Collagen hydrolysate, which contains bioactive peptides, is used as a dietary supplement for the refinement of elasticity, hydration, desquamation, and wrinkling of aging human skin. Here, we conducted a double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled oral administration study on the effects of a collagen peptide (CPNS) containing dipeptides, including Gly-Pro and Pro-Hyp, on skin wrinkling, desquamation, elasticity, and hydration. Our results show that an intake of 1650 mg per day of CPNS for 12 weeks had beneficial effects on skin health in a cohort of women aged from 30 to 60 years (n = 100). Compared with the placebo group, skin desquamation, hydration, skin wrinkling, and elasticity were significantly improved after 4, 4, 12, and 12 weeks of administration, respectively. In a safety test of CPNS ingestion, none of the participants showed any side effects during the clinical study period. These results demonstrate that the low molecular weight bioactive peptides contained in CPNS, such as Gly-Pro and Pro-Hyp, exert positive effects on skin hydration, elasticity, desquamation, and wrinkling.