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... Previous research has shown that mindfulness is an individual characteristic that promotes psychological wellbeing (Baer, 2003;Bishop, Lau, Shapiro et al., 2004) by allowing individuals to cope with stressful situations (Fraher, Branicki & Grint, 2017;Thoroughgood, Sawyer & Webster, 2019). In the occupational context, despite the abundance of evidence on the role mindfulness plays in helping individuals cope with stress, most studies have focused on the role it plays in occupational stress that individuals experience on a regular basis (Charoensukmongkol & Suthatorn, 2018;Zahra & Riaz, 2018), and less is known about its role in the emotional exhaustion that employees experience during an organizational crisis. ...
... Mindful individuals pay attention to external circumstances and at the same time focus on internal thoughts, feelings, and sensations about compassionate and sincere behaviors (Baer, 2003;Bishop et al., 2004). Because individuals with high levels of mindfulness neither spend time contemplating unpleasant past experiences nor worry about the future, they tend to suffer less tension, depression, and burnout (Marzuq & Drach-Zahavy, 2012). ...
... Because mindful individuals are aware of their immediate experience and are not overwhelmed by negative thoughts and emotions (H€ ulsheger, Lang, Depenbrock et al., 2014), their stress appraisal is also less likely to be biased by those thoughts and emotions. The non-judgmental perception of individuals who possess mindfulness also prevents them from developing pessimistic thoughts when faced with difficulties (Baer, 2003;Bishop et al., 2004). Indeed, the literature has suggested that mindful individuals tend to be optimistic about their lives despite the challenges they encounter (Charoensukmongkol, 2020), and this optimism encourages them to view difficulties in life as challenges rather than threats. ...
Article
The COVID‐19 crisis has had severe adverse psychological effects on people globally. Although previous research has shown that mindfulness helps people cope with stressful situations, we do not know whether mindfulness can help people cope with the effects of the pandemic. This research examined the effect mindfulness has on emotional exhaustion on the part of employees who work at private international universities in Thailand that are affected by COVID‐19. Grounded in the Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, this research proposed that the level of psychological hardiness mindful employees have mediates the effect of mindfulness in reducing emotional exhaustion. The Job Demands‐Resource (JD‐R) model was used as an additional theory to test the moderating effect of workload, which may reduce the benefit mindfulness has in alleviating emotional exhaustion. Questionnaire survey data were collected from 300 employees at two universities. Data analysis was conducted using partial least squares structural equation modeling, and the model showed that psychological hardiness mediated the effect mindfulness has on emotional exhaustion fully. Further, the analysis supported the moderating role workload plays in suppressing the effect of psychological hardiness on emotional exhaustion significantly. A simple slope analysis indicated as well that the negative association between psychological hardiness and emotional exhaustion was present only in employees with light workloads. By integrating the principle of COR theory with the JD‐R model, this research extended previous research by showing that mindfulness may not help employees cope with stress during an organizational crisis like COVID‐19 when they have to manage a heavy workload.
... Prior studies documented that mindfulness in digital environments is crucial in maximizing technological potential and improving meaningful technology use (Dane 2011;Sun et al. 2016;Thatcher et al. 2018). However, the link between digital mindfulness (Bishop et al. 2004), and mindful action in a digitally enabled workplace is not yet well explored (Thatcher et al. 2018). Prior research also fell short in examining how digital mindfulness can reduce digital fatigue without negatively affecting productivity (Shapiro et al. 2008). ...
... (Brown et al., 2007) Psychology An approach for increasing awareness and responding skillfully to mental processes that contribute to emotional distress and maladaptive behavior. (Bishop et al., 2004) Management An individual learning process characterized by a heightened awareness of the specific circumstances in a given situation. (Jordan et al., 2009) ...
... Therefore, the chance to change or improve employees' behaviors depends on whether they can change their perspectives (Butler & Gray, 2006). Prior studies noted that mindfulness when combined with reflectiveness can cause a fundamental shift in perspective and leads to positive outcomes through self-regulation, values clarification, and mindset shift (Bishop et al. 2004;Brown et al. 2007; Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Astin, J., Freedman 2006). These changes lead to productive and selfregulated use of technology-referred to as digital wellness in this paper-and ultimately improve employee productivity. ...
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The unprecedented reliance on digital technology has its costs; while productivity overall is on the rise, so is digital fatigue. This study explores how digital mindfulness can help reduce digital fatigue and increase digital wellness without compromising productivity. After theorizing digital mindfulness, this study introduces reflectiveness as a mediating variable between digital mindfulness and mindful use of digital technology (mindful action). It is argued that mindfulness, in the absence of reflectiveness, only leads to a temporary state of mind (short-term alertness or awareness) without a maintainable effect on mindful actions. However, reflectiveness allows employees to effectively analyze their relationships with digital technology. This mental process can result in knowledge integration and developing new perspectives that are essential for mindful action over time. Therefore, we postulate that digital mindfulness when linked to self-initiated reflection on technology use can reduce digital fatigue and increase digital wellness and ultimately improve the productive use of technology through mindful action.
... The same observation was found in cases of drug abusers (Fernandez et al., 2010;Murphy & MacKillop, 2012) but were inadequate to establish consistency. In most of these studies, the apparent variations were because of assessing mindfulness in a unidimensional manner (e.g., Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, although many definitions incline towards conceptualization of mindfulness through its facets (Bishop, 2004 In view of these inconsistent findings, the current study, examined levels of dispositional mindfulness associated with remission and relapse in residential and non-residential rehabilitation groups as a way of understanding the phenomenon of mindfulness even further. ...
... Some of the most popular interventions based on mindfulness are the MBSR (Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction) by Kabat and Zinn in 1982, MBCT (Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy) and DBT (Dialectical Behavior Therapy). These were found to improve variables like interpersonal connections, positive affect, positive reappraisal of thoughts, cognitive functioning and self-regulation on a diverse range of populations in both clinical and non-clinical studies (Ivtzan, 2016;Shapiro, Carlson, Astin & Freedman, 2006;Bishop et al., 2004;Grossman, Niemann, Schmidt & Walach, 2004). ...
... Another model of mindfulness talks about it as a function of a two-component system-self regulation attention and emotional openness. (Bishop et al., 2004). ...
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... In this context, mindfulness meditation is one of many different forms of meditation, which encompasses focused attention and open monitoring approaches (Lutz, Slagter, Dunne, & Davidson, 2008 Mindfulness can also be seen as a skill, which, once learned may be cultivated in many different scenarios. In this state, thoughts and emotions can be experienced in the same way as elements of the sensory experience, importantly, without responding to them in reflexive or impulsive ways (Bishop et al., 2004). This may explain the multitude of potential applications within which the practice can be of use. ...
... is a five-item scale which was adapted from the trait mindfulness (MAAS) measure, designed to quantify recent and present manifestations of mindful attention and awareness in day-today activities. This measure was designed to measure attentiveness in respect to daily activities, which, though informative does not pick up the 'meta-awareness' element of mindfulness which is key in some definitions of mindfulness (E.g.: Bishop et al., 2004). ...
... Like many articles on the topic, the challenges in adapting mindfulness to an experimental setting begin with its definition (Davidson & Kaszniak, 2015;Van Dam et al., 2018). Though there is a variety of definitions available, key definitions based on traditional and theoretical understanding place a particular emphasis on two elements: attention to the present moment; and the curious, open and accepting (also termed 'non-judgemental') approach to one's experience in that moment (Bishop et al., 2004;Kabat-Zinn, 1994). ...
Thesis
Background: Mindfulness protocols, though beneficial for a range of indications, often involve long-term commitment and may not be accessible for those naturally low in trait mindfulness (e.g. attention-/ anxiety-related disorders). It remains unclear which ‘dose’ of mindfulness is necessary to produce beneficial effects, and broadly, how drugs such as nootropics and psychedelics may interact with mindfulness meditation. / Aims: The aims of this thesis are (1) to explore what dose of mindfulness is necessary to enhance state mindfulness (among other outcomes) and whether a drug can modulate, or add to the effects of a mindfulness strategy, (2) to explore how psychedelics may affect a meditation experience, and (3) to examine what role changes in mindfulness play in regards to beneficial psychological health outcomes shown after ceremonial psychedelic use. / Methods: A mixture of methodologies were applied to answer the above questions. Specifically, single-session mindfulness literature was systematically reviewed, and a double-placebo controlled study was designed and conducted to explore the potential for pharmacological enhancement of a single mindfulness strategy. A thematic analysis was conducted to explore user accounts of combined psychedelic and meditation experiences. Finally, linear multilevel models and longitudinal mediation models were used to explore the associations between changes in mindfulness capacity and psychological health over the course of a naturalistic ayahuasca study. / Results: Single-session mindfulness studies are capable of producing a variety of beneficial effects, and adjunctive modafinil appears to enhance some effects of behavioural strategies as well as participant engagement in subsequent practice. Psychedelics may also prove to be useful counterparts to meditations, and conversely, while psychedelics appear to enhance mindfulness, meditation practice can assist also in the navigation of, and potentially enhance effects of the psychedelic process.
... It describes a focused capacity for directing one's attention to external and internal percepts (Sauer et al., 2013). It consists of attending to each moment fully without being swept up by thoughts about the past or anticipations of the future (Baldini et al., 2014;Bishop et al., 2004). In terms of cognitive neuroscience, presence may be associated with attentional network processes (Posner & Petersen, 1990). ...
... For problematic mobile phone users (PMPUs), their cognitive resources of them were dominated by smartphone, which they carry most of the time (Griffiths, 2005). In particular, attentional resources are constantly occupied by smartphones, and therefore they allocate fewer attentional resources to their current experience of the present object or environment (i.e., presence; Bishop et al., 2004), aside from the smartphone. A lack of presence entails that the PMPUs ignore information about the beauty of their natural surroundings. ...
... The finding suggests that the formation of positive AEWN by humans requires the involvement of some basic cognitive processes (e.g., attention), and that cognition and emotion are closely linked in the development of humannature connection. In addition, considering that presence is the observation and awareness of the non-elaborate processing of feeling, thoughts and behaviors in the present moment (Bishop et al., 2004;Sauer et al., 2013), it implies that the inner mechanism in the relationship between PMPU and AEWN may be an automated processing including selfregulation to attentional resources. Furthermore, it is worth noting that this finding can also be used to bridge the gap between technology use, not just technology use, and the emotional nature connection. ...
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The connection between humans and nature seems to be one of increasing alienation. The use of digital technology, especially its problematic use, may affect this ongoing alienation. This study seeks to investigate how and when problematic technology use is associated with the human-nature connection, especially the emotional connection. Specifically, the study examined the mediating role played by presence and the moderating role played by openness with respect to the association between problematic mobile phone use (PMPU) and aesthetic emotion with nature (AEWN). A sample of 891 participants completed a battery of self-report questionnaires measuring PMPU, AEWN, presence, and openness. The results showed that PMPU was negatively associated with AEWN, and that this association was partially mediated by presence. In addition, openness moderated both the direct relationship between PMPU and AEWN and the indirect relationship between those factors via presence. These two effects were weaker for individuals with higher levels of openness. The current study provides new evidence concerning the negative influence of escalating digital technology use on the emotional connection to nature and contributes to the literature by uncovering the mechanisms underlying this influence.
... Within this context, Bishop et al. (2004) proposed a two-component model of mindfulness to establish an operational definition. Those two components combine aspects of (1) selfregulation of attention and (2) orientation to experience. ...
... The first component includes the ability to sustain or switch the focus of attention and to inhibit secondary elaborative processing of thoughts, feelings, and sensations in the stream of consciousness. In addition, it is aimed to develop a so-called "beginner's mind" in order to widen the own experience and get into a state of direct observation, which is not filtered through own beliefs, assumptions, expectation, or desires (Bishop et al., 2004). The second component refers to the aspect of dispositional openness, which describes a non-judgmental attitude of curiosity and receptivity to new experiences. ...
... The second component refers to the aspect of dispositional openness, which describes a non-judgmental attitude of curiosity and receptivity to new experiences. In adopting this stance of curiosity and acceptance less behavioral/ cognitive strategies and improved affect tolerance are expected, allowing any thoughts, emotions, and sensations to occur without further elaboration (Bishop et al., 2004;Thienot et al., 2014;Jansen et al., 2019). ...
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Mindfulness-based training programs are highly established in competitive and recreational sports. One of the best-known approaches is the Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment Approach (MAC) by Gardner and Moore), which integrates mindfulness aspects of awareness, non-judgmental attitude, and focus. Based on these aspects, Thienot and colleagues developed and validated an English language sport-specific questionnaire, the so-called Mindfulness Inventory for Sport (MIS), for the assessment of mindfulness skills in athletes. The aim of this study is to psychometrically test a German language version of the MIS (MIS-D). To assess the psychometric properties, the MIS-D was examined in an online survey with an integrated test–retest design (n = 228) for reliability (internal consistency; test–retest reliability), validity (factorial; convergent), and measurement invariance (gender; competition type). The present results support the psychometric quality of the German language version of the MIS. Necessary replications should among others focus on checking the measurement invariance for further relevant subgroups.
... MM is a secular mental practice originating from Buddhism. It consists in training one's attention to be fully drawn to the immediate moment with a sense of curiosity, openness, and acceptance (Bishop et al., 2004;Kabat-Zinn, 2017), or said differently, observing one's sensations and experiences with equal receptivity regardless of their affective content, without trying to retain the pleasant ones and/or reject the unpleasant ones. MM practice aims at developing the trait of mindfulness, that is a self-awareness of the present experience, including one's thoughts, feelings, and sensations, without any judgment, filter, or expectations (Bishop et al., 2004;Kabat-Zinn, 2017). ...
... It consists in training one's attention to be fully drawn to the immediate moment with a sense of curiosity, openness, and acceptance (Bishop et al., 2004;Kabat-Zinn, 2017), or said differently, observing one's sensations and experiences with equal receptivity regardless of their affective content, without trying to retain the pleasant ones and/or reject the unpleasant ones. MM practice aims at developing the trait of mindfulness, that is a self-awareness of the present experience, including one's thoughts, feelings, and sensations, without any judgment, filter, or expectations (Bishop et al., 2004;Kabat-Zinn, 2017). Accordingly, by developing a non-elaborative and non-reactive awareness, the meditator supposedly becomes an observer of their own mental activity and interactions with the world resulting in reduced automatic responses (Maran et al., 2021). ...
... Current literature is supportive of positive short and long-term effects of MM practice on cognitive functions (for reviews see Chiesa et al., 2011;Gallant, 2016;Cásedas et al., 2019). Knowing that the two main components of mindfulness are orientation to experience and self-regulation of attention (Bishop et al., 2004;Lutz et al., 2008), attentional abilities are considered to play a central role in MM (Bishop et al., 2004;Malinowski, 2013). They have also been repeatedly shown to improve with MM practice, both in the general population (e.g., Moore and Malinowski, 2009) and in students (Ching et al., 2015), even after a short intervention (e.g., Zeidan et al., 2010;Norris et al., 2018). ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has led to worldwide restrictive measures, raising concerns about mental health in young adults who were not particularly vulnerable to the virus itself. This study investigated the impact of these restrictions on mental and cognitive health of university students, and tested the efficacy of a brief online mindfulness meditation intervention in countering psychological distress and improving attentional abilities. Ninety-six university students forced into remote learning due to COVID-19 pandemic restrictions and with no experience in meditation were randomly assigned to either a passive control group (n = 48) or to an experimental group (n = 48) following daily, for 17 days, an online mindfulness intervention (10–20 min per day). Due to drop-out, 38 participants in each group were finally analyzed. Pre- and post-tests assessed participants’ mental health (psychological well-being, depression, anxiety, stress) and attentional abilities. The analysis of baseline data in comparison with normative scores and pre-pandemic statistics confirmed the expected psychological distress, but it did not reveal any attentional deficits in our participants. Pre-post change scores analyses showed a reduction in stress (p = 0.006, ηp2 = 0.10), anxiety (p = 0.002, ηp2 = 0.13), and depression (p = 0.025, ηp2 = 0.07), and an improvement in well-being (p = 0.013, ηp2 = 0.12) in the experimental group, but not in the control group. In both groups, no significant effect was found on attentional abilities. Our results confirmed the psychological vulnerability of higher education students in the midst of the remote learning period during the second COVID-19 lockdown in France, while suggesting preservation of attentional functioning. Although the tested mindfulness intervention did not enhance the attentional abilities in already good performing students, it did promote their mental health. This study offers additional evidence on the feasibility and efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions in students during psychologically straining periods, like the COVID-19 pandemic.
... Emphasizing the nonjudgmental appraisal of presentmoment thinking (Bishop et al., 2004;Brown & Ryan, 2003;Kabat-Zinn, 2003), mindfulness-based meditation wields substantial impact on cognition and behaviour, even among individuals with no prior meditative experience (Hölzel et al., 2011). Indeed, even brief (e.g., 5-10 min) experimentally induced periods of mindfulness have been shown to affect a range of psychological processes, including (but not limited to) emotional appraisal, action control, mindreading, and social perception (e.g., Erisman & Roemer, 2010;Golubickis et al., 2016;Papies et al., 2012;Papies et al., 2015;Tan et al., 2014). ...
... These findings affirm the value of computational modeling in explicating the pathways through which mindfulness meditation impacts cognition (van Vugt et al., 2019;van Vugt & Jha, 2011). In considering how exactly mindfulness meditation works, attention is posited to play a central role (Bishop et al., 2004;Brown & Ryan, 2003;Carmody, 2009;Hölzel et al., 2011;Malinowski, 2013;Sumantry & Stewart, 2021). For example, recent meta-analytic work has revealed that core components of attention, notably alerting, inhibition, and updating, are enhanced following mindfulness meditation (Miyake et al., 2000;Posner & Petersen, 1990;Sumantry & Stewart, 2021). ...
... For example, recent meta-analytic work has revealed that core components of attention, notably alerting, inhibition, and updating, are enhanced following mindfulness meditation (Miyake et al., 2000;Posner & Petersen, 1990;Sumantry & Stewart, 2021). One intriguing possibility is that, through attentional training grounded in the nonjudgmental appraisal of moment-to-moment mental contents (Bishop et al., 2004;Brown & Ryan, 2003;Kabat-Zinn, 2003), mindfulness cultivates a level of meta-awareness in which identification with the self is reduced (i.e., nonself) and all experiences are treated equally (Bernstein et al., 2019;Dunne et al., 2019;Schooler, 2002). In other words, sensations, thoughts, and feelings are handled as if one were a dispassionate (i.e., nonevaluative) external observer Kerr et al., 2011;Shapiro et al., 2006), a state of mind that would naturally lessen egocentrism and the emergence of self-bias. ...
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Recent research has asserted that self-prioritization is an inescapable facet of mental life, but is this viewpoint correct? Acknowledging the flexibility of social-cognitive functioning, here we considered the extent to which mindfulness-based meditation-an intervention known to reduce egocentric responding-attenuates self-bias. Across two experiments (Expt. 1, N = 160; Expt. 2, N = 160), using an object-classification task, participants reported the ownership of previously assigned items (i.e., owned-by-self vs. owned-by-friend) following a 5-minute period of mindfulness-based meditation compared with control meditation (Expt. 1) or no meditation (Expt. 2). The results revealed that mindfulness meditation abolished the emergence of the self-ownership effect during decision-making. An additional computational (i.e., drift diffusion model) analysis indicated that mindfulness meditation eliminated a prestimulus bias toward self-relevant (vs. friend-relevant) responses, increased response caution, and facilitated the rate at which evidence was accumulated from friend-related (vs. self-related) objects. Collectively, these findings elucidate the stimulus and response-related operations through which brief mindfulness-based meditation tempers self-prioritization.
... Although instructions for being mindful or meditative vary, a common key mindfulness or meditation practice is to cease or reduce the elaborative thinking process. This can be achieved through being fully concentrated on and aware of one's own breaths, bodily sensations, a mantra, or just passively and objectless waiting for the sensations (or thoughts) to come and go as a nonattached witness (e.g., [40,42,[52][53][54][55][56][57]). However, individuals can only sustain such a "quiet" or mindful state intermittently because mind wandering, such as thinking about one's current concerns, returns from time to time. ...
... When noticing an incident of mind wandering during a mindfulness or meditation practice, meditators will bring back their attention to the breathing process or bodily sensations and cease possible ongoing elaborative thinking again. This is supposed to prevent an individual from immersing into potent thoughts or associated themes (e.g., [42,53,69]) and give a chance to redistribute activation away from their initial thought [17], which is likely to increase variability of thoughts. Thus, the "free from potent thought" explanation Kudesia et al. [17] proposed also implies that diversity of mind wandering would increase while doing mindfulness practice. ...
Article
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Mind wandering has been argued to be beneficial for breaking through mental impasses, which leads to better creative performance upon a second attempt (i.e., the incubation effect). However, the evidence is inconsistent. Different from the propensity for mind wandering that has been the focus of past studies, in this study we further examined the role of diversity (i.e., non-repetitiveness of mind wandering respective to its content) and types of mind wandering along the dimensions of intentionality and awareness during incubation when engaging in a 0-back task (a mind wandering-prone condition) and a focused-breathing practice (a mindfulness-induced condition). We proposed that diversity rather than the propensity for mind wandering was crucial for post-incubation divergent creativity and that mindfulness induction would be a more effective way to elicit the incubation effect because it should result in fewer but more diverse mind-wandering incidents than engaging in a mind wandering-prone task. We conducted an experiment with a between-participant variable (incubation tasks: mind wandering-prone, mindfulness-induced, and no incubation). As predicted, the mindfulness-induced group (N = 30) outperformed the control group (N = 31) on flexibility for the unusual uses task measuring divergent thinking after incubation, but the mind wandering-prone group (N = 29) did not outperform the control group. In addition, the diversity of mind wandering and the tendency toward intentional mind wandering predicted the magnitude of incubation effects on flexibility and originality, respectively. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... purposefully bring his or her attention and awareness to the experiences of the present moment and relate to them in a non-reflexive and non-judgmental way (Bishop, 2004;Chiesa, 2012;Kabat-Zinn, 1994). It has also been defined as open or receptive attention to and awareness of what is taking place, both internally and externally, in the present (Brown & Ryan, 2003). ...
... The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) (Brown & Ryan, 2003) is a 15-item Likert scale questionnaire designed to assess mindfulness as a naturally occurring characteristic. It measures the core characteristic of mindfulness, namely, a receptive state of mind in which attention and awareness are purposefully brought to the experiences of the present moment and relate to those experienced in a non-reflexive and non-judgmental way, and only observes what is taking place (Bishop, 2004;Chiesa, 2012;Kabat-Zinn, 1994). So, this is in contrast to the conceptually driven mode of processing, in which events and experiences are filtered through cognitive appraisals, evaluations, memories, beliefs, and other forms of cognitive manipulation. ...
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The quality of marital relationship has far-reaching implications for the health and well-being of the family. Several studies suggest that socio-demographic characteristics and mindful awareness significantly predict the quality of the marital relationship. Literature is scarce about these studies conducted among Nigerian samples. This study aimed to assess the socio-demographic factors and mindful awareness as predictors of marital satisfaction among nursing mothers in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. The data for this study were collected at the postnatal clinics and children's welfare clinics of two tertiary hospitals in Enugu, using Socio-demographic Questionnaire, Index of Marital Satisfaction, and Mindful Attention Awareness Scale. Correlation analysis was used to test for association. A multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the predictor variables for marital satisfaction. The age range of nursing mothers was 20-46 years. Over 88% of the nursing mothers enrolled or completed tertiary education program. Higher levels of marital satisfaction were reported in 185 (61.7%) of the mothers. Multiple regression analysis suggested that higher levels of mindfulness and higher levels of educational attainment predicted higher levels of marital satisfaction, while an increase in the level of pregnancies predicted lower levels of marital satisfaction. The research findings may carry significant implications for the role of social-demographic characteristics and mindfulness, awareness in building and sustaining happy marital relationships and general well-being of the family.
... Interpretation bias is also theoretically linked to mindfulness, given mindfulness involves applying a nonjudgmental lens to one's present moment experience and is theorised to produce more veridical perceptions of external and internal events that are less influenced by prior beliefs and learned associations [36][37][38]. Though empirical research into the potential links between mindfulness and interpretation bias is still in its infancy, studies have demonstrated a negative association between mindfulness and interpretation bias (e.g., [39][40][41]). ...
... The low and statistically non-significant association between trait mindfulness and interpretation bias found in the present study was contrary to the theoretical links between these constructs [36][37][38] and a prior study that documented an association between higher levels of trait mindfulness and lower levels of interpretation bias [41]. It was, however, consistent with another study that did not replicate this association [39]. ...
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Background Despite increasing interest in the association between mindfulness and reduced trauma vulnerability, and the use of mindfulness in the latest interventions for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), few studies have examined the mechanisms through which mindfulness may influence post-trauma psychopathology. The present study aimed to determine whether negative interpretation bias, the tendency to interpret ambiguous information as negative or threatening rather than positive or safe, mediates the association between higher levels of trait mindfulness and lower levels of PTSD symptoms. Negative interpretation bias was examined due to prior evidence indicating it is associated with being less mindful and post trauma psychopathology. Methods The study examined 133 undergraduate students who reported exposure to one or more potentially traumatic events in their lifetime. Participants completed self-report measures of trait mindfulness (Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire – Short Form; FFMQ-SF) and PTSD symptoms (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist – Civilian version; PCL-C) as well an interpretation bias task that assessed the degree to which participants interpreted a range of everyday hypothetical scenarios to be threatening to their physical and/or psychological wellbeing. Results Results of a mediation analysis indicated a significant negative direct effect of trait mindfulness on PTSD symptomatology ( p < .001). There was no evidence that negative interpretation bias mediated this relationship [BCa CI [-0.04, 0.03)], nor was it associated with trait mindfulness ( p = .90) and PTSD symptomatology ( p = .37). Conclusions The results of the current study provide further evidence of the link between trait mindfulness and reduced post-trauma psychopathology while providing no support for the role of negative interpretation bias in this relationship.
... Indeed, Buddhist scholars have debated the use of the term for centuries (Dunne, 2015;Lutz et al., 2015). Nevertheless, despite these caveats there are certain key features of mindfulness that most experts would agree upon (Bishop et al., 2004;Kabat-Zinn, 2003;Lutz et al., 2015;Shapiro et al., 2006). These include present moment awareness, acceptance and decentering (see Figure 1). ...
... For example, it is quite possible to employ present moment awareness without acceptance or decentering, but the reverse would be tricky since one cannot really accept or decenter from one's experience unless one is aware of it. It has also been argued that repeated practice of present moment awareness tends to naturally lead to acceptance and that decentering will also naturally emerge from repeated practice of both present moment awareness and acceptance (Bishop et al., 2004;Brown & Ryan, 2004;Shapiro et al., 2006). Ultimately, it does seem likely that these three components facilitate one another (Hölzel et al., 2011). ...
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Mindful eating is increasingly being used to try to promote healthy eating and weight management. However, the term refers to a diverse set of practices that could have quite different effects on behaviour. This narrative review provides a guide to the concept of mindful eating as well as a comprehensive overview of research in the area. This includes the ways in which mindful eating has been operationalised and measured as well as evidence for effects and potential mechanisms of action. The research reviewed suggests that multi‐component mindfulness‐based interventions may be beneficial for disordered eating and weight management, but it is unclear whether these benefits exceed those obtained by alternative treatments. Some studies suggest that specific mindful eating strategies may have immediate effects on eating, but more research is needed to reach any definitive conclusions. These studies also suggest that effects may vary depending on the characteristics of the individual and/or the specific eating context. As such, research may ultimately point towards a more personalised approach to the application of mindful eating in order to maximise benefits. Finally, mindful eating interventions for children represent a relatively new area of research and there is currently insufficient evidence to draw any firm conclusions about their value. To advance both our understanding and effective application of mindful eating, more experimental research with high levels of methodological rigour is needed as well as research that explores underpinning mechanisms of action.
... These programs typically last 8 weeks and its primary theoretical premise is that, by practicing mindfulness, individuals will become less reactive to unpleasant phenomena and more contemplative and reflective, leading to increased selfawareness and self-emotional regulation (Creswell, 2017). Mindfulness is an active and intentional practice that may lead to a mental condition characterized by non-judgmental awareness of the experience in the present moment, including one's sensations, thoughts, bodily states, consciousness, and the environment, while encouraging openness, curiosity, and acceptance (Bishop et al., 2004). Mindfulness involves two components: self-regulation of attention and orientation toward the present moment with curiosity, openness, and acceptance (Bishop et al., 2004). ...
... Mindfulness is an active and intentional practice that may lead to a mental condition characterized by non-judgmental awareness of the experience in the present moment, including one's sensations, thoughts, bodily states, consciousness, and the environment, while encouraging openness, curiosity, and acceptance (Bishop et al., 2004). Mindfulness involves two components: self-regulation of attention and orientation toward the present moment with curiosity, openness, and acceptance (Bishop et al., 2004). Although they are not mindfulness-structured programs, mindfulness is present in other evidence-based cognitivebehavioral therapies, such as dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). ...
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Fibromyalgia is one of the most common causes of widespread chronic pain. It has a huge impact on the quality of life, namely because it appears earlier in life than most of the chronic pain conditions. Furthermore, emotional-cognitive distress factors, such as depression and anxiety, are a common feature in patients with fibromyalgia. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying fibromyalgia remain mostly unknown. Among non-pharmacological treatments, cognitive-behavioral therapy has been used during the last decade, namely with the enrolment of patients in programs of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and in mindfulness-based interventions (MBI). We critically analyzed the literature to search for scientific evidence for the use of MBI in fibromyalgia. The studies were evaluated as to several outcomes of fibromyalgia improvement along with aspects of the study design which are currently considered relevant for research in mindfulness. We conclude that despite the sparsity of well-structured longitudinal studies, there are some promising results showing that the MBI are effective in reducing the negative aspects of the disease. Future design of studies using MBI in fibromyalgia management should be critically discussed. The importance of active controls, evaluation of sustained effects along with investigation of the subserving neurobiological mechanisms and detailed reports of possible adverse effects should be considered.
... Classically, mind-wandering has been considered antithetical to the construct of mindfulness, which can be broadly defined as the psychological inclination to attend to present-moment experience while having an attitude of acceptance towards it (Baer, 2019;Bishop et al., 2004). The distinction between intentional and unintentional mindwandering, however, has revealed that this relationship may be more complex. ...
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Objectives: Mind-wandering is a form of internal distraction that may occur both deliberately and spontaneously. This study aimed to provide a psychometric evaluation of the Spanish version of the Mind-Wandering Deliberate and Spontaneous (MW-D/MW-S) scales, as well as to extend prior research investigating their associations with dispositional mindfulness (Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire) and with the ability for attentional control of external distraction (Attentional Control Scale). Methods: In two large samples (n1 = 795; n2 = 1084), we examined latent structure, item- and dimension-level descriptive statistics, and internal consistency reliability scores of the Spanish MW-D/MW-S scales. Partial correlations were used to evaluate their associations to dispositional mindfulness and attentional control. Multiple linear regression and relative weight analyses were used to investigate whether or not, and to what extent, the facets of mindfulness could be uniquely predicted by internal and external distraction. Results: The Spanish MW-D/MW-S scales demonstrated a two-factor structure, high internal consistency reliability scores, and good nomological validity. Dispositional mindfulness was independently explained by internal and external distraction. Across facets, MW-S was the largest (negative) predictor of mindfulness, being this association particularly strong for Acting with awareness. Conversely, MW-D was mildly associated to increased mindfulness. In addition, attentional control was found moderately negatively associated with MW-S and mildly positively associated with MW-D. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the Spanish version of the MW-D/MW-S scales are a useful tool to assess individual differences in deliberate and spontaneous mind-wandering, shed light on the relationship between mindfulness and both internal and external distraction, and accentuate the critical role of intentionality in the study of the mind-wandering phenomena.
... The word "mindfulness" is translated from the Buddhism Pali's term "sati, " which means to be mindful and aware of the experience by refining attention and action with a calm and untrained mind (Peacock, 2014). Mindfulness meditation is an umbrella term of the family of meditational practice that describes the action of focusing one's attention in the present, with the attitude of being non-judgmental, open, and curious of the experience (Bishop et al., 2004). ...
Article
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Different forms of mindfulness meditation are increasingly integrated in the clinical practice in the last three decades. Previous studies have identified changes in the neurophysiology and neurochemistry of the brain resulting from different mindfulness meditation practices in the general population. However, research on neural correlates of different types of meditation, particularly on the clinical outcomes, is still very sparse. Therefore, the aim of this article is to review the neural impact of mindfulness meditation interventions on different mental disorders via the classification of main components of mindfulness meditation. The clearer classification of mindfulness meditation may inform future clinical practice and research directions.
... While acceptance can have different meanings and is part of various concepts from different backgrounds (e.g., emotion regulation or also as part of resilience), we focus on acceptance as a facet of mindfulness. Mindfulness is a state of mind that is characterised by attention and awareness directed at present-moment experience, and an open and accepting attitude towards such experiences (Bishop et al., 2004). ...
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Resilience describes successful adaptation in the face of adversity, commonly inferred from trajectories of well‐being following major life events. Alternatively, resilience was conceptualized as a psychological trait, facilitating adaptation through stable individual characteristics. Both perspectives may relate to individual differences in how stress is regulated in daily life. In the present study, we combined these perspectives on resilience. Our sample consisted of N = 132 middle‐aged adults, who experienced major life events in between two waves of a longitudinal study. We implemented latent change regression models to predict change in affective distress. As predictors, we investigated trait resilience and correlates of resilience in daily life (stressor occurrence, stress reactivity, positive reappraisal, mindful attention, and acceptance), measured using experience sampling (T = 70 occasions). Unexpectedly, trait resilience was not associated with change in distress. In contrast, resilience correlates in daily life, most notably lower stress reactivity, were associated with more favorable change. Higher trait resilience related to higher average mindfulness, higher reappraisal, and lower negative affect. Overall, while trait resilience translated into everyday correlates of resilience, it was not predictive of changes in affective distress. Instead, precursors of changes in well‐being may be found in correlates of resilience in daily life. (200/200) This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Despite a growing research base, mindfulness as a testable and operationally defined variable is still being shaped. Bishop et al. (2004) proposed an operational definition of mindfulness as a two-component skill-building approach for responding to emotional and cognitive distress. The first component involves the self-regulation of attention. ...
Conference Paper
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The current study aimed at identifying the effectiveness of a counseling program based on Mindfulness based cognitive therapy in increasing the psychological resilience of the basic education teachers in Dhofar Region, south of the Sultanate of Oman. The experimental study sample consisted of (60) male teachers at cycle two of basic education in Dhofar Governorate who have high scores on psychological resilience scale. This sample has been randomly divided into two equal groups: one is an experimental group and the other one is a control group. Each group consisted of (30) male teachers. The researcher has conducted a process of homogeneity or equality between the two groups in preparation for applying the counseling program on the male teachers in the experimental group rather than the control group for developing the psychological resilience with them. The researcher has used the psychological resilience scale (prepared by the researcher), along with a counseling program based on mindfulness based cognitive therapy (prepared by the researcher). The results of the study indicated that there are statistically significant differences at level (0.01) between the mean scores of experimental group and the control group in the pre-test on the psychological resilience scale in favor of the experimental group. There are also statistically significant differences at the level of (0.01) between the mean scores of the experimental group in both post-test and pre-test on the psychological resilience scale in favor of the pre-test. This revealed the effectiveness of the mindfulness based cognitive therapy in increasing the level of psychological resilience among the male teachers; as the scores of the teachers were increased significantly on the pre-test. In addition, the study has also concluded with finding non-statistical significant differences at the level of (0.05) between the mean scores of the experimental group in both pre-test and following up test on the psychological resilience scale. The results emphasize the continuation of effectiveness of the mindfulness based cognitive therapy in increasing the level of psychological resilience among the male teachers. This study has also concluded with a number of recommendations as follows: 1 - To pay much attention to the female teachers’ psychological aspects through designing sessions of emotional discharge and free self-expression of the internal feelings to alleviate work pressures. 2 – Organizing Workshops and open discussions forums between teachers as this approach will have a great role in motivating social relations and reinforcement of confidence among teachers and enhancement of occupational performance as well.
... (2003). In other words, it is a matter of voluntarily directing one's attention to what is happening in one's mind, body and around oneself, moment by moment, carefully listening to one's experience, suspending criticism and judgment, but simply listening in the «here and now». Mindfulness is characterized by two closely interconnected components (Bishop et. al., 2004): ...
Article
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Mindfulness is the interconnection between the ability to direct attention to the present moment (self-regulation of attention) and the attitude connected to this moment, characterized by curiosity, openness and acceptance. Clinical efficacy of mindfulness has been demonstrated over the past two decades. Its potential within both nursing contests and formal learning for adult education has recently been investigated.
... In contrast to the negative impact of psychosocial and occupational stress on educator-child interactions, studies have reported positive correlations between EC teachers' socio-emotional skills and their provision of high-quality care (Jennings, 2015;Poulou, 2017;Yin et al., 2016). Two important dimensions of teacher socio-emotional competence are mindfulness, the tendency to be present and aware of current experiences with attention, curiosity, and non-judgmental acceptance (Bishop et al., 2004;Kabit-Zinn, 1994), and emotion regulation, the capacity to monitor, evaluate, and modify the experience and perception of emotion proactively and strategically (Cole et al., 1994;Gross & John, 2003). In a study of Head Start teachers, higher levels of mindfulness correlated with fewer depressive symptoms and workplace stressors, which in turn were associated with more positive relationships with children (Becker et al., 2017). ...
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Findings suggest that an eight-week mindfulness compassion-based program, Cultivating Healthy Intentional Mindful Educators (CHIME), is a feasible professional development intervention for early childhood (EC) teachers to support their emotion regulation and psychological and workplace well-being. We offer preliminary evidence that learning about mindfulness, self-compassion, and social-emotional learning supports EC teachers in strengthening their knowledge and application of practices to be more mindful and less emotionally reactive and emotionally exhausted at work. In analyzing both EC teacher feedback and survey data from two pilot studies, there was promising evidence that participating in CHIME enhanced awareness of emotions and the development of strategies to manage emotions. As CHIME is further developed and refined it will be integral to have collaborative engagement and participation from EC teachers and programs to ensure that learning these practices are relevant, helpful, meaningful, and sustainable.
... Several programs exist to target these skills such as Cognitive behavioral stress management [38] and mindfulness-based programs (e.g., Mindfulness-based stress reduction [43] and Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) [30] [33,42*] and guided imagery (e.g., suggesting images of a safe and comfortable place) exercises [38]. Mindfulness meditation aims to help patients with selfobservation and acceptance and to foster their ability to be aware of the present moment without judgment [45]. Mindfulness and relaxation techniques were commonly offered together [30,42*] or with other techniques such as aikido, yoga [43], and cognitive skills training [30,35]. ...
Article
Purpose of review: The purpose of this article is to review the formats and techniques of psychological interventions designed for patients with metastatic cancer and prolonged survival expectancies. Recent findings: Fifteen interventional studies were selected for this article. One group of psychological interventions focused primarily on patients' adaptation by increasing their knowledge, developing patients' stress management skills, promoting their open communication with healthcare providers, and helping them deal with existential concerns. Another group of interventions focused on patients with moderate and high levels of distress. These interventions provided specific techniques to manage anxiety, depression, fear of cancer progression, and existential distress. Interestingly, interventions targeting distressed patients are not necessarily longer or more intensive than interventions targeting adaptation. The interventions were examined in few randomized controlled trials, and incorporated a broad range of techniques, making comparison of their efficacy difficult. No intervention specifically targeted patients newly diagnosed with metastatic cancer. Summary: On the basis of this review, we proposed suggestions according to patients' levels of distress, which differ in intensity, format, techniques, and tools offered. These suggestions may be relevant for the future development and assessment of interventions targeting patients with newly diagnosed metastatic cancer and prolonged survival expectancies.
... Mindfulness emphasizes monitoring present-moment experiences in a non-judgmental and non-reactive way (Bishop, Lau, Shapiro et al., 2004). This practice might attenuate AS. ...
Article
The benefits of mindfulness‐based interventions to alleviate anxiety and depression have been supported by many studies. Given the effectiveness of mindfulness‐based interventions on anxiety and depression, the underlying mechanisms need to be explored. Using a randomized waitlist‐controlled design, this study investigated whether anxiety sensitivity was a potential mechanism for the impact of mindfulness training on anxiety and depression. Participants with high psychological distress were randomly assigned to an eight‐week mindfulness intervention (N = 35) or a wait‐list control group (N = 34). Before and after the intervention or corresponding waitlist period, participants completed measures of anxiety and depression severity and impairment and anxiety sensitivity. Separate mixed ANOVA demonstrated significant group (intervention vs. control group) × time (pre‐ vs. post‐test) interactions for anxiety sensitivity and overall anxiety severity and impairment and marginally significant interaction for overall depression severity and impairment. Moreover, simple mediation models showed that reductions of anxiety sensitivity from pre‐ to post‐test mediated the impact of mindfulness training on changes in anxiety and depression severity and impairment. The findings suggest that anxiety sensitivity is a potential mechanism underlying the effect of mindfulness training on anxiety and depression, which provides a new perspective for the study of processes of change of mindfulness‐based interventions.
... Psychological acceptance refers to the process of letting go of the tendency to control unwanted internal experiences and instead of experiencing thoughts and feelings for what they actually are: transient mental events (Hayes et al., 1999). Mindfulness refers to bringing nonjudgment awareness and an open curiosity to one's moment-to-moment experiences (Bishop et al., 2004). In the present context, values refer to "verbally construed global desired life consequences" (p. ...
Background: Emerging research suggests that interventions incorporating acceptance, mindfulness, and values clarification elements are efficacious when treating patients experiencing major depression with psychotic features. However, there is little research on how these psychological constructs relate to symptoms and functioning in this population to guide future intervention efforts. Methods: Patients with psychotic symptoms (hallucinations and/or delusions) occurring in the context of a major depressive episode (N = 29) were recruited primarily during a psychiatric hospitalization and assessed using a battery of self-report and interviewer-rated measures. Results: Psychological acceptance was correlated with hallucination severity, behavioral activation, and family functioning; mindfulness was correlated with depression severity and behavioral activation; and values-action consistency was correlated with family functioning. Significant associations between acceptance, mindfulness, and values remained in most cases in multivariate analyses after controlling for the presence of the other variables and accounted for large amounts of variance. Conclusions: Although requiring future replication due to the sample size, findings support the conclusion that acceptance, mindfulness, and values appear to have meaningful and somewhat unique associations with important aspects of symptoms and functioning in individuals with psychotic depression. Potential treatment targets and mechanisms of psychosocial interventions are discussed.
... Catastrophizing strategies make individuals pay more attention to their emotional state than to pain reduction. Mindfulness is a state of consciousness produced by purposeful and non-judgmental attention to the present; it focuses on learning in the face of depression and negative thinking, and emphasizes the conscious need to point to current experiences and maintain an open, curious, and receptive attitude (Bishop et al., 2004). Mindfulness can effectively improve the symptoms of internet addiction (Rosenthal et al., 2021), and this improvement is long-term (Calvete et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Alexithymia and emotion regulation are closely related to internet addiction. However, no research has examined how the different components of alexithymia are associated with cognitive emotion regulation in the context of multi-strategy use in internet addiction. The current study aimed to investigate the relation between alexithymia and cognitive emotion regulation in individuals with internet addiction via network analysis. Participants included 560 students with Young’s Internet Addiction Test scores greater than 50 points; they were also asked to complete the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ). The results revealed two bridge nodes emerging within the combined alexithymia and cognitive emotion regulation network model: “catastrophizing” and “externally oriented thoughts.” These findings indicate a more specific relation between alexithymia and cognitive emotion regulation and provide empirical evidence for targeted prevention and targeted interventions for internet addiction.
... In general, mindfulness can be defined as moment-tomoment awareness of present happenings in both physiological and psychological domains, without judgment or criticism (Kabat-Zinn & Hanh, 2009). By and large, mindfulness refers to the self-regulation of attention so that people recognize their mental events in current situations (Bishop et al., 2004). Mindfulness describes either a temporary state in which individuals can actively engage in (e.g., through meditation) or a trait that represents the overall tendency of an individual to stay attentive and aware of the present moment (Brown & Ryan, 2003). ...
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Broad sections of the population try to be more mindful, often with quite self-centered motives. It is therefore not surprising that there is growing interest in the investigation of narcissism and mindfulness. Despite theoretical and empirical ties, however, existing research on this association is scarce. In two studies (N = 3,134 and 403) with English- and German-speaking participants, we apply structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the relationships between facets of grandiose narcissism and trait mindfulness. Across both studies and, using different narcissism and mindfulness measures, SEM consistently revealed opposing patterns for agentic and antagonistic narcissism, with agentic narcissism being positively related to trait mindfulness, and antagonistic narcissism being negatively related to it. Findings highlight the necessity to acknowledge the conceptual heterogeneity of narcissism when examining its relationship with trait mindfulness. Practical implications regarding how agentic and antagonistic narcissists might profit differently from mindfulness practice are discussed.
... Mindfulness involves learning to direct attention to immediate experience, moment by moment, with open-minded curiosity and acceptance (Bishop et al, 2004). New skills are learned in a highly practical way, through experience of mindfulness practices and application in everyday life. ...
Technical Report
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Assisting students to regulate emotions, expectations of moving to high school, and where to seek assistance and support. The program is constructed in the hope that these barriers can be broken down by building strong relationships early with students through teaching mindfulness and team-building skills.
... Fundamental to any skill acquisition, parents need to nurture an open, curious and non-judgemental attitude in observing their children in order for them to interrupt the vicious cycle of negative interactions and hopeless feelings. These positive attributes echo the concept of mindfulness, which involves a non-judgmental observation of the ongoing stream of internal and external stimuli in the present moment and adopting an attitude of curiosity, openness, and acceptance toward one's own experience (Bishop et al., 2004). ...
Article
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Previous studies on parenting adult children with ASD were scarce, and their intervention protocols mainly were derived from established work with children. Development of an applicable adult-oriented protocol and demonstration of its effectiveness is warranted. The present study outlined the development and evaluation of Core Autism Parenting Skills (CAPS), which targets to enhance parenting self-efficacy (PSE) intervention for adult children with ASD by addressing two intervention goals in parallel: acquisition of parenting skills and cultivating positive attributes. In CAPS, PSE is operationalised into four parent roles: to observe, reinforce, empathise, and accompany, each with requisite attributes, skills, and prescribed training. Twenty-seven parents with adult children with ASD (aged 16–37) were recruited. They completed measures assessing their PSE, competence in the four parent roles, and emotional well-being at pre-training, post-training and 2-month follow-up. The intervention was well-received by the participants and reported significant improvements in PSE, parent role competence at post-training and 2-month follow-up. The applicability of PSE and parent role competence in constructing effective parenting intervention for adult children with ASD was supported.
... Shapiro et al. (2006) highlighted the transformative properties of mindfulness by suggesting that 'intentionally attending moment by moment with openness and nonjudgmentalness' facilitates significant shifts in perspective. Bishop et al. (2004) defined mindfulness as "a process of regulating attention in order to bring a quality of relating to one's experience within an orientation of curiosity, experiential openness, and acceptance" (p. 234). ...
Article
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We sought to understand the motivations of undergraduate students who pursue multiple majors or degrees. Utilizing a sequential, exploratory, mixed-methods design, in phase one we interviewed 37 students currently pursuing multiple majors to determine themes in their expressed motivations. Following the development of themes, we administered a survey instrument to a random sample of undergraduate students at the research site to determine the prevalence of each motivation theme within the student body. Results reveal that participants became aware of multiple-majoring both before arriving at the institution and at the institution. Participants cited differentiation, field and institutional contexts, financial concerns, intrinsic aspects, and opportunities as factors that encouraged them to pursue multiple majors. Finally, the research reveals several advantages and disadvantages of having multiple majors. We make recommendations for future research and practice related to orientation programs, academic advisors, advising centers, admissions offices, and academic curriculum committees.
... Mindfulness has been defined from a scientific perspective, on an operational level, as "paying attention in a particular way: on purpose, in the present moment and non-judgmentally" (Kabat-Zinn, 1994). By maintaining this non-elaborative stance, the ongoing flow of sensory, cognitive and affective events which arise in the mind are acknowledged and accepted as they are (Bishop, 2004;Lutz et al., 2005). A mindful state of mind is an inherent capacity of human being, that could be present as a trait, that is to say, as an everyday life disposition or stable tendency to be mindful (Brown and Ryan, 2003). ...
Article
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A growing body of evidence has portrayed mindfulness as a useful tool for dealing with a broad range of psychological problems and disorders. This has created the impression that mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) can be used to treat nearly all psychological difficulties, in all cases. Nonetheless, little research has been done on how individual differences may contribute to intervention outcomes. The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of baseline mindfulness on participants’ outcomes by examining three prior Randomized Controlled Trials that addressed the impact of MBIs on mental health and mindfulness measures. The participants were 164 people, aged between 12 and 45, from both clinical and non-clinical samples. Our findings indicate that at least two thirds of the change produced by these interventions in terms of mindfulness scores can be predicted by the baseline scores of the same variables. We also found that many trajectories are not only strongly influenced by the initial status of the participants, but also by the intervention performed, as attested to by the significant interactions found. These results stress the need to continue doing research in a way that considers the diversity of participants’ trajectories, increasing the room for intervention improvements aligned with a more personalized health care model.
... Women in Hong Kong experiences MPS during perinatal period. Mindfulness intervention is increasingly being used to treat symptoms of anxiety, stress and depression [16,17]. Accumulating evidence has suggested that mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) may be suitable and beneficial for women in coping with physical discomfort and negative emotions or thoughts during the perinatal period [18,19]. ...
Article
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Background: Psychological distress is a common occurrence among women during the perinatal period. Maternal psychological distress (MPS) can also have a negative influence on neonatal outcomes such as infant health, child development or mother-child interaction. Hence, interventions to improve mental wellbeing during this period are vital. Mindfulness based intervention (MBI) has been found to be effective in reducing psychological distress. Delivery of MBI via the internet, making it accessible and inexpensive, is showing a promising positive effect in reducing psychological distress. A randomized control trial with sufficient power is required to confirm its positive effect among pregnant women. The positive effects of MBI have been found to be associated with heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback; however, the efficacy of MBI on HRV has been rarely studied among pregnant women. Also, the potential association of HRV with MBI and psychological wellbeing needs further examination. This research aims to test the effectiveness of guided mobile-based perinatal mindfulness intervention (GMBPMI) among pregnant women experiencing psychological distress during the pre- and post-natal period, as well as examining the efficacy of GMBPMI on HRV. Method: This study is a randomized controlled trial that follows a parallel design. Consenting pregnant women in their second trimester (between 12th and 20th week gestation) will be randomly assigned to an intervention group (GMBPMI) or a control group (psychoeducation). The intended sample size is 198, with 99 participants in each group. Three levels of outcomes will be measured at baseline, post intervention in both the intervention and control groups, and at 36-week gestation and five-week postpartum. The primary outcomes include maternal psychological stress, mindfulness and positive appraisal HRV. Secondary outcomes are psychological and physical wellbeing. Tertiary outcomes include obstetric and neonatal outcomes, and social support. Analyses will follow an intention-to-treat method and repeated measures MANOVA will be conducted to compare changes in primary and secondary outcomes. A series of mixed-effects models will be fitted to assess the mediation effects. Discussion: This trial expects to increase understanding of GMBPMI on HRV and psychological wellbeing for pregnant women, with extended support in both pre-and post-natal periods. The study could also potentially provide evidence for delivery of cost-effective and accessible services to pregnant women. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04876014, registered on 30 March 2021. Protocol Version 1.0., 10 May 2021.
... Could mindfulness alter reactions towards perceived unfairness? Mindfulness is commonly defined as the regulation of attention to present moment experiences with an attitude of openness and non-judgement (e.g., Bishop et al., 2004;Kabat-Zinn, 1982). The extent to which people generally pay mindful attention to present moment experiences naturally differs between individuals (i.e., trait mindfulness), and each individual experiences fluctuations in mindfulness during each day (i.e., state mindfulness; Brown & Ryan, 2003). ...
Article
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Objectives The current study assessed whether trait mindfulness relates to social decision making as increased acceptance rates towards offers in the Ultimatum Game. Mindfulness has been associated to a reduction in emotional reactivity and an increase in emotion regulation once intense emotions do occur. Therefore, we reasoned that trait mindfulness would predict acceptance in the Ultimatum Game, perhaps even in case of unfair offers. Methods In two online studies we assessed whether trait mindfulness positively predicts acceptance of offers in the Ultimatum Game among community samples (study 1 N = 107; study 2 N = 118). In study 2, we also assessed participants’ emotional reactions to offers prior to their decision to accept or reject. Results Whereas study 1 indeed showed a significant positive relation between trait mindfulness and acceptance of offers (OR = 2.01, p = .05), study 2 did not show this relation (OR = .91, p = .81). Also, the results of study 2 showed that trait mindfulness may moderate emotional responses to offers (β = − .06, p = .03). Yet, analyses of the pooled data indicated no relation between trait mindfulness and acceptance of offers (p < .15). Conclusions Our research provides mixed support regarding the association between trait mindfulness and behavioral acceptance of offers in the Ultimatum Game. We discuss the need for more fine-grained examinations of when and why mindfulness should lead to acceptance of unfairness, and if and when mindfulness would lead to wise responding in social exchange situations.
... Shapiro et al. (2006) highlighted the transformative properties of mindfulness by suggesting that 'intentionally attending moment by moment with openness and nonjudgmentalness' facilitates significant shifts in perspective. Bishop et al. (2004) defined mindfulness as "a process of regulating attention in order to bring a quality of relating to one's experience within an orientation of curiosity, experiential openness, and acceptance" (p. 234). ...
Article
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Despite negative outcomes associated with color-blind racial ideology (CBRI), limited research has explored the contributing factors associated with CBRI. This study explored associations of mindfulness and openness to diversity with CBRI above and beyond pre-college and college diversity experiences among 221 White undergraduate students recruited from two public universities in the Southeastern United States. The study revealed seven statistically significant pre-dictors for CBRI: four factors (i.e., openness to diversity, mindfulness describing, college quality of interracial contact, and college formal diversity experiences) were negatively associated with CBRI, while three factors (i.e., mindfulness nonjudging, mindfulness nonreactivity, pre-college perceived emphasis on diversity) were positively associated with CBRI. The study offers practical implications in addressing CBRI among White college students.
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There are ongoing debates about what is and is not 'mindfulness'. These debates are stifling rigorous academic research as scientific precision is a precursor to shared meaning. While mindfulness is a growing field of research, these divergent and conflated meanings are limiting deeper interdisciplinary research. Interventions designed in one practice context may not be useful in other contexts because meaning is not transferred between settings. This review clarifies the various research domains that study mindfulness and the conceptual and operational definitions in each domain. This two-stage study comprises a scoping review of mindfulness classifications and a comparative content mapping of mindfulness studies from 2015 to 2021. The initial comprehensive search strategy followed the preferred reporting items for scoping reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) method. The comparative analysis was conducted using Leximancer. Findings illustrate a complex growing research corpus on mindfulness that is somewhat confused. The results from the scoping review show three shared domains in mindfulness classifications: short-term effects of mindful-ness, long-term effects of mindfulness, and mindfulness practices. The results from the content mapping show four domains of mindfulness research: mental health, behavioural change, cognitive neuroscience, and ethical mindfulness. Operational definitions of mindful-ness are not articulated clearly in these domains. Conceptual and operational definitions in the 'ethical mindfulness' domain are not yet developed. To enhance scientific progress in mindfulness research, further investigations of mindfulness classifications need to be developed. Content mapping and semantic typology is a potential candidate for future classification. More attention should be paid to developing operational definitions according to specific research domains. Scholars in the ethical mindfulness domain will need solid conceptual and operational definitions to support their research efforts.
Article
Over time mindfulness research and practice has taken on diverse basic assumptions and theoretical traditions, and the pseudo‐scientific use of the term has become more prevalent. Given the ubiquitousness of both personal and professional applications of mindfulness, the need for a thorough understanding of its theoretical cornerstones is necessary. In this review, we use bibliometric techniques to uncover the field's intellectual roots (Study 1), and document bibliographic coupling analysis to illuminate current research avenues across management disciplines (Study 2). Our bibliometric process covers 48 references for co‐citation and 238 articles for bibliographic coupling analyses, respectively, published between 2012 and 2020. Co‐citation analysis reveals a shift of focus from the past two historical mindfulness schools of thought (Eastern and Western) to a novel intellectual structure of the mindfulness field articulated around three distinct yet overlapping research streams. We propose integrative ways to advance mindfulness research by unpacking mindfulness processes, dimensions and development, arguing that the integration of these three main foci is necessary to advance understanding of mindfulness. Bibliometric coupling analysis identifies eight management‐related mindfulness research themes. We discuss the extent to which these eight themes have comparably explored the three foci (mindfulness processes, dimensions and development) highlighted in our model. Lastly, we use our theory‐driven review to draw on under‐developed areas of research, identifying profitable directions for future research on mindfulness in the workplace and beyond.
Article
Accumulating evidence suggests that individuals with a history of childhood adversity are at greater risk for developing depression. Potential psychological mechanisms have not been well-established. Our study aims to identify psychological variables consistently mediating/moderating the link between childhood adversity to depression. We systematically searched articles from 1990 to October 2021 on online databases including PubMed, Web of Science and PsycINFO. Studies that examined a mediating/moderating role of psychological variables between childhood adversities and depression were included. Totally, 33 records were included. The review identified maladaptive schema, negative automatic thoughts, and avoidance as mediators of the relationship between childhood adversity and depression. Additionally, resilience was identified as both a mediator and moderator of the association between childhood adversity and depression. In general, cognitive dysfunction, avoidance behaviors and impaired resilience may be a by-product of childhood adversity and may contribute to increased risk for depression. Interventions that target at challenging negative cognition and improving resilience may be effective to prevent or treat depression in individuals with a history of childhood adversity.
Article
Mindful engagement interventions have been shown to improve psychological benefits of nature experiences but to date there has been little evaluation of their efficacy compared with other forms of engagement. An online experimental study was conducted to compare different forms of engagement with nature. Before and after a 20-minute outdoor experience, participants (n = 215) completed surveys on state-mindfulness, connection with nature, and mood, and then the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART). Participants were randomly allocated to one of four engagement intervention groups: mindful engagement, directed engagement, mind wandering, and an unguided control group. The groups did not differ on connection with nature or positive affect after the nature experience, when accounting for the baseline measures, however the mind wandering group reported significantly lower negative affect than the directed engagement group. Overall, SART outcomes indicated that the unguided control group had the greatest level of attention restoration, suggesting that all three engagement interventions taxed the attention system. Mediation analyses indicated that there was an indirect effect of state mindfulness on the psychological outcomes, primarily for the mindful engagement group when contrasted with the unguided control. The findings challenge the idea that all forms of heightened engagement enhance the experience of nature and resulting psychological outcomes. We use these findings to outline considerations in designing and applying engagement interventions in nature for specific outcomes.
Article
Subjective well-being produces a wide range of beneficial results in adolescents. Mindfulness could be an essential predictor of subjective well-being, while few studies have examined the mechanism involved between them. In this study, we examined the relation between mindfulness and subjective well-being using a longitudinal design and the chain mediating effect of rejection sensitivity and self-esteem. A total of 1156 adolescents were recruited to complete this study. Participants completed self-report questionnaires regarding mindfulness, rejection sensitivity, self-esteem, and subjective well-being three times over six months (3-month interval). Results showed that mindfulness at T1 can predict subjective well-being at T3. On the one hand, rejection sensitivity and self-esteem at T2 mediated the above relationship separately. On the other hand, mindfulness at T1 predicted subjective well-being at T3 through the chain mediating effect of rejection sensitivity and self-esteem at T2. The finding indicates that exploring the mechanism by which mindfulness is associated with adolescent subjective well-being over time has potential value for building positive qualities.
Article
Research on nonattachment, a Buddhist psychological construct closely related to mindfulness, has burgeoned since the development of the Nonattachment Scale. The aim of the current meta-analysis was to investigate the mediating role of nonattachment in the relationship between mindfulness and well-being and psychological distress using a meta-analytic structural equation modeling approach. The respective associations of nonattachment and mindfulness with well-being and psychological distress, after controlling for each other, were also examined. Forty-one independent cross-sectional data sets with 24,704 individuals were coded. Results showed that nonattachment partially mediated the associations between mindfulness and well-being and psychological distress. Nonattachment and mindfulness were both significantly positively associated with well-being and negatively associated with psychological distress after controlling for each other. Given the present findings were based on cross-sectional data, more studies with rigorous research design, such as longitudinal, experimental, and intervention studies, should be conducted to further investigate the mediating effect of nonattachment between mindfulness with well-being and distress outcomes and establish causal relations between them. Future research directions regarding nonattachment and its application in mindfulness-based interventions were discussed.
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Most research on employee creativity has been focused on relatively distal antecedents, e.g., personality or job characteristics, which has resulted in top‐down organizational approaches to promote employee creativity. However, such approaches overlook the self‐regulating potential of employees and may not explain intra‐individual fluctuations in creativity. In the present research, we build on proactive motivation theory to examine how employees may promote their own creativity on a daily basis through the use of proactive vitality management (PVM). To better understand the PVM – creativity link, we zoom in on this process by examining the role of mindfulness as an underlying mechanism. In two daily diary studies, employees from the US (N = 133 persons, n = 521 data points) and the creative industry in Germany (N = 62 persons, n = 232 data points) reported on their use of PVM and states of mindfulness for five consecutive workdays. Additionally, participants completed a daily creativity test (brainstorming task) in Study 1, while supervisors rated participants’ daily creative work performance in Study 2. In both studies, multilevel analyses showed that daily PVM was positively related to creative performance through daily mindfulness, supporting our hypotheses. These replicated findings suggest that individuals may bring themselves in a cognitive, creative state of mind on a daily basis, emphasizing the importance of proactive behavior in the creative process.
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Mindfulness-based mental training interventions have become a popular means to alleviate stress and stress-associated health risks. Previous scientific investigations emphasize the importance of exploring the effects of such interventions in naturalistic settings to evaluate their implementation into daily life. Therefore, the current study examined the effects of three distinct mental training modules on a range of measures of daily life experience in the scope of the ReSource Project, a 9-month longitudinal mental training study comparing modules targeting attention and interoception (Presence), socio-affective (Affect) or socio-cognitive abilities (Perspective). We used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to repeatedly probe levels of stress and stress-coping efficacy combined with stress-reactive cortisol levels, and further explored arousal, affective states, and thought patterns in the daily lives of 289 healthy adults (172 women; 20–55 years). We found increased presence-focused thought and heightened arousal after a training duration of 3-6 months, independent of the type of prior training. Increased coping efficacy emerged specifically after socio-cognitive Perspective training, following 6-9 months of training duration. No training effects were found for subjective stress, stress-reactive cortisol levels, or daily life affect. Our findings corroborate and add ecological validity to previous ReSource findings by showing that they replicate in participants’ everyday environment. Regarding endocrine and subjective stress markers, our results suggest caution in generalizing acute laboratory findings to individuals’ everyday routines. Overall, the current study provides substantiated insights into how cultivating one’s mind through contemplative mental training translates to daily life experience, enhances stress-coping, and may ultimately aide in maintaining health.
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Overweight and obesity are major public health challenges in China, and increasingly among young people. Valid measures are needed to examine the relationship between eating styles and weight to advance understanding and intervention. Mindful approaches show promise in weight management. This study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of a Chinese version of Mindful Eating Questionnaire (C-MEQ). Study 1 used a think aloud methodology to examine Chinese young adults' (n = 7) and adolescents’ (n = 10) comprehension of C-MEQ items. Findings informed revision of problematic items before a full validation study (Study 2) of the revised C-MEQ (C-MEQ-R) in a sample of 430 Chinese young adults. In Study 1, both groups misinterpreted ten items as asking about noticing about whether behaviour ever occurred rather than noticing experience, indicating the lack of content validity of the C-MEQ. Ten items were rephrased to emphasise mindful (intentional) noticing in the moment. In Study 2, confirmatory factor analysis revealed an inadequate fit to the original MEQ structure. Exploratory Structural Equation Model of the C-MEQ-R revealed five distinct domains. The C-MEQ-R showed better psychometric properties than the C-MEQ, and significant associations with mindfulness, emotional eating, external eating and BMI in expected directions. However, psychometric limitations including low internal reliability, inadequate coherence of the subscales and limited construct validity were identified. These findings contribute to the progress in the measurement of mindful eating by highlighting the weaknesses of the MEQ. Further research is called to adopt and validate alternative mindful eating measurements to assess mindful eating in Chinese adolescents and young adults.
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Background Although the public and courtesy stigma of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are prevalent, there are very few studies examining their adverse psychological effects on parents of children with ASD or exploring plausible factors that can alleviate these adverse effects. The present study addressed these literature gaps by investigating the longitudinal linkages of public and courtesy stigma to detrimental cognitive (i.e., self-stigma content and process) and affective (i.e., perceived stress and symptoms of depression and anxiety) consequences for parents of children with ASD and testing if these linkages would be moderated by trait mindfulness. Methods At two time points separated by 12 months, 372 Hong Kong parents of children with ASD provided questionnaire data on public and courtesy stigma, mindfulness, self-stigma content and process, perceived stress, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Results Hierarchical regressions showed that public and courtesy stigma interacted significantly with mindfulness at baseline in predicting self-stigma content and process, perceived stress, and symptoms of depression and anxiety at follow-up. Moreover, simple slope analyses showed that the linkages of public and courtesy stigma to the five detrimental psychological consequences were weaker in parents with high mindfulness than in those with low mindfulness. Conclusions Our findings highlight the longitudinal linkages of public and courtesy stigma to detrimental cognitive and affective consequences for parents of children with ASD, and reveal the plausible protective effects of mindfulness against such linkages. These findings suggest the potential utility of increasing mindfulness in parents of children with ASD in coping with community stigma and improving mental health.
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During occupational therapeutic treatment of clients with mental disorders, perception and mindfulness-based techniques are used. However, little is known regarding relevant outcomes. Aim of the present study is to describe the results of a perception and mindfulness-based occupational therapeutic intervention (self-control techniques using perception-based methods (SELWA®) by S. Thielen) regarding the outcomes occupational performance and satisfaction in self-care, productivity and leisure, as well as concentration. The data of 28 clients (22 ♀, 6 ♂; mean age = 42.8 (±SD 14.7) years) with mental disorders, that were collected before and after prescribed occupational therapeutic treatment, were analyzed. The outcomes were quantified using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) and the revision test, respectively. Significance of changes after the intervention was tested using the Wilcoxon-Signed Rank Test (p < 0.05). Effect sizes Cohen's dz and r were determined to evaluate the meaningfulness of changes. The occupational performance as well as the satisfaction in the COPM improved significantly after the therapeutic intervention (p < 0.001; dz = 2.37, r = 0.77 and dz = 2.24, r = 0.75). Moreover, the clients improved significantly in the revision test after the therapeutic intervention (p < 0.001; dz = 0.65, r = 0.31). Clients with mental disorders seem to benefit meaningfully from the SELWA®-treatment by S. Thielen regarding occupational performance and satisfaction in self-care, productivity and leisure. Furthermore, a moderate improvement of concentration seems to occur after the therapeutic intervention.
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The Somatics technique, which observes the body's sensations in the process of intentional movement, with a non-judgmental attitude based on a first-person perspective, is drawing attention as one of the techniques to improve emotional regulation. Somatic theories suggested that it is important to aware of body sensations in the emotion regulation process. Several empirical and experimental studies supported the relationship between interoception and emotional regulation ability. The somatics technique has the clinical potential as an effective intervention that helps to increase interoceptive awareness, which is linked to the emotional state. However, clinical studies on whether the somatic technique is effective for patients with difficulty in emotional regulation are scarce. Based on this background, the present study aimed to review how the somatic technique can affect the emotion regulation process. In addition, this studybriefly described how the somatic technique can be applied clinically to patients who have difficulty in emotional regulation.
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ZUSAMMENFASSUNG Menschen, die von einer Krebserkrankung betroffen sind, leiden neben körperlichen Beschwerden häufig an psychischen Symptomen wie Angst, Depression und Stress. Psychoonkologische Interventionen zur Unterstützung des Selbstmanagements, Stärkung der Selbstwirksamkeit und Förderung weiterer psychischer Ressourcen sind auf Seiten der Betroffenen von immer größerer Bedeutung. Die derzeitige Evidenz unterstützt die Annahme, dass Meditations- und Achtsamkeitsinterventionen, als ein Element in der Mind-Body-Medizin, wirksam in der supportiven Onkologie eingesetzt werden können. Neben persönlich vermittelten Interventionen erscheinen auch Online-Interventionen (eHealth) in diesem Zusammenhang vielversprechend.
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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder defined by pervasive symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Furthermore, children with ADHD show marked deficits in executive functioning (EF) such as attention, effortful control, and behavior, and are more likely to have poor self-regulatory skills. Current evidence-based interventions for children with ADHD include behavioral treatment (BT), psychopharmacological treatment, and their combination. Many other interventions are often used conjunction with or in lieu of evidence-based treatments for ADHD. One such example is the use of mindfulness-based interventions which have been shown to improve attention, reduce maladaptive behaviors, and increase self-regulatory abilities among children in general education settings. The current study is the first to evaluate the effect of mindfulness intervention in combination with BT on behavior, task-based executive functioning (EF), and mindful awareness in elementary-aged children with ADHD (N = 58). The study took place in a controlled analogue summer program setting (STP) in which children were randomized to receive either the mindfulness intervention in conjunction with BT or to a BT active control condition. Children completed a variety of EF cognitive tasks at baseline and post-treatment. Child behavioral responses were measured as teacher and staff-recorded frequencies of observed behavior. In addition, parent-reported and child self-reported measures on mindful awareness were collected. Overall, there were no beneficial incremental effects of mindfulness when used in combination with intensive BT with regard to observed child behavior, attention and inhibitory control, or mindful awareness.
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Background We investigated the relationship between mindfulness and compassion in a broader way than is typically done by (a) using a recent, comprehensive conceptualization of mindfulness as a manifold of self-awareness, self-regulation, and self-transcendence, and (b) by casting a wide net of compassion measures [i.e., the Compassionate Love for Humanity Scale (Sprecher and Fehr in J Soc Pers Relatsh 22(5):629–651, 2005); Compassion Scale (Martins et al. in J Health Care Poor Underserved 24:1235–1246, 2013); Compassion Scale (Pommier in Assessment 27:21–39, 2020); Relational Compassion Scale (Hacker in The relational compassion scale: Development and validation of a new self-rated scale for the assessment of self-other compassion, University of Glasgow, 2008); and the SOCS-O scale (Gu et al. in Clin Psychol Rev 37:1–12, 2020)]. Additionally, we examined the interplay between mindfulness, compassion, and ethical sensitivities by assessing the influence of the moral foundations (individualizing and binding) on compassion, and the influence of mindfulness, the moral foundations, and compassion on awareness of privilege. Methods We surveyed 407 undergraduate students. Factor analysis was used to examine the dimensionality of the compassion measures; path analysis to examine the relationships between all variables. Results Factor analysis revealed distinct affective (empathy, indifference), cognitive (common humanity, recognizing suffering), and motivational (willingness to act) aspects of compassion. Mindfulness, under its aspects of reflective awareness, self-compassion, and self-transcendence, was associated with compassion, with reflective awareness predicting multiple aspects of compassion over and beyond the normal mechanisms of the mindfulness manifold and the moral foundations. Individualizing was associated with all aspects of compassion; binding was only connected to recognizing suffering and a willingness to act. Awareness of privilege was positively connected to mindfulness through individualizing and the recognition of common humanity; it was also directly negatively related to the moral foundation of binding. Conclusions Mindfulness and compassion have synergistic and distinct positive effects on ethical sensitivities. Given that both compassion and ethical sensitivities have roots in mindfulness, mindfulness interventions might be one possible venue to enhance these positive aspects of individuals’ psychology.
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Background: Mounting evidence demonstrates that meditation can lower pain and emotional distress in adults, and more recently, in children. Children may benefit from meditation given its accessibility across a variety of settings (e.g., surgical preparation). Recent neuroimaging studies in adults suggest that meditation techniques are neurobiologically distinct from other forms of emotion regulation, such as distraction, that rely on prefrontal control mechanisms, which are underdeveloped in youth. Rather, meditation techniques may not rely on "top-down" prefrontal control and may therefore be utilized across the lifespan. Procedure: We examined neural activation in children with cancer, a potentially distressing diagnosis. During neuroimaging, children viewed distress-inducing video clips while using martial arts-based meditation (focused attention, mindful acceptance) or non-meditation (distraction) emotion regulation techniques. In a third condition (control), participants passively viewed the video clip. Results: We found that meditation techniques were associated with lower activation in default mode network (DMN) regions, including the medial frontal cortex, precuneus, and posterior cingulate cortex, compared to the control condition. Additionally, we found evidence that meditation techniques may be more effective for modulating DMN activity than distraction. There were no differences in self-reported distress ratings between conditions. Conclusion: Together, these findings suggest that martial arts-based meditation modulates negative self-referential processing associated with the DMN, and may have implications for the management of pediatric pain and negative emotion.
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Mindfulness and mind wandering are among distinct forms of cognitive engagement proposed to occur during nature experiences. Little is known however about how these forms of engagement support psychological benefits of urban nature experiences, and under what environmental and personal circumstances. We aimed to explore these associations through interviewing 20 individuals after they had spent time in an urban green space on a work break. Interviews examined different aspects of their experience, including how they cognitively engaged during that time. We used a framework approach to thematically analyse interviews, allowing us to identify links between key experiential categories such as form of engagement and environmental context. As a result, we describe five common forms of engagement during urban nature experiences: heightened sensory engagement, allowing the mind to wander, mindful engagement, negative judgment of the experience, and acceptance of experience. Further, we identified associations between forms of engagement, the contextual attributes of the experience, and psychological outcomes. For instance, participants who reported mind wandering during the experience often explained this as a response to work-related stress and subsequently reported feeling a sense of psychological distance from work. By examining such associations in the current study, we contribute insights into the subjective experience of engagement in urban nature and demonstrate the value of considering individual engagement alongside other key attributes of urban nature experiences.
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A distinction between ruminative and reflective types of private self-attentiveness is introduced and evaluated with respect to L. R. Goldberg's (1982) list of 1,710 English trait adjectives (Study 1), the five-factor model of personality (FFM) and A. Fenigstein, M. F. Scheier, and A. Buss's(1975) Self-Consciousness Scales (Study 2), and previously reported correlates and effects of private self-consciousness (PrSC; Studies 3 and 4). Results suggest that the PrSC scale confounds two unrelated motivationally distinct disposition-rumination and reflection-and that this confounding may account for the "self-absorption paradox" implicit in PrSC research findings: Higher PrSC sources are associated with more accurate and extensive self-knowledge yet higher levels of psychological distress. The potential of the FFM to provide a comprehensive Framework for conceptualizing self-attentive dispositions, and to order and integrate research findings within this domain, is discussed.
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Syndromal classification is a well-developed diagnostic system but has failed to deliver on its promise of the identification of functional pathological processes. Functional analysis is tightly connected to treatment but has failed to develop testable, replicable classification systems. Functional diagnostic dimensions are suggested as a way to develop the functional classification approach, and experiential avoidance is described as 1 such dimension. A wide range of research is reviewed showing that many forms of psychopathology can be conceptualized as unhealthy efforts to escape and avoid emotions, thoughts, memories, and other private experiences. It is argued that experiential avoidance, as a functional diagnostic dimension, has the potential to integrate the efforts and findings of researchers from a wide variety of theoretical paradigms, research interests, and clinical domains and to lead to testable new approaches to the analysis and treatment of behavioral disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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what is the relationship between the study of attention and the understanding of consciousness / begin our inquiry into this question by briefly reviewing evidence for the existence of three networks involved in selective attention: the posterior and anterior attention systems and the vigilance system / consider the role of these three networks in awareness and control relate awareness and conscious control to issues of [attention network] development and psychopathology / provide examples of the ways in which failures of these aspects of awareness and control are related to psychopathology structures and functions of selective attention / awareness and the attentional networks / development of attentional networks / pathologies of attention (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In an investigation of task-set reconfiguration, participants switched between 2 tasks on every 2nd trial in 5 experiments and on every 4th trial in a final experiment. The tasks were to classify either the digit member of a pair of characters as even/odd or the letter member as consonant/vowel. As the response–stimulus interval increased up to 0.6 s, the substantial cost to performance of this predictable task-switch fell: Participants could partially reconfigure in advance of the stimulus. However, even with 1.2 s available for preparation, a large asymptotic reaction time (RT) cost remained, but only on the 1st trial of the new task. This is attributed to a component of reconfiguration triggered exogenously, i.e., only by a task-relevant stimulus. That stimuli evoke associated task-sets also explains why RT and switch costs increased when the stimulus included a character associated with the currently irrelevant task. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Eye movements were recorded while participants viewed line-drawing pictures of natural scenes in preparation for a memory test (Experiment 1) or to find a target object (Experiment 2). Initial saccades in a scene were not controlled by semantic information in the visual periphery, although fixation densities and fixation durations were affected by semantic consistency. The results are compared with earlier eye-tracking studies, and a qualitative model of eye movement control in scene perception is discussed in which initial saccades in a scene are controlled by visual but not semantic analysis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article provides a cognitive framework for integrating mindfulness meditation into substance abuse treatment. We review recent developments in cognitive theory and treatment research that point toward mind-fulness meditation as a useful additional strategy for reducing relapse. Although the idea of using meditation to reduce substance use is not new, there are several reasons for further exploring the relevance of mindful-ness for addiction treatment. This article reviews the cognitive-behavioral formulation of relapse, evaluations of mindfulness meditation as a component of the treatment of psychopathology, and the role of information processes in relapse. We also present an information-processing analysis of how mindfulness can help prevent relapse and discuss its utility and clinical implications.
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This paper proposes a framework for understanding people's theories about their own cognition. Metacognitive theories are defined broadly as systematic frameworks used to explain and direct cognition, metacognitive knowledge, and regulatory skills. We distinguish tacit, informal, and formal metacognitive theories and discuss critical differences among them using criteria borrowed from the developmental literature. We also consider the origin and development of these theories, as well as implications for educational research and practice.
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The efficacy of a 6-week meditation-based group intervention for Binge Eating Disorder (BED) was evaluated in 18 obese women, using standard and eating-specific mindfulness meditation exercises. A single-group extended baseline design assessed all variables at 3 weeks pre-and post-, and at 1, 3, and 6 weeks; briefer assessment occurred weekly. Binges decreased in frequency, from 4.02/week to 1.57/week (p < .001), and in severity. Scores on the Binge Eating Scale (BES) and on the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories decreased significantly; sense of control increased. Time using eatingrelated meditations predicted decreases on the BES (r 5 .66, p < .01). Results suggest that meditation training may be an effective component in treating BED.
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A randomized clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral therapy, ie, dialectical behavior therapy, for the treatment of chronically parasuicidal women who met criteria for borderline personality disorder. The treatment lasted 1 year, with assessment every 4 months. The control condition was "treatment as usual" in the community. At most assessment points and during the entire year, the subjects who received dialectical behavior therapy had fewer incidences of parasuicide and less medically severe parasuicides, were more likely to stay in individual therapy, and had fewer inpatient psychiatric days. There were no between-group differences on measures of depression, hopelessness, suicide ideation, or reasons for living although scores on all four measures decreased throughout the year.
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The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) is based on a new cognitive-developmental model of emotional experience. The scale poses evocative interpersonal situations and elicits descriptions of the emotional responses of self and others which are scored using specific structural criteria. Forty undergraduates (20 of each sex) were tested. Interrater reliability and intratest homogeneity of the LEAS were strong. The LEAS was significantly correlated with two measures of maturity: the Washington University Sentence Completion Test (SCT) of Ego Development, and the Parental Descriptions Scale-a cognitive-developmental measure of object representation. In addition, the LEAS correlated positively with openness to experience and emotional range but not with measures of specific emotions, repression or the number of words used in the LEAS responses. These findings suggest that it is the level of emotion, not the specific quality of emotion, that is tapped by the LEAS.
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A previous paper described the development of the twenty-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and reported preliminary evidence of reliability and factorial validity of the scale. This paper describes a study that further evaluated the construct validity of the TAS-20 by examining its relationship with measures of personality traits theoretically related or unrelated to the alexithymia construct, as well as its relationship with an observer-rated measure of alexithymia. Evidence of convergent and discriminant validity of the TAS-20 was demonstrated in samples of university students by a pattern of correlations with the scales of the NEO Personality Inventory and separate measures of psychological mindedness and need-for-cognition that was consistent with theoretical predictions. The concurrent validity of the scale was demonstrated by positive correlations with observer-ratings of alexithymia in a sample of behavioural medicine out-patients.
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This research extends a cognitive-developmental approach to examining age differences in self-representation from adolescence to mature adulthood and later life. The authors suggest that mature adults move from representations of self that are relatively poorly differentiated from others or social conventions to ones that involve emphasis on process, context, and individuality. Participants (n men = 73, n women = 76), ranging in age from 11 to 85 years, provided spontaneous accounts of their self-representations and responded to measures assessing cognitive and emotional functioning and broad dimensions of personality. On average, self-representation scores peaked in middle-aged adults and were lowest in the preadolescent and older adult age groups. Level of self-representation was related to cognitive and personality variables, but there was some evidence that the pattern of correlates shifted from younger (ages 15-45) to older (ages 46-85) age segments.
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The paper traces the relationship between attachment processes and the development of the capacity to envision mental states in self and others. We suggest that the ability to mentalize, to represent behavior in terms of mental states, or to have "a theory of mind" is a key determinant of self-organization which is acquired in the context of the child's early social relationships. Evidence for an association between the quality of attachment relationship and reflective function in the parent and the child is reviewed and interpreted in the context of current models of theory of mind development. A model of the development of self-organization is proposed which has at its core the caregiver's ability to communicate understanding of the child's intentional stance. The implications of the model for pathological self-development are explored, with specific reference to the consequences of maltreatment.
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A distinction is made between metacognitive knowledge (knowing that thoughts are not necessarily always accurate) and metacognitive insight (experiencing thoughts as events in the field of awareness, rather than as direct readouts on reality). This distinction, and its relevance to preventing relapse and recurrence in depression, is examined within the Interacting Cognitive Subsystems (ICS) theoretical framework. This analysis suggests, as an alternative to cognitive therapy with its focus on changing the content of depression-related thought, the strategy of changing the configuration, or mode, within which depression-related thoughts and feelings are processed, i.e. changing one's relationship to inner experience. Specifically, facilitating a metacognitive insight mode, in which thoughts are experienced simply as events in the mind, offers an alternative preventative strategy. Mindfulness training teaches skills to enter this mode, and forms a central component of Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy, a novel, cost-efficient group preventative programme, for which there is encouraging evidence of effectiveness. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Book
An ACT Approach Chapter 1. What is Acceptance and Commitment Therapy? Steven C. Hayes, Kirk D. Strosahl, Kara Bunting, Michael Twohig, and Kelly G. Wilson Chapter 2. An ACT Primer: Core Therapy Processes, Intervention Strategies, and Therapist Competencies. Kirk D. Strosahl, Steven C. Hayes, Kelly G. Wilson and Elizabeth V. Gifford Chapter 3. ACT Case Formulation. Steven C. Hayes, Kirk D. Strosahl, Jayson Luoma, Alethea A. Smith, and Kelly G. Wilson ACT with Behavior Problems Chapter 4. ACT with Affective Disorders. Robert D. Zettle Chapter 5. ACT with Anxiety Disorders. Susan M. Orsillo, Lizabeth Roemer, Jennifer Block-Lerner, Chad LeJeune, and James D. Herbert Chapter 6. ACT with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Alethea A. Smith and Victoria M. Follette Chapter 7. ACT for Substance Abuse and Dependence. Kelly G. Wilson and Michelle R. Byrd Chapter 8. ACT with the Seriously Mentally Ill. Patricia Bach Chapter 9. ACT with the Multi-Problem Patient. Kirk D. Strosahl ACT with Special Populations, Settings, and Methods Chapter 10. ACT with Children, Adolescents, and their Parents. Amy R. Murrell, Lisa W. Coyne, & Kelly G. Wilson Chapter 11. ACT for Stress. Frank Bond. Chapter 12. ACT in Medical Settings. Patricia Robinson, Jennifer Gregg, JoAnne Dahl, & Tobias Lundgren Chapter 13. ACT with Chronic Pain Patients. Patricia Robinson, Rikard K. Wicksell, Gunnar L. Olsson Chapter 14. ACT in Group Format. Robyn D. Walser and Jacqueline Pistorello
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This paper presents a relational approach to understanding the self and change that represents a convergence of theoretical perspectives and developments in the literature regarding, for example, emotion, communication, attachment, child development, intersubjectivity, and social constructionism. It introduces the Beth Israel Brief Psychotherapy Research Program as a center for the study of the therapeutic relationship, specifically alliance ruptures and impasses. The program is designed to assess change on multiple dimensions by multiple measures from multiple perspectives and on three levels of analysis: ultimate, intermediate, and immediate outcome. The paper then presents a sampling of studies illustrating the work accomplished at each level. In addition, it outlines current and future investigatory endeavors and, in the process, suggests increased efforts to study the therapist subjective experience in the context of the therapeutic relationship, especially in the resolution of therapeutic alliance ruptures.
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Studies suggest that young children are quite limited in their knowledge about cognitive phenomena—or in their metacognition—and do relatively little monitoring of their own memory, comprehension, and other cognitive enterprises. Metacognitive knowledge is one's stored knowledge or beliefs about oneself and others as cognitive agents, about tasks, about actions or strategies, and about how all these interact to affect the outcomes of any sort of intellectual enterprise. Metacognitive experiences are conscious cognitive or affective experiences that occur during the enterprise and concern any aspect of it—often, how well it is going. Research is needed to describe and explain spontaneous developmental acquisitions in this area and find effective ways of teaching metacognitive knowledge and cognitive monitoring skills. (9 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Psychological mindedness and mindfulness are common themes across schools of psychotherapy. A somewhat smaller construct can be better defined: self- and relational observational capacity. This article defines and assesses strategies for 3 components of self- and relational observation: (a) awareness of feelings, ideas, and emotional control; (b) awareness of changing states of mind; and (c) awareness of self-concepts or schemas such as mental models of roles in a relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In 7 analytic-philosophical essays, some major theoretical concepts, practical attitudes, and questions of technique in psychoanalysis are investigated. In "Meaning and Being," it is argued that "meaning-reorganization" is more germane to psychoanalysis than uncovering a "hidden reality" of unconscious wishes. In "Anxiety and Disintegration," various classical theories of anxiety are reviewed. In "Blame," the act of blaming is described as a moralistic response to a conflict-arousing situation. "Guilt and Responsibility" suggests that the psychoanalytic process looks for guilt behind guilt feelings and forces the patient to assume responsibility for thoughts and acts over which he did not previously have conscious control. In "Karma and the Inner-world," eastern reincarnation doctrines and psychoanalysis are compared on the self-concepts underlying them. In "Art, Therapy and the External World," the psychoanalytic concepts of introjection, projection, identification, and empathy are analyzed in the context of transference and countertransference process. The final esay on "Mystic selflessness" compares post therapeutic self-reflections of a patient with classical phrases from mysticism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In an earlier article (J. R. Martin, 1997a), I proposed a common factor of mindfulness that can be found in all psychotherapy orientations. Mindfulness was defined as a state of psychological freedom that occurs when attention remains quiet and limber, without attachment to any particular point of view. In the present commentary, I explore some linkages between this common factor and M. J. Horowitz's (see record 2002-13441-001) ideas regarding self- and relational observation. His article offers several promising ideas for psychotherapy integration and the potential development of effective psychotherapy interventions. It also expands the discourse related to a mindfulness factor (J. R. Martin, 1997a) and its facets, linkages, and its implications for clinical practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
what is the nature of the basic processes that underlie overt human behavior / the concept of motivation . . . was developed as part of the attempt to answer this question / people act in particular ways because they are "motivated" to do so human behavior is a continual process of moving toward various kinds of mental goal representations, and . . . this movement occurs by a process of feedback control this view treats behavior as being the consequence of an internal guidance system that is inherent in the way humans are organized / for this reason, we tend to refer to the mechanism underlying human behavior as a system of "self-regulation" / our goal in this chapter is to create a sense of how such a model of behavior can be fit to the human experience (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Two hundred twenty-five chronic pain patients were studied following training in mindfulness meditation. Large and significant overall improvements were recorded post-intervention in physical and psychological status. These gains were maintained at follow-up in the majority of subjects. Follow-up times ranged from 2.5-48 months. Status on the McGill Melzack Pain Rating Index (PRI), however, tended to revert to preintervention levels following the intervention. Most subjects reported a high degree of adherence with the meditation techniques, maintenance of improved status over time, and a high degree of importance attributed to the training program. We conclude that such training can have long-term benefit for chronic pain patients.
Article
A theoretical framework for metacognition in clinical psychology is proposed that emphasizes the metacognitive monitoring and metacognitive control of emotional states. The proposal is that the person monitors his/her emotional state, applies a label to it, compares it to a goal state, and takes action to make the current emotional state become closer to the goal state. Implications are drawn for clinical research and clinical practice, with examples given for schizophrenia and excessive anger. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Generalized anxiety disorder (CAD) is a chronic, pervasive disorder for which we have yet to develop sufficiently efficacious interventions. In this article we propose that recent research and theory regarding this disorder supports the integration of acceptance-based treatments with existing cognitive-behavioral treatments for CAD to improve the efficacy and clinical significance of such approaches. The bases for this proposal (from both the CAD and the acceptance-based treatment literature) are reviewed, and a new treatment stemming from this conceptual integration is described.
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Mindfulness is proposed as a core psychotherapy process. It is defined as a state of psychological freedom that occurs when attention remains quiet and limber, without attachment to any particular point of view. It can be shown that this process is collaborativefy employed by psychotherapist and patient within all psychotherapy orientations, and also by the integrative psychotherapist when making optimal choices among orientations. This article addresses (1) the defining attributes of mindfulness, (2) relevant conceptual approaches that lend theoretical support for a mindfulness factor, (3) two attentional forms of mindfulness that seem to have particular correspondence with either psychodynamic or cognitive-behavioral therapy, (4) clinical applications, and (5) the role of mindfulness for the integrative decision-making process.
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The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of how Buddhist philosophy can be applied in the treatment of individuals with substance abuse problems (alcohol, smoking, and illicit drug use) and other addictive behaviors (e.g., compulsive eating and gambling). First I describe the background of my own interest in meditation and Buddhist psychology, followed by a brief summary of my prior research on the effects of meditation on alcohol consumption in heavy drinkers. In the second section, I outline some of the basic principles of Buddhist philosophy that provide a theoretical underpinning for defining addiction, how it develops, and how it can be alleviated. The third and final section presents four principles within Buddhist psychology that have direct implications for the cognitive-behavioral treatment of addictive behavior: mindfulness meditation, the Middle Way philosophy, the Doctrine of Impermanence, and compassion and the Eightfold Noble Path. Clinical interventions and case examples are described for each of these four principles based on my research and clinical practice with clients seeking help for resolving addictive behavior problems.
Article
I propose that the ways people respond to their own symptoms of depression influence the duration of these symptoms. People who engage in ruminative responses to depression, focusing on their symptoms and the possible causes and consequences of their symptoms, will show longer depressions than people who take action to distract themselves from their symptoms. Ruminative responses prolong depression because they allow the depressed mood to negatively bias thinking and interfere with instrumental behavior and problem-solving. Laboratory and field studies directly testing this theory have supported its predictions. I discuss how response styles can explain the greater likelihood of depression in women than men. Then I intergrate this response styles theory with studies of coping with discrete events. The response styles theory is compared to other theories of the duration of depression. Finally, I suggest what may help a depressed person to stop engaging in ruminative responses and how response styles for depression may develop.