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Reflective and impulsive determinants of addictive behaviour

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Reflective and impulsive determinants of addictive behaviour

... This balance, conscious and unconscious processes, happens all the time in our daily lives, in all human activities, shaping our beliefs and assessments to guide behavior. These assessments become attitudes that can be consciously controlled, explicitly, or can be formed unconsciously, implicitly, without deliberate control on the part of the individual [57]. For example, the choice of a tourist destination, or a product, or even the choice of specific administrative technique can be the result of a cognitive process of conscious reflection and deliberation. ...
... These evaluations can converge to the same valence, or they can diverge [57]. For example, we consciously and unconsciously like a specific football team. ...
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Creating an environment capable of responding to its users and organizations in real‐time is a challenging task. However, with the advent of the Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem, a new perspective about creating an intelligent and interconnected world has become a reality. The goal of the present study aims to explore the relationship between IoT and Knowledge Management (KM) when generating a Smart environment. Herein, we conducted a Systematic Literature Review and present a discussion about the evolution of the IoT concept and the IoT ecosystem. More specifically we focused on the main IoT elements that serve as the foundation of the IoT ecosystem and the relationship between the IoT and KM. Although there is a lack of studies about KM supporting the IoT, our study provides evidence that the IoT is composed of a set of technologies that enable KM and KM processes can facilitate the development of IoT Smart environments. Thus, there is an opportunity to study how to generate more intelligence and connectivity, which will support the players of the ecosystem, promote interactions among objects and people and ultimately add value to organizations and users.
... Another input factor is emotions that are critical to political choice by explaining how people communicate about politics, how they seek information and learn, how they make judgments, and how they participate in political life (Crigler, Hevron, 2017). However, primarily by rooted theoretical distinctions between affect, emotions, and cognition, theories of political judgment processing bear indisputable resemblance to a range of dual-process theories popular in implicit social cognition (Strack, Deutch, 2004). In this sense, emotions correspond to implicit, associative processes, and cognition corresponds to explicit processes. ...
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The presented paper focuses on the issue of voting behaviour. It aims to determine the importance of selected cognitive factors, decision-making styles and emotional factors in electoral decision-making and behaviour in voters with different political preferences and voters of specific Slovak political parties. The cognitive style was evaluated using the Cognitive Reflection Test - Version 2. Decision-making styles were explored using the General Decision Making Styles Questionnaire and emotion preferences in information processing were evaluated using the following affective states test. Within the research sample (N = 308, average age 36.2 years), distinct groups of Slovak voters were created: 1. based on parties with different ideological orientations, and 2. based on specific Slovak political parties. The predictive significance of the observed characteristics for the choice of a political subject with a particular ideology and the choice of a specific Slovak political party was explored. All the variables monitored – cognitive style, decision-making style, and emotion preferences in information processing – proved to be significant.
... 12 The IAT is thought to capture impulsive, fast and partially automatic processes, although the behavioural measure also contains domain-general 13 and explicit aspects. 14,15 In AUD, the IAT is widely established to investigate implicit associations, although the IAT's underlying neurocognitive architecture and its interpretation is still controversial. [15][16][17] For alcohol-related stimuli, implicit associations with relevant concepts such as approach, 18 drinking identity, 19 arousal or attention can be revealed for an individual in the IAT. ...
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Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a severe and widespread mental disorder with a huge negative impact on the social, economic and health dimensions. The identification of risk factors for the development of AUD and for relapse in existing AUD are crucial for prevention and treatment approaches. Alcohol‐related implicit associations have been shown to contribute to drinking and might partially explain sudden relapses. The aims of this study are to investigate implicit associations in abstinent AUD patients and to test whether cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates implicit associations. We measured performance in two alcohol‐related implicit association tests (IATs) and two control tasks (flower‐insect IAT, Stroop task) in 27 abstinent AUD patients with 31.5 (SD = 36) days of abstinence on average. During the execution of the tasks, we applied 1 mA cathodal or sham tDCS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in a sham‐controlled within‐subject design. Results show an implicit bias of alcohol avoidance and implicit nondrinking identity for abstinent AUD patients. Cathodal tDCS modulated neither alcohol‐related implicit associations nor the control tasks. This study complements knowledge about implicit alcohol‐related association in AUD patients and shows no effect of a neuromodulatory intervention to alter implicit associations with the present parameters. This preregistered double‐blind randomized clinical trial demonstrates implicit alcohol avoidance and nondrinking identity biases in abstinent patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Both biases were not susceptible to modulation by cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings warrant further investigations regarding temporal stability of implicit associations and their relation to clinical paramteres like severity of AUD, duration of abstinence and relapse.
... We are currently looking at PRIME theory [29] and CEOS [3]. Other relevant BCTs include self-determination theory [23], reflective impulsive model (RIM) [28], implementation intentions [11], control theory [4] and self-regulation theory [1]. A comprehensive review is given in [19]. ...
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In health psychology, Behaviour Change Theories(BCTs) play an important role in modelling human goal achievement in adverse environments. Some of these theories use concepts that are also used in computational modelling of cognition and affect in AI. Examples include dual-process architecture and models of motivation. It is therefore important to ask whether some BCTs can be computationally implemented as cognitive agents in a way that builds on existing AI research in cognitive architecture. This paper presents work-in-progress research to apply selected behaviour change theories to simulated agents, so that an agent is acting according to the theory while attempting to complete a task in a challenging scenario. Two behaviour change theories are selected as examples (CEOS and PRIME). The research is focusing on complex agent architectures required for self-determined goal achievement in adverse circumstances where the action is difficult to maintain (e.g. healthy eating at office parties). Such simulations are useful because they can provide new insights into human behaviour change and improve conceptual precision. In addition, they can act as a rapid-prototyping environment for technology development. High-level descriptive simulations also provide an opportunity for transparency and participatory design, which is important for user ownership of the behaviour change process.
... We therefore briefly provide the rationale of this approach here. As more extensively discussed elsewhere, the core feature of these models is a controlled/ reflective versus automatic/impulsive distinction (Diederich & Zhao, 2019;Kahneman, 2003;Schneider & Shiffrin, 1977;Strack & Deutsch, 2004), related to the intuitive sense that some parts of ourselves feel like they need to be kept under control, and other parts of ourselves need to do the controlling. Dual-process models describe this division in terms of the types of processing done by a reflective system versus an impulsive system. ...
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Concerns have been raised about the low reliability of measurements of spatial attentional bias via RT differences in dot-probe tasks. The anticipatory form of the bias, directed towards predicted future stimuli, appears to have relatively good reliability, reaching around 0.70. However, studies thus far have not attempted to experimentally control task-related influence on bias, which could further improve reliability. Evoking top-down versus bottom-up conflict may furthermore reveal associations with individual differences related to mental health. In the current study, a sample of 143 participants performed a predictive Visual Probe Task (predVPT) with angry and neutral face stimuli online. In this task, an automatic bias is induced via visually neutral cues that predict the location of an upcoming angry face. A task-relevant bias was induced via blockwise shifts in the likely location of target stimuli. The bias score resulting from these factors was calculated as RTs to target stimuli at locations of predicted but not actually presented angry versus neutral faces. Correlations were tested with anxiety, depression , self-esteem and aggression scales. An overall bias towards threat was found with a split-half reliability of 0.90, and 0.89 after outlier removal. Avoidance of threat in blocks with a task-relevant bias away from threat was correlated with anxiety, with correction for multiple testing. The same relationship was nominally significant for depression and low self-esteem. In conclusion, we showed high reliability of spatial attentional bias that was related to anxiety.
... These results may best be explained via the dual process of addiction (Wiers and Stacy 2006;Wiers et al. 2007). According to the dual process of addiction, addictive behavior was the result of an imbalance between two neurocognitive systems (Deutsch and Strack 2006;Wiers and Stacy 2006;Wiers et al. 2007). One system was impulsive system, which became sensitive to smoking-related cues with the use of cigarettes. ...
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RationaleReduced inhibitory control is more pronounced during substance-related cue exposure among addicts. However, it is inconclusive whether smokers' inhibitory control would be impaired by smoking-related background. Furthermore, few studies explored whether the cigarette-specific disgust aroused by smoking warning images would alleviate the negative effect of smoking-related cues on smokers' inhibitory control.Objective Experiment 1 investigated the effect of smoking-related background on inhibitory control in cigarette smokers with a modified Go/NoGo task and experiment 2 explored whether cigarette-specific disgust aroused by smoking warning images would alleviate the negative effect of smoking-related background on smokers’ inhibitory control.Method Sixty-two male participants (32 smokers and 30 non-smokers) were recruited in experiment 1 and 51 male smokers were recruited in experiment 2.ResultsExperiment 1 found that compared to neutral background, smokers made more commission errors (i.e., executing a response to a no-go target) under smoking-related background, indicating that smoking-related background has a negative effect on smokers’ inhibitory control. Experiment 2 found that after experiencing cigarette-specific disgust, smokers made fewer commission errors at post-mood induction than pre-mood induction, indicating that cigarette-specific disgust aroused by smoking warning images alleviates the negative effect of smoking-related background on smokers’ inhibitory control.Conclusions These results suggest that the negative effect of smoking-related cues on smokers’ inhibitory control would be alleviated by cigarette-specific disgust aroused by smoking warning images, which emphasizes the important role of cigarette-specific disgust in strengthening smokers’ inhibitory control towards smoking-related cues.
... Moreover, results indicated that reflecting on an autobiographical episode entailing competence success improved competence need satisfaction, an increase that was greater for those who experienced a threat to competence than for those who did not, suggesting that autobiographical memory is effective at restoring a threatened need for competence. The process of restoring a threatened need to satisfactory levels can be explained by the reflective impulsive model (RIM), which theorizes that behavioral schemata that were successful at combating need deprivation in the past become more accessible when a particular need is deficient in the present (Strack and Deutsch 2004). These results are also consistent with Kunda's (1990) model of motivated reasoning and previous work on the role of attentional bias in competence restoration (Waterschoot et al. 2020), demonstrating that autobiographical memories can be recruited to satisfy a frustrated need. ...
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The present investigation examined whether autobiographical memory can function to regulate competence need satisfaction. Across two experiments, we examined how autobiographical memories affected perceived competence after competence was threatened or satisfied in a previous task. Experiment 1 results from an undergraduate student sample (N = 150) indicated that reflecting on a competence-satisfying memory increased perceived competence for all participants, but this increase was particularly large for participants whose competence was previously threatened. Experiment 2 results using an undergraduate student sample (N = 245) indicated that participants were not more likely to select a competence-satisfying autobiographical memory over a relatedness-satisfying memory after experiencing a competence threat in a previous task; however, those who selected a competence-satisfying memory reported greater competence need satisfaction and more positive affect than those who selected a relatedness-satisfying memory. Moreover, degree of competence need satisfaction predicted positive affect which in turn predicted self-esteem and optimism. The present experiments highlight the powerful role of reflecting on important autobiographical experiences on need fulfillment and general psychological well-being.
... Jonker et al., 2014). According to dual-process models, behavior results from the interplay of bottom-up processes such as RS related automatic approach responses and top-down control processes (i.e., EC) that guide behavior towards intentions and goals (Strack and Deutsch, 2004). Individuals with strong top-down control, thus individuals who are high in EC, are expected to be able to resist short-term rewards to support the pursuit of long-term goals (Baumeister et al., 2007;Hofmann et al., 2012). ...
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Background The current study set out to improve our understanding of the characteristics of individuals who are motivated to restrict their food intake yet who nevertheless fail to do so. We examined whether punishment sensitivity (PS) was related to restrained eating, and reward sensitivity (RS) to perceived dieting success. Additionally, it was examined whether executive control (EC) moderates the association between RS and perceived dieting success. Methods Female student participants ( N = 290, aged 17–29, BMI between 18.5 and 38.0) completed questionnaires on restrained eating, perceived dieting success, RS and PS, and carried out a behavioral task to index EC. Results PS was indeed positively related to restrained eating. RS was positively related to perceived dieting success, yet, EC did not moderate this association. Conclusion The current study adds to the evidence that PS is related to individuals’ motivation to restrict their food intake. Furthermore, it shows support for the suggestion that RS may facilitate food restriction.
... Instead, implicit cognition creates automaticity in which individuals react consistently with stored mental associations (De Houwer et al., 2009). Thus, individuals are often unaware that their implicit responses to stimuli are influencing their behavior (Strack & Deutsch, 2004). This extends beyond responses to external stimuli. ...
Article
Previous work has noted that math anxiety may have a profound effect on math performance; however extant research has relied on measures that explicitly assess math anxiety. This study examined the effects of implicit math anxiety on the performance of a math achievement task. We hypothesized that combined measure of implicit anxiety and explicit anxiety would better predict math achievement than measures of explicit math anxiety alone. In addition, we hypothesized that an individuals’ measured implicit anxiety and measured explicit anxiety would share only a modest correlation. To test these hypotheses, 175 participants completed measures of explicit anxiety, an implicit associations test designed to measure implicit anxiety, and a measure of math achievement. As expected, math achievement was better predicted when implicit anxiety was combined with explicit anxiety. Furthermore, scores on the implicit and explicit anxiety measures were not significantly correlated. These results suggest that implicit and explicit math anxiety are two distinct constructs, thus traditional methods for helping students deal with math anxiety may not be entirely successful if the implicit component is ignored.
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Objectives: Consumption of excess sugar, a common energy-dense nutrient-poor food, is a risk factor for obesity in school-aged children. Food-specific inhibition training, where responses to palatable food stimuli, such as sweet foods, are consistently and repeatedly inhibited, reduces sweet food intake in adults. However, no studies have yet examined the effectiveness of inhibitory control training specifically targeting sweet foods among children with high sugar cravings. We examined whether sweet food-specific inhibitory control training (SF-ICT), administered via a mobile app, reduced choice and consumption of sweet foods, and weight in a sample of children aged 7-11 with overweight or obesity and who had high sugar cravings (N = 46). Design: This study was designed as a 2 × 3 between-within design. Methods: Participants were randomly allocated to a single-blind design with two conditions: they either received 7 sessions of active or control go/no-go training in which either sweet foods or non-food cues were paired with no-go signals. Participants' weight, sweet food choice, and consumption were measured pre and post-training, and at three-month follow-up. Results: The results revealed that participants in the active group showed a significant reduction in sweet food choice and intake from pre to post-training relative to the control group. The effects of the training on reducing sweet food intake persisted over the 3-month follow-up No significant changes in weight loss were observed. Conclusions: These results provide preliminary evidence that sweet food-specific inhibitory control training (SF-ICT) via a mobile app is effective in modifying eating behavior among children with excessive consumption of sugary foods. Further research is required to clarify under what conditions the benefits of training would expand to weight loss.
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