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Background: Labor is a stressful situation that may have an adverse impact. Aromatherapy is a method to control anxiety and stress of women. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of aromatherapy using essential oil of orange on women's anxiety during labor. Materials and methods: In this clinical trial study, 100 women during labor were randomly assigned to two groups: intervention group and control group. The women in the intervention group were exposed to orange essential oil, but the women in the control group were exposed to distilled water. The women's anxiety was assessed using the Spielberger inventory. Moreover, physiological parameters such as systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respiration and pulse rates were assessed in all the women before and 20 min after the intervention. The data were analyzed by Chi-square, Wilcoxon, paired t-test, and Mann-Whitney U test. Data were evaluated with the SPSS 16 program. The significance level of P < 0.05 was considered. Results: The level of anxiety of women in both intervention (P = 0.03) and control (P = 0.003) groups reduced after the intervention. However, the reduction was more in the intervention group (difference in anxiety scores after the intervention in comparison to before intervention = -3.08) in comparison to the control group (score = -1.14). No significant change was found in the physiological parameters of women in the intervention group after the intervention. Conclusions: Aromatherapy is a noninvasive and effective method to help women overcome their anxiety during labor. Orange scent can be useful in childbirth units to help women who are experiencing stress in labor.
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Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research | November-December 2015 | Vol. 20 | Issue 6 661
The effect of aromatherapy by essential oil of orange
on anxiety during labor: A randomized clinical trial
Fahimeh Rashidi‑Fakari1, Mahbubeh Tabatabaeichehr1, Hamed Mortazavi2
AbstrAct
Background: Labor is a stressful situation that may have an adverse impact. Aromatherapy is a method to control anxiety and
stress of women. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of aromatherapy using essential oil of orange on women’s
anxiety during labor.
Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study, 100 women during labor were randomly assigned to two groups: intervention
group and control group. The women in the intervention group were exposed to orange essential oil, but the women in the control
group were exposed to distilled water. The women’s anxiety was assessed using the Spielberger inventory. Moreover, physiological
parameters such as systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respiration and pulse rates were assessed in all the women before and
20 min after the intervention. The data were analyzed by Chi-square, Wilcoxon, paired t-test, and Mann–Whitney U test. Data
were evaluated with the SPSS 16 program. The signicance level of P < 0.05 was considered.
Results: The level of anxiety of women in both intervention (P = 0.03) and control (P = 0.003) groups reduced after the intervention.
However, the reduction was more in the intervention group (difference in anxiety scores after the intervention in comparison to
before intervention = −3.08) in comparison to the control group (score = −1.14). No signicant change was found in the physiological
parameters of women in the intervention group after the intervention.
Conclusions: Aromatherapy is a noninvasive and effective method to help women overcome their anxiety during labor. Orange
scent can be useful in childbirth units to help women who are experiencing stress in labor.
Key words: Anxiety, aromatherapy, labor, orange essential oil
1DepartmentofMidwifery,FacultyofNursingandMidwifery,North
KhorasanUniversityofMedicalSciences,Bojnord,Iran,2Department
ofGeriatricNursing,SchoolofNursing and Midwifery,North
KhorasanUniversityofMedicalSciences,Bojnord,Iran
Address for correspondence:Ms.MahbubehTabatabaeichehr,
DepartmentofMidwifery,FacultyofNursingandMidwifery,
NorthKhorasanUniversityofMedicalSciences,Bojnord,Iran.
E‑mail:Chehr@nkums.ac.ir
Submitted:23‑Jul‑14;Accepted:07‑Jul‑15
been reported to decrease the anxiety of different people such
as nursing students facing their first clinical experience, nurses
during emergency conditions, and hemodialysis patients.[4‑7]
Some studies have shown the impact of aromatherapy
to relieve anxiety during labor,[1,3,8] but Hur et al.[9] have
reported that essential oils might not reduce anxiety.
Orange essential oil (Citrus sinesis), commonly named
as sweet orange, is a member of the Rutaceae family.[10]
Studies have shown that orange scent is a suitable aroma
to decrease anxiety.[4,6,11,12]
Due to lack of studies on the effect of aromatherapy
on anxiety of women during labor, this study aimed to
investigate the effect of aromatherapy using essential oil
of orange on women’s anxiety during labor.
IntroductIon
Labor is considered a stressful condition in pregnant
women which may have negative consequences such
as uteroplacental insufficiency and angina. It may
interfere with uterine muscle contractions and progression
of labor.[1] It has been shown that stress and anxiety increase
the entry of calcium and sodium into the cell that accelerates
heart rate and changes the physiological parameters. In a
pregnant woman, the above‑mentioned conditions lead to
uteroplacental insufficiency and fetal hypoxia.[2]
Various methods are available to handle women’s anxiety
during labor.[3] Aromatherapy is known to be one of the
effective methods to decrease anxiety.[4] Aromatherapy has
Original Article
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Website:
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DOI:
10.4103/1735-9066.170001
Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research | November-December 2015 | Vol. 20 | Issue 6 662
Rashidi-Fakari, et al.: Essenal oil of orange on anxiety
Because of limited studies about various aromas in labor
in this population, researchers preferred to use one type of
essential oil and not a mixture.
MAterIAls And Methods
This is a clinical randomized trial. This study’s research
proposal was approved by the research council affiliated
to North Khorasan Medical Science University, Bojnourd,
Iran. Also, the ethics committee of North Khorasan
University of Medical Sciences approved the study’s ethical
considerations. This study has been registered in the IRCT
with the code of 2012111811515N1.
One hundred pregnant women who referred to a teaching
hospital in 2012 and 2013 were chosen. The investigator
referred to the childbirth unit of the chosen hospital and
invited the probable participants to enter the trial.
Participants were randomly assigned to two groups:
Intervention and control.
The sample size was determined based on a pilot study
with 95% confidence interval and a power of 80%, a
society variance of 6 , and a mean difference of 3. Thus,
50 participants were selected in each group. However,
two participants left the intervention group due to
receiving analgesic drugs and losing eagerness to continue
participation in the study [Figure 1].
The inclusion criteria were: Nulliparous women of age
18–35 years with a singleton pregnancy, gestational
age between 37 and 42 weeks, and cervical dilatation
3–5 cm.
The exclusion criteria were: Having the history of
hypertension (BP ≥ 14/9), suffering from headache or
migraine; losing the acuity of smelling sense due to cold
or any allergic disorder; using analgesic or anti‑anxiety
medication during the intervention or 3 h before
intervention; having any psychological disorder, epilepsy,
or asthma; experiencing disturbance in labor process,
induction of labor, and fetal distress.
The women signed the informed consents. Blinding in
the present study was not possible. Randomization was
accomplished by using sealed opaque envelopes that
contained the allocation of participants to one of the
groups. Thus, the allocation was determined after opening
the envelopes.
In order to disperse odor and its effect on the control group
and for reduplication of samples with the last post, sampling
was conducted in one working post in a day. To prevent
the researcher’s bias, data were collected by a researcher
assistant.
For all women, demographic data were collected and
the physiological parameters (systolic and diastolic blood
pressure, pulse, and respiration rate) were measured
before the intervention. The Spielberger inventory was
completed with the researcher’s assistance. The women
in the intervention group were exposed to two drops of
essential oil of orange peel 2% (produced in North Khorasan
Pharmacological Research Center of Medicinal Plants). The
women in the control group were exposed to two drops of
placebo (distilled water). Essential oil and placebo were
placed on non‑absorbable and clean napkins that were
attached to the participants’ clothes at a distance of 20 cm
from their chins. This method of intervention is consistent
with other studies.[1,3] After 20 min of the intervention,
physiological parameters were again measured and
recorded, because insensitivity of the olfactory receptors
occurs after 20 min of inhalation.[13] The Spielberger
inventory was also completed. The physiological parameters
were measured and the inventory was completed between
uterine contractions. After the completion of the intervention
period, the napkins were removed except in cases where
the mother desired that it should remain.
The Spielberger inventory has 20 questions and each
question contents four options. The total score of anxiety
ranges from 20 to 80. The higher score means the higher
state of anxiety.[14,15] The blood pressure was measured
Randomized
Enrollmen
Not eager to continue (n = 1)
Data Analysis (n = 48) Data Analysis (n = 48)
Received aromatherapy (n = 50)
AllocationFollow upAnalysis
Not eager to continue (n = 1)
Leave the study because of treating
Painkillers (n = 1)
Received placebo (n = 49)
Leave the study (n = 1)
Not meeting
Inclusioncriteria
(n = 12)
Assessed for eligibility (n = 112)
Figure 1: Randomization of participants
Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research | November-December 2015 | Vol. 20 | Issue 6 663
Rashidi-Fakari, et al.: Essenal oil of orange on anxiety
by a calibrated sphygmomanometer in completely fixed
situations. Respiration and pulse (radial artery) rates were
counted in a complete‑one‑minute.
To determine the normality of the variables,
Kolmogorov–Smirnov test was used. Parametric tests were
applied in normal variables; non‑parametric statistical tests
were used in non‑normal variables.
Non‑normal variables were described as middle, interquartile
range (IQR) and normal variables values were shown as
mean and standard deviation. The data were analyzed using
Chi‑square, Wilcoxon, paired t‑test, and Mann–Whitney U
test via the SPSS 16 program for Windows. The statistical
significance was set at P < 0.05.
results
A total of 96 participants completed this study.
Mann–Whitney U test for age and Chi‑square test for level
of education and occupation status of the participants and
their husbands showed that the experimental and control
groups were homogeneous. The results of the verification of
homogeneity of these two groups are presented in Table 1.
The level of anxiety of women in both intervention (P = 0.03)
and control (P = 0.003) groups reduced after the
intervention. However, the reduction was more in the
intervention group (score = −3.08) in comparison
to the control group (score = −1.14). No significant
change was found in the physiological parameters such as
systolic and diastolic blood pressure and respiration and
pulse rates of women in the intervention group after the
intervention. However, diastolic blood pressure and heart
rate of women in the intervention group were lower. The
physiological indicators of women in the control group
except diastolic blood pressure were not significantly
different [Tables 2 and 3].
dIscussIon
This study showed that aromatherapy by essential oil of
orange reduced the level of anxiety and diastolic blood
pressure and pulse rate.
Mirzaei[1] and Tafazoli[3] showed that essential oil inhalation is
effective in decreasing anxiety during labor. Our results were
similar to those of the above‑mentioned studies, although
we used a different aroma. The reason can be attributed to
cultural similarity, identical tool of measuring anxiety, and
the same delivery phases. Lehrner et al.[12] in a comparative
survey found that orange aroma effectively reduced the
anxiety of the patients who referred to the dentist office.
Holm et al.[16] reported that orange aroma was not effective in
anxiety reduction on accompanies children in urgency part.
Table 1: Demographic and personal characteristics in
experimental and control groups
Variables Study
group
Control
group
P value
Age (years)
M (IQR) 20 (5) 21 (5) 0.8
Level of education n (%)
Illiterate 1 (2.1) 2 (4.2) 0.6
Less than diploma 27 (56.2) 29 (60.4)
Diploma 9 (18.8) 9 (18.8)
Higher than diploma 11 (22.9) 8 (16.7)
Occupation status of women n (%)
Housewife 46 (95.8) 42 (87.5) 0.3
Employed 1 (2.1) 3 (6.2)
Student 1 (2.1) 3 (6.2)
Occupation status of spouses n (%)
Self-employed 26 (54.2) 26 (54.2) 0.5
Workman 15 (31.2) 14 (29.2)
Staff 5 (10.4) 3 (6.2)
Unemployed 1 (2.1) 0 (0)
Farmer 1 (2.1) 4 (8.3)
Student 0 (0) 1 (2.1)
SD: Standard deviation, n: Number, M (IQR): Middle (interquartile range)
Table 2: Comparison of the state anxiety score and
physiological parameters in the experimental group before and
after the intervention
Variables M (IQR) P value
Before
intervention
After
intervention
Anxiety 55 (17) 51 (16) 0.03
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 110 (10) 110 (20) 0.2
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 78 (20) 75 (15) 0.2
Pulse rate 92 (15) 89 (17) 0.14
Respiration rate 18 (4) 18 (4) 0.5
M (IQR): Middle (interquartile range)
Table 3: Comparison of the state anxiety score and physiological
parameters in the control group before and after intervention
Variables Before
intervention
After
intervention
P value
Anxiety (mean (SD)) 53.45 (6) 52.31 (6.2) 0.003
Systolic blood pressure
(mmHg) M (IQR)
100 (10) 100 (18) 0.28
Diastolic blood pressure
(mmHg) M (IQR)
65 (10) 60 (20) 0.03
Pulse rate M (IQR) 80 (16) 80 (10) 0.13
Respiration rate M (IQR) 16 (4) 16 (4) 0.79
SD: Standard deviation, M (IQR): Middle (interquartile range)
Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research | November-December 2015 | Vol. 20 | Issue 6 664
Rashidi-Fakari, et al.: Essenal oil of orange on anxiety
These results can be attributed to hospital air‑conditioners,
materials, and other intervening factors that were responsible
for such a result, according to their claims.
Kim et al.[4] found the effect of a mixture of orange
essential oil with other essential oil on the anxiety level of
nursing students who were practicing their first intravenous
injections. They found that increase in pulse rate and systolic
blood pressure was lower in the intervention group than
in the control group. Perhaps the reason for this difference
is that in their study, the participants were exposed to the
aroma for a longer time than the participants of the present
study and orange essential oil was used in combination with
other essential oils. But in our study, participants had more
ability for quitting of intervention, because we just used
one aroma and an exclusive procedure for every subject.
The limitation of this study was that blinding of the study
was not possible.
It is recommended to conduct further studies controlling
the confounding factors when orange aroma can be
examined for a longer time to determine its effects more
clearly on the physiological parameters.
conclusIon
Based on the results of the present study, it is concluded
that orange scent may be useful in childbirth units to help
women experiencing this stressful stage of their life (labor)
in decreasing their anxiety and tension.
AcknowledgMents
We thank the Research Assistant of Medical Sciences University of
North Khorasan for providing all the support for the study. We are
also grateful to all the staffs, midwives, and nurses of Bent Al‑Hoda
hospital at Bojnourd, Iran. Research number 349 of your project.
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How to cite: Rashidi-Fakari F, Tabatabaeichehr M, Mortazavi H.
The effect of aromatherapy by essential oil of orange on anxiety
during labor: A randomized clinical trial. Iranian J Nursing Midwifery
Res 2015;20:661-4.
Source of Support: North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences,
Conict of Interest: None declared.
... İlaçların emilimini arttıran faktörler şunlardır: (11). ...
... • Okaliptus Nazal konjesyonu azaltmak • Ylangylang Gevşemeyi sağlamak ve depresyonu azaltmak (9,10,11,13) Aromaterapinin (5,9,10,11,13,29). ...
... • Okaliptus Nazal konjesyonu azaltmak • Ylangylang Gevşemeyi sağlamak ve depresyonu azaltmak (9,10,11,13) Aromaterapinin (5,9,10,11,13,29). ...
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Full-text available
ÖNSÖZ Tıbbi ve aromatik bitkilerden elde edilen aromatik-kokulu-uçucu yağlar/esans yağlar son yıllarda kozmetik ve insan sağlığını koruma ve geliştirme amacıyla oldukça yaygın kullanım alanı bulmuştur. İnsanlık tarihi kadar eski geçmişi olan esans yağlarının tıp ve eczacılık alanında kullanımı ile ilgili her geçen gün yeni gelişmeler sağlanmaktadır. Ülkemizin farklı üniversiteleri ve/veya özel sektörün seçkin temsilcileri, uzmanlarca hazırlanan “ESANS YAĞLARIN (ARONATİK YAĞLARIN) SAĞLIK ALANINDA KULLANIMI” kitabı, esans yağların Antiparazitik, Antienflamatuar, Antiviral Etkileri incelenerek, Kozmetikte, Tıpta Yetişkin ve Pediatrik Gruplarında, Tıpta Analjezi ve Sedasyon Olarak Kullanımı, Tedavi Amaçlı Kullanımı, Tıp’ta Aromaterapi Olarak Kullanımı, Alternatif Tıpta (Fitoterapi Olarak) Kullanımı, Dezenfektan ve Antiseptik olarak kullanımı, Kadın Doğumda Kullanımı, Diş Hekimliğinde Kullanımı gibi birçok alanı kapsayan multidsipliner bir çalışma olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Tıbbi ve aromatik bitkilerden elde edilen esans yağlarının sağlık alanında kullanımına dair kapsamlı, doyurucu ve güncel literatürü içeren bilgiler içermektedir. Eserin, akademisyenlerin araştırmalarına yardımcı olması yanı sıra, bu alanda araştırma yapmak isteyen öğrencilere ve esans yağlardan sağlık alanında yararlanmak isteyen tüm kesimlere katkı sağlayacağını ümit ediyoruz.
... All trials recruited parturient women with lowrisk labor. Among them, six trials investigated the intrapartum effects of aromatherapy (Hamdamian et al., 2018;Kheirkhah et al., 2014;Lamadah & Nomani, 2016;Namazi et al., 2014;Rashidi-Fakari et al., 2015), while three trials investigated the postpartum effects (Kianpour et al., 2016;Kianpour et al., 2018;Vaziri et al., 2017). The laboring experiences across trials differed from nulliparous to primiparous and two trials investigating the postpartum effects of aromatherapy provided no information on this aspect (Kianpour et al., 2018;Vaziri et al., 2017). ...
... Six trials investigated the effectiveness of aromatherapy on IPA using the STAI (Hamdamian et al., 2018;Lamadah & Nomani, 2016;Namazi et al., 2014;Rashidi-Fakari et al., 2015) and VAS (Kheirkhah et al., 2014). While Hamdamian et al. (2018), Lamadah and Nomani (2016), Rashidi-Fakari et al. (2015), and Namazi et al. (2014) reported statistically different baseline anxiety statuses between groups, no significant difference between groups was found in Kheirkhah et al. (2014) and. ...
... Six trials investigated the effectiveness of aromatherapy on IPA using the STAI (Hamdamian et al., 2018;Lamadah & Nomani, 2016;Namazi et al., 2014;Rashidi-Fakari et al., 2015) and VAS (Kheirkhah et al., 2014). While Hamdamian et al. (2018), Lamadah and Nomani (2016), Rashidi-Fakari et al. (2015), and Namazi et al. (2014) reported statistically different baseline anxiety statuses between groups, no significant difference between groups was found in Kheirkhah et al. (2014) and. We used the change scores in the syntheses of IPA. ...
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Aim: Perinatal negative emotions are common in parturient women, but the problems are often ignored. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the effectiveness of aromatherapy for intrapartum anxiety (IPA) and postpartum emotional symptoms (PES). Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, and ClinicalTrials.gov to identify suitable RCTs for analysis, and the study was reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Results: Nine RCTs were included. The meta-analysis showed aromatherapy reduced IPA during the early to active phase (standardized mean difference [SMD]: -1.56 [-2.55, -0.61]) and during the transition phase (SMD: -3.30 [-4.97, -1.63]) when compared with controls. For the postpartum period, the meta-analyses showed a reduction of postpartum depression (PPD) at week 2 (SMD: -0.43 [-0.82, -0.03]), and a non-significant trend toward the reduction of PPD at weeks 4-6 (SMD: -0.70 [-1.40, 0.01]). Conclusion: Our study found some evidence supporting the effectiveness of aromatherapy in reducing intrapartum anxiety and PES. We recommend the optional use of aromatherapy for intrapartum and postpartum care.
... Seorang ibu hamil akan cenderung mengalami peningkatan rasa cemas seiring dengan bertambahnya usia kehamilan (Ghiasi et al., 2019). Aroma jeruk segar yang terkandung pada aromaterapi Citrus Sinensis dapat mengurangi tingkat kecemasan pada ibu bersalin (Rashidi-Fakari et al., 2015). Pendapat inilah yang mendukung asumsi peneliti bahwa pemberian aromaterapi Citrus Sinensis dalam mengatasi mual muntah kurang begitu efektif dibandingkan dengan aromaterapi Citrus Lemon dan sejauh ini belum ada rujukan literature yang didapat oleh peneliti tentang efektifitas aromaterapi Citrus Sinensis dalam menurunkan intensitas mual muntah ibu hamil, hanya saja aromaterapi Citrus Sinensis ini membantu dalam menenangkan perasaan ibu hamil. ...
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ABSTRAKSalah satu ketidaknyamanan yang sering dialami sebagian besar ibu hamil trimester pertama adalah mual muntah. Berdasarkan hasil studi pendahuluan, sekitar 42.2% ibu hamil trimester pertama di wilayah kerja UPT Puskesmas Kaliori mengalami mual muntah. Meskipun dianggap sebagai bagian yang normal tetapi gejala mual muntah dapat mengurangi kualitas hidup ibu hamil. Pengobatan mual muntah bersifat komplementer lebih banyak diminati salah satunya adalah aromaterapi dibandingkan dengan pengobatan farmakologi mengingat adanya efek teratogenik di awal kehamilan. Penelitian ini dimaksudkan untuk mengetahui adakah perbedaan efektifitas aromaterapi Citrus Lemon dan Citrus Sinensis terhadap mual muntah ibu hamil trimester pertama. Metode penelitian kuantitatif Quasy Experimental menggunakan pre – post test with control group design dengan tehnik purposive sampling pada 36 responden ibu hamil trimester pertama. Hasil penelitian berdasarkan analisa data dengan uji Wilcoxon dan MannWhitney didapatkan ada efektifitas aromaterapi Citrus Lemon ( p value = 0.000) dan ada efektifitas aromaterapi Citrus Sinensis ( p value = 0.005) terhadap mual muntah ibu hamil trimester pertama. Namun ada perbedaan efektifitas aromaterapi Citrus Lemon dengan Citrus Sinensis terhadap penurunan mual muntah ibu hamil trimester pertama dengan p value = 0.002 ( < 0.05), nilai mean rank Citrus Lemon 13.28. Simpulan bahwa aromaterapi Citrus Lemon lebih efektif terhadap penurunan mual muntah ibu hamil trimester pertama.daripada aromaterapi Citrus Sinensis. Kata kunci : aromaterapi; Citrus Lemon; Citrus Sinensis; mual muntah kehamilan. ABSTRACTOne of the discomforts that most pregnant women experience in the first trimester is nausea and vomiting. Based on the results of preliminary study, around 42,2% of first trimester pregnant women in work area’s Kaliori Health Centre experienced nausea and vomiting. Even thought is considered a normal part, the symptoms of nausea and vomiting can reduce the quality of life of pregnant women. Complementary nausea and vomiting treatment is more in demand, one of which is aromatherapy compared to pharmacological treatment considering the teratogenicity effect in early pregnancy. This study is intended to determine whether there is a difference in the effectiveness of Citrus Lemon and Citrus Sinensis aromatherapy against nausea and vomiting in first trimester pregnant women. This study was Quasy Experiment using pre-post test with control group design with purposive sampling technique on 36 respondents of first trimester pregnant women. The results of the study based on data analysis using the Wilcoxon and Mann Whitney tests found that there was effectiveness of Citrus Lemon aromatherapy (p value = 0.000) and there was effectiveness of Citrus Sinensis aromatherapy (p value = 0.005) against nausea and vomiting in first trimester pregnant women. However, there is difference in the effectiveness of Citrus Lemon and Citrus Sinensis aromatherapy in reducing nausea and vomiting in first trimester pregnant women with a p value = 0.002 (<0.05), the mean rank value of Citrus Lemon is 13.28. The conclusion is that Citrus Lemon aromatherapy is more effective in reducing nausea and vomiting in first trimester pregnant women than Citrus Sinensis aromatherapy. Keywords : aromatherapy; lemon citrus; Sinensis citrus; nausea and vomiting of pregnancy.
... [133] Clinical trial results demonstrate that the essential oil of citrus orange reduces anxiety in women during labor. [134] Citrus bergamia essential oil also acted as a moderate sedative by calming and soothing the nervous system and also reduced stress-induced anxiety and depressive-like behaviors in rats. [135] Lemon essential oil significantly improved memory, concentration, cognitive performance, [116,118,126] Citrus aurantifolia ...
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... Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2015 [41] The effect of herbal therapy by essential oil of orange on anxiety during labor: A randomized clinical trial ...
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... Even though aromatherapy and essential oils such as orange scent, geranium, and lavender have been employed to reduce anxiety and perceived pain during labor [1,[18][19][20], no studies have been carried out utilizing neroli oil to alleviate pain and anxiety during childbirth. ...
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The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of the essential oils of orange and lavender on anxiety, mood, alertness and calmness in dental patients. Two hundred patients between the ages of 18 and 77 years (half women, half men) were assigned to one of four independent groups. While waiting for dental procedures patients were either stimulated with ambient odor of orange or ambient odor of lavender. These conditions were compared to a music condition and a control condition (no odor, no music). Anxiety, mood, alertness and calmness were assessed while patients waited for dental treatment. Statistical analyses revealed that compared to control condition both ambient odors of orange and lavender reduced anxiety and improved mood in patients waiting for dental treatment. These findings support the previous opinion that odors are capable of altering emotional states and may indicate that the use of odors is helpful in reducing anxiety in dental patients.
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