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... FASTPASS™ created the concept of a virtual queue, which became a new norm for theme parks (EI1; see Table 4), as well as the associated industry regulation (EI2) and infrastructure (EI3). FASTPASS™ also changed the general social values and norms about the management of queue times (EI4) (Ford & Dickson, 2008). The concept and system of the virtual queue, as well as services similar to FASTPASS™, are now widely applied by other theme parks and sectors around the world (Dickson et al., 2005). ...
... As a new service delivery system (OI2), FASTPASS™ changed Disney's culture (OI3) with a new approach to managing queue time. Via a series of new R&D practices such as computer simulations, tests, and refinements (OI4), FASTPASS™ successfully overcame the substantive amount of skepticism from management on its benefits and finally got launched (Dickson et al., 2005;Ford & Dickson, 2008). ...
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