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Abstract

The impact of fitness characteristics on tennis performance in adolescent players is not clearly understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test whether physical characteristics are related to players' competitive level (i.e. national youth ranking). A secondary aim was to compare adolescent tennis players by performance level (i.e. regional selected players and the national team). A total of 902 male and female junior players (aged 11-16 years) in Germany were evaluated using a physical testing battery: grip strength; counter movement jump (CMJ); 10 m and 20 m sprint; tennis-specific sprint (TSS); overhead, forehand and backhand medicine ball throws (MBT); serve velocity and tennis-specific endurance test (Hit and Turn Tennis Test). Results showed that serve velocity (r = -0.43-0.64 for females [♀]; r = -0.33-0.49 for males [♂]) and upper body power (e.g. MBT r = -0.26 to -0.49 ♀; r = -0.20 to -0.49 ♂) were the most correlated with tennis performance (i.e. national youth ranking) in both female and male tennis players. Moreover, national selected players showed better performance levels than their regional counterparts, mainly in the most predictive physical characteristics (i.e. serve velocity [ES 0.78-1.04 ♀; ES 0.92-1.02 ♂], MBT [ES 0.66-0.88 ♀; ES 0.67-1.04 ♂] and specific endurance [ES 0.05-0.95 ♀; ES 0.31-0.73 ♂]). The present findings underline the importance of certain physical attributes, especially serve velocity as well as strength- and power-related variables (upper body), and suggest the need to include these parameters in the area of training, physical testing and talent identification of young tennis players.

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... In recent years, like other sports, tennis has changed from an eminently technical sport, with specific technical skills as predominant factors (for example, skills in handling the racket and control of the ball) to a more dynamic and explosive sport characterized by a greater hitting power and speed, which is remarkably physically demanding as compared with historical play styles [1]. ...
... Up to date, several studies, mainly from the northern hemisphere, have addressed the performance needs of adolescent competitive tennis players, indicating that more information is needed about the role of maturity and growth in physical and athletic performance [1,9,10,14,17,[21][22][23][24]. However, in South America, such studies seem to be still incipient, focusing mainly on the study of anthropometric aspects [25,26] and the external load of the game [27], without considering its associations with levels of biological maturation. ...
... It has been reported [9] that, when monitoring anthropometric characteristics and maturation, there are significant differences between tennis players of the same chronological age. These differences, especially anthropometric ones, tend to influence the style of play, giving taller players greater speed and range of shots [1]. Specifically, height in tennis is a determining element for the execution of strokes, especially, for the serve, which, if well placed and powerful, is fundamental, from a strategic point of view, for the development of the game, even at the junior level [8]. ...
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The objective was to analyze anthropometric and physical performance variables as a function of chronological age and biological maturity in young Chilean tennis players. The study was observational, cross-sectional, with descriptive and analytical characteristics. Eighty-seven tennis players were evaluated (58 men 15.1 ± 0.8 years and 29 women, 15.3 ± 0.8 years). The measured anthropometric variables were a sprint test of 20m; a modified agility test; a sit-and-reach test and shoulder flexibility; manual grip strength; horizontal jump in feet; a medicine ball throw; a countermovement vertical jump; an abalakov vertical jump and a 20-m shuttle-run test. The growth velocity acceleration peak (APHV), skeletal muscle mass and fat mass were calculated, R2 and standard error of estimate (SEE) were examined. The results show that chronological age explained the anthropometric variables between 1 and 23% in men and 1 and 29% in women; by biological age, variables were explained between 3 and 53% in men and 2 and 42% in women. Of the physical performance variables, chronological age described between 2 and 24% of them in men and 1 and 29% in women; the same were explained by biological age between 1 and 19% in men and 1 and 26% in women. We conclude that anthropometric variables showed a better relationship with biological age, except for volume of fat tissue, while physical performance variables showed low association with both biological and chronological age.
... The modern game of tennis has evolved from a technical-based sport to a more dynamic and explosive sport as a result of higher stroke and service velocities, bolstered by the improvement of rackets and strings (Ulbricht et al., 2016). Above all, service is the most powerful and important shot in tennis. ...
... A significantly high correlation between service speed and the percentage of points won has been shown. Service reportedly influences the game outcomes for both male and female players; in particular, service speed is highly correlated with an athlete's competition level (Ulbricht et al., 2016). Fett et al. (2017) reported significant differences between junior Davis cup and regional level players in service speed and upper body strength. ...
... Moreover, various researchers have reported the relationship between service speed and physical factors. In a study on German National junior tennis players, Ulbricht et al. (2016) reported that the upper limb muscular strength, power, and service velocity were interrelated in both male and female players, and there was a strong relationship between service speed and level of competition. In a study emphasizing the importance of transmitting power in the kinetic chain from the lower body to the upper body, Girard et al. (2005) examined the earlier activities in the lower leg muscles in high level players and suggested that for hitting, the power of not only the upper body but also of the whole-body kinetic chain is vital. ...
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Service is the most powerful and potential shot in tennis. To reach global elite status, Japanese players, being generally inferior in height, must overcome the limitations in service performance. If their height is insufficient, they must improve their speed service performance while maintaining the spin rate. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to examine the relationship between service performance according to the speed and spin rates and physical factors among national-level male and female junior tennis players. Twenty-eight elite tennis players participated in this study. Service tests were completed using the TrackMan tennis radar device. A total of 12 services per player were collected. Physical strength tests were conducted according to the Japan Tennis Association methods. Based on a previous study, 16 measurement variables related to service performance were selected. Among the male players, both the 1st and 2nd services showed significant correlations of service speed with physique and physical strength. On the other hand, no correlation was observed between service spin and physique or physical strength. Among female players, there was a significant correlation between service speed and physique, but not physical strength. In contrast to male players, there were significant correlations between service spin and some parameters of physical strength. As described above, the results were different for males and females. In conclusion, male players should focus intensively on muscular strength and power during training, whereas female players should focus on acquiring the skills needed to increase the spin rate, with strength as their secondary focus. Additionally, the increased drive from the legs can be converted to increased service speed. Therefore, male and female players should be coached on service from different perspectives.
... Earlier research mainly focused on anthropometrical and physical predictors of current tennis performance, unfortunately less is known about predictors of future performance. For example, in a cross-sectional study Ulbricht and colleagues showed that national male players under-14 and under-16 were taller and heavier than their regional counterparts [9]. Height is an advantage in tennis, especially for the serve. ...
... Several physical characteristics, i.e. medicine ball throwing, sprint time, jump height and agility, have also been related to performance. Upper body strength and power were most closely related to tennis performance in youth players [9,13]. Small to moderate correlations were found between these characteristics and ranking (r values ranging from -.17 to -.50) [13]. ...
... These variables do not seem sensitive enough to predict success in tennis or other racket sports [23]. Considering the significant role of maturation for youth tennis performance [9], predicting future performance based upon these variables seems to be extremely difficult. Current performance may be a sound predictor of future performance, given the strong relationship between current and future performance in the current study (r = .91). ...
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The aim of this study is to examine whether technical characteristics predict current and future tennis performance of youth tennis players. Twenty-nine male youth tennis players (age 13.40 ± .51) were assessed on anthropometrical characteristics (height, weight, maturity status) and technical characteristics (ball speed, accuracy and percentage errors) using an on-court tennis test when they were under-14 (U14). Game situations were simulated, which were either fixed or variable. The variable game situations required players to consider the direction of the ball, as opposed to the fixed game situations where players needed to play every ball to the same side. Players’ tennis ratings were obtained U14 (‘current performance’) and under-18 (U18) (‘future performance’). According to their rating U18 players were classified as future elite (n = 9) or future competitive (n = 20). A multiple linear regression analysis showed that ball speed and accuracy were significant predictors of current and future performance (p < .001), with R ² of .595 and .463, respectively. When controlling for age, a one-way MANCOVA revealed that future elite players were more accurate than future competitive players (p = .048, 95% CI [.000 to .489]), especially in variable compared to fixed game situations (p < .05). In conclusion, the current study is the first to show that technical characteristics are crucial for current as well as future performance in youth male tennis players. Findings of this prospective study provide essential information to coaches about characteristics that require most attention in performance development in youth players.
... Except for one, all the studies included both male and Measuring Agility in Tennis, Badminton, and Squash VOLUME 00 | NUMBER 00 | MAY 2021 female participants in their study population. Most of the study population consisted of young adults with some studies consisting of prepubertal participants (2,4,7,22,44) and a mean age of 28.8 years for the oldest study group (34). ...
... A total of 10 agility tests were indicated as Four-corner agility test ( Total score 5 2a + 2b + c + d + e + f + g; score .9 5 SST; score 7-9 5 MSST; score #6 5 NSST. SSTs (16,20,22,24,25,28,33,34,44,47), of which 3 tests measured the agility performance in tennis players (TSS-FH, (44); TSS-BH, (44); and TDTB, (22)), 7 in badminton players (BST, (28); BSST, (16); MDCT, (34); Badcamp, (24,25); sideways agility test, 33; fourcorner agility test, (33); and BAT, (20)), and one in squash players (SCODS, (47)) of which all showed moderate to excellent methodological quality. This means that although there is a lot of literature available for tennis on agility, sport-specific agility research is lacking. ...
... A total of 10 agility tests were indicated as Four-corner agility test ( Total score 5 2a + 2b + c + d + e + f + g; score .9 5 SST; score 7-9 5 MSST; score #6 5 NSST. SSTs (16,20,22,24,25,28,33,34,44,47), of which 3 tests measured the agility performance in tennis players (TSS-FH, (44); TSS-BH, (44); and TDTB, (22)), 7 in badminton players (BST, (28); BSST, (16); MDCT, (34); Badcamp, (24,25); sideways agility test, 33; fourcorner agility test, (33); and BAT, (20)), and one in squash players (SCODS, (47)) of which all showed moderate to excellent methodological quality. This means that although there is a lot of literature available for tennis on agility, sport-specific agility research is lacking. ...
Article
A systematic review in PubMed, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar was conducted to provide a state-of-the-science overview of agility tests in the racquet sports tennis, badminton, and squash while evaluating their measurement properties. Twenty articles were included covering 28 agility tests. Results showed 10 sport-specific agility tests of which 5 were assessed on reliability and 6 on validity. Both the Badcamp and the badminton-specific speed (“agility”) test were identified as suitable agility tests available for badminton. For tennis and squash, there were no sport-specific agility tests identified in the literature showing both reliable and valid results. Future research should focus on developing sport-specific agility tests for tennis and squash, including assessment of the reliability and validity of the tests.
... Participants' began the maximal linear sprint from a standing start positioned 50 cm behind the first timing light sensor. 32 Each participant performed two maximal 20 m sprints with their fastest times over 5-, 10-and 20-m distances recorded. 16,32 Overhead medicine ball throw. ...
... 32 Each participant performed two maximal 20 m sprints with their fastest times over 5-, 10-and 20-m distances recorded. 16,32 Overhead medicine ball throw. Overhead medicine ball throw was used to measure upper body power. ...
... With a 2 kg medicine ball, participants used two hands to take the ball behind their head and then throw as far as possible, without stepping over the line. 32 The distance from the line to the ball's landing point was measured and recorded to the nearest 5 cm. Participants performed three trials with a rest period of 2 min between trials. ...
Article
Improving groundstroke velocity and accuracy is critical for tennis success. However, there is limited research available on the physical and cognitive attributes required for groundstroke performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the physical and cognitive characteristics and their association with groundstroke performance in junior tennis players. Thirty-four competitive junior tennis players, aged 12.59 ± 2.44 years, participated in this cross-sectional study. Cognitive tests assessing processing speed, complex attention, cognitive flexibility and problem-solving capacity and physical tests assessing flexibility, speed, agility, power, strength and anaerobic and aerobic capacity were performed. Tennis groundstroke performance was evaluated using a novel tennis groundstroke assessment. Tennis groundstroke performance was associated ( p < 0.05) with the number of hours a participant practices per week, their ranking, lower and upper body power, tennis agility test (decision and total time), linear speed, upper body strength and aerobic capacity. Specifically, an estimated 83.76% of the groundstroke velocity accuracy index variability was explained by grip strength in the dominant hand and ranking. An estimated 79.63% of the groundstroke velocity accuracy error index variability was explained by the number of hours a participant practices per week and their ranking. Our study showed an association between tennis groundstroke performance and physical but not cognitive outcomes in junior tennis players. Specific attention should be dedicated to developing the upper body strength of junior tennis players for improved groundstroke velocity and accuracy. This knowledge can assist tennis coaches in planning effective training sessions.
... Ulbricht ve ark. STF testinin, üst ekstremite performansını belirleyen önemli ölçüm yöntemlerinden biri olduğunu bildirmişlerdir (9). ÜEST ise kapalı kinetik zincire özel kuvvet ve enduransın değerlendirildiği bir testtir (10). ...
... Literatürde adolesan tenis oyuncularında antropometrik özellikler, esneklik, eklem hareket açıklığı, üst ekstremite gücü, hız ve çeviklik parametrelerinin oyuncuların performans düzeylerine etkisi birçok araştırmacı tarafından farklı yöntemlerle incelenmiştir (8,9,(15)(16)(17). STF, servis hızı ve kas kuvvetinin adolesan sporcularda performansı etkileyen önemli parametreler olduğu vurgulanmasına rağmen adolesan tenisçilerin üst ekstremite rotator kas kuvveti ile performans testleri arasındaki ilişkiyi inceleyen çalışmaya rastlanmamaktadır. ...
... Elit adolesan tenis sporcularında SFT performansının sporcuların başarı düzeyini belirleyen en önemli etkenlerden birisi olduğu iki farklı çalışmada bildirilmiştir (9,15). Araştırmacılar sporcuların erken yaştan itibaren değerlendirilmelerinin performans gelişimlerini takip etmek açısından önemli olduğunu vurgulamıştır (9,15). ...
... Therefore, the aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to aggregate and quantify differences in physical fitness and stroke performance in healthy tennis players by competition level. With reference to the relevant literature that used a between-subject-design [10,14,15], we expected better physical fitness and stroke performance in and healthy elite compared to sub-elite tennis players. Further and considering previous findings from studies using a within-subject design [4,13], we assumed larger correlations between physical fitness and stroke performance in elite than in sub-elite players. ...
... Seven questions (1,4,10,11,12,16,18) refer to the quality of reporting and further seven questions (2,3,5,8,17,19,20) to the study design. Another six questions (6,7,9,13,14,15) relate to a possible risk of bias. Three questions (7,13,14) that ask for potential nonresponders were excluded from the analysis as this criterion was not applicable for the vast majority of included studies. ...
... Another six questions (6,7,9,13,14,15) relate to a possible risk of bias. Three questions (7,13,14) that ask for potential nonresponders were excluded from the analysis as this criterion was not applicable for the vast majority of included studies. Quality assessment was independently performed by both authors and disagreement was resolved by discussion and consensus. ...
Article
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Differences in variables of physical fitness and stroke performance by competition level (i.e., elite vs. sub-elite players) have not been systematically investigated yet. Thus, the objective of the systematic review with meta-analysis was to characterize and quantify competition-level dependent differences in physical fitness and stroke performance in healthy tennis players. A systematic literature search was conducted in the databases PubMed, Web of Science, and SportDiscus from their inception date till May 2022. Studies were included if they investigated healthy tennis players and reported at least one measure of physical fitness (e.g., lower extremity muscle power, endurance, agility, speed) or stroke performance (e.g., stroke velocity). Weighted standardized mean differences ( SMD ) were calculated and reported according to their magnitude. The search identified a total of N = 12,714 records, 16 of which met the inclusion criteria. Competition-level dependent differences in physical fitness and stroke performance were investigated by 11 and 10 studies, respectively. For physical fitness, moderate (lower extremity muscle power: SMD = 0.53; endurance: SMD = 0.59; agility: SMD = 0.54) and small (speed: SMD = 0.35) effects were detected; all in favour of elite tennis players. However, sub-group analyses revealed an influence of players’ age showing higher SMD -values for adult than for young players. Further, a large effect ( SMD = 1.00) was observed for stroke performance again in favour of elite tennis players. Lastly, a larger but not significantly different association between physical fitness and stroke performance was observed for elite ( r = 0.562) compared to sub-elite ( r = 0.372) tennis players. This systematic review and meta-analysis revealed better physical fitness and stroke performances in healthy elite compared to sub-elite tennis players. The greatest differences by competition level were shown in measures of lower extremity muscle power, endurance, and agility. Thus, training programs for sub-elite tennis players should place a special focus on these physical components.
... These actions rely, among other qualities, on certain fitness traits that are considered determinant for the sport and can be observed in higher ranked players. These include an enhanced level of speed over short distances, upper and lower body strength and power alongside a greater serve velocity (SV) (Ulbricht et al., 2016). Research has related force-time characteristics around the shoulder complex (Cools et al., 2014;Baiget et al., 2016;Baiget et al., 2021;Hayes et al., 2021) and upper body power levels (Ulbricht et al., 2016), to SV. Positive correlations have also been found between lower body isometric strength measurements and sprint and serve performance (Ulbricht et al., 2016;Hayes et al., 2021). ...
... These include an enhanced level of speed over short distances, upper and lower body strength and power alongside a greater serve velocity (SV) (Ulbricht et al., 2016). Research has related force-time characteristics around the shoulder complex (Cools et al., 2014;Baiget et al., 2016;Baiget et al., 2021;Hayes et al., 2021) and upper body power levels (Ulbricht et al., 2016), to SV. Positive correlations have also been found between lower body isometric strength measurements and sprint and serve performance (Ulbricht et al., 2016;Hayes et al., 2021). These main actions normally involve one or more stretch-shortening cycles (SSC) throughout the kinetic chain (Kibler et al., 2007), and force production is to happen in a short period of time. ...
... These include an enhanced level of speed over short distances, upper and lower body strength and power alongside a greater serve velocity (SV) (Ulbricht et al., 2016). Research has related force-time characteristics around the shoulder complex (Cools et al., 2014;Baiget et al., 2016;Baiget et al., 2021;Hayes et al., 2021) and upper body power levels (Ulbricht et al., 2016), to SV. Positive correlations have also been found between lower body isometric strength measurements and sprint and serve performance (Ulbricht et al., 2016;Hayes et al., 2021). These main actions normally involve one or more stretch-shortening cycles (SSC) throughout the kinetic chain (Kibler et al., 2007), and force production is to happen in a short period of time. ...
Article
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This study examined the alterations induced by a simulated tennis competition on maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC), peak rate of force development (PRFD) and rate of force development (RFD) at different stages of contraction. Twenty junior tennis players performed an 80-minute simulated tennis match and two (pre and post) muscular performance tests. Variables tested included MVC, PRFD and RFD at 50, 100, 150 and 200 ms while performing a 90º shoulder internal rotation (IR90), 90º shoulder external rotation (ER90), shoulder horizontal adduction (ADD), shoulder horizontal abduction (ABD) and isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP). Serve velocity (SV) was also registered. No significant changes were found regarding MVC, PRFD or SV. Non-significant moderate effect size (ES) towards a decrease in the IR90 RFD at 50 ms could be observed (16%; ES = 0.5) alongside an increase in the ADD and IMTP RFD at 150 ms (-15.8%,-8.2%; ES =-0.53,-0.54) and IMTP RFD at 200 ms (-13%; ES =-0.54). Results indicate that MVC, PRFD, RFD at different time intervals and SV are unaltered following an 80-minute simulated match, possibly due to insufficient alterations triggered on key factors affecting the tested variables.
... This might be related to the fact that for this young age group, which lacks a developed tournament and ranking system, no proper differentiation of better and weaker performance groups can be established (Siener & Hohmann, 2019). The assessment of different tennis performance groups usually arises with the entrance into the junior ranking system of the U12 and is then often determined by the ranking position (Ulbricht et al., 2016). For this reason, it has been common practice to use as a template for TID in youth professional adult tennis players' profiles, collected from cross sectional studies (Hohmann & Seidel, 2003). ...
... As early as 1992, Roetert et al. could prove a significant correlation between national tennis success and striking speed (correlations: r forehand = 0.68, r backhand = 0.59, r serve = 0.57). Similar results have been shown in recent studies by Ulbricht et al. (2016) on the influence of fitness characteristics on tennis performance. They showed that in 902 tennis players aged from 11 to 16 years, serve velocity (correlations: r = −0.43 to −0.64, r = −0.33 to −0.49) and upper body power (medicine ball throw; r = −0.26 to −0.49; r = −0.20 to −0.49) have the greatest impact on tennis performance. ...
... Nevertheless, Filipcic et al. (2010) also demonstrated similar results in a larger sample (N = 159, U16-U19). In investigations by Ulbricht et al. (2016), correlations of r = 0.31** and r = 0.19* were found in the U14 category (N = 431), but in contrast to the serve velocity (r = 0.33 to 0.64 of U12-U16), these values were rather low. Also, the effect size between national and regional athletes was mostly small (d Cohen = 0.00 to 0.21 for U14-U16; exception: d Cohen = 0.63** for U12). ...
Article
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Talent identification often begins at the age of entry into a sport: namely, even under the age of 9 years old (U9). However, the success of such early talent identification is questionable. Therefore, the aim of this long-term retrospective study is to examine whether today’s more successful junior tennis players already differed from today’s less successful junior tennis players in terms of physical fitness and motor competence when both groups were U9. If significant differences in performance characteristics between successful and less successful tennis players were already apparent at this young age, such characteristics could be used to forecast talent at an early stage. Based on their current tennis success, a total of 174 junior tennis players were divided into national ranked players (n = 16: players who achieved a place in the official national junior tennis ranking list of the German Tennis Federation) and non-ranked players (n = 158). All of these players had already participated in two anthropometric and nine physical fitness and motor competence tests at U9 (e.g., sprint, endurance run, ball throw). Using a MANCOVA and a correlation analysis, we retrospectively examined whether the two current performance groups had differed significantly in their U9 test scores and whether these athletes’ U9 test performance scores correlated with their current playing success. No significant (p
... In order to provide support in the development of young and talented athletes, it is essential to understand the factors that can have a positive influence on their sporting success. There is some evidence on the role of physical variables in the competitive performance of junior tennis players with the help of field tests [6][7][8][9][10][11]. In line with the above-mentioned, we hypothesized that neuromuscular fitness may be associated with sport success at the junior level. ...
... There is a positive role of physical fitness on the competitive performance of junior tennis players [6][7][8][9][10][11]. Comparing the present results with previous literature is difficult, as previous studies were conducted with a different sample size, participants of a differing sex, and different test protocols, although the results of the present study (a moderate correlation between the physical variables and the current competitive performance) of Hungarian junior female players reinforce the results of the previous research [6][7][8][9][10][11]; except for the H and the STR tests, this was not the case for the male Hungarian junior tennis players. ...
... There is a positive role of physical fitness on the competitive performance of junior tennis players [6][7][8][9][10][11]. Comparing the present results with previous literature is difficult, as previous studies were conducted with a different sample size, participants of a differing sex, and different test protocols, although the results of the present study (a moderate correlation between the physical variables and the current competitive performance) of Hungarian junior female players reinforce the results of the previous research [6][7][8][9][10][11]; except for the H and the STR tests, this was not the case for the male Hungarian junior tennis players. Tennis is a tactical and technically dominant sport that can be characterized by the complex interaction of physical abilities and metabolism processes from a conditional point of view [3,6,7,10]. ...
Article
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Background: The purpose of the study was to examine whether neuromuscular fitness contributes significantly to the success of eAlite junior tennis players of differing ages and sexes. Methods: The 160 participants, who were elite Hungarian junior tennis players (aged 11-17), were separated into four groups within this study, and 10 different types of field tests were used. Results: A moderate significant correlation was found between the results of the 5 m run (r = -0.42; r = -0.45), standing long jump (r = 0.39; r = 0.56), overhand ball throw (r = 0.44; r = 0.53), serve (r = 0.39; r = 0.64), amount of push-ups in 30 seconds (r = 0.32; r = 0.48), 10 × 5 m run in a shuttle run (r = -0.34; r = -0.45), the spider run (r = -0.34; r = -0.52), and competitive tennis success among U14 and U18 girls. A significant correlation between the overhead medicine ball throw test value (r = 0.47) and the current competitive performance was found only among U18 elite female tennis players. In contrast, no correlation was found between the values of the U14 and U18 male tennis players and their current competitive performance. Conclusions: Additional studies are needed to identify interventions that can increase sport-specific neuromuscular fitness with the ultimate goal of achieving better performance.
... The modern game of tennis has evolved from a primarily technical sport to an explosive sport (Ulbricht et al., 2016). Tennis has increasingly become faster and more dynamic, requiring increased strength, speed, and power to achieve higher stroke and serve velocities. ...
... According to Fett et al. (2017) and Kramer et al. (2017), the maximal service speed is the most appropriate on-court predictor of player performance. Service reportedly affects the overall game results for male and female players, and service speed is highly correlated with an athlete's competition level (Whiteside et al., 2013;Ulbricht et al., 2016). This is because an increasing serve speed reduces the time for the receiver to hit the return precisely, and it is possible to take advantage of the following hits and get a direct point (O'Donoghue and Brown, 2008;Vaverka and Cernosek, 2013;Whiteside and Reid, 2017). ...
... However, as the level of competition increases, many players realise the importance of physical strength and fitness (Smekal et al., 2001;Reid and Schneiker, 2008;Fernandez-Fernandez et al., 2009. Functional links observed between muscular strength in the dominant upper and lower limbs and ranking position in competitive tennis players reinforce the notion that physical characteristics have a strong influence on tennis performance and may be important determinants for successful participation in elite tennis (Girard and Millet, 2009;Fernandez-Fernandez et al., 2013;Ulbricht et al., 2016). The overhead medicine ball throw (MBT), for example, which tests upper-body power as a factor that influences service speed, has been widely used (Kramer et al., 2017;Colomar et al., 2020;Fett et al., 2020). ...
Article
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In tennis, service requires a variety of complicated movements. Given the importance of taking the initiative to obtain points in a tennis match, it is crucial to make full use of speed and spin rate of service. Generally, a service that requires a higher spin rate would slow down, and a service that has increased speed would have a decreased spin rate. For players who are disadvantaged in height, although controlling spin rate is essential, slowing down service speed should be avoided. For these players, the challenge of service is to improve the speed without decreasing the spin rate. Players must also be trained to build physical strength required for this skill. It is not uncommon to work on physical training without a racket; however, few studies have reported on the effects of cultivated physical strength on on-court tennis performance. Therefore, this study aimed to propose physical measurements that could be used as indices to improve service performance in 58 elite Japanese junior players. To test service performance, we used TrackMan to assess speed, spin rate, impact height, and impact depth. To test physical strength, we measured 5-m and 20-m sprint, broad jump, medicine ball throw (forward, backward). We used a significant multiple regression equation to predict the first service speed obtained from the broad jump and the Medicine ball throw (backward). Additionally, a strong correlation was obtained between the predicted and measured values. In addition to physical strength, we suggest that the depth of the impact point (taking the hitting point forward toward the net) is important for improving the first service speed. However, we were not able to identify the physical strength test items that improve service spin rate. Other item should be examined in the future to determine the physical strength associated with spin rate. This result could help connect physical training and service performance.
... Concernant les jeunes joueurs, Ulbricht et al. (2016) ont mesuré les caractéristiques anthropométriques et la vitesse du service chez plus de 900 joueurs et joueuses (U12, U14 et U16 ; niveau régional et national). Ils ont également évalué plusieurs qualités physiques (vitesse de course, endurance de course, puissance des membres inférieurs et des membres supérieurs, force de préhension de la main). ...
... D'autre part, ces résultats suggèrent que l'optimisation du service doit occuper une place prépondérante dans l'entraînement dans une logique de formation vers le haut niveau. Figure 2.4 -Comparaison de la vitesse maximale de la 1 ère balle en fonction du niveau de jeu pour des garçons et des filles de trois catégories d'âge, d'après Ulbricht et al. (2016). U12 : moins de 12 ans, U14 : moins de 14 ans, U16 : moins de 16 ans, RÉG : niveau régional, NAT : niveau national. ...
... La maturation désigne tous les changements physiques, physiologiques et psychologiques qui s'opèrent sur l'organisme entre l'enfance et l'âge adulte (DiFiori et al., 2014). Si ces changements interviennent d'une façon très différente entre les garçons et les filles, l'augmentation rapide de la taille (pic de croissance) et l'augmentation de la force musculaire sont deux changements majeurs observés pour les deux sexes entre 12 et 15 ans (Barber-Westin et al., 2006;DiFiori et al., 2014;Girard et Millet, 2009;Ulbricht et al., 2016). Ainsi, il paraît logique d'observer durant cette période une augmentation progressive de la vitesse de balle chez les garçons comme chez les filles (Fernandez-Fernandez et al., 2014;Ulbricht et al., 2016). ...
Thesis
Pour les joueurs de tennis professionnels, le service est considéré comme le coup le plus important pour gagner un match. De plus, il est décrit comme un coup traumatisant qui occasionne de nombreuses blessures chroniques du membre supérieur et du tronc. Dans une logique de formation vers le haut niveau, les jeunes joueurs doivent alors acquérir le plus tôt possible une technique de service efficiente pour produire une vitesse de balle élevée tout en limitant le risque de blessures. La réalisation de ces deux objectifs représente une réelle problématique au regard de la complexité gestuelle du service et des erreurs techniques qui en découlent. Dans ce cadre, cette thèse ambitionne de répondre aux questions suivantes : comment évolue la technique de service des joueurs élites entre 12 ans et l’âge adulte ? Quels sont les critères de performance et les facteurs de risques de blessures au service chez les jeunes joueurs ? À partir de captures de mouvement en 3D, la première étude explore l’influence de l’âge et du sexe sur les variables cinématiques et dynamiques du membre supérieur dominant au cours du service. Les études 2 et 3 s’intéressent respectivement au type d’appuis et à la trajectoire de la raquette en « plateau » pour comprendre leur effet sur la performance et le risque de blessures au service. L’ensemble de ce travail fournit aux entraîneurs des recommandations concrètes sur le service pour faciliter la détection des meilleurs espoirs, individualiser les contenus d’entraînement en fonction de l’âge et du sexe, et améliorer la formation technique des jeunes joueurs pour augmenter la vitesse de balle et diminuer le risque de blessures chroniques.
... In this sense, other authors proposed using a more practical and specific agility test for padel [27], which merits further examination. Similarly, in addition to the overhead medicine ball throw, the assessment of swinging actions by rotational medicine ball throws would be advisable to describe strength performance in racket sports such as padel [28,29]. ...
... For the overhead MBT, players stood in a line with their feet side-by-side, facing the throwing direction with the ball back behind the head and threw vigorously forward without moving the feet. For the side MBT, players stood sideways to the starting line and simulated a forehand-backhand stroke tossing the ball as far as possible without crossing the line [28,29]. Each player made two throws per side with 30 s rest. ...
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This study aimed to examine the fitness characteristics and to identify the influence of gender and practice experience between young amateur padel players. A total of thirty-four padel players (n = 19 boys and 15 girls) aged 13 to 17 years old (age 14.6 ± 1.5 years; body mass 63.4 ± 14.5 kg; height 166.6 ± 9.8 cm; 6.2 ± 2.5 padel experience) volunteered to participate. Body composition was assessed by bioimpedance. Change of direction and agility were evaluated by two padel-adapted tests. Upper-limb strength measurement included overhead and side medicine ball throws with dominant and non-dominant hands. One-way ANCOVA was used to determine whether there were significant differences between gender and experience on fitness variables adjusting for age as a covariate. Male and female young padel players presented an apparently healthy body composition and exhibited similar performance in all fitness tests except for jumping ability. Practice experience seemed to influence upper-limb throwing strength, however, sub-analyses revealed no conclusive results. These results contribute to the existing knowledge in padel by providing new data about the fitness status of amateur young players aged 13 to 17 years old and open a window for future interventions using padel as a health promotion tool among youths.
... In tennis, several sports-science and coaching staffs are regularly conducting test batteries combining general and specific tests for speed, agility, strength, power, endurance, musculoskeletal fitness, coordination and skill performance in both men and women players [18]. The optimal interpretation of these data is subsequently used in short-and long-term requirements to ensure the best possible preparation, but also to track players' progress, creating individual profiles and detecting injury risk [18,20]. Additionally, these investigations are gaining in interest given their general applicability, replicability and affordability [21]. ...
... In light of these findings, coaches and players should consider incorporating upper limb strengthening exercises in their training routine. Regarding explosive jumps, men and women padel players showed a similar CMJ performance to tennis players [18,20], but lower than those of badminton players [40], with higher values in the men in CMJ (32.67 vs. 24.33) and ABK (39.70 vs. 29.29). ...
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The aims of the present study were to examine the fitness characteristics of professional padel players and to determine differences in physical performance regarding players’ gender. Thirty professional padel players (men: n = 15, age = 27.4 ± 6.8 years, height = 177.9 ± 4.0 cm; women: n = 15, age = 30.0 ± 4.2 years, height = 166.6 ± 4.8 cm) completed a 4-day evaluation process, including: isometric handgrip strength, sit and reach, 10 × 5 shuttle test, countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), Abalakov test, one-repetition maximum test (bench press, leg extension, leg curl, lat pulldowns, overhead press, and shoulder press), anthropometry and VO2 max tests. The men players had higher values in terms of weight, height, one maximum repetition, jump tests (CMJ and ABK) and VO2 max test than the women (p < 0.005). By contrast, the women had higher values for fat mass (p = 0.005; ES: 2.49). The values from this multifaceted test battery can be a useful guide for coaches regarding players’ development in future evaluations and monitoring.
... Although the test batteries used thus far generally allow for a comprehensive performance survey, there is still room for improvement in the sport-specific case of tennis. For example, missing test items on agility in combination with decision-making as well as maximum (isometric) arm strength could be added to improve the prognostics [59,60]. In the future, this may lead to a better explanation of the variance between performance groups. ...
... It has been shown that even in a very complex sport such as tennis, which requires motor competence as well as physical fitness [8,23,59,66], statistical analysis methods can be used to make reliable predictions of future success [67] based on the performance profiles of young tennis players. The performance profiles of 8-year-old tennis players can be determined in the context of talent identification by means of sport motor tests. ...
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(1) Background: The search for talented young athletes is an important element of top-class sport. While performance profiles and suitable test tasks for talent identification have already been extensively investigated, there are few studies on statistical prediction methods for talent identification. Therefore, this long-term study examined the prognostic validity of four talent prediction methods. (2) Methods: Tennis players (N = 174; n♀ = 62 and n♂ = 112) at the age of eight years (U9) were examined using five physical fitness tests and four motor competence tests. Based on the test results, four predictions regarding the individual future performance were made for each participant using a linear recommendation score, a logistic regression, a discriminant analysis, and a neural network. These forecasts were then compared with the athletes’ achieved performance success at least four years later (U13‒U18). (3) Results: All four prediction methods showed a medium-to-high prognostic validity with respect to their forecasts. Their values of relative improvement over chance ranged from 0.447 (logistic regression) to 0.654 (tennis recommendation score). (4) Conclusions: However, the best results are only obtained by combining the non-linear method (neural network) with one of the linear methods. Nevertheless, 18.75% of later high-performance tennis players could not be predicted using any of the methods.
... Due to the importance of ball velocity in the outcome match and the increase of it in the modern game [4,5], strength should be trained in order to improve it [4,6]. The ability to produce a high ball velocity is a key point for tennis players performance [7,8], because serve has been positively correlated with the proportion of points won [9] and forehand and backhand groundstrokes ball velocity seems to be the determining factor that separates elite from sub-elite tennis players [10]. Besides ball velocity, accuracy is important in a successful play [2,5], even a higher ball velocity and accuracy forehand has been associated with a higher experience of players [11]. ...
... This study was designed according to the Declaration of Helsinki of 1975, revised in 2008, and the Research Ethics Committee of the University of Vic-Central University of Catalonia approved the protocol (reference 21/2017). This sample size was justified by a priori power analysis (using GPower Version 3.1.9.5, University of Dusseldorf, Dusseldorf, Germany) introducing the following parameters: effect size index (0.40) assuming a large partial eta-squared (0.14), α error probability (0.05), power (0.95), number of groups (1) and measurements (8), which resulted in a sample size of 10 subjects. ...
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This study aimed to investigate the acute and delayed effects of medicine ball throws and resistance training in ball velocity and accuracy of serve, forehand and backhand in young competition tennis players. A crossover-randomized design was used with 10 competition tennis players (6 girls and 4 boys between 14 and 18 years old). The subjects performed 6 stroke test sessions, 3 for each strength protocol. The velocity and accuracy of strokes were measured before (basal situation), 3 minutes, 24 and 48 hours after the protocol. Medicine ball throws protocol was performed by accomplishing 3 sets of 6 repetitions using a 2 kg ball, throwing it at maximal speed. Resistance training protocol was performed by accomplishing 3 sets of 6 repetitions at 75% one-repetition maximum, lifting the load at maximal speed of bench press, dead lift, one hand row and half squat. There were no significant (p > 0.05) differences in all strokes, regarding ball velocity and accuracy after each method and each recovery time, compared to the basal situation. These results suggest that medicine ball throws and resistance training methods have no acute and delayed detrimental effects on stroke velocity and accuracy in young competition tennis players.
... Although the test batteries used thus far generally allow for a comprehensive performance survey, there is still room for improvement in the sport-specific case of tennis. For example, missing test items on agility in combination with decision-making as well as maximum (isometric) arm strength could be added to improve the prognostics [59,60]. In the future, this may lead to a better explanation of the variance between performance groups. ...
... It has been shown that even in a very complex sport such as tennis, which requires motor competence as well as physical fitness [8,23,59,66], statistical analysis methods can be used to make reliable predictions of future success [67] based on the performance profiles of young tennis players. The performance profiles of 8-year-old tennis players can be determined in the context of talent identification by means of sport motor tests. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The search for talented young athletes is an important element of top-class sport. While performance profiles and suitable test tasks for talent identification have already been extensively investigated, there are few studies on statistical prediction methods for talent identification. Therefore, this long-term study examined the prognostic validity of four talent prediction methods. Methods: Tennis players (N = 174; n♀ = 62 and n♂ = 112) at the age of eight years (U9) were examined using five physical fitness tests and four motor competence tests. Based on the test results, four predictions regarding the individual future performance were made for each participant using a linear recommendation score, a logistic regression, a discriminant analysis, and a neural network. These forecasts were then compared with the athletes’ achieved performance success at least four years later (U13‒U18). Results: All four prediction methods showed a medium-to-high prognostic validity with respect to their forecasts. Their values of relative improvement over chance ranged from 0.447 (logistic regression) to 0.654 (tennis recommendation score). Conclusions: However, the best results are only obtained by combining the non-linear method (neural network) with one of the linear methods. Nevertheless, 18.75% of later high-performance tennis players could not be predicted using any of the methods.
... 1,63 The most frequently diagnosed injuries in youth tennis players (ie, thigh muscle strains, knee and ankle ligaments sprains and tears, groin and patellofemoral pain, and femoroacetabular impingement) may lead to moderate absence from sport participation, negatively affect short-and long-term athlete development, cause long-term disability (development of knee osteoarthritis in adulthood), and increase medical costs. 58 Given the increased participation in tennis competitions from an early age (ie, <12 years), 76 screening protocols and the identification of potential injury risk-related factors (ie, interlimb asymmetries) should be taken into consideration in any injury risk management strategy in tennis. 42,58 As it has been documented in other sports (eg, soccer, 77 athletics, 80 and handball 49 ), when children progress through puberty, particularly during periods of rapid change in growth and maturation, they might have an increased injury risk. ...
... Analyzing jumping performance, results obtained in the present study are in line with previous research, 20,55,76 showing that older (U15) male and female players achieved higher values (△ = 18%) than the younger group (U13), with more prominent differences in jump height in boys (△ = 21.2%) than girls (△ = 12.1%). ...
Article
Background: Tennis is one of the most popular sports among youth. At elite levels, a notable increase in injury incidence and a temporary decline in performance may occur when children progress through puberty. However, limited research has explored maturity-associated variations in clinical measurements suggested as predictors of injury and tennis performance in elite youth players. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to analyse the association between chronological age and maturity status on several measures of neuromuscular capability and physical performance as well as bilateral asymmetries in elite youth tennis players. Hypothesis: Youth tennis players around-peak height velocity (PHV) will show higher growth-related impairments or deficits in measures of neuromuscular capability and physical performance than their less (pre-PHV) and more (post-PHV) mature counterparts irrespective of sex. Level of evidence: Level IV. Methods: A total of 68 male (age: 13.7 ± 1.1 y; stature: 162.4 ± 9.4 cm; body mass: 51.4 ± 10.3 kg) and 60 female (age: 13.6 ± 1.1 y; stature: 162.8 ± 7.2 cm; body mass: 52.7 ± 7.5 kg) elite youth tennis players from two different age groups (under 13 [U13] and under 15 [U15]) and maturity status [pre, around and post-PHV], were tested during national training camps. Tests included the Y-Balance test, isometric hip abduction and adduction strength, hip ROMs and countermovement jump (CMJ) height. Bayesian analysis were used to establish any significant between-group differences. Results: Only dynamic balance (in males) (Bayesian factor [BF10] = 88.2) and jump height (in both males and females) (BF10 > 100) were significatively associated with chronological age, whereby U15 group showed lower Y-Balance reach distances (-6%; standardized effect size [δ] = -0.62) but higher CMJ height scores (+18%; δ = 0.73) than the U13 group. While males jump higher (+11%, δ = 0.62) and were stronger in isometric hip adduction strength (+14%, δ = 0.92) than females, the latter had greater hip internal ROM values (+15%, δ = 0.75). Furthermore, relevant maturity-associate effects (BF10 = 34.6) were solely observed for the CMJ test in males, with the most mature players demonstrating higher jump height scores (+12%, δ = 0.93). Finally, a significant percentage (>25%) of tennis players, independent of sex, demonstrated bilateral asymmetries in hip ROMs, hip strength and jump height values. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that in U13 and U15 male and female tennis players there were neither positive nor negative maturity-associated variations in the clinical measurements analysed (with the exception of jump height in males). The high proportion of tennis players showing bilateral asymmetries in dynamic balance, hip ROM and strength and jump performance, highlight the need of future studies to analyse these factors in relation to unilateral tennis-specific adaptations in the musculoskeletal and sensorimotor systems. Clinical relevance: These results may help to better understand how different clinical measurements are associated with the process of growth and maturation in elite youth tennis players and may aid in the design of specific training interventions during these stages of development. Keywords: Y-Balance, racquet sports, injury, youth, growth.
... Specifically, Pradas et al. [19] showed elevated maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and vertical jump values in male padel players when compared to female padel players. In tennis players, Ulbricht et al. [25] reported that boys, in different categories, showed higher values of hand grip strength, sprinting and medicine ball throwing. However, in elite table tennis, fitness information is scarce [16,26], being non-existent in elite female players. ...
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Table tennis performance depends on multiple factors such as technique, tactics and fitness. Several studies have focused on investigating different technical-tactical variables. However, research analysing the specific physical qualities of this sport is scarce, particularly in the female sex. The aim of the present study was to assess the physical fitness variables associated with individual performance in elite table tennis players according to sex. Forty-eight elite players divided into males (n = 24; 25.38 ± 4.01 years) and females (n = 24; 22.33 ± 3.83 years) participated in the study. To determine physical fitness, participants performed vertical jump, hand grip strength, ergospirometry and lateral displacement tests (reaction time, displacement time and lateral acceleration). Male players showed higher values in vertical jump, hand grip strength and maximum oxygen consumption (p < 0.001). Likewise, male players moved laterally faster (p < 0.001). On the other hand, female players had a better reaction time towards the dominant side (p < 0.01). Elite male table tennis players showed better physical fitness compared to female players. Due to the scarcity of data on elite table tennis players, these results can serve as reference values for different table tennis practitioners
... Further research is needed to compare the effects of gender differences on IMF in tennis. Tennis-specific endurance evaluated using the Hit and Turn Tennis Test 29) is strongly correlated with tennis performance (ranking) in female players, and significantly differs between national and regional selected players 30) . Thus, tennis-specific endurance is an important factor in being a successful tennis player. ...
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Inspiratory muscle fatigue (IMF) may limit exercise performance. It has been reported that IMF occurs after various exercises; however, it remains unclear whether IMF occurs after tennis singles match play. The purpose of this study was to test whether tennis singles match play induced IMF. Nine female college tennis players participated in this study. The players were paired in accordance with their skill level, and then played a singles match for an effective playing time (EPT) of 20 minutes. A portable autospirometer was used to measure the maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) before and immediately after the match as an index of IMF. Heart rate and perceptual measurements were recorded after every 2.5 minutes of effective playing time. The total match duration in this study was 96 ± 8 minutes. Post-match MIP was significantly lower than pre-match MIP (103 ± 21 cmH2O vs. 92 ± 22 cmH2O, p < 0.05, effect size = 0.47), and the magnitude of the decrease in MIP was 10.0 ± 9.7%. The present results show that IMF occurs after tennis singles match play in females.
... Little research has been performed on fitness characteristics of elite tennis players. Ulbricht and Colleagues (38) outlined and compared the performance characteristics of U12, U14, and U16 elite male and female junior tennis players from a regional and national level. As was expected, national level players showed better results in all fitness tests across all ages. ...
Article
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Professional Tennis players are amongst some of the fittest and most robust individuals in the modern sporting world. Greater attention is gradually being placed on Strength and Conditioning (S&C) training for the modern-day Tennis athlete, as significant forces and torques are generated through performing their respective strokes, most notably the Serve. The purpose of this paper was to outline the contribution of the lower- and upper-body on the serving motion, and their impact on absolute ball velocity. A thorough search for literature was conducted via Google Scholar. 25 primary articles was narrowed down to 11 based off inclusion criteria that consisted of a) Tennis experience, b) training program focus, and c) serving velocity measurement. Two of the 11 studies failed to show any positive change in serving velocity which may result from methodological considerations. Majority of studies demonstrated improvements in serving velocity, ranging from ~3.0-29.0%. This large margin reflects the studies differing timeframes, spanning between 4- weeks and 9-months. Majority of the contribution for absolute ball speed comes predominately from lower-body and trunk regions (~50% of total kinetic chain force). The shoulders prove to have a significant contribution to the pace of the ball, however injuries are most common in this region due to agonist-antagonist imbalances. Trunk musculature provides great dynamic support during the momentum shifting of the serving motion. The Tennis serve is fundamentally a whole-body explosive kinetic-chain movement that requires significant practice, especially surrounding technique and coordination. Adopting a full-body periodised S&C program is best suited for the modern-day athlete, with the integration of lower- and upper-body plyometric exercises, and trunk strength and stability.
... In general, it seems that knee flexion before extension is a prerequisite for an efficient execution of the serve as well as to achieve a higher jump [18,19] aspects that cannot be considered in adapted tennis because it is played sitting on the wheelchair (Figure 1). Some studies conducted by national tennis associations have used a battery of physical tests to know the evolution of their athletes [20,21], as well as to establish relationships between the measurements [13,22,23]. In general, anthropometric measurements, strength, speed, agility, endurance and flexibility are usually included in these tests. ...
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The aim of this study was to identify the physical factors related to serve speed in male professional wheelchair tennis players (WT). Nine best nationally-ranked Spanish male wheelchair tennis players (38.35 ± 11.28 years, 63.77 ± 7.01 kg.) completed a neuromuscular test battery consisting of: isometric handgrip strength; serve velocity; 5, 10 and 20 m sprint (with and without racket); agility (with and without racket); medicine ball throw (serve, forehand and backhand movements); and an incremental endurance test specific to WT. Significantly higher correlations were observed in serve (r = 0.921), forehand (r = 0.810) and backhand (r = 0.791) medicine ball throws showing a positive correlation with serve velocity. A regression analysis identified a single model with the medicine ball throw serve as the main predictor of serve velocity (r2 = 0.847, p < 0.001). In conclusion, it is recommended that coaches and physical trainers include medicine ball throw workouts in the training programs of WT tennis players due to the transfer benefits to the serve speed.
... Vertical jumping is one of the most used assessments for measuring and monitoring explosive strength in several sports (Castagna and Castellini, 2013;García-Pinillos et al., 2014;Ferioli et al., 2018;Ulbricht et al., 2016). From a metabolic and biomechanical perspective, jump height is usually used for estimating the capacity and power of anaerobic metabolism (Bosco et al., 1983;Dal Pupo et al., 2014), as well as to assess the mechanical and neuromuscular fatigue induced by different types of exercise in the lower-body (Garnacho-Castaño et al., 2015;Gathercole et al., 2015). ...
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This study aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the Polar V800 to measure vertical jump height. Twenty-two physically active healthy men (age: 22.89 ± 4.23 years; body mass: 70.74 ± 8.04 kg; height: 1.74 ± 0.76 m) were recruited for the study. The reliability was evaluated by comparing measurements acquired by the Polar V800 in two identical testing sessions one week apart. Validity was assessed by comparing measurements simultaneously obtained using a force platform (gold standard), high-speed camera and the Polar V800 during squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) tests. In the test-retest reliability, high intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were observed (mean: 0.90, SJ and CMJ) in the Polar V800. There was no significant systematic bias ± random errors (p > 0.05) between test-retest. Low coefficients of variation (<5%) were detected in both jumps in the Polar V800. In the validity assessment, similar jump height was detected among devices (p > 0.05). There was almost perfect agreement between the Polar V800 compared to a force platform for the SJ and CMJ tests (Mean ICCs = 0.95; no systematic bias ± random errors in SJ mean:-0.38 ± 2.10 cm, p > 0.05). Mean ICC between the Polar V800 versus high-speed camera was 0.91 for the SJ and CMJ tests, however, a significant systematic bias ± random error (0.97 ± 2.60 cm; p = 0.01) was detected in CMJ test. The Polar V800 offers valid, compared to force platform , and reliable information about vertical jump height performance in physically active healthy young men.
... While there is no question about the importance of physical fitness attributes for tennis performance (Girard and Millet, 2009;Fernandez-Fernandez et al., 2014;Ulbricht et al., 2016) being successful in ball-sports also depends on cognitive skills (Vestberg et al., 2012). High and low league adult soccer players that are comparable based on their physical attributes, distinguish from each other in cognitive function with high league players presenting with better executive functions (EF) that relate to game performance compared to lower league players (Vestberg et al., 2012). ...
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This study evaluated the effects of an exergame program (TennisVirtua-4, Playstation Kinect) combined with traditional tennis training on autonomic regulation, tennis technique, gross motor skills, clinical reaction time, and cognitive inhibitory control in children. Sixty-three children were randomized into four groups (1st-two exergame and two regular trainings sessions/week, 2nd-one exergame and one regular training sessions/week, 3rd-two regular trainings sessions/week, and 4th-one regular training session/week) and compared at baseline, 6-month immediately post intervention and at 1-year follow-up post intervention. At 6-month post intervention the combined exergame and regular training sessions revealed: higher breathing frequency, heart rate (all ps ≤ 0.001) and lower skin conductance levels (p = 0.001) during exergaming; additional benefits in the point of contact and kinetic chain elements of the tennis forehand and backhand technique (all ps ≤ 0.001); negative impact on the shot preparation and the follow-through elements (all ps ≤ 0.017); higher ball skills (as part of the gross motor skills) (p < 0.001); higher percentages of clinical reaction time improvement (1st −9.7% vs 3rd group −7.4% and 2nd −6.6% vs 4th group −4.4%, all ps ≤ 0.003) and cognitive inhibitory control improvement in both congruent (1st −20.5% vs 3rd group −18.4% and 2nd −11.5% vs 4th group −9.6%, all ps ≤ 0.05) and incongruent (1st group −19.1% vs 3rd group −12.5% and 2nd group −11.4% vs 4th group −6.5%, all ps ≤ 0.001) trials. The 1-year follow-up test showed no differences in the tennis technique, clinical reaction time and cognitive inhibitory control improvement between groups with the same number of trainings per week. The findings support Frontiers in Psychology | www.frontiersin.org 1 March 2021 | Volume 12 | Article 611382 Šlosar et al. Exergames to Regular Tennis Training exergaming as an additional training tool, aimed to improve important cognitive-motor tennis skills by adding dynamics to the standardized training process. Caution should be placed to planning this training, e.g., in a mesocycle, since exergaming might decrease the improvement of specific tennis technique parts of the trainees. (ClinicalTrials.gov; ID: NCT03946436).
... These variables should be taken into account when designing physical training for adolescent tennis players since physical condition is an important performance factor in tennis (Zháněl et al., 2015). In this regard, Ulbricht et al. (2016) observe that adolescent tennis players who obtain better results present higher levels of strength, specific endurance and upper-body power. ...
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The objective of this study was to confirm the most effective periodisation model for improving physical condition in adolescent amateur tennis players: the ATR model or traditional periodisation. Over a period of 38 weeks, 45 amateur tennis players (26 males, 19 females; age: 13.8 (1.09)) were randomly assigned to three different training groups: Control Group (CG), exclusively technical and tactical training; ATR Group (ATRG), technical and tactical training plus physical preparation designed with the ATR model; and Traditional Periodisation Group (TPG), technical and tactical training plus physical preparation designed with traditional periodisation. At the end of the intervention, the CG showed no significant improvements. By contrast, the physical condition of the ATRG and the TPG improved significantly (p < .05). Moreover, the ATRG showed a significantly better percentage improvement than the TPG in all the tests performed: 20-m shuttle run test, standing long jump test, medicine ball toss test, spider drill test and sit and reach test. It was concluded that while both periodisation models are useful in improving physical condition, the ATR design is more effective in adolescent amateur tennis players.
... These variables should be taken into account when designing physical training for adolescent tennis players since physical condition is an important performance factor in tennis (Zháněl et al., 2015). In this regard, Ulbricht et al. (2016) observe that adolescent tennis players who obtain better results present higher levels of strength, specific endurance and upper-body power. ...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to confirm the most effective periodisation model for improving physical condition in adolescent amateur tennis players: the ATR model or traditional periodisation. Over a period of 38 weeks, 45 amateur tennis players (26 males, 19 females; age: 13.8 (1.09)) were randomly assigned to three different training groups: Control Group (CG), exclusively technical and tactical training; ATR Group (ATRG), technical and tactical training plus physical preparation designed with the ATR model; and Traditional Periodisation Group (TPG), technical and tactical training plus physical preparation designed with traditional periodisation. At the end of the intervention, the CG showed no significant improvements. By contrast, the physical condition of the ATRG and the TPG improved significantly (p < .05). Moreover, the ATRG showed a significantly better percentage improvement than the TPG in all the tests performed: 20-m shuttle run test, standing long jump test, medicine ball toss test, spider drill test and sit and reach test. It was concluded that while both periodisation models are useful in improving physical condition, the ATR design is more effective in adolescent amateur tennis players.
... Estas variables deben tenerse en cuenta a la hora de diseñar el entrenamiento físico del tenista adolescente, puesto que la condición física es un factor de rendimiento importante en el tenis (Zháněl et al., 2015). En este sentido, Ulbricht et al. (2016) observan que los tenistas adolescentes que obtienen mejores resultados presentan niveles superiores de fuerza, resistencia específica y potencia en el tren superior. ...
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El objetivo del estudio fue verificar el modelo de periodización más eficaz para mejorar la condición física en tenistas amateur en edad adolescente: el modelo ATR, o una periodización tradicional. Durante 38 semanas, 45 tenistas amateur (26♂, 19♀; Edad: 13.8 (1.09)), fueron asignados aleatoriamente a tres grupos de entrenamiento diferentes: Grupo Control (GC), entrenamiento tecnicotactico exclusivamente; Grupo ATR (GATR), entrenamiento tecnicotactico más preparación física diseñada con el modelo ATR; y Grupo Periodización Tradicional (GPT), entrenamiento tecnicotactico más preparación física diseñada con una periodización tradicional. Finalizada la intervención, el GC no mostró mejoras significativas. En cambio, el GATR y el GPT mejoraron significativamente su condición física (p < .05). Además, se observaron diferencias significativas favorables al GATR con respecto al GPT en el porcentaje de mejora de todos los test realizados (test de ida y vuelta de 20 metros, test de salto de longitud a pies juntos, test de lanzamiento de balón medicinal, test de la araña y test de sit and reach. Se concluyó que, si bien ambos modelos de periodización son útiles para mejorar la condición física, el diseño ATR es más eficaz en tenistas amateur en edad adolescente.
... Also, there is still room for improvement in the game sports where test items focusing on technical skills and agility without or in combination with decision-making could be added to improve the prognostics (O'Connor et al., 2016;Ulbricht et al., 2016;Schorer et al., 2017). On the one hand, such predictors of higher fidelity may lead to a better explanation of the variance between the soccer performance groups (Bergkamp et al., 2019). ...
... The tennis serve, involving accuracy and velocity (SV), has been established as the most important performance factor in both competition (Fitzpatrick et al., 2019) and junior (Ulbricht et al., 2016) tennis players. Diverse variables influence the outcome of the serve and as a complex motor action, efficacy and efficiency are affected by various parameters such as anthropometric characteristics, technical proficiency, range of motion and strength and power levels (Elliott, 2006;Fett et al., 2020;Gillet et al., 2009;Hayes et al., 2018;Kovacs & Ellenbecker, 2011;Palmer et al., 2018). ...
Article
This study aimed to investigate the associations between serve velocity (SV), maximal absolute and relative isometric voluntary contraction (MVC and RMVC), peak rate of force development (PRFD), rate of force development (RFD) and impulse (IMP) at different stages of contraction (≤200 ms). Sixteen players per- formed four maximum isometric tests in positions involved in the tennis serve motion. Variables tested included MVC, PRFD, RFD and IMP at 50, 100, 150 and 200 ms while performing a 90o shoulder internal rotation (SHIR), shoulder flexion (SHF), horizontal shoulder abduction (SHABD) and an isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP). Significant (p ≤ 0.05) moderate-to-very-large correlations were found between SV, MVC and PRFD. RFD at different time intervals showed positive associations with SV, except in the SHF0-200 ms and IMTP0-200 ms. Accordingly, IMP values positively correlated with SV in all positions except in the SHIR0-50 ms and the IMTP in late con- traction stages. Results indicate that the combination of maximum isometric strength in several body positions involved in the serve kinetic chain alongside RFD and IMP in short periods of time (≤200 ms) positively influences SV in young participants.
... Also, there is still room for improvement in the game sports where test items focusing on technical skills and agility without or in combination with decision-making could be added to improve the prognostics (O'Connor et al., 2016;Ulbricht et al., 2016;Schorer et al., 2017). On the one hand, such predictors of higher fidelity may lead to a better explanation of the variance between the soccer performance groups (Bergkamp et al., 2019). ...
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Several talent identification programs in elementary school have implemented motor diagnostics to introduce children to groups of sports, like game sports, or even to particular sports like soccer. However, as in most other sports, in youth soccer, the predictive value of such early testing is still unclear. This prospective study evaluated the midterm prognostic validity of generic motor performance tests. The sample consisted of male second-grade children, which had received a recommendation to participate in soccer. The talent screening campaign was a basic check comprising two anthropometric parameters, five physical fitness, and three motor competence diagnostics of the German Motor Test 6–18. The test data were collected from the participating elementary school classes of the years 2010 to 2014. The soccer competition performance of those children having completed the age of at least 15 years ( n = 502) up to the end of the season 2019/2020 (2020, September 30) was recorded. This group of U17 players was then assigned individually to five different competition levels. The prognostic validity of the physical and physiological tests was determined using ANOVAs, odds ratios, and a regression path analysis. All diagnostic methods exhibited medium-to-high prognostic validity over the 8 year time span from the talent screening to the later soccer competitions in the adolescent age groups. For later success in soccer on the province level, the 6-min run (OR = 4.28), dynamic balance (OR = 4.04), and 20-m sprint (OR = 2.46), as well as the participation in the training center of the German Soccer Federation (OR = 5.67) and the diversity of club sport activities (OR = 3.56), were of particular importance.
... These data indicate the relevance of all manifestations of strength, both gripping and jumping. In this respect, the results obtained in jumping tests (SJ and CMJ) are lower compared to other racket sports [46][47][48]. The lower intensity of the game, of actions involving jumping and the type of movement required in padel could explain these results [22]. ...
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This study aimed to assess the physical fitness and upper body asymmetries of young padel players aged between 13 and 16 years and to determine the possible differences between genders and categories. A total of 60 padel players were divided into four groups: under-14 male (n = 15; age: 13.75 ± 0.45 years; height: 1.64 ± 0.07 m; weight: 54.7 ± 8.3 kg), under-14 female (n = 15; age: 13.75 ± 0.44 years; height: 1.60 ± 0.05 m; weight: 51.5 ± 6.0 kg), under-16 male (n = 15; age: 15.44 ± 0.51 years; height:1.71 ± 0.04 m; weight: 63.88 ± 6.2 kg) and under-16 female (n = 15; age:15.46 ± 0.52 years; height:1.63 ± 0.05 m; weight: 55.08 ± 3.6 kg). Handgrip strength, ischiosural flexibility, gestural speed of the dominant arm, vertical jump, cardiorespiratory capacity, lateral movement, lateral acceleration and reaction time were measured. Male players showed better results in manual grip strength, vertical jump power, cardiorespiratory capacity and lateral movement (p < 0.05). Moreover, males presented a higher percentage of asymmetry in upper limb strength. Female players showed better reaction time and greater flexibility (p < 0.05). Regarding the differences between categories, the under-16 players showed greater flexibility, gestural speed, vertical jump power, cardiorespiratory capacity and lateral movement compared to the under-14 players. These results can be used as reference values for coaches/physical trainers of younger categories to improve health control and physical performance planning
... 1,12 Based on previous findings, 13 a CKCUEST score <21 touches can identify athletes at risk for future shoulder injuries. In addition, SMBT is one of the most highly correlated predictors of tennis performance 14 and has been found to be moderate to strongly correlated with shoulder isokinetic strength in overhead athletes. 15 Determining the side-to-side differences of shoulder ROM, rotator strength, and functional performance in adolescent players may improve our understanding of sport-specific shoulder joint adaptations in tennis. ...
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Purpose: Repetitive and asymmetric movements in tennis can result in biomechanical adaptation in shoulder joint. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in shoulder range of motion (ROM), strength, and functional performance tests between the dominant and nondominant shoulders, as well as to identify gender differences in junior tennis players. Methods: Forty-two junior tennis players (age mean: 11.3 [1.2] y, body mass index 18.3 [2.4] kg/m2) were included in the study. Shoulder internal rotation (IR), external rotation (ER) ROM, and total ROM, IR and ER isokinetic strength and closed kinetic chain upper-extremity stability, seated medicine ball throw used, grip hold tests were applied bilaterally. Paired sample t test and Student t test were used to compare the differences. Results: ER ROM was greater, while IR ROM and total ROM were lower on the dominant shoulder (all P values < .05). Nineteen players had glenohumeral IR deficit (IR ROM difference >13°). The players had a greater ER strength on the dominant side and similar IR strength between shoulders. There was significant difference in seated medicine ball throw results between the dominant and nondominant sides (P < .001). The mean distance for bilateral seated medicine ball throw was 377.02 (85.70) m, and closed kinetic chain upper-extremity stability results were calculated as a mean of 15.85 (1.72) touches. Differences between the genders: total ROM of the dominant shoulder was higher in female players (P = .045), the IR PT/BW at 60°/s angular speed was higher in male players' dominant shoulder (P = .030), and closed kinetic chain upper-extremity stability performance was higher in male players (P = .019). Conclusions: Adolescent tennis players demonstrated differences in strength, ROM, and functional performance results between the dominant and nondominant shoulders. Gender differences were also seen in the aforementioned parameters in junior tennis players. Determining these differences may improve our understanding of sport-specific shoulder joint adaptations in tennis.
... Similarly, previous studies have shown that movement speed relataed parameters (10 & 20 m sprint, tennis specific sprint test) had a lower correlation to the tennis ranking than other pysical performance parameters. In particular, the parameters summarized as upper body power (medicine ball throws and serve velocity) and specific endurance showed the highest correlations to ranking position (Ulbricht, Fernandez-Fernandez, Mendez-Villanueva, & Ferrauti, 2016). These findings currently suggest a shift in paradigm, from a strong emphasis on running speed to a stronger focus on fast strokes. ...
Article
Movement speed is considered essential for success in elite tennis. The aim of the present study was to develop a model of movement speed components and quantify their age- and gender-related relevance for tennis performance. Physical testing data obtained from 1,434 nationally ranked junior squad tennis players were divided according to the age at peak height velocity (YPHV) into two age groups (pre-PHV: n=103 girls, 11.7 ± 0.6 yrs.; n=466 boys, 12.7 ± 1.0 yrs.; post-PHV: n=524 girls, 14.2 ± 1.4 yrs.; n=344 boys, 15.3 ± 1.2 yrs.). After assessing anthropometrics and maturity status, all players passed a series of standardized physical tests on an indoor hard court. All data were z-standardized, filtered and sorted by gender, maturity level, and ranking position. The structuring of the speed-related performance parameters resulted in four factors ('Elementary Speed', 'Jumping Power', 'Linear Speed', and 'COD Speed'), which were then confirmed by factor analysis. The correlation of these factors to the national ranking position was mostly significant but rather low, with 'Linear Speed' reaching the lowest (r=0.10-0.18) and 'COD Speed' the highest correlation (r=0.22-0.34). Path analytic models revealed 'COD Speed' as the most important factor, which is strongly influenced by 'Jumping Power' and 'Linear Speed,' with medium effect sizes, while 'Elementary Speed' affects this factor only slightly. It can be concluded that the relationship between movement speed and junior players' tennis ranking is lower than expected. The development of 'COD Speed' should be prioritized during testing, training, and talent identification, independent of age group and gender.Performance parameters for 1,434 junior players with national rankings were analyzed and assigned to four superior factors.The impact of the factors on the ranking position, as well as the internal causal relationships, were investigated via path analysis.'COD Speed' was the most impactful factor for tennis performance and was strongly influenced by 'Linear Speed' and 'Jumping Power.'
... In youth tennis, the internal and external loads slightly differ with respect to elite tennis [6]. Even so, it has been determined that explosive and ballistic actions are also key performance aspects in youth tennis [7]. Thus, junior tennis players, coaches, and physical trainers should aim to improve strength, power, and sprinting abilities. ...
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Objective: This study aimed to compare the acute effects of a full squat (SQ) or hip thrust (HT) with two different loading intensities (60% and 85% 1 RM) on sprint ability in junior male tennis players. Methods: Nineteen tennis players were included in this research. They underwent four different experimental conditions: HT at 60% 1 RM, HT at 85% 1 RM, SQ at 60% 1 RM, or SQ at 85%. The force–velocity (F–V) profile was used to assess tennis players’ sprint acceleration ability before and after applying the conditioning stimulus. The variables registered were as follows: 5 m test (5 m), 10 m test (10 m), maximum theoretical force (F0), maximum power (Pmax), and the maximal ratio of horizontal-to-resultant force (RFpeak). Results: Significant improvements in 5 m, Pmax, and RFpeak were observed when the conditioning stimulus was performing one set of seven reps of HT at 60% 1 RM. When the activation protocol was one set of seven reps of SQ at 60% 1 RM, significant improvements in 5 m, 10 m, F0, Pmax (N), and RFpeak were detected. Additionally, performing one set of three reps of SQ at 85% 1 RM as an activation protocol provided significant improvements in F0. Conclusion: The use of HT and SQ with a load of 60% 1 RM improved the sprint F–V profile components related to the acceleration phase of the sprint in junior tennis players. Using intensity loads of 85% 1 RM is not adequate to increase acute sprint performance in this population. HT presents a higher transferability to sprinting in the first 5 m of sprinting, whereas SQ provides acute improvements in different sprinting phases.
... It is played in 195 countries and has an estimated 87 million fans (who have played tennis at least once) and represents 1.17% of the world's population (1,2). Tennis has evolved from a predominantly technical sport in which sportspecific technical skills (e.g., stroke skills) predominated to a more explosive sport characterized by increasing serve and stroke velocity and requiring significantly increased physical demands (3)(4)(5). Physical fitness levels of the tennis players are critical in determining who wins and who loses, especially those with extremely close competitive levels (6,7). Tennis players must possess a combination of agility, speed, strength, aerobic capacity, and other physical fitness components in order to execute advanced shots and compete well against increasingly competent opponents (4,5). ...
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Background: Physical fitness comprises both health- and skill-related components that have been shown to correlate with the competitive ability of the athletes. Competitive ability of the athletes is strongly related to the positive or poor characteristics of physical fitness. Additionally, the adolescent stage is critical for the development of physical fitness. Physical fitness training for young tennis players should receive more attention. However, the current literature is deficient in in-depth reviews of the effects of exercise training on the physical fitness of young tennis players. Objective: This review is aimed to investigate the effects of exercise training on physical fitness among young tennis players. Methods: From October 2020, a comprehensive search was undertaken in four electronic databases (SCOPUS, PubMed, EBSCOhost (SPORTDiscus), and CINAHL Plus) and also on Google Scholar and other sources of gray literature references. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale and the over scientific evidence was determined using the best evidence synthesis (BES). This review included only studies that employed an experimental design to assess the physical fitness components of young tennis players. Results: Nine articles on exercise training met all inclusion criteria and were included in this systematic review. The studies were of a high standard of quality. The research findings are relatively credible. The results indicated that speed (n = 8) and agility (n = 8) were the most often investigated performance characteristics in exercise training interventions with young tennis players, followed by power (n = 7), strength (n = 4), and flexibility (n = 1). Exercise training significantly increased the physical fitness of young tennis players in terms of speed and agility. There is a lack of evidence about strength and flexibility. Meanwhile, there is conflicting evidence regarding the effect on power, and yet there is no evidence regarding the effect of exercise training on endurance. Conclusions: This systematic review established a compelling case for the beneficial effects of exercise training interventions on physical fitness in youngtennis players. The review identifies current research gaps (i.e., athlete gender, with a particular emphasis on female athletes) that should be addressed in future experimental studies. Systematic review registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero, identifier CRD 42020213145.
... Vertical jumping is one of the most used assessments for measuring and monitoring explosive strength in several sports (Castagna and Castellini, 2013;García-Pinillos et al., 2014;Ferioli et al., 2018;Ulbricht et al., 2016). From a metabolic and biomechanical perspective, jump height is usually used for estimating the capacity and power of anaerobic metabolism (Bosco et al., 1983;Dal Pupo et al., 2014), as well as to assess the mechanical and neuromuscular fatigue induced by different types of exercise in the lower-body (Garnacho-Castaño et al., 2015;Gathercole et al., 2015). ...
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This study aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the Polar V800 to measure vertical jump height. Twenty-two physically active healthy men (age: 22.89 +- 4.23 years; body mass: 70.74 +- 8.04 kg; height: 1.74 +- 0.76 m) were recruited for the study. The reliability was evaluated by comparing measurements acquired by the Polar V800 in two identical testing sessions one week apart. Validity was assessed by comparing measurements simultaneously obtained using a force platform (gold standard), high-speed camera and the Polar V800 during squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) tests. In the test-retest reliability, high intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were observed (mean: 0.90, SJ and CMJ) in the Polar V800. There was no significant systematic bias +- random errors (p > 0.05) between test-retest. Low coefficients of variation (<5%) were detected in both jumps in the Polar V800. In the validity assessment, similar jump height was detected among devices (p > 0.05). There was almost perfect agreement between the Polar V800 compared to a force platform for the SJ and CMJ tests (Mean ICCs = 0.95; no systematic bias +- random errors in SJ mean: -0.38 +- 2.10 cm, p > 0.05). Mean ICC between the Polar V800 versus high-speed camera was 0.91 for the SJ and CMJ tests, however, a significant systematic bias +- random error (0.97 +- 2.60 cm; p = 0.01) was detected in CMJ test. The Polar V800 offers valid, compared to force platform, and reliable information about vertical jump height performance in physically active healthy young men.
... As a result, in a competitive match, it is not uncommon for young players to have around 1,000 CODs involving high acceleration and deceleration efforts (14,19,22). Thus, these physical qualities can be considered fundamental to be a successful tennis player at any level (15,50), but especially at developmental ages (25). ...
Article
The aim of the present study was to examine the maturational status differences in neuromuscular performance of young tennis players. One-hundred and fifty-five junior tennis players (91 boys and 64 girls; age 13.1 ± 2.2 years, body mass 50.0 ± 12.2 kg, height 159.7 ± 12.4 cm, estimated age at peak height velocity (PHV) 12.7 ± 1.6 years) participated in the study and were divided into Pre-PHV (n = 57), Circa-PHV (n = 50) and Post-PHV (n = 48) groups. Physical tests included speed (5, 10, and 20 m), modified 5-0-5 change of direction (COD) test, hexagon test, and bilateral/unilateral countermovement jump (CMJ). The main results showed that compared to the Post-PHV, Pre-PHV players presented lower levels of performance in CMJs (P < 0.001; ES: 0.76 to 0.88), linear sprints, and COD ability tests (P < 0.001; ES: 1.4 to 1.5). In addition, compared to Circa-PHV, Pre-PHV players also demonstrated lower performance levels in both linear sprints (P < 0.001; ES: 0.93 to 1.12) and COD abilities (P < 0.01; ES: 0.58 to 0.94). On the contrary, COD deficit (CODDEF) was significantly lower in the Pre-PHV group than the Circa (P < 0.001; ES: 0.76–0.79) and Post-PHV (P < 0.001; ES: 1.04–1.05) groups. These results highlight the need to use the maturity stage (i.e., PHV) instead of chronological age as a more appropriate parameter when designing training programs. Furthermore, based on the differences found between groups, specific training strategies, such as neuromuscular training and COD workouts, related to the different maturation stages should be recommended.
... Por tanto, los CDD pueden ser considerados uno de los componentes físicos más importantes para lograr un alto rendimiento en el tenis (Fernández-Fernández et al., 2020). A pesar de esta importancia, la información acerca de los CDD en el tenis es escasa, existiendo muy pocos estudios previos que hayan analizado esta cualidad física (Leone et al., 2006;Ulbricht et al., 2016), especialmente en jugadores profesionales (Cooke, Quinn, & Sibte, 2011;Giles, Kovalchik & Reid, 2020). ...
Article
El objetivo de este estudio fue medir las velocidades de aproximación a los cambios de dirección (CDD), tras desplazamientos de más de 4 metros, entre hombres y mujeres en el fondo de la pista durante partidos de tenis de élite. Se seleccionó un partido de cada uno de los 5 mejores tenistas masculinos y femeninos del ranking ATP y WTA. Y, de cada partido, 15 CDD. Sobre cada CDD, se aplicó un sistema de seguimiento automático mediante videoanálisis basado en tres puntos corporales (cabeza, tronco y cadera). Se encontraron mayores velocidades en hombres en todos los momentos analizados a partir del penúltimo apoyo (PEN) antes del CDD. También se encontraron diferencias entre ambos sexos en las velocidades parciales durante los pasos previos al CDD. Durante aproximación al CDD, la velocidad de los hombres a partir del antepenúltimo apoyo (ANT) antes del CDD fue aumentada en el PEN y disminuyó en el último apoyo (ULT) antes del CDD, mientras que las mujeres, disminuyeron progresivamente su velocidad a partir del ANT. En conclusión, existen diferencias entre hombres y mujeres en la aproximación a un cambio de dirección, y por tanto en la preparación de golpeos. Por lo tanto, la información proporcionada en este estudio es de vital importancia para el planteamiento de entrenamientos.
... However, a comprehensive systematic literature search yielded no tennis-specific agility test including a response to a stimulus showing reliable and valid results. The only agility test which included both physical and cognitive agility performance, consisted of one maximal sprint, yet no reliable and valid outcomes (Ulbricht et al., 2016). Others were change of direction (COD) tests without a response to a stimulus (Barber-Westin et al., 2010;Eriksson et al., 2015;Fernandez-Fernandez et al., 2016;Huggins et al., 2017;Leone et al., 2006;Sekulic et al., 2017;Zemková and Hamar, 2014). ...
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Agility is an important ability for tennis players. To be successful in the rallies, players must perform rapid, multidirectional movements in response to the ball and/or the position of the opponent. For a test to be representative in monitoring agility performance, it should capture a combination of the physical and cognitive agility performance. Considering that literature reports no reliable and valid sport-specific agility test for tennis, the aim of this article was to design and evaluate the measurement properties of a Tennis-specific Agility Test (TAT). To evaluate the TAT, test�retest reliability, concurrent validity, and feasibility were assessed. For reproducibility, a two-way mixed ANOVA was performed. Concurrent validity was assessed using Pearson correlations. A total of 69 tennis players participated in this study of whom 16 competed at the international (22 ± 3.7 years, playing level (Dynamic Rating System): .8 ± .3), 43 at the national (14 ± 1.4 years, playing level: 4.6 ± 1.4), and 10 at the regional level (15 ± 0.8 years, playing level: 4.9 ± 1.1). Test-retest reliability was found to be moderate with an Intra-Class Correlation coefficient (ICC) of .74 (p < .01) and a percentual minimal detectable change (%MDC) of 6.2%. Concurrent validity was found to be moderate by comparison with a recognised agility test, the Spider Drill, which measures only the physical component (.70; p < .01), and by comparison with tennis performance for both boys (r = .67; p < .01) and girls (r = .72; p < .01). The feasibility was high with short time for preparation (five to ten minutes) and time per participant (<5 minutes). In conclusion, the TAT shows promising results for assessing sport-specific agility performance in tennis making it likely to be used in the practical setting.
... Although sport-specific technical skills are extremely important to tennis performance, a complex profile of physical performance factors is also required (Fernandez-Fernandez, Ulbricht, Ferrauti, 2014;Güllich, & Krüger, 2013;Hohmann, Lames, & Letzelter, 2010). The most important fitness factors are considered to be speed, coordination and strength, since a tennis player well-prepared in terms of fitness has much better preconditions for attaining an optimal sports performance and a high standard of performance (Fernandez-Fernandez et al., 2014;Ferrauti, Maier, & Weber, 2014;Schönborn, 2010;Ulbricht, Fernandez-Fernandez, Mendez-Villanueva, & Ferrauti, 2016). The level of fitness preconditions is often determined by means of batteries of tests, with field-based methods being considered to be more appropriate for sports such as tennis. ...
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Tennis performance is influenced by various factors, among which physical performance factors play an important role. The aim of the study was an analysis of possibilities of the use of Saaty’s method for assessing the level of performance prerequisites and comparing the results obtained using equal weights and various weights. The research on Czech female players (U12; n = 211) was based on the results of the TENDIAG1 test battery (9 items) and the results were processed by FuzzME software and relevant statistical methods (correlation coefficient r, Student´s t-test, effect size index d). The results of Saaty’s method show that the most important athletic performance criteria for tennis coaches are the leg reaction time and the running speed, while the least important are endurance and strength. The evaluation using various criteria weights offers a finer scale for assessing athletes’ performance prerequisites despite the proven high degree of association between the results obtained with equal and various weights and the insignificant difference of mean values. The results have shown possibilities for the use of a fuzzy approach in sports practice and motivate further research towards broadening the structure or the number of evaluation criteria.
Article
This study examined the influence of both anthropometric and physical performance determinants on the likelihood to be selected to progress through a talent identification and development programme in young tennis. Data were collected in 538 young tennis players (323 males and 215 females) from 6 age categories (U8–U13). A principal component analysis was used to generate one anthropometric determinant (based on body height, body weight and maturity offset) and four physical performance determinants: speed and agility (based on 5 m sprint, 20 m sprint and 505 change of direction test); jumping power (based on standing broad jump and standing broad jump in series); motor coordination (based on balancing backwards and jumping sideways) and tennis ball control (based on a throw and catch test and hold tennis ball up test). For all determinants, tertiles were generated for every age category and both sexes separately. Univariate binary logistic regressions were performed to examine the influence of each determinant on the chances to be selected to progress in the talent identification and development programme. Significant odds ratios were found for all included anthropometric and physical performance determinants ( p < 0.05), ranging from 0.26 to 7.50 in the male young tennis players and from 0.18 to 6.87 in the female young tennis players. The included determinants influenced selection chances mostly in the early age categories (U8–U10) as opposed to the later age categories (U11–U13). Future research should examine the influence of additional determinants (such as tennis (match-play) performance) on the selection chances to progress through a talent identification and development programme.
Article
Serving is the most important hitting technique in tennis, and a good service receiving can instantly reverse the active and passive relationship between serve and receive on the tennis court, and control the rhythm of the court. The purpose of this study is to use an adaptive neuron fuzzy intelligent system to analyze some techniques of tennis serve. In this study, eight male players from the school tennis team were selected as the experimental subjects, whose sports level was above the national tennis level II. Ten weeks before the simulation test, the training time and frequency of 8 subjects were the same. In other words, 5 times a week, 2.5 hours±0.5 hours. The work engineering of adaptive fuzzy system firstly, in the off-line modeling stage, the adaptive fuzzy system uses the rule self splitting technology to generate the initial fuzzy rules, and uses the improved adaptive neural network algorithm to optimize the calculation; then according to the error between the system input and the predicted output, the independent variable is adjusted and replaced; at the same time, the adaptive fuzzy system is further used for calculation In the process of tennis serving, the nonlinear control variables are obtained online and applied to the fuzzy system for control. Next, in the experiment, the system was used to record the body’s movement and service scores during service. The experimental results show that during the service process, the maximum trunk torsion amplitude can reach 48.26 ° and the minimum is only 5.41 ° and the service score accounts for 81.41% and 80.47% of the total scores of the two sections respectively. This shows that the fuzzy system in this study can effectively analyze the service posture and score of athletes. It is concluded that the accurate calculation and analysis of tennis serve by adaptive neuron intelligent fuzzy system in this study is conducive to improve the tennis serviceability and competition performance of players. This research has made a certain contribution to the intellectualization of sports.
Conference Paper
The COVID-19 pandemic lockdown situation leads to the dimidiate of sports training worldwide. This research study examines the athlete's training development strategies among selected Colombo district Tennis coaches who are registered under Sri Lanka Tennis Association. The major objective of this study was to identify the athlete's training development strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown periods. The mixed-mode method research design was applied and the population of the study was Colombo district Tennis coaches and the sample was forty coaches among them. A simple random sampling technique was used for this study. The researcher collected the data through an online questionnaire. And the data was analyzed by SPSS software. According to the result, 40 out of 40 (100%) Tennis coaches continued their training through the Zoom group video calls. From that, most (85%) of coaches choose Zoom group video calls as the best communication strategy. The finding has shown that Muscular endurance was the most (34 coaches) trained fitness component during the lockdown period. Coaches (82.5%) answered showed, Muscular endurance is an easy fitness component to design exercises to train at home. The majority of the coaches (87.5%) responded as they gave Muscle fitness exercises to their athletes to keep them active during the lockdown periods. All coaches (100%) trained both upper and lower body during the training session. In the upper body, the Forearm was the target muscle area for (90%) most of the coaches. And Calves muscles were the lower body target area for the majority of coaches (87.5%). The majority of the coaches (77.5%) agreed that their training development strategies were effective and gave positive improvements. The Colombo district Tennis coaches continued their sports training through the Zoom video Calls and they trained Muscular endurance and gave Muscle fitness exercises and target the Forearm and the Calves muscles to keep the athletes' fitness during the COVID-19 outbreak.
Article
Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the potential post-activation performance enhancement (PAPE) effects of two different warm-up strategies, involving dynamic stretching (DS) or heavy load leg press (HL) on several key physical qualities in tennis players. Methods: Twenty-six elite male tennis players (age: 19.22 ± 4.20 years; body mass: 67.37 ± 8.19 kg; height: 1.77 ± 0.07 m) performed both warm-ups, with 48-hours between protocols (DS and HL), performed in a randomized order. Pre- and post-tests included: countermovement jump, 5-m and 10-m sprint, 5-0-5 agility test, and hip extension and flexion range-of-motion which were performed before and after DS and HL warm-up protocols. Results: The DS warm-up led to substantial improvements in 5-m and 10-m sprint, 5-0-5 agility test, countermovement jump, and also to higher hip flexion range-of-motion. The HL warm-up caused impairments in 5-m and 10-m sprints, but improvements in 5-0-5 agility test, countermovement jump and hip extension range-of-motion. Compared to HL, DS warm-up induced possibly to likely positive effects on 5-m and 10-m linear sprint performance, as well as in hip flexion range-of-motion. Nevertheless, no differences in performance improvements in 5-0-5 agility test, countermovement jump and hip extension range-of-motion were found when comparing DS and HL warm-up protocols. Conclusion: DS seems to be more effective than HL when performing a short warm-up protocol in elite tennis players.
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Teniste Servis Hızının Önemi
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The COVID-19 pandemic lockdown situation leads to the dimidiate of sports training worldwide. This research study examines the athlete's training development strategies among selected Colombo district Tennis coaches who are registered under Sri Lanka Tennis Association. The major objective of this study was to identify the athlete's training development strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown periods. The mixed-mode method research design was applied and the population of the study was Colombo district Tennis coaches and the sample was forty coaches among them. A simple random sampling technique was used for this study. The researcher collected the data through an online questionnaire. And the data was analyzed by SPSS software. According to the result, 40 out of 40 (100%) Tennis coaches continued their training through the Zoom group video calls. From that, most (85%) of coaches choose Zoom group video calls as the best communication strategy. The finding has shown that Muscular endurance was the most (34 coaches) trained fitness component during the lockdown period. Coaches (82.5%) answered showed, Muscular endurance is an easy fitness component to design exercises to train at home. The majority of the coaches (87.5%) responded as they gave Muscle fitness exercises to their athletes to keep them active during the lockdown periods. All coaches (100%) trained both upper and lower body during the training session. In the upper body, the Forearm was the target muscle area for (90%) most of the coaches. And Calves muscles were the lower body target area for the majority of coaches (87.5%). The majority of the coaches (77.5%) agreed that their training development strategies were effective and gave positive improvements. The Colombo district Tennis coaches continued their sports training through the Zoom video Calls and they trained Muscular endurance and gave Muscle fitness exercises and target the Forearm and the Calves muscles to keep the athletes' fitness during the COVID-19 outbreak.
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98 ± 102.43 88.69 616.43 ± 103
  • Mbt
MBT forehand (cm) 688.53 ± 98.33 637.71 ± 104.43 50.82 0.49 (0.04;0.94) 868.04 ± 100.84 771.98 ± 102.43 88.69 616.43 ± 103.31 35.63 0.35 (-0.1;0.8) 836.79 ± 106.91 743.85 ± 105.31 92.94** 0.88 (0.53;1.22) 942.08 ± 111.82 872.93 ± 105.93 9.99 127.80 ± 10.61 10.74** 1.02 (0.67;1.37) 152.73 ± 9.67 142.29 ± 10.28 10.44** 1.02 (0.62;1.43)