietnamese government, (iii) increased urban runoff driven by imperviousness, and (iv) enhancement of extreme rainfall due to urban growth-driven, microclimatic change (urban heat islands). A set of model simulations were used to construct future scenarios, combining these influences. Urban growth of the city was projected up to year 2100 based on historical growth patterns, using a land use simulation model (Dinamica EGO). A dynamic limited-area atmospheric model (WRF), coupled with a detailed land surface model with vegetation parameterization (Noah LSM), was employed in controlled numerical experiments to estimate the anticipated changes in extreme rainfall patterns due to urban heat island effect. Finally, a 1-D/2-D coupled urban-drainage/flooding model (SWMM-Brezo) was used to simulate storm-sewer surcharge and surface inundation to establish the increase in the flood hazard resulting from the changes. The results show that under the combined scenario of significant change in river level (due to climate-driven sea level rise and increase of flow in the Mekong) and " business as usual " urbanization, the flooding of Can Tho could increase significantly. The worst case may occur if a sea level rise of 100 cm and the flow from upstream happen together with high-development scenarios. The relative contribution of causes of flooding are significantly different at various locations; therefore, detailed research on adaptation are necessary for future investments to be effective.
Full-text available
Conventional energy resources are fast depleting and therefore alternative resources are required to sustain the fast progress and development of any nation. This situation is more pertinent to India where fast growing population and developmental activities are posing major challenges to the government as the country has limited resources of energy. Therefore, focused research should be intensified to explore the potential of geothermal energy resources in India. Realizing its importance, Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun, has started a major research programme to study geothermal systems of the Himalaya covering Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh and Leh-Ladakh regions of India.
Full-text available
An extensive suite of geotechnical laboratory tests were undertaken on wastewater biosolids to evaluate their sustainable usage as a fill material in road embankments. Geotechnical tests undertaken include particle size distribution, specific gravity, Atterberg limits, compaction, consolidation, hydraulic conductivity, California bearing ratio (CBR), field vane shear, direct shear, and triaxial shear. The geotechnical tests indicated that biosolids are equivalent to organic fine-grained soils of medium to high plasticity with high moisture content and liquid limit values. Consolidation tests indicate that biosolids have similar consolidation characteristics to that of organic soils. Shear strength tests on compacted biosolids samples indicated relatively high internal friction angles, comparable to that of inorganic silts. Compacted biosolids samples exhibit a modest cohesion comparable to organic clays. CBR tests results indicate high deformation potential of biosolids. Chemical and environmental assessment tests indicated that heavy metals, dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) and organochlorine pesticides concentration along with pathogens (bacteria, viruses, or parasites) results were within acceptable limits for usage in geotechnical applications. With regards to contaminants containing nitrogen, phosphorus, and total organic carbon, the biosolids were found to require special protection in the event there is potential leaching/flow to adjoining water bodies. The geotechnical testing results indicate that untreated biosolids have insufficient bearing capacity to enable its usage as a fill material. The biosolids will have to be stabilized with an additive or blended with a high-quality material to enhance its geotechnical properties to enable it to be considered as an engineering fill material.
The use of recycled aggregates has increased greatly over the last decade owing to enhanced environmental sensitivities. The level of performance required by such materials is dependent upon the applications for which they are used. Many recycled construction wastes have adequate shear strength in relation to various geotechnical applications. However, a possible drawback of these materials is the risk of crushing during repeated loading. The work reported in this paper examined two waste materials: crushed concrete and building debris, both regarded as construction wastes. Tests were also performed on traditionally used crushed rock, in this case basalt. The materials were subjected to repeated loading in a large direct shear apparatus. The amount of crushing was quantified by performing particle size analysis of the tested material. The results have shown that both recycled construction wastes were susceptible to particle crushing. The amount of crushing was influenced by both the vertical pressure and ...
Sand–tyre chip (STCh) mixtures can be used in many geotechnical applications as alternative backfill material. The reuse of scrap tyres in STCh mixtures can effectively address growing environmental concerns and, at the same time, provide solutions to geotechnical problems associated with low soil shear strength and high dilatancy. In this paper, the shear strength and dilatancy behaviour of STCh mixtures have been investigated. A series of monotonic triaxial tests has been carried out on sand mixed with various proportions of tyre chips. It has been found that tyre chips significantly influence the shear strength and the dilatancy behaviour of STCh mixtures. The effects of confinement and relative density on the shear strength, dilatancy and initial tangent modulus of the STCh mixtures have also been investigated. Moreover, a dilatancy model for STCh mixtures has been proposed and validated with the experimental results.