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Measuring Mindfulness in Insight Meditation (Vipassana) and Meditation-Based Psychotherapy: The Development of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI)

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  • Universitätsspital Basel (University Hospital Basel)
... Otro ámbito de investigación ha sido el referido a la consideración del mindfulness como un constructo susceptible de ser operativizado, evaluado y utilizado como criterio para relacionarlo con otras medidas clínicas. Así se ha desarrollado el inventario mindfulness de Friburgo (Buchheld, Grossman y Walach, 2002) y que ha sido estudiado en relación con el consumo de tabaco y de alcohol (Leigh, Bown y Marlatt, 2005). También se ha desarrollado una escala para pacientes de cáncer (Carlson y Brown, 2005). ...
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El mindfulness puede entenderse como atención y conciencia plena, como presencia atenta y reflexiva a lo que sucede en el momento actual. Pretende que la persona se centre en el momento presente de un modo activo, procurando no interferir ni valorar lo que se siente o se percibe en cada momento. Como procedimiento terapéutico busca, ante todo, que los aspectos emocionales y cualesquiera otros procesos de carácter no verbal, sean aceptados y vividos en su propia condición, sin ser evitados o intentar controlarlos. El control sobre sucesos incontrolables, sujetos a procesamiento automático, requiere de la mera experimentación y exposición natural con la menor interferencia posible. Aunque el mindfulness ha adquirido una cierta notoriedad, sobre todo en USA, de mano de los valores orientales, refiere a algunos aspectos ya conocidos en psicología: la exposición, la autorregulación, basadas en las técnicas de biofeedback o en el uso de la hipnosis donde hay un dejar que los fenómenos perceptivos y sensoriales se muestren como ellos son. Su principal utilidad, El mindfulness puede entenderse como atención y conciencia plena, como presencia atenta y reflexiva a lo que sucede en el momento actual. Pretende que la persona se centre en el momento presente de un modo activo, procurando no interferir ni valorar lo que se siente o se percibe en cada momento. Como procedimiento terapéutico busca, ante todo, que los aspectos emocionales y cualesquiera otros procesos de carácter no verbal, sean aceptados y vividos en su propia condición, sin ser evitados o intentar controlarlos. El control sobre sucesos incontrolables, sujetos a procesamiento automático, requiere de la mera experimentación y exposición natural con la menor interferencia posible. Aunque el mindfulness ha adquirido una cierta notoriedad, sobre todo en USA, de mano de los valores orientales, refiere a algunos aspectos ya conocidos en psicología: la exposición, la autorregulación, basadas en las técnicas de biofeedback o en el uso de la hipnosis donde hay un dejar que los fenómenos perceptivos y sensoriales se muestren como ellos son. Su principal utilidad.
... The version FMI-14 items is validated for use outside of a Buddhist context and can be completed by people without any knowledge of meditation [38,39]. Studies have demonstrated that mindfulness practice increases an individual's FMI score [38,40] and that FMI scores are, on average, higher for experienced meditators compared to the FMI scores of non-meditators [41], indicating that the FMI scale is a good tool to validate the consistency of groups of experienced meditators compared to non-meditators [38]. We ensured that, at the group level, FMI scores, and thus trait mindfulness, are higher for experienced meditators than would be expected for non-meditators. ...
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The mindfulness trait is an intrinsic characteristic of one’s disposition that facilitates awareness of the present moment. Meditation has proven to enhance situational awareness. In this study, we compared the performance of participants that were split into two groups depending on their experience in mindfulness meditation (a control group naive to mindfulness meditation and a group of experienced mindfulness meditators). Choice-blindness happens when people fail to notice mismatches between their intentions and the consequences of decisions. Our task consisted of decisions where participants chose one preferred female facial image from a pair of images for a total of 15 decisions. By reversing the decisions, unbeknownst to the participants, three discrepancies were introduced in an online experimental design. Our results indicate that the likelihood of detecting one or more manipulations was higher in the mindful group compared to the control group. The higher FMI scores of the mindful group did not contribute to this observation; only the practice of mindfulness meditation itself did. Thus, this could be explained by better introspective access and control of reasoning processes acquired during practice and not by the latent characteristics that are attributed to the mindfulness trait.
... After careful consideration of the following studies from literature regarding mindfulness (Baer, Smith, & Allen, 2004;Baer, Smith, Hopkins, Krietemeyer, & Toney, 2006;Brown & Ryan, 2003;Buchheld, Grossman, & Walach, 2001, Cardaciotto, Herbert, Forman, Moitra, & Farrow, 2008, Catak, 2012Chadwick et al., 2008;Feldman, Hayes, Kumar, Greeson, & Laurenceau, 2007;Hisli Sahin & Yeniceri, 2015;Kinay, 2013;Lau et al., 2006;Ozyesil, Arslan, Kesici, & Deniz, 2011;Walach, Buchheld, Buttenmuller, Kleinknecht, & Schmidt, 2006) particularly on mindfulness in interaction as general interpersonal mindfulness (Pratscher et al., 2018;Pratscher et al., 2019) interpersonal mindfulness in parenting (Duncan, 2007;de Bruin et al., 2014;McCaffrey, 2015), interpersonal mindfulness in marriage (Erus & Deniz, 2018), and interpersonal mindfulness in teaching (Frank et al., 2016) a pool of 32 theoretically based items were generated. The 32 items are supposed to measure the general interpersonal mindfulness. ...
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p style="text-align:justify">The purpose of this study is to develop an Interpersonal Mindfulness Scale-TR (IMS-TR) for Turkish culture. For the data collection process, four different sample groups participated in the study. To test the construct validity of the scale an exploratory factor analysis was performed. Results suggested a 13-item, two-factor solution as (1) awareness and (2) being in the moment. Two-factor structure explains 50.65% of the variance. A confirmatory factor analysis results showed good fit for two-factor solution. The Mindfulness in Parenting Questionnaire and the Mindfulness in Marriage Scale were used to examine a convergent validity and positive significant relationships were found between the scales. To test the reliability of the scale Cronbach's Alpha reliability coefficient of the overall scale was determined to be .826. To determine the stability coefficient of the IMS-TR, test-retest method was used and according to result there is a positive relationship between the scales. According to all of these results, it can be said that the IMS-TR has a validity and reliability.</p
... Mindfulness measuring instruments such as the Freiburg mindfulness inventory (FMI) (Buchheld et al., 2001), the Kentucky inventory of mindfulness skill (KIMS) (Baer et al., 2004) and CAMS measure the concept of mindfulness broadly, but they are specifically for the respondents who are familiar with the principles of mindfulness. CAMS has a strength that measures multiple aspects of mindfulness in comprehensive and relatively short ways, and it is not limited to specific settings. ...
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CAMS-R is a measurement instrument designed for normal adult participants. There have been a few studies conducting lingua-cultural adaptation of CAMS-R in the Indonesian context, but such studies have not touched on the discourse of Muslim mothers. Accordingly, this study aimed to conduct linguistic adaptation of CAMS-R by translating it into Bahasa Indonesia. Also, it aimed to examine the measurement model to find whether the structure of CAMS-R was confirmed relevant to empirical data or not. At the stage of forward translation, this study involved 5 participants, namely two translators and three psychologists with doctoral academic qualifications. The stage of back translation engaged 3 participants, namely a bachelor in English and two linguistics experts. The pilot study incorporated 10 readers, and the try-out involved 103 Muslim mothers between the ages of 20-40 years old. Data analysis used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results demonstrated that the measurement of mindfulness construct had high goodness of fit. The results of model fit evaluation indicated chi square of 8.742 (p=.557), GFI of.976, AGFI of.932, CFI of 1.000, TLI of 1.014, and RMSEA of.000. The foregoing depicted a good fit of goodness. CAMS-R contained 12 items and left 7 items with loading factors above 0.5. (.585 –.887). Composite reliability (CR) sub-scale resulted in the scores of.713 –.785, and its overall CR scale was.936 and AVE of.736 –.739. The foregoing data indicated good convergent and discriminant validity. This study emphasized that CAMS-R could ideally be used to measure mindfulness for the Indonesian population of Muslim mothers between the ages of 20-40 years. © Sutarto, S., Warsah, I., Khotimah, K., Prastuti, E., & Morganna, R.
... The prevalent practice of measuring mindfulness is by the use of a questionnaire designed specifically for this purpose. In Buddhist meditation, mindfulness is considered as a whole construct, and therefore, early questionnaires like "Mindful Attention Awareness Scale" (MAAS) , "Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory" (FMI) (Buchheld et al., 2001), were designed taking mindfulness as a whole construct. ...
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This chapter is an attempt to analyse the key factors of adoption of alternative business models by the handicraft artisans during COVID-19 pandemic. This paper is a part of doctoral study and is based on the part of primary research conducted by the scholar. The study primarily analyses the strength of the relationship of the factors. A structured questionnaire was employed to collect data for conducting the study. Descriptive statistics, correlation and multiple linear regressions have been used as statistical tools for analysis. The findings of the study demonstrate the linkage and effect of critical aspects on the performance of alternative business models, resulting in conclusions that leave room for future research. The novelty of this study is that it has made an initial attempt to identify the key factors of adoption of the alternative business model for the artisans. The study is limited to a specific field of the craft sector. The policy-makers will have substantial theoretical consequences for the development of the artisans regarding their alternative business model. It is important to improve artisan’s entrepreneurial skills and capabilities to strengthen them in the global market today.KeywordsAlternative businessHandicraft sectorArtisanCOVID-19Social media
... The interactive domain is based on Western definitions of mindfulness (Jha et al., 2007;Kabat-Zinn, 1994), and items within this domain are adapted from existing measures, namely: The Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS; Baer et al., 2004), Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS; Lau, et al. 2006), the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ; Baer, et al. 2006), Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI; Buchheld et al., 2001), and the Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale (PHLMS; Cardaciotto et al., 2008). An example is "How I behave with others is influenced by my sense of physical wellbeing." ...
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Book cover Handbook of Assessment in Mindfulness Research pp 1–28Cite as Development of the Equanimity Barriers Scale (EBS) Joey Weber & Jerome Carson Living reference work entry First Online: 14 September 2022 19 Accesses 1 Altmetric Abstract Recently, the science behind mindfulness meditation has increasingly turned toward how and why its practice can result in such varying psychological change. This chapter investigates and identifies equanimity as one of the key facets of mindfulness therapeutic effectiveness. This validation work seeks to propose equanimity as a distinct secular construct to be further examined in clinical settings. Therefore, the studies reviewed within this chapter were motivated by the lack of comprehensive empirical research into the construct of equanimity within Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBIs). Often, MBIs implicitly cover equanimity; however, at the time when the Equanimity Barriers Scale (EBS) was developed, there had been no specific psychometric scales that measure equanimity or barriers to equanimity, and no primary operational definition is available in Western science. This restricts scientific research and understanding into the psychologically therapeutic elements of mindfulness practice. This chapter seeks to present validation of the first scale to measure barriers to equanimity, henceforth known as the EBS. The proposed EBS was validated by four separate studies. The first principal component analysis (n = 453) was utilized in order to explore underlying factors associated with barriers to equanimity. The second validation stage refined the factors via confirmatory factor analysis (n = 108), and the third stage (n = 302) tested convergent and discriminant validity of the scale. The final validation stage (n = 327) tested differences between groups in relation to the EBS with age, anxiety, depression, and mental well-being. The findings demonstrated how a person with fewer barriers to equanimity is more likely to be able to emotionally regulate, have greater self-compassion, mindfulness, and mental well-being, whereas a person who has higher barriers to equanimity has greater risk of anxiety, depression, and difficulties in emotional regulation. The development of a new model and scale to measure barriers to equanimity extends the body of knowledge related to the adoption of equanimity within person-centered therapy, clinical psychology, and general health and well-being. Understanding barriers to equanimity enables individuals to strengthen mindfulness practice and continue advancement in well-being with openness and less discrimination.
... Measuring mindfulness by self-report may be problematic as results may reflect that the person has learnt the language of mindfulness without a change in their aptitude for mindfulness and may only measure an intent to be mindful (Bergomi et al., 2013;Buchheld et al., 2001;Grossman, 2011). This was highlighted as a limiting factor in some of the studies as the reliance on self-report was substantial (Carmona i ...
Article
This scoping review considers Eleven studies that have focussed on the effect of teaching the mindfulness element of Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) on clinical outcomes. These articles utilised either mindfulness skills as embedded into the full DBT-Skills program or a stand-alone mindfulness skills module (DBT-M), as treatment for clinical populations. The review of the research found that clinical application of mindfulness as taught in DBT leads to increases in self-reported mindfulness - especially non-judgemental awareness along with psychological measures that suggests an increase in mindfulness e.g. improved attention. The studies demonstrated that an increase in mindfulness had a positive effect on some clinical symptoms such as symptoms of Borderline Personality Disorder. Not all of the studies controlled for the effect of group, amount of practice or other elements of DBT therapy. The findings suggest that more needs to be done to establish the underlying mechanisms of change when being taught mindfulness in DBT.
Article
Background Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) has recently received much attention from therapists working in the field of sleep disorders. However, less attention has been paid to the role of ACT components in sleep problems. To this end, the present study aimed to investigate the role of ACT components in predicting sleep quality and insomnia severity. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on the survivors of a major earthquake (7.3 on the Richter scale in 2017) in urban and rural areas of Kermanshah province (western Iran) 4 years after the earthquake. The data were collected using a questionnaire and data analysis was performed for 1094 people. Results The results showed that all six components of ACT are related to sleep quality and insomnia severity. The findings also revealed that ACT processes can account for 19% of sleep quality and 27% of insomnia severity. Moreover, about 35% of the variances in the sleep quality subscales were predicted by the six components of ACT. The results showed the important role of experiential avoidance (i.e., acceptance) in predicting sleep quality and insomnia severity compared to other ACT processes. Conclusion Based on the results of the present study, it can be suggested all six processes of ACT are correlated with and predictive of sleep quality and insomnia severity. Further, sleep disorder therapists should take special account of acceptance when working with sleep problems because of the importance of acceptance in predicting sleep problems in the present study.
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The COVID pandemic has generated unprecedented discomfort and uncertainty among people all over the world (WHO, Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, 2020). It has affected work, family, and social life, devasted the physical and psychological well-being to an alarming degree. In this situation, our potent weapon is undoubtedly our mental capacity and strength. Strengthening the mind will endow us with the ability and conviction to deal with the current situation (Wu et al., CMAJ 192:E459–E460, 2020). At present, there are various techniques and tools available for this purpose like pranayama, physical exercise, music and, yoga and meditation (Torre et al., Journal of Clinical Medicine 9:1–13, 2020) depending upon one’s individual preferences. Today, meditation is considered as a useful tool to quieten the chattering mind, which is preferred by many individuals (Nalawade and Pradhan, 2016), and therefore, it is gathering momentum as a useful intervention in health care. Of the different types of meditation practices in use today, mindfulness meditation practice has originated from the Buddhist tradition and has been taught by the Buddha 2500 years ago to make the mind calm, focused, and strong. Being mindful means, being fully present in the present moment. Research has shown that being mindful reduces the tendency to be reactive and to become more equanimous and enables one to come out of suffering. Especially in the healthcare domain mindfulness interventions have proven to be effective in enhancing psychological and physical health. This literature review is focused on benefits of mindfulness practice as an intervention, which is cost-effective and non-intrusive in nature. For this purpose, a systematic review was conducted to understand and highlight advantages and applications of mindfulness. The literature review has reiterated the ability of mindfulness practice to help one handle trying situations with equanimity by modulating one’s behavior effectively (Antonova et al., 2020). This study highlights a few clinical case studies and discusses the scope for future studies and limitations faced by researchers in this area. Also, some of the cases where it has been implemented effectively in COVID-19 situations are enumerated with the hope that it will highlight the usefulness of this intervention in the trying and stressful situation at present as well as in future. The limitation of this study is the lack of the availability of long-term research data at present describing the benefits of mindfulness practice in the current pandemic situation.
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Bu araştırmanın amacı çalışanların bilinçli farkındalığı ile iş yeri bezginliği arasında bir ilişki olup olmadığını ortaya çıkarmaktadır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda İstanbul’da faaliyet gösteren çeşitli mağazalarda çalışan 206 satış görevlisinden ve 85 kasiyerden anket tekniği ile veri toplanmıştır. Toplanan veri yapısal eşitlik modellemesi tekniği ile analiz edilmiştir. Elde edilen bulgulara göre bilinçli farkındalık ile iş yeri bezginliğinin boyutları olan anlam krizi, gelişim krizi ve iş bıkkınlığı arasında ters yönlü ve anlamlı ilişkiler bulunmaktadır. Söz konusu bulgular bilinçli farkındalığın son yıllarda kavramsallaştırılmış bir olgu olan iş yeri bezginliğine çare olabileceğini göstermektedir.
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