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The impact of teamwork on employee performance

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In today's society, there have been so much emphasis on pride and personal achievement at work place; where by the concept of teamwork seems to be overlooked by managers and employees, due to this management sees less essence of teamwork as a major tool of performance which has lead them to poor performance and productivity in the industry market. Therefore the study seeks to identify the impact teamwork has on organizational performance. The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with teamwork, identify the positive or negative effects of teamwork on employees and to examine the impact of teamwork on organization performance. This research study analyzes the impact of teamwork on organizational performance on the employees of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital and Ejisu Government Hospital. Several measures of team performance were analyzed including team trust, recognition and rewards. Convenience sampling technique was used to select the employees whiles purposive sampling technique was used to select management in the organization. A self-structured questionnaire was used in the data collection. The research study used correlation techniques in order to analyze the relationship between two variables that was Teamwork and Organization Performance. There was clear evidence that teamwork and other measures of team performance are positively related with organization performance. The result of the study shows that there was a significant positive impact of teamwork on organizational performance.
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ABSTRACT
In today's society, there have been so much emphasis on pride and personal achievement at work
place; where by the concept of teamwork seems to be overlooked by managers and employees,
due to this management sees less essence of teamwork as a major tool of performance which has
lead them to poor performance and productivity in the industry market. Therefore the study seeks
to identify the impact teamwork has on organizational performance.
The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with teamwork, identify the positive
or negative effects of teamwork on employees and to examine the impact of teamwork on
organization performance.
This research study analyzes the impact of teamwork on organizational performance on the
employees of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital and Ejisu Government Hospital. Several
measures of team performance were analyzed including team trust, recognition and rewards.
Convenience sampling technique was used to select the employees whiles purposive sampling
technique was used to select management in the organization. A self-structured questionnaire
was used in the data collection. The research study used correlation techniques in order to
analyze the relationship between two variables that was Teamwork and Organization
Performance. There was clear evidence that teamwork and other measures of team performance
are positively related with organization performance. The result of the study shows that there
was a significant positive impact of teamwork on organizational performance.
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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Team can be described as a group of people who work together to achieve the same goals and
objectives for the good of the service users and organizations in order to deliver a good quality of
service. Team building, planning events and activities have the potential to bring the people you
employed to a strong sense of direction, workable plans and solutions, a powerful feeling of
belonging with and on the team and clear strategic customer-focused values. Poor team building
and planning sessions bring disillusionment, low morale and negative motivation of the entire
organization. They fail to deliver the results expected. Organizations flounder with little strategic
direction. Everyone works hard, but, usually on the wrong tasks and goals. Employees take baby
steps toward accomplishing key action items and nothing important is finished (Husain, 2011).
Team work is the ability to work together towards a common vision. Teamwork is a fuel that
allows common people to attain uncommon results. Collective action is widely recognized as a
positive force for teamwork in any organization or institution to succeed. Teams enable
individuals to empower themselves and to increase benefits from cooperative work engaged on
as a group. Getting together with others also can allow individuals to better understand the
importance of teamwork and how the organization operate as well as promote the culture of
teamwork success. Without teamwork houses take long to build, government collapse and
companies are outshined by their competitors in the market and lastly without teamwork people
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lose their inspiration (Husain, 2011). According to Wageman (1997) “company’s teamwork is
the only way anything gets accomplished with quality and efficiency and a major reason why
economic growth is under control and company’s success is scrutinized by top management to
achieve the desired goals”.
McShone (1998) said that teams are replacing individuals as the basic building blocks of
organization - French language television programs has shifted to team-based projects and giving
more recognition to teams than to individuals. Companies are not just looking for technical
ability but looking for people who can work on teams and solve problems.
According to Steiner (1972) teams and teamwork are not novel concepts; teams and team
thinking have been around for years at companies such as Procter and Gamble; and Botany. In
the 1980s the manufacturing and auto industries embraced a new team-oriented approach when
United States firms retooled to combat Japanese competitor who were quickly gaining market
share. Brown et al (1996) examined that managers discovered the large body of research
indicating that teams can be more than the tradition corporate structure for making decisions
quickly and efficiently. He further said that teams needed for the restructuring and reengineering
processes of the future giving instances that simple changes like encouraging input and
feedbacks from workers on the line make dramatic improvements.
Even from time of creation, God applied the concept of teamwork when he said, ‘‘Let us make
man in our own image’’ (Genesis1:26, KJV). This statement brings out the fact that God in the
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creation process work with other heavenly beings hence the essence of team in bringing
productivity, ‘Man’.
Hence companies have to encourage teamwork in order to gain competitive advantage because
its base where new ideas come from. To employees teamwork is seen as constituting a larger
group of people than what job position describes. The essence of teamwork is that workload is
reduced and broken into pieces of work for everyone to take part. The backward development in
organizations today can be attributed to inadequate teamwork among workers in an organization
which in the long run affects the performance of the organization. Huge amount of money is also
lost due to teamwork inadequacies which to say the least, drains the organization’s meager
resources with its far-reaching and attendant consequences on the development of the
organization.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
"Two are better than one, because they have a good reward for their hard work. For if one of
them should fall, the other one can raise his partner up. But how will it be with just the one who
falls when there is not another to raise him up?" (Ecclesiastes 4:9-10, KJV). This implies that
teamwork can accomplish what the individual cannot do on his or her own. Teamwork is defined
as "a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common
purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they are mutually accountable."
(Katzenbach and Smith, 1993)
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In today's society, there have been so much emphasis on pride and personal achievement at work
place; where by the concept of teamwork seems to be overlooked by managers and employees,
due to this management sees less essence of teamwork as a major tool of performance which has
lead them to poor performance and productivity in the industry market. Therefore the study seeks
to identify the impact teamwork has on organizational performance.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1. To identify the factors associated with teamwork?
2. To identify the positive or negative effects of teamwork on employees?
3. To examine the impact of teamwork on organization performance?
1.4 Significance of the Study
A lot of research work has been carried out on the concept of teamwork by many researchers.
This research work is not out a rightly deviation from all other works that have been carried out
on the concept. In this study, the research tries to ascertain how teamwork affects organizational
performance.
At the end of this research, it will subsequently help managers of organizations especially Komfo
Anokye Teaching Hospital and Ejisu Government Hospital to decide whether to encourage team
working more than that of individually or the other wise, to employees, it will also help them to
know if it’s good to work as a team or individually, and last of all this research paper will also
serve as starting point for other researchers who want to conduct their research on this same
concept.
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1.5 Scope and Limitations of the Study
The scopes of this research are employees and managers of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital
and Ejisu Government Hospital, the research looks at teamwork and organizational performance
in relation to productivity.
Financial difficulties limited the scope and content of the study. Due to the oath of secrecy taken
by people who were concerned; it was difficult for them to divulge information which would
have been required on the topic. The target groups were having little interest in providing data. In
some cases they were reluctant to supply the required information.
Despite these limitations, a thorough observation was done during the study, to reduce the
limitations so that conclusions that were drawn would be acceptable.
1.6 Definitions of Terms
Team: A team is a formal group of members who interact at a high level and work together
intensely to achieve a common group goal. When teams are effective, they draw on the abilities
and experiences of their members to accomplish things that could not be achieved by individuals
working separately or by other kinds of work group (Jones et al, 2008). Teams are especially
appropriate for conducting tasks that are high in complexity and have many interdependent
subtasks.
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Group: A group is a set of two or more people who interact with each other to achieve certain
goals or meet certain needs. A group in itself does not necessarily constitute a team. Teams
normally have members with complementary skills and generate synergy through a coordinated
effort which allows each member to maximize his or her strengths and minimize his or her
weaknesses.
Teamwork: It is the interdependent components of performance required to effectively
coordinate the performance of multiple individual; as such, teamwork is the broader concept of
team performance which also includes individual-level task work.
Respondents are the people who are going to answer the questionnaire.
Productivity: It is the effective and efficient use of all resources. Resources include time, people
knowledge, information, finance, equipment, space, energy, materials.
Performance: Is the accomplishment of a given task measured against preset known standards
of accuracy, completeness, cost, and speed.
Organization: Is a social entity, such as an institution or an association that has a collective goal
and is linked to an external environment.
1.7 Organization of the Chapters
Chapter one; which is the introduction covers the background of the study, statement of the
problem, objectives of the study, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study,
definition of terms and organization of the study. Chapter two covers the literature review on the
impact of teamwork on organizational performance. Chapter three introduces the methodology
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employed in the conduction of the research. Chapter four looks at the general information, data
analysis and discussion of the data. Chapter five captures the summary, conclusion and
recommendation of the study or research.
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CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction
The impact of teams on organizational performance has been a topic of many researches done by
academics and practitioners for the previous years (Jones et al, 2008). The main likely reason for
this attentiveness is the belief that teams can affect the performance of organizations. The work
of a team is deliberated by some researchers to be particularly important in achieving
organizational goals and in evoking performance among subordinates. Several reasons indicate
that there should be a relationship between teamwork and performance. Scholars and
practitioners suggest that effective team behaviors can facilitate the improvement of performance
when organizations face new challenges. Understanding the impact of teamwork on performance
is important because teamwork is viewed by some researchers as one of the key driving force for
improving a firm’s performance (Jones et al, 2008).
2.2 Overview of Teamwork
Teamwork is the concept of people working together cooperatively, as in sales team, sports team
etc. It has also become so valued that many large corporations have developed specific tests to
measure potential employee’s teamwork ability. Hence, it has become important goal in most
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work places, the belief is that teamwork gives employees a sense of ownership and encourages
cooperation (Adeleke, 2008).
Team has been around for as long as anyone can remember and there can be few organizations
that have not used the team in one sense or another. It is common to hear of management teams,
production teams, service team or even whole organizations being referred to as teams that is,
many organization today are moving towards “team based” approach to work, this means that
working in teams is the basic method used to get work done in these organizations. As a result,
employers stress the importance of employees working as a team and advertise for staff with the
ability to work in such a way (Richard, 1991).
McShone (1998) said that teams are replacing individuals as the basic building blocks of
organization - French language television programs has shifted to team-based projects and giving
more recognition to teams than to individuals. Companies are not just looking for technical
ability but looking for people who can work on teams and solve problems.
According to Steiner (1972) teams and teamwork are not novel concepts; teams and team
thinking have been around for years at companies such as Procter and Gamble; and Botany. In
the 1980s the manufacturing and auto industries embraced a new team-oriented approach when
United States firms retooled to combat Japanese competitor who were quickly gaining market
share. Brown et al (1996) examined that managers discovered the large body of research
indicating that teams can be more than the tradition corporate structure for making decisions
quickly and efficiently. He further said that teams needed for the restructuring and reengineering
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processes of the future giving instances that simple changes like encouraging input and
feedbacks from workers on the line make dramatic improvements.
According to Taylorist model, work was divided into narrow function with short, repetitive work
cycles and the work method prescribed in detail but this system fail to offer sufficient scope for a
process of upgrading and innovation, which is essential for quick change and adaptation (
Taylorist 2003). In current times there has been growing emphasis in tertiary education that
students should develop professional skills as part of their education. Skills such as problem
solving, communication, collaboration, interpersonal skills, social skills and time management
are actively being targeted by prospective employers as essential requirement for employ ability
especially in team environment. Of these, employment authorities consistently mention
collaboration and teamwork as being a critical skill, essential in almost all working
environments.
2.3 Team Structure
Organizations can be structured in various ways, and the structure of an organization can
determine the modes in which it operates and performs. The team structure is a newer type of
organizational structure, often seen as less hierarchical, in which individuals are grouped into
teams (Williams, 2000).
According to Takuya (2009), there is nothing like one size fits all type of concept at play when
handling different types of team structures for specific goals in mind. Deep thought and
consideration is required to identify, assemble and also convince the team members to work
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together on a variety of assignments. According to him there are two major team structures that
an organization forms to meet objectives:
Functional teams:
Some teams are like a shadow in the background, they are always there but not very visible, yet
most essential to run day to day operations of the organization. These teams for most part handle
finance, sales and marketing and are deemed to be the functional leg of the entire organization.
Such teams usually work under broad guidelines and policies formulated by the top executives of
the corporation and it runs more or less smoothly without much fuss and noise.
Largely they are left to execute and achieve the grand vision of the organization, until there is
need to take stock of the situation. Such scenarios may arise out of market dynamics like
competition breathing down the neck, technological shifts, and change in regulatory framework
or amendments in the Law of the land. These teams are recruited with due consideration and
deliberation and they follow a routine and pattern laid down beforehand by the executives. They
are more or less permanent and some team members may even outlast the organization.
Project teams:
On the other hand project teams are different animals’ altogether. They are put together to
execute certain tasks, reach certain goals or accomplish a vision in a time bound manner. Once
the target is achieved, these teams are in most cases disbanded and team members go back to
their routine tasks. For example a project specific team may have ten percent increase in market
share as their target to be achieved in a span of three quarters.
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Such a team may comprise the marketing head, the advertising head, the financial controller and
the operational supervisor, each contributing with their respective expertise and skill set to
realize the common goal. As soon as the market share goal is achieved within the time frame,
they may hand over the reins of maintaining the market share to the functional team. Sometime
the goal is too large to achieve by a single team, so it is broken down into smaller goals and set
to be achieved by sub teams within a matrix of teams.
2.4 Team Effectiveness
There is no question that today’s emphasis on teams is more than just a management fad.
Research in organizational effectiveness has repeatedly validated the view that teams are
valuable to an organization. However, teams can be done right or they can be done wrong. When
done well, teams can bring a lot of good things to an organization. When done poorly, they can
sap motivation out of an organization faster than almost anything else. Ineffective teams are a
bad sign for the future of an organization. If were going to do them, we need to do them right.
This paper is a summarization of my own experiences, both good and bad with teams over the
years and current results from the literature on organizational development about what it takes to
make a successful team (Fogg, 1994).
Teams as part of everyone’s life and as part of organizational building is often view as a group (a
collection of people) who interact to achieve a common goal but an effective, well-functioning
team is much more than this (Murray 2000). It has been found that it dramatically affects
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organizational performance. Some managers have credited teams with helping them to achieve
incredible results.
Participants in an effective team care about the group’s well-being skillfully combined individual
talents with a positive team spirit to achieve results regardless of whether the program effort is
that of an individual or several individuals. Developing team skills have been seen as important
because of the tremendous explosion in the use of teams in work organization over the last
decade.
2.4.1 Positive Effectiveness of Team
Employees Performance
Organizations which have emphasized more on teams have results in increased employee
performance, greater productivity and better problem solving at work (Cohen and Bailey, 1999).
One research study concludes that to teach individuals on how to work in teams is not an easy
task because to teach individuals to work in teams is inappropriate (Crosby, 1991). Bacon and
Blyton (2006) highlighted the two important factors i.e. self-management team and interpersonal
team skills. These factors enhance the communication as well as interpersonal relationship
between team members and also boost the employee performances. Teamwork is a significant
tool of new type of work organization. Teamwork is a precise organizational measure that shows
many different features in all type of organizations including non-profit (Mulika, 2010). One
research study concluded that the good manager is the one who assigns the responsibilities to
his/her employee in a form of group or team in order to take maximum output from employees
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(Ingram, 2000). Another study concluded that it should be possible to design a system of team
building within every organization for employees in order to promote and distribute best practice
and maximize output. The main emphasis for designing and implementing such a system is
ultimately to improve employee teaching (Washer, 2006). According to Ingram (2000) teamwork
is a strategy that has a potential to improve the performance of individuals and organizations, but
it needs to be nurtured over time. Organizations need to look at strategies for improving
performance in the light of increasingly competitive environments. Top managers need to have
the vision to introduce teamwork activities within the organizations, the sensitivity to nourish it
and the courage to permit teams to play an important part in decision making. Conti and Kleiner
(2003) reported that teams offer greater participation, challenges and feelings of
accomplishment. Organizations with teams will attract and retain the best people. This in turn
will create a high performance organization that is flexible, efficient and most importantly,
profitable.
Boost to Productivity
According to Nicholas Bate(2006), by boosting productivity, we mean boosting your output at
work so that you can respond to tough, difficult competitive situations or so that you can handle
more challenges at home; when teenagers diversify their interest and need more of your time
and support for instance. Importantly boosting your productivity shows you how to do this
without detriment to the overall balance of your life. Essentially, it is about getting more out of
the same time or the same out of less time.
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Leading researchers in the field of work organization; Katzenbach and smith (1993) are
convinced that people working in team function more efficiently, are less prone to stress, and
such individuals make greater effort in their work. Such individuals are less prone to stress
because tasks or problems of the organization is broken down thereby reducing the workload on
an individual. When the workload is reduced, it encourages employees to broaden their skills and
knowledge and this leads to higher performance and productivity.
Good Decision-making and Implementation
Teamwork has been used by companies to implement strategic decision that are taken in
response to a range of business challenges and pressures (EWON, 1998). A company’s attitude
to the introduction of team is important in the process of implementation in decision making in
that an effective team brings out ideal strategy of an organization hence enhancing its
performance.
High performance teams have both a clear understanding of the goal and objectives to achieve
and the belief that the goals and objective embody a worthwhile or important result. For these
reasons team objective and responsibilities are defined and these assist in a quick decision
implementation.
Team Trust
Trust among the team members comes when member of the teams develop the confidence in
each other competence. One research study concluded that trust among the team members
develop the unique skills and coordination of individuals (Erdem, Ferda, Ozen and Janset, 2003).
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According to Mickan and Rodger (2000) there is positive relationship between the team
performance and trust. Trust generates the behavioral basis of teamwork, which results in
organizational synergy and better performance of an employee. Development of trust within the
organization is the responsibility of individuals. Creation of conducive and the trustable
environment for synergetic teamwork is the responsibility of organization. Organization should
transform the trustworthy behavior for measurement into performance appraisal system to
promote the organizational values (Erdem et al., 2003). According to Manz and Neck (2002)
high performance teams within the organization exist when there is cooperation and unity exists
between members. Reducing mistakes, quality out puts, increased in productivity and customer
satisfaction are the variety of criteria through which the performance of the team is evaluated
(Mickan& Rodger, 2000). Cooperation of the team members can only be created when the trust
comes to be most important value of the team culture. Trust provides an atmosphere for the team
members where members can discuss their mistakes, accept criticism and freely express their
feelings so this leads to more synergy (Edmondson, 1999).
Recognition & Rewards
According to Rabey (2003) recognition and rewards are the primary focus of the individuals who
are working in teams. Perceptive managers know and constantly capture the benefits of the team.
Teams show the collective strength of the individuals and boost the motivation and morale of
individual as well. Managers critically observe the team members hidden working potential
otherwise managers may lose them. According to (Staniforth, 2000) teamwork is the collective
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way of working which result in potential benefits and greater synergy. Managers must plan and
design an appropriate reward system for the employee and encourage their participation in team
projects. They must also set the group goals which are connected towards the company strategic
plan, building of employee performance and fair payment methods. After implementation of
above captioned concern, managers are able to establish their teams. Periodically monitoring the
team work activities in order to check its effectiveness should be the primary focus of every
business strategy (Musselwhite, 2001). Researcher further suggested that team work is a fragile
process which needs to be handling carefully in a supportive organizational environment.
Anderson & West (2002) argue that effective organizational environment is one in which
employee communicate, participate and work in trustable atmosphere. According to Herzberg
(1987) reward and recognition can provide both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Herzberg
(1968) reported that extrinsic rewards are the main factor to provide employee movement in
positive manner.
2.4.2Negative Effectiveness of Team
Along with the existence of positive and constructive team roles, negative and destructive
agendas can emerge that undermine the ability of individual teams to function and perform
adequately. Negative and destructive roles emerge for a variety of reasons, including personal
agendas, resistance to change, immaturity, and lack of motivation and/or team leadership and
management. One of a leader’s major roles is to observe individual team members and watch for
destructive and negative behaviors. When problems surface, they need to encourage the team to
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collectively recognize and handle them within the team environment. If this fails, it is up to
leaders to take specific action with the offending individual(s).
Leaders need to be watchful for the following negative roles and behaviors within their
individual teams:
Aggressor
The aggressor criticizes everything said within the team environment, and is in effect an active
naysayer. He or she has the ability to block the introduction of new ideas and concepts by
minimizing and deflating the status of other team members and creating a sense of intimidation.
If this behavior and role is not checked it will tend to decrease the team’s overall motivation and
subsequent member involvement.
Blocker
The blocker is a dominant personality who automatically rejects the views and perspectives of
others out of hand. This individual blocks the team’s ability to brainstorm and discuss the merits
of new concepts and ideas raised. Like the aggressor, this individual can be highly detrimental to
the team effort as he or she intimidates individual members, limits their participation and
decreases overall team motivation and involvement.
Withdrawer
The withdrawer holds back his or her personal participation and refuses to become active within
the team environment. This individual focuses the team on his or her immature behavior and
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attempts to resolve the conflict and unrest it creates, which effectively limits the team’s ability to
make progress on problems and assigned projects.
Recognition Seeker
The recognition seeker looks for personal attention and in so doing monopolizes the discussion
by continually asserting his or her personal ideas, suggestions and viewpoints. The recognition
seeker is also attempting to win the team over to his or her ideas and opinions. Unfortunately,
this behavior minimizes other individual team members input, which hampers overall team
participation, involvement and motivation.
Topic Jumper
A topic jumper is unable to explore any specific topic in depth. He or she displays a short
attention span and continually interrupts group discussions by attempting to change the subject.
These continual interruptions diminish overall productivity by keeping team meetings off-focus.
Dominator
The dominator displays threatening and bullying behavior within the team setting. This
individual uses intimidating and minimizing behavior in an attempt to take over the team and
control all discussions. The dominator will typically “hijack” the team by coercing it to pursue
his or her personal agenda.
Devil’s Advocate
While the devil’s advocate in the sense of introducing different viewpoints into the team
discussion is a positive team function, it can become a negative role when used to block team
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progress or consensus. In this regard, the devil’s advocate is simply a naysayer that refuses to
allow the team to move forward.
2.5 Performance of Organization
It is difficult to formulate an unambiguous and definitive description of ‘performance’, since this
ultimately depends upon the objectives of the particular organization. Nevertheless, a wide range
of performance indicators have been investigated in organizations, and, for the purposes of this
review, we look at these under the headings of operational outcomes and financial outcomes. The
former would include productivity (e.g. the number of hours to assemble a car), the quality of the
product or service, innovation and customer satisfaction; the latter, value-added per employee
and return on capital employed. To complicate matters, many of these indicators can be recorded
at different levels within an organization. Productivity, for example, can be measured at
department, workplace or company level.
In addition, when one begins to consider the team-based literature, another set of ‘performance’
outcomes come to the fore (Cohen and Bailey 1997). A number of these studies are designed to
show the outcomes for individual team members or the team itself. While some of these
measures job satisfaction, for example, or absenteeism may not seem directly relevant to the
present study, subsequent discussion will show that there are important links with organizational
performance.
A number of theoretical arguments have been developed to explain why team working might
lead to improved organizational performance. Some theories focus on the effort and motivation
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of individual workers and claim that they work harder. Strategic HRM theory, for example,
suggests that an appropriately designed HR system, which typically includes teamwork, will
have a positive effect on an employee’s job satisfaction, commitment and motivation, leading to
behavioral changes that result in improved organizational performance (Becker et al. 1997).
Similarly, self-leadership theory focuses on participatory decision-making, individual discretion
and teamwork as important motivating factors, and suggests these will lead to more committed
employees who strive for greater efficiency and effectiveness (Sims and Manz 1996). Work
design theory, however, tends to emphasize intra-group processes such as job design, task variety
and interdependence (Wall and Martin 1987), while sociotechnical theory highlights changes in
the structure of an organization and its processes as the main mechanism by which performance
is enhanced (Van Hootegem 2000). It is apparent from this that the teamwork performance link
is related to the more general discussions surrounding HRM and performance, empowerment,
self-leadership and so on. However, teamwork research should not be considered only within
these contexts since a specific team working literature has emerged over the course of time
(Salas et al. 2000).
2.6 Productivity of Employees
In this era of increased competition, leaders recognize the importance of teamwork more than
ever before. Teams can expand the outputs of individuals through collaboration. Employees who
are working in teams become the standard for the organization (Alie, Beam & Carey, 1998). It is
the mean of improving man-power utilization and potentially raising performance of individual.
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With a support from upper level management, an employee works confidently in team and
increases productivity of the organization. Nowadays, in the new business world, managers are
assigning more team projects to employees with opportunities to strengthen their knowledge and
develop their skills (Hartenian, 2003). Recent study shows that employee working within the
team can produce more output as compared to individual (Jones, Richard, Paul, Sloane & Peter,
2007).
According to Cohen and Bailey (1999) an employee team is a collection of individuals who are
interdependent in the tasks and who share responsibility for the outcomes. Team’s enables
people to cooperate, enhance individual skills and provide constructive feedback without any
conflict between individuals (Jones et al., 2007). Teamwork is an important factor for smooth
functioning of an organization. Most of the organizational activities become complex due to
advancement in technology therefore teamwork is a major focus of many organizations. One
research study concluded that teamwork is necessary for all types of organization including non-
profit organizations (Pfaff & Huddleston, 2003). Team members enhance the skills, knowledge
and abilities while working in teams (Froebel and Marchington, 2005).This means that
employees who work in teams are able to improve upon their skills, knowledge and ability by
learning from each other as they are working in a team, and due to that it enable them produce
effectively and efficiently as compare to employees who work individually in organizations.
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2.7 Factors Associated with Teamwork
According to Pielow (2010), today, business competition, customer expectations, new
technology, and many other developments, it is more critical than ever to build teamwork in your
organization. The many challenges that your organization faces, the more critical it becomes that
teamwork is effective. The key elements to successful teamwork are trust, communication and
effective leadership; a focus on common goals with a collective responsibility for success (or
failure). However, without trust and communication the team will have difficulty functioning
effectively. The whole process of organizational teamwork must begin with a company
leadership team that creates a business strategy and a focus on the critical goals of the enterprise.
Next there is the process of communicating the vision, values and mission of the organization to
a team, or teams that will be responsible for planning and executing the mission and building
trust in the teams and within the teams to carry out their assigned responsibilities. Marketing
plans, as well as other operational plans, will succeed only with team-based planning and
execution.
According to Patrick Lencioni in “The Five Dysfunctions of a Team”, senior executives, middle
management and assigned team leaders, must foster and expect that team member activities
include the following factors:
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Trust among team members
Building trust takes time. If trust is lacking it must be the responsibility of the team leader to
focus first on building trust, i.e. getting team members to open up (among the team) and expose
their weaknesses and fears to each other. In some cases, a team building exercise can be utilized.
In certain business cases, due to time pressures, the leader may have to take responsibility for
building trust or change the team to achieve the necessary level of trust for team success. Until
everyone is willing to trust the other members of the team, progress towards team success will be
limited.
Prepare to engage in debate around ideas.
Disagreements can lead to conflict, but conflict can be good. If ideas are not presented and
debated, the team will miss opportunities to find the best solutions to problems. Respect for the
thoughts and ideas of the other team members will be developed through healthy debate.
Learn to commit to decisions and plans of action.
Team results will only come about as a result of team commitment to team decisions; this
includes agreeing on the specifics of action plans. If some team members are not consistent with
their commitments, the team will not succeed.
26
Hold one another accountable against their plans.
Team members must be prepared to check among themselves to assure progress and overcome
obstacles to progress. Ad hoc meetings may be necessary to coordinate actions between
departments or groups to assure progress.
Focus on achieving collective results.
The vision and/or mission of the team must be accepted by all the team members and critical
goals viewed as the collective responsibility of the team. If a return to profitability is a critical
goal of an executive team, priorities and time commitments must be pulled from elsewhere.
Focusing on results that in any way does not support the critical goal(s) of the team will lead to
team failure.
2.8 The Impact of Teamwork on Organizational Performance
The impact of teams on organizational performance has been a topic of many researches done by
academics and practitioners for the previous years (Jones et al, 2008). The main likely reason for
this attentiveness is the belief that teams can affect the performance of organizations. The work
of a team is deliberated by some researchers to be particularly important in achieving
organizational goals and in evoking performance among subordinates. Several reasons indicate
that there should be a relationship between teamwork and performance. Scholars and
practitioners suggest that effective team behaviors can facilitate the improvement of performance
27
when organizations face new challenges. Understanding the impact of teamwork on performance
is important because teamwork is viewed by some researchers as one of the key driving force for
improving a firm’s performance (Jones et al, 2008).
Teamwork is the concept of people working together cooperatively, as in sales team, sports team
etc. It has also become so valued that many large corporations have developed specific tests to
measure potential employee’s teamwork ability. Hence, it has become important goal in most
work places, the belief is that teamwork gives employees a sense of ownership and encourages
cooperation (Adeleke, 2008).
Team has been around for as long as anyone can remember and there can be few organizations
that have not used the team in one sense or another. It is common to hear of management teams,
production teams, service team or even whole organizations being referred to as teams that is,
many organization today are moving towards “team based” approach to work, this means that
working in teams is the basic method used to get work done in these organizations. As a result,
employers stress the importance of employees working as a team and advertise for staff with the
ability to work in such a way (Richard, 1991).
McShone (1998) said that teams are replacing individuals as the basic building blocks of
organization - French language television programs has shifted to team-based projects and giving
more recognition to teams than to individuals. Companies are not just looking for technical
ability but looking for people who can work on teams and solve problems.
28
According to Steiner (1972) teams and teamwork are not novel concepts; teams and team
thinking have been around for years at companies such as Procter and Gamble; and Botany. In
the 1980s the manufacturing and auto industries embraced a new team-oriented approach when
United States firms retooled to combat Japanese competitor who were quickly gaining market
share. Brown et al (1996) examined that managers discovered the large body of research
indicating that teams can be more than the tradition corporate structure for making decisions
quickly and efficiently. He further said that teams needed for the restructuring and reengineering
processes of the future giving instances that simple changes like encouraging input and
feedbacks from workers on the line make dramatic improvements.
Even from time of creation, God applied the concept of teamwork when he said, ‘‘Let us make
man in our own image’’ (Genesis1:26, KJV). This statement brings out the fact that God in the
creation process work with other heavenly beings hence the essence of team in bringing
productivity, ‘Man’. This means that teamwork was present in the ancients’ days and was having
a greater impact on the performance of on almost all the organizations at that time.
Research conducted by some scholars on this same topic has let me know that teamwork is still
in existence in this modern world, then if it is so, how come Ghanaians organizational culture
lacks the knowledge about the relation of Teamwork and knowledge to achieve best results.
Therefore this research is to help me find out what the problem in context of Ghana is.
29
CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
3.1 Type of Research
The study is classified under a descriptive research and uses two case studies. A descriptive
research approach was used since it delivers an in-depth data about a particular subject by
describing it from various angles.
3.2 Population
The target population for the study consisted of both management and staff members of Ejisu
Government Hospital and Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital.
3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique
A sample size of sixty (60) respondents was drawn from the population of the two hospitals.
Thirty (30) from each hospital. With this twenty (20) questionnaires were distributed to
employees whiles the remaining ten (10) were given to management in each of the hospital.
Purposive sampling was used to select respondents based on the fact that they have expertise in
the area being researched. Convenient Sampling was also used to select respondents among
employees based on their ability and willingness to respond to the questionnaire.
30
3.4 Data Collection
This includes the Type of Data, Sources of Data, and Instrument for Data Collection and
Procedure for Data Collection.
3.4.1 Type of Data
The researcher used ordinal data for the study. This is because the responses to the questionnaire
were based on a rating scale and could be ranked.
3.4.2 Source of Data
Primary data type was collected by the researcher. It was obtained from respondents through the
administration of questionnaires. This was sourced from the staff and management of both
Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital and Ejisu Government Hospital. The researcher used the
primary data because it helps to know what is actually happening on the ground and also come
out with findings and recommendations.
3.4.3 Instrument for Data Collection
Questionnaire was the main instrument used to collect data for the study. This was to enhance
the truthfulness of the data regarding the study.
31
3.4.3.1 Instrument Validity
The need to ensure validity and reliability in research affects all aspects of the research design.
The researcher ensured that proper understandings of the questions in the questionnaire were
made to the respondents.
3.4.3.2 Instrument Structure to Meet Research Objectives
The questionnaire was designed to contain simple question based on the set objectives of the
study. It was simple and easy to understand to ensure respondents provided relevant data to meet
the objectives of the study. The questionnaire distributed to respondents contained relevant close
ended questions for the purpose of attaining the research objectives of the study.
The questionnaires were in three parts. Section A was designed for respondents to provide the
necessary data about the factors associated with teamwork. Section B sought to collect data on
the positive or negative effects of teamwork on employees and Section C was designed to gather
data to examine the impact of teamwork on organization performance.
3.4.4 Procedure for Data Collection
An introductory letter was obtained from the University to the two Hospitals related to the study.
Data was collected from a number of employees and management of the two Hospitals.
Questionnaires were handed out to individuals or personnel who work at the various departments
of the two Hospitals and the researcher paid personal visits to deliver and collect the
questionnaires; this was made possible as a special meeting was scheduled with the respondents
32
for this activity at their free or less busy times. Convenient Sampling technique was used because
questionnaires were directed to respondents who were available at the time the researcher visited
the Hospital.
3.5 Method of Data Analysis
Qualitative data analysis was used. It was used to determine the percentages and frequencies in
the data analysis. Data gathered through questionnaires was presented in tables and bar charts
using SPSS.
33
CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 General Information on Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital
Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) is located in Kumasi, the Regional Capital of
Ashanti Region with a total projected population of 3,204,609 (1998).s
The geographical location of the 1000-bed Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, the road network
of the country and commercial nature of Kumasi make the hospital accessible to all the areas that
share boundaries with Ashanti Region and others that are further away.
As such, referrals are received from all the northern regions (namely, Northern, Upper East and
Upper West Regions), Brong Ahafo, Central, Western, Eastern and parts of the Volta Regions.
In the 1940s, there was a hospital located on the hill over-looking Bantama Township designated
African and European Hospitals. As their names implied, the African side treated Africans while
the European side treated Europeans. However, on some rare occasions, high-ranking African
government officials were given treatment in the European section.
By 1952, the need to construct a new hospital to cater for the fast increasing population in
Kumasi and therefore Ashanti Region arose. The European Hospital was therefore transferred to
the Kwadaso Military Quarters to make way for the new project to begin. In 1954/55 the new
hospital complex was completed and named the Kumasi Central Hospital. The name was later
34
changed to the Komfo Anokye Hospital in honor and memory of the powerful and legendary
fetish priest, Komfo Anokye.
The hospital became a Teaching hospital in 1975 for the training of Medical Student in
collaboration with the School of Medical Sciences of the University of Science and Technology,
Kumasi.
Vision
To become a medical centre of excellence offering Clinical and Non-Clinical services of the
highest quality standards comparable to any international standards', within 5 years.
Mission
To provide quality services to meet the needs and expectations of all its clients, this will be
achieved through well-motivated and committed staff applying best practice and innovation. The
hospital became a Teaching hospital in 1975 for the training of Medical Student in collaboration
with the School of Medical Sciences of the University of Science and Technology, Kumasi.
4.2 General Information on Ejisu Government Hospital
Ejisu Government Hospital is located in the Ejisu-Juaben Municipality in the Ashanti Region.
It started as Health Centre in 1972 and was re-designated as a Government Hospital in the year
2010. The Hospital has a bed capacity of 64 and the hospital renders services to about 179,376
35
people. Ejisu Government Hospital operates under Ejisu-Juaben Municipal Health
Administration.
The Hospital has substantive staff strength of seventy-seven and thirty-two casuals and provides
some of the following services: Out Patient Services, Surgery & Obstetric, Maternal &
Reproductive Health services, General Administration, Eye care Services, Laboratory services,
Psychiatry services, Pharmaceutical services etc.
The Hospital has the following as some of its objectives under which they operate in order to
give quality health care to their clients:
1. To provide efficient, quality and accessible medical care to the people of the
catchment area.
2. To train and educate nursing staff, paramedical staff and newly qualified staff by
organizing workshops for all.
3. To improve utilization of the Hospital’s services.
4. Continuous improvement in service delivery through systematic human resource
development.
Mission Statement
The Hospital exists to provide quality, accessible and affordable health care to meet the needs of
the people of Ejisu and beyond to be delivered by a team of humane, disciplined, and dedicated
staff in collaboration with all stakeholders.
36
4.3 Data Presentation and Analysis for Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital
4.3.1 Objective one: To identify the factors associated with teamwork
Table 4.1 Factors associated with teamwork
(Respond /Answers)
Number/Frequency and Percentage of Respondents
Variables
Strongly
Agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly
Disagree
Freq
Freq
%
Freq
%
Freq
%
%
1. Trust exists among team
members.
12
-
-
18
60.0
-
-
-
2. Team members are
prepared to engage in debate
around ideas.
5
15
50.0
7
23.3
3
10.0
-
3. Team members are
viewed as unique people.
8
14
46.7
6
20.0
1
3.3
3.3
4. Effective leadership team
will have team members
who are actively engaged in
the work and focus of the
team.
10
17
56.7
3
10.0
-
-
-
5. Team members are
prepared to check among
themselves to assure
progress and overcome
obstacles to progress.
8
15
50.0
4
13.3
3
10.0
-
6. The vision and/or mission
of the team are accepted by
all the team members.
10
16
53.3
3
10.0
1
3.3
-
7. Effective teams embrace
and are constituted by a
diversity of cultures, talents
and personalities.
7
17
56.7
5
16.7
1
3.3
-
8. Effective teamwork is
facilitated by clear and open
communication.
20
8
26.7
1
3.3
1
3.3
-
37
9. Effective teamwork is
developed through shared
experiences and practice.
17
10
33.3
1
3.3
2
6.7
-
Table 4.1 shows that, 40.0% of respondents strongly agreed that trust exists among team
members, whiles 60.0% were not sure (neutral) and none of the respondents agree, disagree or
strongly disagree, and also 16.7% of the respondents strongly agreed that team members are
prepared to engage in debate around ideas, whiles 50.0% agreed, 23.3% were not sure (neutral)
and 10% disagreed whiles none of the respondents strongly disagree.
More so, 26.7% of the respondents strongly agreed that team members are viewed as unique
people, whiles 46.7% agreed, 20.0% were not sure (neutral) and 3.3% disagreed and 3.3%
strongly disagree, and 33.3% of the respondents strongly agreed that effective leadership team
will have team members who are actively engaged in the work and focus of the team, whiles
56.7% agreed and 10.0% were not sure (neutral), whiles none of the respondent either disagree
or strongly disagreed.
Furthermore, 26.7% of the respondents strongly agreed that team members are prepared to check
among themselves to assure progress and overcome obstacles to progress, whiles 50.0% agreed,
13.3% were not sure (neutral) and 10.0% disagreed whiles none of the respondent strongly
disagreed, and also 33.3% of the respondents strongly agreed that the vision and/or mission of
the team are accepted by all the team members, whiles 53.3% agreed, 10.0% were not sure
(neutral) and 3.3% disagreed whiles none of the respondent strongly disagreed.
38
In addition, 23.3% of the respondents strongly agreed effective teams embrace and are
constituted by a diversity of cultures, talents and personalities, whiles 56.7% agreed, 16.7% were
not sure (neutral) and 3.3% disagreed whiles none of the respondent strongly disagreed, and
66.7% of the respondents strongly agreed that effective teamwork is facilitated by clear and open
communication, whiles 26.7% agreed, 3.3% were not sure (neutral) and 3.3% disagreed whiles
none of the respondent strongly disagreed.
Lastly, 56.7% of the respondents strongly agreed that effective teamwork is developed through
shared experiences and practice, whiles 33.3% agreed, 3.3% were not sure (neutral) and 6.7%
disagreed whiles none of the respondent strongly disagreed.
4.3.2 Objective two: To identify the positive or negative effects of teamwork on employees
Table 4.2 Positive or negative effects of teamwork on employees
(Respond /Answers)
Number/Frequency and Percentage of Respondents
Variables
Strongly
Agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly
Disagree
Freq
Freq
%
Freq
%
Freq
%
%
10. Teamwork encourages
employees to broaden their
skills and knowledge.
19
9
30.0
-
-
2
6.7
-
11. Managers recognize and
rewards employees who are
working in teams.
11
13
43.3
5
16.7
1
3.3
-
12. Working with team
increase efficiency of an
employee.
6
19
63.3
4
13.3
-
-
3.3
39
13. All members of the team
have an equal opportunity
for participation to develop
confidence and skills.
8
13
43.3
7
23.3
1
3.3
3.3
14. Team members
intimidate individuals to
limits their participation and
decreases overall team
motivation and involvement.
2
5
16.7
11
36.7
8
26.7
13.3
15. Work pressure is evenly
distributed among team
members.
10
6
20.0
7
23.3
6
20.0
3.3
Table 4.2 shows that, 63.3% of the respondents strongly agreed that teamwork encourage
employees to broaden their skills and knowledge, whiles 30.0% agreed and 6.7% disagreed
whiles none of the respondents were not sure or strongly disagreed, and 36.7% of the
respondents strongly agreed that managers recognize and rewards employees who are working in
teams, whiles 43.3% agreed, 16.7% were not sure (neutral) and 3.3% disagreed whiles none of
the respondents strongly disagreed.
More so, 20.0% of the respondents strongly agreed that working with team increase efficiency of
an employee, whiles 63.3% agreed, 13.3% were not sure (neutral) and 3.3% strongly disagreed
whiles none of the respondents disagree, and then also 26.7% of the respondents strongly agreed
that all members of the team have an equal opportunity for participation to develop confidence
and skills, whiles 43.3% agreed, 23.3% were not sure (neutral), 3.3% strongly disagreed and
3.3% disagree.
40
Furthermore, 6.7% of the respondents strongly agreed that team members intimidate individuals
to limits their participation and decreases overall team motivation and involvement, whiles
16.7% agreed, 36.7% were not sure (neutral), 26.7% disagreed and 13.3% strongly disagree and
lastly, 33.3% of the respondents strongly agreed that work pressure is evenly distributed among
team members, whiles 20.0% agreed, 23.3% were not sure (neutral), 20.0% disagreed and 3.3%
strongly disagree.
Table 4.3 shows the correlation of Teamwork and Organization Performance. Work being
accomplished within the shortest period of time correlate to teams being responsible for specific
services and teamwork having direct positive impact on organizational performance, an
improvement of skills among employees in achieving team goals and as well as organization’s
objectives have a strong correlation to teams ensuring effective utilization of organizational
resources, team members playing a major role in the organizational performance also correlate to
team bringing various specializations within the organization together. In addition various teams
always work to improve the quality of service provided to customers correlate to teams ensuring
effective utilization of organizational resources, teams responsible for specific services correlate
to teams ensuring effective utilization of resources.
4.4 Data Presentation and Analysis for Ejisu Government Hospital
41
4.4.1 Objective one: To identify the factors associated with teamwork
Table 4.4 Factors associated with teamwork
(Respond /Answers)
Number/Frequency and Percentage of Respondents
Variables
Strongly
Agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly
Disagree
Freq
Freq
%
Freq
%
Freq
%
%
1. Trust exists among team
members.
1
25
83.3
4
13.3
-
-
-
2. Team members are
prepared to engage in debate
around ideas.
3
24
80.0
3
10.0
-
-
-
3. Team members are
viewed as unique people.
7
6
20.0
16
53.3
-
-
3.3
4. Effective leadership team
will have team members
who are actively engaged in
the work and focus of the
team.
15
11
36.7
4
13.3
-
-
-
5. Team members are
prepared to check among
themselves to assure
progress and overcome
obstacles to progress.
9
16
53.3
3
10.0
2
6.7
-
6. The vision and/or mission
of the team are accepted by
all the team members.
11
16
53.3
3
10.0
-
-
-
7. Effective teams embrace
and are constituted by a
diversity of cultures, talents
and personalities.
10
13
43.3
2
6.7
1
3.3
13.3
8. Effective teamwork is
facilitated by clear and open
communication.
21
9
30.0
-
-
-
-
-
42
9. Effective teamwork is
developed through shared
experiences and practice.
17
11
36.7
2
6.7
-
-
-
Table 4.4 shows that, 3.3% of respondents strongly agreed that trust exists among team
members, whiles 83.3% agree and 13.3% were not sure (neutral) whiles none of the respondents
either disagree or strongly disagree, and also 10.0% of the respondents strongly agreed that team
members are prepared to engage in debate around ideas, whiles 80.0% agreed, 10.0% were not
sure (neutral) whiles none of the respondents either disagree or strongly disagree.
More so, 23.3% of the respondents strongly agreed that team members are viewed as unique
people, whiles 20.0% agreed, 53.3% were not sure (neutral) and 3.3% strongly disagree whiles
none of the respondents disagree, and 50.0% of the respondents strongly agreed that effective
leadership team will have team members who are actively engaged in the work and focus of the
team, whiles 36.7% agreed and 13.3% were not sure (neutral), whiles none of the respondent
either disagreed or strongly disagreed.
Furthermore, 30.0% of the respondents strongly agreed that team members are prepared to check
among themselves to assure progress and overcome obstacles to progress, whiles 53.3% agreed,
10.0% were not sure (neutral) whiles 6.7% disagreed none of the respondent strongly disagreed,
and also 36.7% of the respondents strongly agreed that the vision and/or mission of the team are
accepted by all the team members, whiles 53.3% agreed, 10.0% were not sure (neutral) whiles
none of the respondent either disagreed or strongly disagreed.
43
In addition, 33.3% of the respondents strongly agreed effective teams embrace and are
constituted by a diversity of cultures, talents and personalities, whiles 43.3% agreed, 6.7% were
not sure (neutral) and 3.3% disagreed whiles 13.3% strongly disagreed, and 70.0% of the
respondents strongly agreed that effective teamwork is facilitated by clear and open
communication, whiles 30.0% agreed, and none of the respondent either were not sure (neutral),
disagreed or strongly disagreed.
Lastly, 56.7% of the respondents strongly agreed that effective teamwork is developed through
shared experiences and practice, whiles 36.7% agreed, 6.7% were not sure (neutral) whiles none
of the respondent either disagreed or strongly disagreed.
4.4.2 Objective two: To identify the positive or negative effects of teamwork on employees
Table 4.5 Positive or negative effects of teamwork on employees
(Respond /Answers)
Number/Frequency and Percentage of Respondents
Variables
Strongly
Agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly
Disagree
Freq
Freq
%
Freq
%
Freq
%
%
10. Teamwork encourages
employees to broaden their
skills and knowledge.
15
15
50.0
-
-
-
-
-
11. Managers recognize and
rewards employees who are
working in teams.
7
16
53.3
6
20.0
1
3.3
-
12. Working with team
increase efficiency of an
employee.
14
13
43.3
3
10.0
-
-
-
44
13. All members of the team
have an equal opportunity
for participation to develop
confidence and skills.
12
14
46.7
2
6.7
2
6.7
-
14. Team members
intimidate individuals to
limits their participation and
decreases overall team
motivation and involvement.
3
10
33.3
9
30.0
3
10.0
16.7
15. Work pressure is evenly
distributed among team
members.
11
6
20.0
10
33.3
2
6.7
3.3
Table 4.5 shows that, 50.0% of the respondents strongly agreed that teamwork encourage
employees to broaden their skills and knowledge, whiles 50.0% agreed whiles none of the
respondents were not sure, disagreed or strongly disagreed, and 23.3% of the respondents
strongly agreed that managers recognize and rewards employees who are working in teams,
whiles 53.3% agreed, 20.0% were not sure (neutral) and 3.3% disagreed whiles none of the
respondents strongly disagreed.
More so, 46.7% of the respondents strongly agreed that working with team increase efficiency of
an employee, whiles 43.3% agreed, 10.0% were not sure (neutral) whiles none of the respondents
either disagreed or strongly disagreed, and then also 40.0% of the respondents strongly agreed
that all members of the team have an equal opportunity for participation to develop confidence
and skills, whiles 46.7% agreed, 6.7% were not sure (neutral), 6.7% disagreed and none strongly
disagree.
45
Furthermore, 10.0% of the respondents strongly agreed that team members intimidate individuals
to limits their participation and decreases overall team motivation and involvement, whiles
33.3% agreed, 30.0% were not sure (neutral), 10.0% disagreed and 16.7% strongly disagree and
lastly, 36.7% of the respondents strongly agreed that work pressure is evenly distributed among
team members, whiles 20.0% agreed, 33.3% were not sure (neutral), 6.7% disagreed and 3.3%
strongly disagree.
Table 4.6 shows the correlation of Teamwork and Organization Performance. Work being
accomplished within the shortest period of time correlate to teams being responsible for specific
services and teamwork having direct positive impact on organizational performance, an
improvement of skills among employees in achieving team goals and as well as organization’s
objectives have a strong correlation to teams ensuring effective utilization of organizational
resources, team members playing a major role in the organizational performance also correlate to
team bringing various specializations within the organization together. In addition various teams
always work to improve the quality of service provided to customers correlate to teams ensuring
effective utilization of organizational resources, teams responsible for specific services correlate
to teams ensuring effective utilization of resources.
46
4.5 Discussion of Research Findings
The research was conducted mainly to meet some set of objectives. This section discusses the
findings of the research with regards to the set objectives so as to find out if they were met as set
out to achieve.
4.5.1 Objective one: Factors associated with teamwork
After careful analysis of the study, it was discovered that 68.3% of respondents agreed that there
are trust among members which truly confirms that, trust generates the behavioral basis of
teamwork, which results in employee cooperation and better performance of an organization as
cited by Mickan and Rodger (2000), and also 81.6% of respondents agreed that truly members
are engaged in debate as it was told by Patrick (2010) that, Respect for thoughts and ideas of
team members were been developed through healthy debate that enables them to attained good
solution for a problem.
More so, it was found that respondents agreed with Kleiner (2003) that members are viewed as
unique people with irreplaceable experiences, points of view, knowledge, and opinions to
contribute to solutions of problems at hand that affect the organization performance, and 83.3%
of respondents agreed that effective leadership team always associated with teamwork. That is to
say that, truly effective leadership contributed to a good teamwork performance that also affects
the performance of the organization (Hartenian, 2003).
Furthermore, it was also found out that t truly diversity of cultures, talents and personalities were
also associated with teamwork (Edmondson, 1999), and also respondents agreed to the fact that
47
truly open communication affects teamwork performance, which confirms that people feel free
to express their thoughts, opinions, and potential solutions to problems. People feel as if they are
heard out and listened to by team members who are attempting to understand (Heathfield, 2000),
was true.
Lastly, it was found out from respondents that truly teamwork performances were affected with
shared experiences and practice of team members (Janset, 2003).
4.5.2 Objective two: Positive or negative effects of teamwork on employees
From the responses gathered, it was found that 96.7% of respondents agreed with Bacon and
Blyton (2006) that, teamwork encourages employees to broaden their skills and knowledge and
also boost the employee performances, and 78.3% agreed that managers do recognized and
rewards employees who were working in teams which confirmed that recognition and rewards
are the primary focus of the individuals who were working in teams as according to Rabey
(2003).
More so, working with team increase efficiency of an employee and it affects the performance of
both hospitals positively. With this 88.3% of respondents agreed which were convinced that truly
people working in team function more efficiently, were are less prone to stress, and such
individuals made greater effort in their work as by Katzenbach and smith (1993), also
respondents agreed to the statement that all members of the team have an equal opportunity for
participation to develop confidence and skills (Mulika, 2010).
48
4.5.3 Objective three: The impact of teamwork on organization performance
The responses from both hospitals agreed to the fact that truly team has been around for as long
as anyone can remember and there can be few organizations that have not used the team in one
sense or another. It is common to hear of management teams, production teams, service team or
even whole organizations being referred to as teams that is, many organization today are moving
towards “team based” approach to work, this means that working in teams is the basic method
used to get work done in these organizations. As a result, employers stress the importance of
employees working as a team and advertise for staff with the ability to work in such a way
(Richard, 1991).
49
CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary
Teamwork is an efficient way of achieving success at work place or in the organization. It helps
in boosting the productivity, effectiveness and efficiency of work as well as the performance of
organizations as a whole.
Organizations prefer a team form of working in conducting its activities as well as achieving its
goals and objectives. Some of these activities, goals and objectives are; gaining competitive
advantage in the market place, providing quality services to customers, boosting the productivity
of employees as well as the individual, prompting trust and a spirit of cooperation among
members, eliminating tribalism among employers and employees, improving relationship ( that
is between management and employees, employees and other employees, employees and
customers), enhancing individuals’ creativity in handling and resolving conflict, facilitating good
decision making and implementation among members.
The two hospitals (Ejisu Government Hospital and Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital) are
employing team form of working (teamwork) as a means of impacting on the performance of the
organization and it also enable them in gaining public and government interest which have make
them popular among the various hospitals in Ghana.
50
5.2 Conclusion and Recommendations
Conclusion
Based upon the findings this research, it shows that truly teamwork has an impact on
organizational performance as conducted by early researchers, and it was not just a mere impact
of teamwork but rather a positive impact of teamwork on organizational performance.
Again, this research is to enlighten those organizations that have discounted teamwork as a major
tool of organizational performance to start valuing it as their number tool, since it rely have a
positive impact on organizational performance.
Recommendations
The researcher recommends that, management of those organizations that have discounted
teamwork must start employing it by constantly organising training and development programs
for employees of the organization on how to form and work in teams before its implementation
to improve organizational performance.
51
REFERENCES
Cohen, S.G., and Bailey, D.E. (1999). What makes teams work: group effectiveness research
from the shop floor to the executive suite. Journal of Management, 23(3), 239-90.
Conti, B., and Kleiner, B. (2003). How to increase teamwork in organizations. Journal of
Quality, 5(1), 26-29.
Edmondson, A. C. (1999). Psychological safety and learning behavior in work teams. Admin.
Sci. Quart. 44(2) 350-383.
Erdem, Ferda, Ozen and Janset. (2003). Cognitive and Affective Dimensions of Trust in
Developing Team Performance. Team Performance Management: An International
Journal, 9(5.6) 131-135.
Froebel, P., and Marchington, M. (2005). Teamwork structures and worker perception: a cross
national study in pharmaceuticals, International Journal of Human Resource Management,
16(2), 256-276.
Hartenian, L.S. (2003), Team member acquisition of team knowledge, skills, and abilities.
Journal of Team Performance Management, 9(1/2), 23-30.
Ingram, H. (2000). Linking teamwork with performance. Journal of Team Performance
Management, 2(4), 5-10.
Jones, A., Richard, B., Paul, D., Sloane K., and Peter, F. (2007). Effectiveness of teambuilding in
organization. Journal of Management, 5(3), 35-37.
52
Manz, C., and Neck, S. (2002). Teamthink: Beyond the group think syndrome in self-managing
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Mickan, S., & Rodger, S. (2000). The organisational context for teamwork: Comparing health
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Mulika. (2010). The Impact of Teamwork on Employee Performance in Strategic Management
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Pfaff, E., and P. Huddleston. (2003). Does it matter if I hate teamwork? What impacts student
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Staniforth, D. (2000). Teamworking, or individual working in a teams. Journal of Team
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53
APPENDIX
QUESTIONNAIRE
SECTION A: To identify the factors associated with teamwork
Instruction: Using the scale below tick (√) to indicate your response to the questions;
5-Strongly Agree 4-Agree 3-Neutral 2-Disagree 1- Strongly Disagree
5
4
3
2
1
1. Does trust exist among team members?
2. Team members are prepared to engage in debate around ideas.
3. Team members are viewed as unique people.
4. Effective leadership team will have team members who are actively
engaged in the work and focus of the team.
5. Team members are prepared to check among themselves to assure
progress and overcome obstacles to progress.
54
SECTION B: To identify the positive or negative effects of teamwork on employees
5-Strongly Agree 4-Agree 3- Neutral 2-Disagree 1- Strongly Disagree
10. Teamwork encourages employees to broaden their skills and
knowledge.
5
4
3
2
1
11. Managers recognize and rewards employees who are working in
teams.
12. Working with team increase efficiency of an employee.
13. All members of the team have an equal opportunity for participation to
6. The vision and/or mission of the team are accepted by all the team
members.
7. Effective teams embrace and are constituted by a diversity of cultures,
talents and personalities.
8. Effective teamwork is facilitated by clear and open communication.
9. Effective teamwork is developed through shared experiences and
practice.
55
develop confidence and skills.
14. Team members intimidate individuals to limits their participation and
decreases overall team motivation and involvement.
15. Work pressure is evenly distributed among team members.
SECTION C: To examine the impact of teamwork on organization performance
5-Strongly Agree 4-Agree 3- Neutral 2-Disagree 1- Strongly Disagree
5
4
3
2
1
16. Work is being accomplished within the shortest period of time.
17. There is an improvement of skills among employees in achieving team
goals and as well as organization’s objectives.
18. Team members play a major role in the organizational performance.
19. Various teams always work to improve the quality of service provided
to customers.
20. Teams are responsible for specific services.
21. Teamwork has direct positive impact on organizational performance.
56
22. Teams ensure effective utilization of organizational resources.
23. Does team bring various specializations within the organization
together?
57
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