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Bullying and emotional abuse in the workplace. International perspectives in research and practice

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... We will not refer to a one-off incident as bullying 14 Abusive supervision (Tepper, 2000) The sustained display of hostile verbal and non-verbal behaviours, excluding physical contact 15 Bullying (Einarsen, 2000) Bullying is defined as instances where an employee is repeatedly and over a period of time exposed to negative acts (i.e. constant abuse, offensive remarks or teasing, ridiculing, or social exclusion) from co-workers, supervisors or subordinates 16 Bullying (Zapf & Gross, 2001) Bullying occurs if somebody is harassed, offended, socially excluded or has to carry out humiliating tasks and if the person concerned is in an inferior position 17 Bullying (Cowie, Naylor, Rivers, Smith, & Pereira, 2002) Persistent exposure to negative acts at work, in the form of work related acts, personal acts or social isolation 18 Emotional abuse (Keashly & Jagatic, 2003) Interactions between organizational members that are characterized by repeated hostile verbal and non-verbal, often non-physical behaviours, directed at a person such that the target's sense of himself or herself as a competent worker and person is negatively affected 19 Bullying (Einarsen, Hoel, Zapf, & Cooper, 2003, 2011 Bullying at work means harassing, offending, socially excluding someone or negatively affecting someone's work tasks. In order for the label bullying (or mobbing) to be applied to a particular activity, interaction or process, it has to occur repeatedly and regularly (e.g. ...
... In the third phase, social isolation becomes more apparent, with victims being cut off from social support (Leymann, 1986). In this situation, it is easy for the target to become helpless and even unable to do anything resembling effective coping (Einarsen, Hoel, Zapf, & Cooper, 2003). In this stage, targets are also often confronted with the fact that they have no actual role in the workplace, having little or even no meaningful work to do. ...
... Fourthly, not all studies include all of the three elements mentioned here when defining bullying. Many studies left out the element (see Einarsen, Hoel, Zapf, & Cooper, 2003, 2011Leymann, 1990) that a conflict is not bullying. ...
Chapter
In this chapter, we scrutinize the construct validity of quantitative empirical research on workplace bullying and harassment during the last 5 years. We aim to respond to the question to what degree inferences can be legitimately made from the operationalizations in workplace bullying and harassment studies to the theoretical constructs on which those operationalizations were based. After carefully studying common definitions of workplace bullying and harassment, we found that scholars are largely in agreement (up to 90%) about two definitional issues: bullying is repeated and systematic negative social behaviour that endures over a longer period of time. In the light of these two definitional characteristics, we found that construct validity in this scholarly field is largely threatened in quantitative studies. Therefore, to improve the construct validity, we suggest some strategies. For researchers using behavioural inventories, we firstly recommend employing better-informed research designs and, in particular, sampling strategies. Researchers must sample enough targets or victims of bullying to be able to profoundly go into the discourse of bullying. Secondly, we advise these researchers to categorize their focal study variable to increase its construct validity. Researchers who use primarily the self-labelling approach are appealed to use definitions that operationalize, in a similar or equivalent way, the two fundamental features explained above that are shared by an overwhelming majority of bullying definitions. In addition, we invite researchers to use equivalent response sets. Finally, we call researchers to move away from a definitionalist view on construct validity by embracing a more relationalist view on workplace bullying and harassment, enabling them to investigate the issue of construct validity in relation to neighbouring or related concepts such as workplace incivility, counterproductive workplace behaviour, abusive supervision, workplace aggression and conflicts.
... The body of knowledge on workplace bullying is also increasing (Parzefall and Salin 2010;Hoel et al. 2010). Managers and supervisors are considered the main perpetrators of bullying and harassment, but the research on the relationship between the leadership style of managers and supervisors and the perception of experienced bullying in previous studies (Zapf et al. 2003;Hoel et al. 2010) is mostly quantitative. The current study is qualitative and is based on observations and experiences that lasted several months. ...
... In this study we observed the views and definitions of Einarsen et al. (2011) and Salin et al. (2018) that claim that at least one of the following behaviours need to be present in order to consider it bullying: person-related (e.g., screaming or spreading rumours), work-related (like withholding information) or social exclusion (e.g., ignoring someone or excluding from activities). Also, that it needs to be repeated with at least a weekly periodicity for a minimum of six months and where there is a perceived power imbalance from the target. ...
... In most cases, the bully is in a senior position in relation to the target, usually the immediate manager or supervisor (Zapf et al. 2003). This specific bullying behaviour is called vertical (downwards) bullying (Salin 2001). ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this article is to introduce an ethical perspective of managerial behaviours to the study of vertical workplace bullying. A framework called the line of impunity was chosen that describes the missuses of power by certain ranks in organizations. Previous research on bullying addresses several perspectives such as the consequences of the bullying situation for the organization, the target and bystanders, the leadership style of the bully, the perceived structural support, and the manifestations of the abusive behaviours. However, to date, the ethical aspects have been poorly outlined. Applying the line of impunity brings light to several aspects of workplace bullying that are connected to an unethical use of power. This study is unusual because it is a phenomenological research based on two case studies that present the field experiences of two of the authors while working in different organizations, one in Sweden and the other in USA, during an extended period of time. The two main contributions of the study are the new concepts power methods and reinforcing, which highlight the connection between abusive behaviour and the ethical aspects that are present in downwards vertical workplace bullying situations.
... On a positive note, the limited research on MCCs has provided some insight into workplace harassment as it found that employees who perceived their workplace to be a masculinity contest culture were more likely to have experienced gender and ethnic harassment . Although harassment can be based on these and other identity group characteristics (e.g., disability, religion, national origin, sexual orientation), it can also arise in the form of harmful behavior that is not overtly linked to one's membership in a specific identity group, such as bullying, incivility, or aggression (Einarsen et al., 2003). A variety of terms have been used to refer to this broader category of mistreatment, including general workplace harassment (Rospenda et al., 2005), workplace aggression (Baron and Neuman,1996), workplace bullying (Einarsen et al., 2003;Rayner and Hoel, 1997), incivility (Andersson and Pearson, 1999), emotional abuse (Keashly and Jagatic, 2003), and social undermining (Duffy et al., 2002). ...
... Although harassment can be based on these and other identity group characteristics (e.g., disability, religion, national origin, sexual orientation), it can also arise in the form of harmful behavior that is not overtly linked to one's membership in a specific identity group, such as bullying, incivility, or aggression (Einarsen et al., 2003). A variety of terms have been used to refer to this broader category of mistreatment, including general workplace harassment (Rospenda et al., 2005), workplace aggression (Baron and Neuman,1996), workplace bullying (Einarsen et al., 2003;Rayner and Hoel, 1997), incivility (Andersson and Pearson, 1999), emotional abuse (Keashly and Jagatic, 2003), and social undermining (Duffy et al., 2002). Mobbing (Leymann, 1996), and psychological violence and harassment (Di Martino et al., 2003) are also terms that have been widely used in the extant literature. ...
... According to Einarsen et al. (2003), psychological harassment (i.e., negative psychological behaviours of a derogatory or exclusionary nature; See Hoel et al., 2001), occurs on a regular basis in the workplace, causing some individuals to be the target of "systematic negative social acts" (p.12). Such acts include exposure to excessive teasing and sarcasm, insulting and humiliating remarks, ridicule, and the spreading of gossip and rumours (Leymann, 1996;Hoel et al., 2001). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to test whether organizational justice (i.e. fair treatment) can mitigate the harmful effects of a “masculinity contest culture (MCC)” (i.e. norms, rituals and belief systems valorizing social dominance, work above other parts of life, physical strength and the avoidance of weakness). Design/methodology/approach Through an analysis of secondary survey data collected from a Canadian police organization ( N = 488), this study tested the moderating effects of organizational justice on the relationship between employee perceptions of their workplace as a masculinity contest, and a negative outcome variable, harassment. Findings The results of this study suggest that a MCC was significantly related to harassment, which in turn contributed to lower psychological wellbeing and increased turnover intentions. Independently, organizational justice moderated the effect of a MCC on harassment, suggesting that harassment is less prevalent in the workplace when there is a greater focus on treating all employees fairly. Originality/value Despite the increase in both scholarly and practitioner interest in the effects of organizational cultures in which employees seek to maintain their own status at all costs, there has been little research examining the interactions of these harmful workplace cultures and the factors that might counter them. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is one of the rare studies to investigate possible interventions for harmful workplace cultures.
... Zapf, Einarsen, Hoel, & Vartia, 2003). For example, in their definition of workplace bullying, Einarsen, Hoel, Zapf and Cooper (2003) referred to the "systematic mistreatment of a subordinate, a colleague, or a superior" (p. 3). ...
... Liefooghe and Mackenzie Davey (2001) suggested this may be a way of subordinates voicing their dissatisfaction with organizational issues and the work environment (as discussed earlier). When this occurs, the bully may gradually weaken the recipient by way of accusation to the point that, if a power imbalance did not previously exist, it can be created (Einarsen, Hoel, Zapf, & Cooper, 2003). Further, Lamertz and Aquino (2004) discussed findings in relation to the amount of perceived victimization towards managers and suggested they are within a "precarious position", often unable "to draw effectively upon their formal powers" (p. ...
... This led Branch (2006) to propose that power imbalances may include the use of subtle behaviours or "power-use tactics" (such as, rumour or gossip, sabotage; Lawler, 1992, p. 23) to wear down the target through malicious accusations or complaints. With the development of a power imbalance and a change of power dynamics, "power-change tactics" (Lawler, 1992, p. 23) can contribute to upwards bullying (Einarsen, Hoel, Zapf, & Cooper, 2003;Hoel & Salin, 2003;Leymann, 1996;Vartia, 1996). ...
Chapter
Upwards bullying is a phenomenon that has received less attention than other forms of bullying (i.e. horizontal and downwards bullying). In part historical, and also driven by the higher number of people experiencing horizontal and downwards bullying, the limited acknowledgement of upwards bullying does not diminish the effect that bullying by subordinates can have on managers and supervisors. Research clearly demonstrates that upwards bullying affects managers/supervisors in a similar way to other targets. Indeed, it may in fact be complicated by the perceptions of others (e.g. fellow managers who believe that “you should be able to manage it”) that can lead to further feelings of shame and helplessness that targets often experience. Such perceptions by others and managers themselves can lead to ignoring the processes of bullying and the development of associated power imbalances between perpetrator and target, as well as the emotional toll that bullying can take on a target. Indeed, upwards bullying research is informing the field regarding how power imbalances can be created especially by highlighting the role that alternative forms of power (e.g. referent, network) can be used tacitly or intentionally to support bullying behaviour. Importantly, it also points to how the system designed to support targets can be used as a weapon against a manager or colleague, thereby undermining the justice process within workplaces. In addition to ongoing research into all facets of upwards bullying in the workplace, further research into how the grievance system can be strengthened is called for.
... A framework that incorporates much of the research conducted within the field was proposed by Branch, Ramsay and Barker (2013) (an adapted version is presented in Fig. 1). Informed by a framework developed by Einarsen and colleagues (first introduced by Einarsen, 2000;Einarsen, Hoel, Zapf, & Cooper, 2003, Branch, Ramsay and Barker (2013) use a systems approach that recognizes the interactions between, and influence of, society, organizational culture, group dynamics and individual characteristics in the development and sustainment of workplace bullying. The cyclical and ongoing processes that contribute to workplace bullying, and/or its continuation, are depicted, including factors that either inhibit or act as antecedents of bullying, the actions/responses of individuals and the organization and resultant effects, as well as a cycle that informs individual and organizational future actions that may shape the work environment. ...
... For example, we know from other studies that "children and adolescents most likely to engage in bullying are those who: (a) are exposed to bullying and other aggressive behaviours, (b) endorse pro-bullying attitudes, and (c) interact with individuals who overtly or covertly indicate that bullying is acceptable and reinforce the bullying behaviours of these youths" (Swearer, Wang, Berry, & Myers, 2014, p. 273). SLT, SCT, DT and Deindividuation Theory all contribute to underlining how intrapersonal and interpersonal communication is highly influenced by ongoing learning experiences, demonstrating the importance of considering workplace bullying within a systems framework (see Fig. 1; Branch, Ramsay, & Barker, 2013;Einarsen, Hoel, Zapf, & Cooper, 2003. ...
... It has even been proposed that being a member of a particular group (e.g. gender) outside of the accepted dominant culture may be the only reason some individuals are bullied (Einarsen, Hoel, Zapf, & Cooper, 2003. This led to Ramsay and Troth's (2002) application of SIT and SRT to workplace bullying and their call for further research into bullying as a group phenomenon. ...
Chapter
It has been suggested that the workplace bullying field is atheoretical in its orientation, which accords with the assertion that applied disciplines often focus on parts of the phenomenon rather than the development of a guiding comprehensive theory. Indeed, across the decades, research on the workplace bullying phenomenon and its impacts has provided important theoretical and applied insights, as opposed to a single theory. A literature review revealed several conceptualizations that have been used to explain how workplace bullying develops and is enabled. Theories comprise those that focus on how bullying behaviours are learnt by an individual, the interactions between the main actors (i.e. perpetrator, target, bystanders), the role of group dynamics in the assignment of in- and out-group categorizations, the importance of the work environment and its interaction with individuals and groups as well as the overarching influence of contemporary society. Thus, a multidimensional ecological framework is considered appropriate to encompass the myriad ways by which individuals, groups and organizational and societal systems interact to influence the instigation and perpetuation of workplace bullying. The systems framework proposed by Branch, Ramsay and Barker (2013) guides the exploration in this chapter of theories, including multidisciplinary theories, that inform our past, current and emergent understanding of workplace bullying.
... Finally, though care was taken to identify potential confounders from the literature and adjust each association accordingly, residual confounding may still be an issue. Though we had adjusted for sociodemographic and employment characteristics, other factors that have been linked to workplace bullying such as social, coping and problemsolving skills 15,18,19,62,[83][84][85][86] and societal norms and culture 69,87,88 were not able to be included and examined in this study due to limited resources. ...
... Other than that, future studies examining workplace bullying among junior doctors may want to direct their focus on variables linked to workplace bullying that were not examined in this study, including psychological capital, 91 social, coping and problem-solving skills, 15,18,19,62,[83][84][85][86] conflict management styles, 83 core self-evaluations, 92 organisational change, 4,93-95 and societal norms and culture. 69,87,88 In addition, supplementing quantitative findings from self-administered questionnaires with findings from qualitative studies, as well as considering the perpetrators' perspectives, may allow for a more holistic and comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon. ...
Article
Previous studies have indicated that junior doctors commonly experience workplace bullying and that it may adversely impact medical training and delivery of quality healthcare. Yet, evidence on the precursors of bullying among them remains elusive. Drawing on the individual‐disposition hypothesis, the present paper examined the relationships of negative affect, personality and self‐esteem with workplace bullying among junior doctors. Multilevel analysis of a universal sample (n = 1074) of junior doctors working in the central zone of Malaysia using mixed effects logistic regression was performed. The results indicate that participants with moderate (AOR 4.40, 95% CI 2.20‐8.77) and high degree (AOR 13.69, 95% CI 6.46‐29.02) of negative affect as well as high degree of neuroticism (AOR 2.99, 95% CI 1.71‐5.21) have higher odds of being bullied compared to their counterparts. The findings present evidence that individual traits are associated with junior doctors' exposure to bullying. While victim blaming should be avoided, this suggest that antibullying measures with an interpersonal focus should be considered when developing antibullying initiatives targeted at junior doctors. This includes primary intervention such as cognitive training, secondary interventions such as resource enhancement building and conflict management skills training, and tertiary interventions such as counselling.
... However, if the same individual was targeted and endured the same negative behaviors over a period of six months or longer, researchers indicated the culmination of actions constitutes bullying. [7] It should be noted researchers analyzing workplace bullying and bullying behaviors in nursing use terms such as incivility, [8,9] lateral violence, [10,11] horizontal violence [12] in addition to or instead of bullying based upon how the construct is defined. Hershcovis [13] noted "workplace incivility is defined as a low intensity behavior with ambiguous intent, while workplace bullying is assumed to have high intensity and intent" though the victim may perceive the intension and intensity of the negative act differently. ...
... [19] The discrepancy in the number of instances of bullying may vary due to underreporting of the behaviors resulting from fear of reprisal or being shunned. [7,19] Although the student nurse population comprise a small subset of nursing individuals exposed to bullying in clinical settings, researchers are discovering the need to analyze the impact negative behaviors such as bullying may have on this population. Scientists acknowledge student nurses are adversely affected by bullying behaviors; [20] however, there is limited research revealing the emotions evoked from experiencing bullying behaviors. ...
Article
Background and objective: Though not fully integrated into the profession, student nurses have been exposed to and experienced bullying behaviors with limited skills to mitigate the effects of the behaviors. This qualitative study analyzed the emotions evoked due to exposure to bullying behaviors. Desired to address the question: "How do student nurses feel when they are the recipient of bullying-type behaviors?" Methods: DESIGN: Qualitative descriptive design. SETTING: A nursing college at an urban university in the Midwestern United States; PARTICIPANTS: Matriculated students enrolled in a pre-licensure nursing program. METHODS: As part of a larger mixed informed pilot study, each participant was assigned to either the control or intervention group. Participants in the intervention group received an educational intervention focused on bullying two weeks prior to a scheduled clinical simulation. Participants in both groups each completed an individual clinical simulation during which they were exposed to bullying-type behaviors meant to replicate behaviors they may encounter in actual clinical settings. All participants were informed of their right to disenroll from the study at any point. For the health and safety of participants, individuals were provided with safeguards during the study as well as upon conclusion of their participation. Immediately following the simulation, participants completed an individual debrief interview during which they were asked to describe how the simulation made them feel. Responses were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using a descriptive qualitative to generate thematic results. Results: The three major themes developed included Past Bullying-like Behavior, Feelings Experienced during Simulation, and Perceptions of the Simulation. Participants reported experiencing negative emotions due to the bullying behavior exposure despite receiving an educational intervention. Harmful emotions, such as sadness, led participants to question their ability to perform simple tasks. Student nurses possess the skills and knowledge to perform routine tasks; however, when bullying behaviors target nursing students, the negative behaviors have the potential to adversely affect the whole student. Conclusions: Further research is warranted to identify programs to aid students in overcoming the negative bullying behaviors in the clinical setting.
... In general, the effects have been considered disturbing and hazardous for health (HIRIGOYEN, 2003;LEYMANN, 1990;MADRIGAL;CALDERÓN, 2015;PIÑUEL;OÑATE, 2006). Victims of moral harassment report decreases in well-being and lesser work satisfaction; degradation in sense of self-efficacy and self-worth, which are followed by stress symptoms, sleeping problems, anxiety, chronic fatigue, anger, depression and other somatic issues (APPELBAUM et al., 2012(APPELBAUM et al., , 2013CARNERO;MARTÍNEZ;SÁNCHEZ, 2012;EINARSEN et al., 2004). There also exist studies that link it with emotional exhaustion or burnout (SCOTT, 2018;SEPÚLVEDA et al., 2017), with post-traumatic stress (CARVAJAL; DÁVILA, 2013) and even with increase in suicide risk (CANO et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
The following essay reflects from the work clinic proposed by Dejours on the suffering for moral harassment at work that is felt in the body and that leads the victims to suffer different psychosomatic ailments. Being a stigmatizing violence, moral harassment at workplace obstructs the sublimatory potential of work, which negatively affects the subjectivity, pleasure and mental health of workers. This damage is analyzed in this essay on three cases of Chilean workers who experienced harassment in the performance of their work tasks in psychosocial programs of SENAME (National Service of Minors).
... In workplaces it is the role of the human resources to manage a conducive work atmosphere to make employees effective and efficient; hence researchers should give human resources the liberty to identify, respond, and deal with the bullies, bullying behavior, and victims (Fox and Cowan 2015). There also have been studies which aim to study the relationship between the employee well-being and the modifying factors of the personality (Einarsen 1999;Zapf and Einarsen 2003). The supernatural nature and the versatile descriptiveness of the characteristics are predictors of individuals who resisted the occupational stressors. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter will highlight the detrimental effects of workplace bullying which includes the range of problems like absenteeism, loss of productivity, stress, mental health issues, and suicides. Over the years, workplace bullying, incivility, teasing, mistreating, and harassment have become widespread and need to be addressed. Bullying can range from being harmless to impolite demeanor and abusive conduct to other more damaging forms of torment where one weak person humiliates, threatens, or intimidates another person by keeping him or her on tenterhooks. Workplace bullying exists in organizations between the boss or a person with authority and his subordinate or between the co-workers. It manifests in many forms leading to mental stress, unproductivity, loss of talented resources, and harming the self-esteem of the targeted individual. Many organizations have policies to curb bullies but find it hard to detect bullying as the bullies smartly carry on within the lines of the organization. This chapter will explore and understand the concept of workplace bullying and the reasons that basically lead to this behavior. It is quite essential for workplaces to nip workplace bullies at the budding stage to ultimately promote a healthy workplace environment. The chapter will further discuss the policies regarding workplace bullying across the world. On the whole, this chapter will deliver an encompassing outlook over the concept of workplace bullying and its impact on employees’ mental health and self-worth.
... In line with extant literature, a number of individual employee and workplace characteristics identified in previous studies (Baillien et al., 2011b(Baillien et al., , 2011aDe Cuyper et al., 2009;Lewis et al., 2017;Zapf et al., 2011) were assessed as control variables in our analyses. We took those steps to ensure The needs of the organisation always come first You have to compromise your principles People are not treated as individuals a I do not decide how much work I do or how fast I work a My manager decides the specific tasks I will do I do not decide the quality standards by which I work a I now have less control over my work than I did a year ago The pace of work in my present job is too intense The nature of my work has changed over the past year or so The pace of work in my job has increased over the past year or so a Items that had been positively oriented when presented to participants and subsequently reverse coded. ...
Article
The dynamics of employment relations in micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have attracted academic interest since the 1970s. To date, research debates have converged around two competing perspectives extolling either the opportunities, or the exploitation caused by informal working practices in smaller-sized organizations. Responding to calls for a more balanced and nuanced view, we analyse n=1,764 responses from a nationally representative study of workplace relations in Ireland specifically focusing on negative behaviours in SMEs. We contribute to bullying and SME literatures by disaggregating the SME label and showing that certain employee groups in medium-sized organizations are likely to report higher incidences of ill-treatment than their counterparts in smaller and larger organizations. We conclude by making recommendations on how managers, owners and HRM practitioners can use our study’s findings to improve employee experiences and tackle bullying, harassment and other types of ill-treatment in their respective working environments.
... . ‫دف‬ ‫أك‬ ‫دا‬ ‫تم‬ ( Yıldırım, 2009 ) Mayhew et al., 2004;Einarsen et al., 2003;Niedl, 1996 (Meriläinen & Kõiv, 2018;Devonish, 2017;Francis, 2015;Devonish, 2013;Khan & Khan, 2013;Mete & Sokmen, 2016;Carroll & Lauzier, 2014;Himachali, 2009;Carroll & Lauzier, 2014;Giorgi & et al, 2015) ‫مس‬ ...
... Innocuous sociability involves a self-protective interpersonal style characterised by safe and innocuous social behaviours (e.g., engaging in more smiling, nodding, and minimal verbal acknowledgements; asking more questions; Innocuous engagement involving excessive accommodation of others' enjoyment, comfort, and preferences may, however, be associated with harmful interpersonal consequences. In the non-autistic population, unassertive and submissive interpersonal behaviours are consistently linked to negative outcomes across the lifespan, including increased social isolation (Rubin & Burgess, 2001), workplace bullying (e.g., Zapf & Einarsen, 2003), and sexual assault (Ullman, 2007). This potential link is of significant concern given that autistic people report high levels of bullying and victimisation (Weiss & Fardella, 2018). ...
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Background Autistic people may modify their innate autistic social behaviours in order to adapt to, cope within, and/or influence the predominately neurotypical social landscape. We term such modified or changed behaviour “camouflaging behaviour.” Conceptualisations and definitions of camouflaging behaviours are in their infancy. Existing qualitative research examining camouflaging behaviours relies solely on retrospective accounts of camouflaging experiences. Methods Using Interpersonal Process Recall methodology (Kegan, 1969), 17 autistic adults (8 women, 6 men, and 3 agender/gender neutral) participated in a brief social task designed to replicate a common day-to-day social situation. Participants then watched a video of their interaction with a researcher, actively identifying and describing camouflaging behaviours. Interview transcripts were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results Detailed descriptions of 37 camouflaging behaviours were generated. These behaviours were grouped into four categories: masking (hide particular behaviours and/or aspects of one’s identity); innocuous engagement (facilitate passive, conservative, and superficial engagement in social interactions); neurotypical communication (involve communicating in line with non-autistic norms and preferences); and active self-presentation (facilitate active, open, and reciprocal participation in social interactions). Limitations Given the IPR methodology utilised in the study, the results may not generalise to all social environments or autistic individuals. Conclusions This study extends the current understanding of camouflaging by generating novel, specific, and detailed information about camouflaging behaviours. These camouflaging behaviours are discussed with reference to literature concerning interpersonal research and theory within and outside the field of autism.
... Even though the researchers by and large state that their instruments were developed by themselves and the acts categorized with the school context in mind, the similarities between acts listed in standardized, leading instruments, such as the above-mentioned NAQ-R and NAQ, as well as Rayner and Hoel's (1997) categorization of different negative acts, are understandable. Since initial studies on workplace bullying began in the late 1980s and spread worldwide, it has become an established field of study which acknowledges directives of influential, groundbreaking researchers such as Leymann (1996), Rayner and Hoel (1997), Einarsen, Hoel, Zapf and Cooper (2003) and Zapf and Einarsen (2010). Research on bullying among colleagues in schools are thus not always acts or categories exclusive to school settings, but rather indicative of workplace bullying per se (Cemaloğlu, 2007;Kŏiv, 2015;Riley, Duncan, & Edwards, 2011). ...
Chapter
Workplace bullying within the school context includes a multitude of role players because teachers may be targeted by their colleagues, principals, the members of the management and administrative staff of their school, parents and learners. They may, however, also be guilty of bullying learners placed under their care. This chapter reviews research on workplace bullying in schools, highlighting the preferred research methods, research focus and the under-theorizing of the research. The chapter exposes the influence of different relations, for example, teacher–principal and teacher–learner, on what may be perceived to be workplace bullying in schools. The antecedents of workplace bullying in schools, as well as the negative effects of bullying on the victims and schools as an organization, are underscored. Suggestions on how to address the negative workplace behaviours in schools are offered. Recommendations for future research are made.
... Workplace bullying (WPB) is an occupational hazard that can be prevalent in any organization, irrespective of size, sector or geographic location (Einarsen, Hoel, Zapf, & Cooper, 2003;Lewis & Gunn, 2007;Strandmark & Hallberg, 2007b). Globally, public sector employees have been found to be at greater risk for WPB compared to their private sector counterparts (Fevre, Lewis, Robinson, & Jones, 2012;Notelaers, Vermunt, Baillien, Einarsen, & De Witte, 2011;Zapf, Einarsen, Hoel, & Vartia, 2003;Zapf, Escartín, Einarsen, Hoel, & Vartia, 2011). ...
Chapter
Workplace bullying (WPB) is an occupational hazard that can be prevalent in any organization, irrespective of size, sector or geographic location. Globally, public sector employees have been found to be at greater risk for WPB compared to their private sector counterparts, in part due to distinctive sectoral factors such as being service oriented and highly bureaucratic, devalued by the public, a large and diverse workforce and also a higher unionization rate than the private sector. This chapter examines the international literature on WPB in the public sector. It starts with a discussion on the distinguishing characteristics of the public sector, emphasizing alongside the role of cultural context. In bringing out the prevalence of WPB in the public sector, the chapter reviews the factors associated with the risk for bullying in this sector, including organizational, political, economic and sociocultural factors and cross-cultural variations in the perception and tolerance of WPB. The chapter then describes strategies for prevention and management of the hazard. Finally, the authors offer recommendations for future directions in research and policy.
... Research on mobbing uses many different labels (e.g., bullying, interpersonal conflict, emotional abuse, harassment, aggression and mistreatment in the workplace, workplace victimization) [28][29][30][31], that sometimes can be used interchangeably [14]. This is an escalating situation, where the confronted individual ends up in an inferior position and becomes the target of systematically violent and deliberate acts [32][33][34], associated with negative consequences on an individual's perceived quality of life [35]. Forms of this phenomenon may be direct, indirect, verbal, or nonverbal, and they involve "overt acts"-such as threats or actual aggression, demands for resignation, and verbal assault, or "subtle acts"-such as teasing, gossip, or banter [36]. ...
Article
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With the aim of investigating the impact of gender-related personality characteristics on bullying perceptions and outcomes, a correlational study was designed with 114 individuals who had used a public health service aimed at harassed workers identifying themselves as victims of mobbing in central Italy. The study was conducted using the following questionnaires: the Negative Acts Questionnaire (NAQ), a measure of workplace bullying; the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2), used to provide information to measure personality dimensions for workplace screening; the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BRIEF) which assesses four domains assumed to represent the quality of life construct; and the Suicidal Potential Scale (SPS) used to assess suicidal ideation. MMPI-2 profile results show a significant elevation of specific MMPI scales and gender differences. When compared to women, men who complain of being the victims of negative actions at work are more depressed, paranoid, introverted, anxious, and obsessive, and have higher anger levels and lower self-esteem. Many different MMPI-2 scales are also predictors of quality of life (QoL) perceptions and suicidal tendencies. The NAQ total score, however, predicts quality of life and suicide risk. Perceptions of negative actions have a serious effect on life outcomes. The results provide useful indications on personality profiles and gender differences, which can be understood as antecedents in the perception of negative events, and factors capable of modulating the effect of perceived bullying actions on outcomes.
... ‫البيدي‬ ‫اإلجهياد‬ ‫ايل‬ ‫كل‬ ‫على‬ ‫أقل‬ ‫وبسكل‬ ‫العال‬ ‫عل‬ ‫الغااب‬ ‫على‬ ‫كبار‬ ‫بسكل‬ ‫تأثارما‬ ‫وكذلا‬ ‫(االكتئاب)‬ ‫العقل‬ ‫واإلجهاد‬ ( Treadway & et al, 2013 ) .  ‫الوماف‬ ‫للرلا‬ ‫باليسبة‬ ‫سلوكاا‬ ‫أل‬ ‫الباحثال‬ ‫بعل‬ ‫أكد‬ ‫التيار‬ ‫ع‬ ً ‫سيلبا‬ ‫تيؤثر‬ ‫العال‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ليى‬ ‫اليوماف‬ ‫الرليا‬ ( Mete & Sokmen, 2016;Francis, 2015;Carroll & Lauzier, 2014 ) ‫واتفق‬ ( ‫اعهم‬ Giorgi & et al, 2015 ) ‫سلوكاا‬ Mayhew et al., 2004;Einarsen et al., 2003;Niedl, 1996, Save work Australia, 2016 (Meriläinen & Kõiv, 2018;Devonish, 2017;Francis, 2015;Devonish, 2013;Khan & Khan, 2013;Mete & Sokmen, 2016;Carroll & Lauzier, 2014;Himachali, 2009;Carroll & Lauzier, 2014;Giorgi & et al, 2015) ‫و‬ ...
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This study aims to identify the level of bullying behaviors of nursing staff in the hospitals of the Syrian Ministry of Health in Damascus, and to measure the degree of variation in the level of bullying behaviors which occur to nurses in the hospitals according to gender, and experience, and to measure the level of bullying behaviors which occur to nurses in the hospitals of SHM and their reflection on their performance. The study was based on the random sample of (322) individuals. The data were collected through questionnaire. The statistical tests were applied according to the data and the study hypotheses (SPSS): Cronbach’s Alpha to measure the stability of the measurements, and the descriptive analysis for calculating the ratios and frequencies, mean, standard deviation, Z test, and ANOVA. The study concluded numbers of results: There are significant differences in the opinions of the staff in the nursing sector in the hospitals of the Syrian Ministry of Health on the level of bullying behaviors they are exposed to in the work. And that there are significant differences in the opinions of the sample on the level of bullying behaviors that are exposed to them in the hospitals according to gender, and experience. Finally, the bullying behavior of the nurses in the hospitals has a negative on their performance. And based on the previous results, the study came up with a set of recommendations concerning the ministry, the hospital administration, and staff.
... Innocuous engagement involving excessive accommodation of others' enjoyment, comfort, and preferences may, however, be associated with harmful interpersonal consequences. In the nonautistic population, unassertive and submissive interpersonal behaviours are consistently linked to 130 negative outcomes across the lifespan, including increased social isolation (Rubin & Burgess, 2001), workplace bullying (e.g., Zapf & Einarsen, 2003), and sexual assault (Ullman, 2007). Little research exists examining links between interpersonal style and outcomes for autistic people. ...
Thesis
Some autistic individuals modify their innate autistic social behaviour in order to adapt to, cope within, and/or influence the predominately non-autistic social environment; a phenomenon often termed ‘camouflaging’ (Attwood, 2007; Dean et al., 2017; Hull et al., 2017; Lai et al., 2017; Schuck et al., 2019). Camouflaging is one social coping strategy used by autistic people attempting to overcome social challenges within cross-neurotype social interactions and secure employment, develop friendships and romantic relationships, and avoid stigmatisation (Cage & Troxell-Whitman, 2019; Hull et al., 2017). Yet the act of camouflaging is thought to be cognitively effortful and taxing; prone to breakdown under increased social demands and complexity and/or psychological distress; and associated with increased mental health difficulties, misdiagnosis, and identity confusion (e.g., Beck et al., 2020; Cage & Troxell-Whitman, 2019; Cassidy et al., 2018; Hull et al., 2021; Lai et al., 2017; Livingston, Colvert, et al., 2019). Camouflaging research is in infancy; conceptualisations, definitions and measures of camouflaging are still emerging, and much is unknown about relationships between camouflaging and various constructs such as mental health, wellbeing, and the achievement of important social and employment outcomes. This thesis presents a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods to further current understanding of social coping in autistic people by furthering the current conceptualisation of camouflaging including camouflaging behaviours and processes; examining the relationships between camouflaging and social, employment, and mental health outcomes; and exploring social experiences that contrast with camouflaging. The first chapter provides a general introduction to, and overview of, the relevant background research and provides a rationale for the work presented in the thesis. Chapter 2 involves a discussion of methodological considerations involved in the design and analysis of research presented in the thesis. Chapter 3, a systematic review, provides a comprehensive and critical evaluation of the current quantitative camouflaging research base; identifying consistencies in the current evidence as well as issues that require further research. Chapters 4 and 5 describe an interpersonal recall study, using thematic analysis to detail the development, process, and consequences of camouflaging (Chapter 4) and content analysis to describe the behaviours exhibited, altered, or avoided by autistic adults when camouflaging (Chapter 5). Chapter 6, a quantitative cross-sectional study, details associations between camouflaging and social and employment outcomes and indicators of mental health difficulties/psychological distress. Chapter 7 involves a qualitative survey and uses thematic analysis to explore an alternative to camouflaging, specifically autistic adults’ experiences of socialising in ways that feel authentic to them. The final chapter (Chapter 8) provides an overarching discussion of the findings and implications of the thesis with consideration to strengths and limitations.
... "Bullying" is the most commonly used term in Australia and the U.K., whereas "mobbing" is preferred in Northern Europe. By contrast, "moral harassment" is more popular in Belgium and France (Einarsen et al., 2003). In the U.S., "petty tyranny" (Ashforth, 1997), "abusive supervision" (Tepper, 2000), "emotional abuse" (Keashly, 1997), and "workplace trauma" (Tehrani, 2004) are used with a different focus on employee interrelationship. ...
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Purpose: This paper aims to provide researchers and practitioners with an understanding of abusive supervision in the context of hospitality. It seeks to conduct a comprehensive review of the area and offer recommendations for future research by exploring the antecedents, consequences, mechanisms, and designs of research on abusive supervision. Design/methodology/approach: Content analysis was conducted to review and analyze studies on abusive supervision in the context of hospitality. Previous studies were searched in the EBSCO, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar electronic databases. Findings: Thirty-six referred articles related to abusive supervision in hospitality were reviewed across four key areas, namely, antecedents, consequences, mechanisms, and research design. After reviewing the research on abusive supervision in the context of hospitality, this paper offers future research directions with respect to research focus and research design. Research limitations/implications: This paper only included English articles from peer-reviewed journals on abusive supervision. The number of reviewed articles was relatively small. This limitation may have arisen because abusive supervision is a new research field and is still a sensitive topic. Practical implications: The results of this work may encourage managers to minimize or even halt abusive supervision. From an organizational perspective, formal policies may be developed to regularize supervisors’ behavior. In turn, employees could use this paper to learn further about abusive behavior and how to handle it effectively. Social implications: The review highlighted the negative consequences of abusive supervision. Managers should urgently realize the seriousness of abusive supervision and develop effective policies to minimize its negative effect. Originality/value: This paper contributes to the emerging literature on abusive supervision in the context of hospitality by identifying key research trends and framing the outlines of empirical studies. It identifies research gaps, and as the first review of abusive supervision in hospitality, it may encourage researchers to explore the topic on the basis of the characteristics of the sector and offer suggestions for future research. Keywords: abusive supervision, systematic review, antecedent, consequence, mechanism, research design, hospitality industry
... Such distinguishing features might be responsible for the heterogeneity found, as well as for the restriction of variance in high-intensity/low-frequency constructs, such as physical violence. As an example, offensive behaviours such as ridiculing, excluding, and insulting, which characterise mobbing, may well occur as social stressors yet not be characterised as mobbing if they are infrequent, experienced over short periods of time (e.g. at times in which a superior is stressed), and addressing not a specific target but whoever happens to be around [69,70]. Thus, it is the specific additional characteristics of social stressors in a given context, rather than their intrinsic qualities, that are likely responsible for differences in effect sizes. ...
Article
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Background: Social relationships are crucial for well-being and health, and considerable research has established social stressors as a risk for well-being and health. However, researchers have used many different constructs, and it is unclear if these are actually different or reflect a single overarching construct. Distinct patterns of associations with health/well-being would indicate separate constructs, similar patterns would indicate a common core construct, and remaining differences could be attributed to situational characteristics such as frequency or intensity. The current meta-analysis therefore investigated to what extent different social stressors show distinct (versus similar) patterns of associations with well-being and health. Methods: We meta-analysed 557 studies and investigated correlations between social stressors and outcomes in terms of health and well-being (e.g. burnout), attitudes (e.g. job satisfaction), and behaviour (e.g. counterproductive work behaviour). Moderator analyses were performed to determine if there were differences in associations depending on the nature of the stressor, the outcome, or both. To be included, studies had to be published in peer-reviewed journals in English or German; participants had to be employed at least 50% of a full-time equivalent (FTE). Results: The overall relation between social stressors and health/well-being was of medium size (r = -.30, p < .001). Type of social stressor and outcome category acted as moderators, with moderating effects being larger for outcomes than for stressors. The strongest effects emerged for job satisfaction, burnout, commitment, and counterproductive work behaviour. Type of stressor yielded a significant moderation, but differences in effect sizes for different stressors were rather small overall. Rather small effects were obtained for physical violence and sexual mistreatment, which is likely due to a restricted range because of rare occurrence and/or underreporting of such intense stressors. Conclusions: We propose integrating diverse social stressor constructs under the term "relational devaluation" and considering situational factors such as intensity or frequency to account for the remaining variance. Practical implications underscore the importance for supervisors to recognize relational devaluation in its many different forms and to avoid or minimize it as far as possible in order to prevent negative health-related outcomes for employees.
... In the non-autistic population, unassertive and submissive interpersonal behaviours are consistently linked to negative outcomes across the lifespan, including increased social isolation (Rubin & Burgess, 2001), workplace bullying (e.g. Zapf & Einarsen, 2003) and sexual assault (Ullman, 2007). Little research exists examining links between interpersonal style and outcomes for autistic people. ...
Article
Full-text available
Lay abstract: Camouflaging can be thought of as the process through which autistic people modify their natural social behaviours to adapt to, cope within or influence the largely neurotypical (non-autistic) social world. Many autistic people experience negative reactions to their natural or intuitive social behaviours when interacting with non-autistic people. Over time, in response to these negative reactions, autistic people's social behaviour often changes. We refer to autistic people's changed behaviours as 'camouflaging behaviours'. Research exploring camouflaging behaviours is still at an early stage. This study investigated camouflaging behaviours used by autistic adults in everyday social interactions using a research method that was new to the field of autism. Specifically, 17 autistic adults were filmed taking part in a common everyday social situation - a conversation with a stranger. With the help of the video of this conversation, they then showed and described their camouflaging behaviours to a researcher. These autistic people identified and described a total of 38 different camouflaging behaviours. The detailed and specific information provided by autistic adults about camouflaging behaviours generated important new insights into the ways in which autistic people adapt to, cope within and influence the neurotypical (non-autistic) social world.
... Subtle hazers showed a better understanding of the position of the newcomers and their emotions, and experienced the emotions of the newcomers better. They were generally more aware of what they were doing and how their behavior affected the novices-targets (Zapf & Einarsen, 2011), which reduced the likelihood of more violent forms of hazing to occur. On the other hand, when subtle hazers observe the novices-targets, they will sense the negative feelings of the target. ...
Article
This article presents the initiation rite for the admission of newcomers to Slovenian upper secondary education, which is called "pheasanting" and has similar characteristics to hazing. It examines the relationship between certain personality traits of hazers with their perception of the school climate and the severity of the hazing activities they engage in (subtle, harassing, and violent hazing). In a sample of 460 students in the fourth grade of upper secondary education, 25.4% of them had carried out hazing in the previous 3 years, of which 47% performed only subtle, 24% harassment, and 29% violent hazing. Violent and harassment hazers justified their actions much more often than subtle hazers by dominating and distorting of the consequences and by diffusing responsibility. They also had less empathy and perceived the school climate as enabling more aggressive attitude. However, violent hazers had the most negative attitude toward hazing, while harassment hazers found hazing most acceptable. Finally, some practical implications of the results at individual and school level are discussed.
... The literature explains two hypotheses on antecedents of victimizations, such as the work-environment hypothesis (Salin & Hoel, 2011) and the individual disposition hypothesis (Zapf & Einarsen, 2011). Work environmental hypothesis claims that underlying causes of victimization prevail in poorly organized environmental conditions within an organization. ...
Article
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In this study, we relied on victim precipitation theory and examined the role of the employee’s personality, from the target perspectives, in their victimization at the workplace in the context of higher education institutions in Pakistan. Personality was hypothesized as a five-factor construct; extraversion, agreeableness, consciousness, neuroticism, and openness. The quantitative data was gathered through a questionnaire survey from the teaching faculty of different public and private sector universities located in Lahore. Results revealed that extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness have a significant negative correlation with workplace victimization. In contrast, neuroticism showed a significant positive association with workplace victimization. Openness to experience was unrelated to victimization in the given context. The theoretical and practical value of these findings has been discussed in this study. Journal Name: Bulletin of Business and Economics (BBE)
... Plethora of the studies has established the links between the emotional exhaustion and the employee performance. According to Einarsen (2003) and Hauge et al., (2010) it is proven through longitudinal and cross-sectional research studies that there is a link between workplace bullying, emotional exhaustion and job performance. However, the other researches also depict that job-related depression is the determinant of the employee performance (Dalal, 2005). ...
... Since we investigated our variable as a uniform construct, it is not possible to suggest that those who scored high in hardiness scored high in each of the three dimensions. Secondly, personality has been suggested as the antecedents of being victims of mobbing behavior (Zapf & Einarsen, 2003). However, according to the reversed-causal mechanism, dispositions might be the outcomes of mobbing experiences, instead of being only the antecedents (Hamre et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Background Instances of customers bullying employees at the workplace are increasing with the development of the service industry. Korea has established a worker protection system to prevent negative effects of customer bullying on workers’ health. This study identified the latent profile types of protection against customer bullying in workplaces, and determined their predictors. Methods Data were collected over 28 days, from March 2 to 30, 2020. This study identified whether protection against customer bullying is implemented for workers in person-to-person services, the change effected by this protection, and worker monitoring scope. Data from 1,537 out of 1,550 participants were analyzed, excluding the missing values. Latent profile types were identified using Mplus 8.5 for data analysis, and the multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed to review the predictors. Results The results are as follows. There were four types of latent profile types: lagging, medium, relative preventive type, and excellent type. Variables predicting these types included age, gender, service period, position, occupational category, worker monitoring scope, decrease in the number of customers causing problems, decrease in disputes with customers, and worker satisfaction. Conclusions First, a system to prevent customer bullying must be adopted in the service industry. Second, there must be a way to improve trust between customers and workers when protective measures are being adopted. Third, managers must establish a system that can both protect workers against bullying and provide customer satisfaction.
Article
Problem: The development of any program to reduce bullying is possible with a better understanding of the associated underlying factors with its emergence. This study, therefore, aimed to investigate three different social cognitive abilities: abilities to read minds in the eyes, alexithymic personality traits, and empathy, in association with bullying behaviors in adolescents. Although these factors have been studied separately, our data highlighted their effect, relationship, and interconnectivity. Methods: The participants consisted of 351 adolescents (57.8% girls) aged 13-16 years (mean: 14.32 ± 0.73 for girls, 14.38 ± 0.86 for boys). The data used in this cross-sectional study were collected using self-reported questionnaires. Pearson's moment product correlation analysis and hierarchical linear regression analysis were performed to evaluate the associations between variables. Findings: Bullying behavior levels were higher in male adolescents compared with females. The results indicated that bullying behavior was associated with low levels of reading minds in the eyes abilities, alexithymic personality traits, and low affective empathy levels. Conclusion: These findings highlight the critical impact of the poor comprehension of mental states and emotional statuses of other people and low emphatic thinking capacity in the emergence of bullying behaviors among adolescents. Therapeutic interventions focusing on improving these factors may therefore be useful in prevention and management programs for bullying behavior.
Article
Last decades showed a high interest in studying the workplace bullying (WB) phenomenon in a variety of disciplines and in a number of WB areas such as concepts and forms of WB, antecedents and consequences of WB, WB interventions, etc. This study offers classification and description of current WB literature, and identifies research gaps to be bridged by further empirical research. In the first part, authors systematically review 167 refereed journal articles, classify the WB research into five main research themes and summarize their findings. In the second part, the article uncovers various unknown aspects of WB and provides concrete directions for future empirical research. Thrust areas of attention are highlighted for industry and policy makers.
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Aim This study investigates if non-bullied employees in Work units (WUs) where bullying occur, are more prone to leave the WUs than employees in WUs with no bullying, and if the prevalence of workplace bullying had an impact on leaving the WUs. Leaving the workplace was defined by unemployment or change of workplace at follow-up. Methods We had data from 8326 Danish public health invited employees from 302 WUs. Of these 3036 responded to a questionnaire on working conditions and health in 2007. WUs were classified into three categories of WUs: (1) no bullying (0% bullied), (2) moderate prevalence of bullying (< 10% bullied), and (3) high prevalence of bullying (≥ 10% bullied). Bullied respondents were used to classify the WUs and excluded in the analyses. Results We found odds ratios (ORs) for unemployment 1 year later of 1.27 [95% CI 0.69–2.37] in WUs with moderate prevalence of bullying and 1.38 [95% CI 0.85–2.23] among employed in WUs with high prevalence of bullying, adjusted for size of WUs, age, sex, and job category. For turnover 1 year later the ORs were 1.27 [95% CI 0.78–2.15] and 1.46 [95% CI 0.99–2.15] in WUs with moderate and high prevalence of bullying, respectively. Conclusion We did not find that non-bullied employees leave the WUs with moderate and high prevalence of bullying more than employees in WUs with no bullying behaviour 1 year later. Leaving the workplace tended to be higher among employees in WUs with high prevalence of bullying compared to no and moderate bullying.
Article
Artykuł ma charakter przeglądowy, przybliżając opis wczesnych i najnowszych badań dotyczących mobbingu w miejscu pracy (na podstawie piśmiennictwa krajowego i zagranicznego). Autorka podjęła próbę usystematyzowania wiedzy w tym zakresie, w szczególności przedstawiając definicję i kryteria pozwalające na identyfikację mobbingu, formy zachowań mobbingowych, a także metody jego diagnozy. Omawia również przyczyny, skalę mobbingu w różnych grupach zawodowych oraz jego konsekwencje w kontekście funkcjonowania indywidualnego, zawodowego i społecznego. Autorka prezentuje także podejścia teoretyczne w wyjaśnianiu mobbingu w środowisku pracy, a w ostatniej części artykułu kładzie nacisk na znaczenie prewencji antymobbingowej. Artykuł zawiera odniesienia do własnych badań autorki w środowisku nauczycielskim.
Chapter
In this chapter, critical realism paradigm is integrated to question why nursing profession follows a military-type regime culture of “eating their young,” by exposing their junior nurses to workplace bullying and aggression. Qualitative empirical data in the form of nine in-depth interviews with nurses employed at various hospitals is used to demonstrate how workplace bullying is a form of systematic, planned operation of the management to train, socialize, and control their nurses to ensure they are able to consistently deliver quality medical services to their patients. However, this bullying type of management control strategy, where forces of insult and incivility are adopted to subjugate and dominate the nurses, results in a nursing field completely devoid of feelings, compassion, and empathy, whereby reducing job satisfaction and increasing high levels of employee turnover. To mitigate these negative impacts, more dialogic interventions are recommended as emancipatory guidelines to create awareness of more suitable training and development methods.
Thesis
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One of the issues of this study is to determine how will shape personal growth of individual who has high organizational identification perception. In addition, it was aimed to determine how personal growth initiative would change, in case of a person exposed to mobbing with high organizational identification perception. Another issue of this study is to examine how will be shaped personal growth initiative of individual who has proactive personality. In addition, it was aimed to determine how would personal growth initiative be affected from the case that individual exposed to mobbing with proactive personality. 1192 teachers participated to this study, which was applied on them who are working on public schools in Turkey. Accordingly, the sample of the study has consisted by teachers who are the biggest profession group of Turkey. The application has done with sending of digital survey forms via digital channels. It is thought that this study contributed by revealing the positive effect of organizational identification perception on personal growth initiative. In addition, it can be interpreted as a contribution to literature, determining the case when individual exposed to mobbing with high organizational identification perception, personal growth initiative is affected negatively. It was determined in this study that proactive personality has positive effect on personal growth initiative. However, it was observed that the case when individual exposed to mobbing who has proactive personality, there was not effect of this interaction on personal growth initiative. In this case, there is not moderator effect of mobbing on the relation between proactive personality characteristic and personal growth initiative. It is thought that this research brightens to employee’s consideration about identification perception and personality characteristic. With explaining the effect of probable mobbing attacks on personal growth initiative in terms of identification and personality characteristic, it is thought that it will contribute about understanding better by employees and employers the effects and consequences of mobbing.
Conference Paper
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This qualitative research paper explores psychological workplace violence among academics of state Universities in Sri Lanka.
Chapter
Studies in workplace bullying and negative behaviours in the hospitality industry are limited. This chapter explores the existing international research and explains why bullying and negative behaviour can occur and what the costs are to both the industry and the employees. In doing so, it looks at the nature of bullying at work in general and within the structure of the industry in particular, while taking into account the culture and power relationships. Customer harassment is also explored, and although not considered bullying by many researchers, customer abuse is negative and can have a profound influence on the employees’ health and well-being at work. This chapter concludes by emphasizing the importance of preventing bullying and negative behaviour at work. It suggests that organizations need to adopt policy and training strategies which not only highlight the issues but also promote a plan for dealing with them.
Chapter
According to Rodgers (2010), in the last decade, a new approach has emerged in psychology: statistical and mathematical modelling. In this chapter, we discuss how modelling has been used in the social sciences and how this approach can help psychologists to understand complex phenomena in organizations. We exemplify this approach by using it to examine the case of workplace mobbing described in the seminal paper by Leymann (1996). In particular, we describe in full detail the modelling process through three steps of increasing complexity. The description makes the model replicable and suggests how to apply this approach to model other complex interactions. The modelling process we use is explained in detail, making it reproducible. In particular, we use a system dynamics approach as this methodology uses causal loops which are a familiar tool to psychologists. Starting from a first model, which considers only the physical structure of the system, we introduce some behavioural variables which allow us to analyse the dysfunctional dynamics. In fact, the proposed model makes it possible to recognize and discuss the interdependence and the relations between the different parts of the system we consider. A further step of analysis consists of simulating different scenarios which allow us to perform “virtual experiments”, without manipulating the target (real) system. Finally, we discuss the value and the limitations of this approach when analysing complex interactions in organizations.
Chapter
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Some workplace bullying scholars attribute much of this institutional problem to inert and untrained human resources personnel. Namie (2012) has explicitly stated such in referring to his study of 1,300 respondents, in which 51% stated that human resources did nothing when they reported workplace bullying to human resources. In the data collections I have conducted in the past ten years, when asked, 30–40% of respondents noted that human resources did nothing when a target reported workplace bullying. Often, targets of workplace bullying in higher education found no relief when reporting the problem; and several people have experienced aggressions from multiple bullies in what is called mobbing. In many cases, targets endured retaliation from bullies when human resources approached the bully about inappropriately aggressive behavior. Such bleak reports have understandably led to the common belief to avoid human resources when enduring workplace bullying on campus.
Chapter
This chapter furthers our understanding of mediation as an intervention in complaints of workplace bullying. It argues that mediation is a viable option for some complaints of workplace bullying and in many cases may be a more appropriate alternative than more adversarial or punitive actions. A review of the workplace bullying literature highlights that the definition of bullying needs to be approached with caution, with this chapter drawing attention to the term “bullying” being used as a broad descriptor by employees to label workplace conflict and discontent with reasonable, though unpopular, organizational and management practices. The premise that mediation is an inappropriate intervention into complaints of workplace bullying without examining issues such as power, neutrality and the confidential nature of mediation is also addressed. A “risk management” approach to mediating workplace bullying complaints is introduced, and it is argued that this innovative approach to mediation may help identify some of the wider influences or “risks” that may have contributed to the bullying allegations in question. It is acknowledged that mediation is not an appropriate intervention in many complaints of workplace bullying but highlights the types of bullying and harassment complaints when mediation may be an appropriate intervention and when it is not appropriate to use mediation. The chapter concludes by acknowledging that further research is needed to address interventions into workplace bullying allegations. It recommends collaboration between innovative practice and research, in order to develop and evaluate different models of intervention that will support mentally healthy workplaces and encourage appropriate workplace behaviours and relationships.
Chapter
Workplace bullying complaints are commonly utilized as the primary intervention approach for organizations where employees seek to stop inappropriate behaviour or gain redress. No single agreed-upon approach has been forwarded as a best practice for organizations to adopt. Instead, complaints can be viewed as disciplinary matters, health and safety concerns or public disclosures that can be raised through whistleblowing. These different conceptualizations adopt differing terminology and assumptions, which in turn has implications for how bullying is tackled. A critical concern in this area is the high prevalence of bullying reported in academic literature and staff surveys. In contrast, the number of complaints is often much lower indicating significant under-reporting. A range of organizational and individual factors are discussed that may enable and inhibit the efficacy of a complaint process. The means by which the complaint process may act as a negative influence as a form of undermining through raising vexatious complaints, with the intent of undermining the accused perpetrator, are also discussed. A review of these factors will ultimately contribute towards a consideration of what constitutes a successful complaint process and what practices and strategies organizations can adopt to ensure the effective handling of workplace bullying complaints. Finally, future directions for research are also proposed.
Article
There is a large body of international literature on most aspects of workplace bullying, yet there are only a few research articles dealing with bullying of bosses, managers, and leaders by their subordinates and staff members. Over time the term “upwards bullying” has been accepted as the generic term to describe this phenomenon but using these search terms does not provide a comprehensive indication of relevant publications. This literature review identifies and collates English language research on upwards bullying to document its research status, its lack of visibility in the workplace, and to connect upwards bullying with related research on aggression against supervisors and managers. Included is research that specifically labels the phenomena as upwards or upward bullying, along with related terms of subordinate-initiated bullying, supervisor-targeted bullying, bottom-up bullying, bullying the manager, and bullying the boss. Nonacademic publications are not included, nor is research on related workplace misbehavior such as cyberbullying, legal action resulting from upwards bullying or whistle blowers, and extortion or blackmail. Areas for further exploration in the field are identified with indicators of how this type of workplace bullying differs from lateral and downward bullying. Coverage up to the year 2020 is provided with the expectation that the trend of working from home driven by safety considerations during the COVID-19 epidemic could change employee responses and reactions to their workplace leaders and management.
Chapter
In Chap. 2, we describe different sources of stressors: the person (e.g., perfectionist demands and high personal standards), the social environment (e.g., bullying), conflicting roles (e.g., parent vs. worker), the behavior setting (e.g., isolation or crowding), one’s working environment (e.g., noise), the work task (e.g., constant over- or underload), the organization (e.g., change processes), and cultural conditions (e.g., homesickness). We also present new sources of stressors resulting from digitalization and new forms of work. Stressors can also differ in the kind of demands they put on the person (overload, physical, emotional, cognitive demands), in their action-regulating character (challenge, hindrance), and in their magnitude (traumatic events, life changes, hassles). Knowledge of different sources of stressors can help individuals identify and avoid stressors and enable an early response.
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Background Exposure to workplace gender-based violence (GBV) can affect women's mental and physical health and work productivity in higher educational settings. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the prevalence of GBV (workplace incivility, bullying, sexual harassment), and associated factors among Nigerian university women. Methods The study was an institutional-based cross-sectional survey. The multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 339 female staff from public and private universities in Enugu, south-east Nigeria. Data was collected using the Workplace Incivility Scale (WIS), Modified Workplace Incivility Scale (MWIS), Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R), and Sexual Experiences Questionnaire (SEQ). Descriptive statistics, independent samples t -test, Pearson’s Chi-square test, univariate ANOVA, bivariate, and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted at 0.05 level of significance. Results The prevalence of workplace incivility, bullying, and sexual harassment (SH) was 63.8%, 53.5%, and 40.5%. The 12-month experience of the supervisor, coworker, and instigated incivilities was 67.4%, 58.8%, and 52.8%, respectively. Also, 47.5% of the participants initiated personal bullying, 62.5% experienced work-related bullying, and 42.2% experienced physical bullying. The 12-month experience of gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and sexual coercion were 36.5%, 25.6%, and 26.6%, respectively. Being aged 35–49 years (AOR 0.15; 95% CI (0.06, 0.40), and ≥ 50 years (AOR 0.04; 95% CI (0.01, 0.14) were associated with workplace incivility among female staff. Having a temporary appointment (AOR 7.79, 95% CI (2.26, 26.91) and casual/contract employment status (AOR 29.93, 95% CI (4.57, 192.2) were reported to be associated with workplace bullying. Having a doctoral degree (AOR 3.57, 95% CI (1.24, 10.34), temporary appointment (AOR 91.26, 95% CI (14.27, 583.4) and casual/contract employment status (AOR 73.81, 95% CI (7.26, 750.78) were associated with workplace SH. Conclusions The prevalence of GBV was high. There is an urgent need for workplace interventions to eliminate different forms of GBV and address associated factors to reduce the adverse mental, physical, and social health outcomes among university women.
Book
This analytical volume uses qualitative data, quantitative data, and direct employee experiences to aid understanding of why workplace bullying occurs in universities throughout the US. To address higher education workplace bullying, this text offers data-driven interventions for human resource staff and departments to effectively tackle this destructive phenomenon. Drawing on Hollis' first-hand research which is supported by findings from a 2019 Human Resources data collection, this text identifies populations which are most vulnerable to discrimination within academia. The data shows how human resource departments, executive leadership, and faculty might proactively intervene to prevent workplace bullying. Divided into two parts, the book offers empirical analysis of structural interventions for human resource efforts to combat workplace bullying in higher education. Second, the book puts forth solutions based on empirical findings for organizations and human resources to combat workplace aggression and civility which hurts higher education. Further, the author examines the specific effect of workplace harassment and cyberbullying on women of color, junior faculty, women, and the LGBTQ community. This text will benefit researchers, doctoral students, and conducting higher education research. Additionally, the book focusses on structural issues which interfere with multicultural education more broadly. Those interested in Human Resource Management, the sociology of education, and gender and sexuality studies and will also enjoy this volume.
Chapter
Relying on international literature, the aim of this chapter is to expand the understanding of the relationship between personality and workplace bullying. The hope is to inspire, and possibly deepen, future research endeavours on this topic. The chapter is divided into three main sections that in turn (a) address how personality fits into workplace bullying research, (b) elaborate important empirical studies and (c) discuss extant and future research challenges. It is argued that the concepts of workplace bullying and personality to some extent share theoretical assumptions and empirical procedures. It is also argued that additional benefits and insights may be gained by moving beyond the personality trait perspective commonly adopted in workplace bullying research, by perhaps using a more person-centred approach to personality or by adopting other personality perspectives that focus on abilities, motivations and needs. To address the complexities and dynamics that are associated with the study of people’s personalities in the workplace bullying context, there seems to be a need for imaginative thinking and new study designs. This may, for example, entail studies that simultaneously focus on the personalities of targets of workplace bullying, perpetrators and bystanders. It may also entail studies that focus on how personality matters at different stages in the workplace bullying process and in the formal management of workplace bullying (e.g. who reports workplace bullying and how does the workplace bullying episode reach a conclusion).
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The aim of this study was to identity levels of workplace bullying based on cut-off scores, frequency and self-labelled victimization, and to use these levels to identify the escalation of workplace bullying in terms of onset of different negative acts. Data were collected from a representative sample of the Swedish workforce (n = 1856). Bullying was measured using the Negative Acts Questionnaire–Revised together with self-labelled victimization based on a definition. Other variables included aspects of work experience, perception of the organization, and health and well-being. The results showed differences between the suggested levels of workplace bullying (Risk for bullying and Incipient bullying; Ongoing bullying; and Severe and Extreme bullying) for these variables, and also that different areas were pronounced at different levels of workplace bullying. Further, the onset of different negative acts depended on the level of workplace bullying, at early stages only work-related negative acts, but at higher levels more person-related negative acts. The study contributes to the understanding of work- place bullying and the escalation process. The suggested new levels of bullying also have practical and pedagogical value making it easier to grasp and to convey to, e.g. HR personnel, and organizational psychologists.
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While research has unravelled the association between organisational change and being a target of workplace bullying, scholars have still to shed light on the perpetrator perspective of this association. In the current study, we further the literature by investigating the relationship between exposure to organisational change and being a perpetrator of workplace bullying. We introduced perceptions of psychological contract breach as a mechanism that accounts for the process in which exposure to organisational change leads employees to direct bullying behaviours to other members of the organisation. Using three-wave longitudinal data from 1994 employees we estimated a between-subjects mediation model controlling for autoregressive effects. Results confirmed our hypothesis that exposure to organisational change at Time 1 was positively related to being a perpetrator of workplace bullying at Time 3 through perceptions of psychological contract breach at Time 2. These findings suggest that organisations should invest in factors that lower employees’ likelihood to perceive psychological contract breach in the aftermath of organisational change because these perceptions may indeed result in the enactment of workplace bullying towards other members of the organisation.
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Over the last three decades, the scientific and social interest in workplace bullying has accelerated and our understanding of this pervasive and detrimental social problem has advanced considerably in a relatively short amount of time. Workplace bullying is now a phenomenon of global interest, new topics are steadily emerging within the field, and the methodological quality of the studies has become more sophisticated. Building on findings from the ever increasing number of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in this field, the aim of this literature overview was two-folded. In the first part, the aim was to provide a basic overview of what we already know with regard to the nature and content of the bullying phenomenon, its risk-factors and causes, its consequences, and its potential measures and interventions. In the second part, the aim was to address what we do not know and to put forward an agenda for future research within the field. Here, six major knowledge challenges are discussed: a) construct clarification, b) the need for theoretical models, c) causality, d) bullying as a process, e) mediators and moderators, and f) intervention and rehabilitation of victims, perpetrators, and work environments.
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In line with the work environment hypothesis, interpersonal conflict has been proposed as an important antecedent of workplace bullying. However, longitudinal studies on this relationship have been scarce. The aim of this study was to examine whether co‐worker conflict predicted new cases of self‐reported workplace bullying 2 years later and whether laissez‐faire leadership moderated this relationship. In a sample of 1,772 employees, drawn from the Norwegian working population, the hypotheses that co‐worker conflict increased the risk of subsequently reporting being a victim of workplace bullying and that laissez‐faire leadership strengthened this relationship were supported. This study empirically supports the work environment hypothesis by showing that co‐worker conflict within a true prospective research design is a source of new cases of bullying and that the lack and avoidance of leadership, through the enactment of a laissez‐faire leadership style, likely is a main source for co‐worker conflict to develop into workplace bullying.
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Purpose During the past 26 years, there has been a phenomenal growth in the literature on workplace bullying. The purpose of this paper is to review and synthesize the extant empirical studies on underlying and intervening mechanisms in antecedents–bullying and bullying–outcomes relationships. Design/methodology/approach In total, 53 studies on mediators and moderators in antecedents–bullying and bullying–outcomes relationships (2001-2016) were selected from academic databases (Google Scholar, Research Gate, Emerald Insight, Science Direct, etc.) Findings The review suggests that while a reasonable number of studies examine the role of mediators and moderators in bullying–outcomes relationships, such efforts are meager in antecedents–bullying relationships. The paper concludes by proposing some potential variables that can explain the underlying mechanisms in the bullying phenomenon and alleviate/aggravate the antecedents–bullying–outcomes relationships. Originality/value To the best of authors’ knowledge, this is the first review on mediators and moderators of workplace bullying.
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Workplace bullying is increasingly recognised as a risk factor for job loss and exclusion from working life. Consequently, bullying may represent an antecedent of job insecurity, but this notion has not been sufficiently tested using prospective, representative data. In the present study, the association between workplace bullying and job insecurity was therefore investigated using a two-year time lag and a representative sample of Norwegian employees (N = 1775). Employing regression analysis, support for a cross-lagged effect of bullying on stability adjusted job insecurity was found. With respect to explanatory mechanisms, a moderated mediation analysis also revealed that this relationship is mediated by continued exposure to bullying behaviours at T2, and, that the relationship between baseline bullying and continued victimisation at T2 is moderated by laissez-faire leadership (i.e. the enactment of passive-avoidant and non-responsive leadership behaviour). Thus, laissez-faire leadership appears to represent a condition under which the bullying process can endure and progress, and the bullying behaviours associated with such sustained and escalated scenarios seem to be particularly relevant antecedents of job insecurity. These results represent novel contributions to our understanding of workplace bullying and job insecurity, holding important implications for prevention of workplace bullying and alleviation of its negative consequences.
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Antecedents and consequences of workplace bullying are well documented. However, the measures taken against workplace bullying, and the effectiveness of such measures, have received less attention. This study addresses this knowledge gap by exploring the role of ethical infrastructure in perceived successful handling of reported workplace bullying. Ethical infrastructure refers to formal and informal systems that enable ethical behavior and disable unethical behavior in organizations. A survey was sent to HR managers and elected head safety representatives (HSRs) in all Norwegian municipality organizations. Overall, 216 organizations responded (response rate = 50.2 percent). The ethical infrastructure accounted for 39.4% of the variance in perceived successful handling of workplace bullying. Formal sanctions were the only unique and significant contributor to the perceived successful handling of workplace bullying. The results substantiate the argument that organizations' ethical infrastructure relate to the HR managers and HSRs' perceptions regarding their organizations' handling of workplace bullying. KEY WORDS Business ethics / ethical infrastructure / formal systems / informal systems / workplace bullying DOI
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Objective: The association between workplace bullying and sickness absence remains unclear. This paper presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of research on the association. Method: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published primary studies on workplace bullying and sickness absence. Studies based on prospective design or registry data on sickness absence were included. Cross-sectional studies with self-reported sickness absence were excluded. Results: Seventeen primary studies were included in the review, sixteen originated from the Nordic countries and fifteen included registry data on sickness absence. All but one study found that exposure to workplace bullying was associated with increased risk of sickness absence. A meta-analysis of ten independent studies showed that exposure to bullying increased the risk of sickness absence (odds ratio 1.58, 95% CI 1.39-1.79). Five studies included variables that moderated the association between bullying and absenteeism. None of the studies included mediating variables. No studies examined sickness absence as a risk factor for later exposure to bullying. Following the GRADE guidelines, the evidence for an association between bullying and sickness absence is moderate. Conclusions: Workplace bullying is a risk factor for sickness absence, but the mechanisms to explain this relationship are not sufficiently described. It is unclear whether sickness absence predicts later exposure to bullying. While, the methodological quality of the reviewed studies was high, the knowledge base is small. There is a need for more research on how and when bullying is related to sickness absence and the possible bidirectional relationships involved.
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The aim of the present study was to investigate if bullied nurses have a more negative coping style when facing stressful events than do non-bullied nurses, and to determine if coping style moderates the well-established bullying-anxiety relationship. Cohort data were gathered in 2008/2009 and 2010 with a time lag of approximately one year for all respondents. At T1 2059 Norwegian nurses participated, whereof 1582 also responded at T2. A t-test and a hierarchical regression analysis were conducted to obtain results for the hypothesized relationships. The results show that bullied nurses use an active goal-oriented coping style less often compared to non-bullied nurses. Furthermore, active goal-oriented coping seems beneficial only when exposure to bullying behaviors is very low. This effect diminishes however as the bullying behavior intensifies. Hence, victims of bullying seem to cope more negatively with stressful events than others. On the other hand, high exposure to bullying behaviors has negative consequences for the subsequent level of anxiety for those affected, regardless of their general coping style.
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The present study investigates a potential preventive factor in relation to workplace bullying. Specifically, we examine how climate for conflict management (CCM) may be related to less bullying, increased work engagement, as well as whether CCM is a moderator in the bullying engagement relationship. The study was based on a cross-sectional survey among employees in a transport company (N = 312). Hypotheses were tested simultaneously in a moderated mediation analysis which showed that bullying and job engagement were related (H1), CCM was related to less reports of bullying (H2), CCM was related to work engagement (H3) and that CCM was indirectly related to job engagement through bullying (H4), but only when CCM was weak (H5). That is, CCM moderated the relationship between bullying and work engagement in that this relationship only existed when CCM was low. The present study contributes to theory within this research field by showing that organizational measures may not only prevent bullying, but may also affect how employees react when subjected to bullying. Furthermore, the effect of climate in relation to bullying may be down to the narrow bandwidth facet of CCM. The study informs employers how they may act to prevent bullying while also reducing the potential negative outcomes of those cases of bullying that inevitably will show up from time to time.
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This study investigates subjective descriptions and evaluations of the work situations of mobbed and non-mobbed people. Overall, 45 mobbing victims and 45 workers who did not report having experienced mobbing completed questionnaires on mobbing experiences, their job satisfaction, and were asked to state what they associated with five aspects of work. The results indicate that victims see their collegues and superiors, their job, working conditions, leadership and the organisation in a negative light. Satisfaction is low and generalised from social to non-social aspects of the job. Victims of mobbing and people without mobbing experiences also described their colleagues and superiors differently. The job itself and working conditions, however, were not perceived differently by the two groups.
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The current study investigated how work-related disagreements—coined as conflicts—relate to workplace bullying, from the perspective of the target as well as the perpetrator. We hypothesized a positive indirect association between task conflicts and bullying through relationship conflicts. This process accounted for both for targets and perpetrators of bullying. Targets are distinguished from perpetrators in our assumption that this indirect effect is boosted by distributive conflict behavior, being yielding for targets and forcing for perpetrators. Results in a large representative sample of the Flemish working population (N = 2,029) confirmed our hypotheses. Additionally, our study also revealed a direct effect from task conflicts to bullying in the analyses regarding the indirect as well as the conditional indirect effects. For perpetrators, both the indirect and direct relationships are moderated by forcing, underlining the importance of distributive conflict behavior particularly for the enactment of bullying behaviors.
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Orientation: Workplace bullying has negative physical and psychological effects on employees and several negative effects on organisations. Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to determine the prevalence of workplace bullying in South Africa and whether there are differences in employees’ experiences of bullying with regard to socio-demographic characteristics, sense of coherence (SOC) and diversity experiences.Motivation for the study: This study intended to draw attention to the implications and negative effects of workplace bullying and to determine whether employees with certain socio-demographic characteristics, SOC levels and diversity experiences experience higher levels of bullying than others do.Research design, approach and method: The researchers used a cross-sectional field survey approach. They used an availability sample (N = 13 911). They computed frequencies to determine the prevalence of workplace bullying and used a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and analyses of variance (ANOVAs) to determine the differences between the groups.Main findings: The results showed that 31.1% of the sample had experienced workplace bullying. The researchers found significant differences between all the socio-demographic groups. Participants with higher levels of SOC, and who experienced diversity positively, reported lower levels of workplace bullying.Practical/managerial implications: Employers need to realise that workplace bullying is a common problem amongst South African employees and should ensure that they have the necessary prevention methods.Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to the limited research on the prevalence of workplace bullying and its relationship with SOC and diversity experiences in the South African workplace.
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Conflict in a workgroup turns into harassment if a group member is persistently confronted with negative acts with few possibilities to retaliate. Cross-national differences in such intragroup harassment are considerable but wait to be understood. In this study, survey data from 44,836 employees in 44 countries revealed that a cultural in-group orientation was associated with lower employee harassment. In addition, and in agreement with Van de Vliert's climato-economic theory of culture, workforces reported more harassment in poorer countries with more demanding climates of colder-than-temperate winters, hotter-than-temperate summers, or both. Finally, it was found that the impact of climato-economic hardships on harassment suppressed the impact of cultural in-group orientation on harassment. Using the regression equation obtained for the sample of 44 countries, national levels of employee harassment for a broader pool of 103 countries were estimated and scrutinized for their validity for future research. Data from the World Values Surveys were used to validate the estimations. The results provide the basis for a further hypothesis, that employee harassment is more prevalent in countries with either survival or self-expression cultures than in countries with cultures that are intermediate between those two extremes. The results have implications for prevention and remedial measures.
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This paper intends to explore alternative ways to measure workplace bullying and to propose to HR professionals and academics a uniform and common way to assess the phenomenon. Based on a survey on 840 junior and middle managers from diverse sectors in Greece, we are trying to extract conclusions on the incidents and characteristics of workplace bullying, in a country where empirical evidence on bullying is very limited and where cultural dimensions differ from countries with extensive research evidence on workplace bullying and wide application of preventive measures. In Greece, workplace bullying is found to follow grossly similar patterns to those reported in relevant studies in Europe. The results vary according to the measurement methodology used. The latent class cluster analysis on the negative acts questionnaire scale, as previously proposed by other authors, is found to reflect more accurately the reality of workplace bullying occurrence, than other instruments (self-labelling or operational methodologies, which are tested here). The conclusions of this study are valuable to researchers and practitioners who wish to measure or compare the occurrence of workplace bullying in their organisations, based on specific and acceptable standards, around the globe.
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This paper contributes to the relatively sparse knowledge about relationships between stressful work environments and bullying. Relationships between job stressors and leadership behaviour were analysed as possible predictors of bullying at work on the basis of the work environment hypothesis, which states that stressful and poorly organized work environments may give rise to conditions resulting in bullying. Analyses of a representative sample (n=2539) of the Norwegian workforce showed role conflict, interpersonal conflicts, and tyrannical and laissez-faire leadership behaviour to be strongly related to bullying, and that the strength of associations to a high degree differed for various measures of bullying. Support was found for an interactive relationship between decision authority and role conflict at different levels of laissez-faire leadership. Not only targets and bully/targets but also bystanders assessed their work environment more negatively than did non-involved employees, while perpetrators of bullying did not differ significantly from non-involved employees as regards their perception of the work environment. Hence, bullying is likely to prevail in stressful working environments characterized by high levels of interpersonal friction and destructive leadership styles. In addition, bullying is particularly prevalent in situations where the immediate supervisor avoids intervening in and managing such stressful situations.
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Using a sample of Malaysia health care employees, this study shows that exposure to inappropriate behavior at work is considered to be high (42.6%). Questionnaires were obtained from 108 employees from various professions in clinical and non- clinical backgrounds at Kuala Lumpur Hospital, via stratified random sampling. The study shows that, within a sample of Malaysia health care employees, exposure to inappropriate behavior at work does not differ between grades and types of employment. The research also demonstrates that the factor structure of the Job Satisfaction Scale might not be appropriate in a Malaysian sample and an alternative factor structure is proposed.
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Workplace bullying is a severe problem in contemporary working life, affecting up to 15 per cent of employees. Among the detrimental outcomes of bullying, it is even postulated as a major risk factor for exclusion from work. In support of this claim, the current study demonstrates that exposure to bullying behaviour predicts an increase in both levels of job insecurity and intention to leave over a 6-month time lag, among a random sample of North Sea workers (n = 734). The findings suggest that bullied employees are insecure about the permanence and content of their job, and they may be at risk of turnover and exclusion from working life. It is recommended that these outcomes are taken into consideration when incidences of workplace bullying are addressed.
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Drawing on the general aggression model and theories of victimization and temperamental goodness-of-fit, we investigated trait anger and trait anxiety as antecedents of petty tyranny: employing a multilevel design with data from 84 sea captains and 177 crew members. Leader trait anger predicted subordinate-reported petty tyranny. Subordinate trait anxiety was associated with subordinate-reported petty tyranny. The association between leader trait anger and subordinate-reported petty tyranny was strongest among low trait anger subordinates supporting the theory of temperamental goodness-of-fit—or rather misfit—in dyads. Hence, leader anger-generated petty tyranny seems to constitute itself both as an average leadership style and as behavior targeting specific subordinates, in this case low trait anger subordinates. In addition, anxious subordinates report more exposure to such abusive leadership behaviors irrespective of levels of trait anger in the captain. The practical implications are above all the needs for organizational and individual management of leader trait anger.
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An interactive model of social undermining and social support in the workplace was developed and tested among police officers in the Republic of Slovenia. As predicted, social undermining was significantly associated with employee outcomes, in most cases more strongly than was social support. High levels of undermining and support from the same source were associated with negative outcomes. However, support from one source appeared to only modestly attenuate the negative effects of social undermining from another source.
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The aim of this short note was to get an impression of risk sectors for the prevalence of undesirable behaviour and mobbing in The Netherlands. Data were collected from 1995 to 1999 with the Questionnaire on The Assessment and Experience of Work (Vragenlijst Beleving en Beoordeling van de Arbeid; VBBA; van Veldhoven & Meijman, 1994). The sample consisted of 66,764 employees representing 11 sectors in The Netherlands. Four questions were indicative of the occurrence of undesirable behaviour and mobbing. The main conclusion of this study is that there are large differences in the occurrence of undesirable behaviour between sectors.
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In this study, perceptions of the severity of various bullying behaviours in the workplace are investigated. The main aims are (1) to obtain the assessments of workers regarding the severity of the various types of behaviour that constitute bullying (psychological abuse), and (2) to examine whether the degree of involvement with the phenomenon (represented by three different groups: victims, witnesses and employees with no previous experience of bullying) influences the severity assessments. A sample of 300 workers from various branches of four organizations in Spain (191 women and 109 men aged between 21 and 66 years) completed a questionnaire. The results showed that assessments of the perceived severity of the different types of bullying behaviour varied. Bullying behaviours fell into six categories, with various types of emotional abuse proving to be perceived as the most severe category. Moreover, the results showed that there was no significant difference in the perceived severity of bullying behaviour among victims, witnesses and employees without previous experience of bullying. The consequences of these results and how they can influence theory, future research and practice are discussed.
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Workplace bullying is a serious hazard in every day working life that needs to be assessed carefully. In order to achieve such a goal, both victims of severe bullying as well as targets of less intensive bullying need to be identified, the latter in order to prevent further escalation into severe bullying. Previous research has mainly offered simple and crude measures of who is and who is not a victim of bullying. In this article we show how cutoff scores for the scale Negative Acts Questionnaire–Revised (NAQ-R) can be calculated. Based on a representative sample of the Norwegian workforce, we formulated 2 cutoff points or thresholds for the NAQ-R with a Receiver Operation Characteristic curve. Employees with a score lower than 33 are not bullied, employees with a score between 33 and 45 may be considered as being bullied occasionally, and employees who score above 45 can be considered to be victims of workplace bullying. As the NAQ-R is used in more than 300 research projects worldwide, we hope to inspire other scholars to define similar cutoff points. In addition, we hope that clear cutoff scores may be of assistance to practitioners for designing interventions regarding workplace bullying in line with the identified problems.
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A study of 494 employees nested in workgroups from 19 different organizations revealed group identification to be an important factor influencing work-related bullying at both the individual and the group level. Results show that the more employees identified with their group, the less likely they were victims of bullying, which is in line with previous social identity-based analyses of work stress. More importantly, the higher the average level of group identification in the organization, the lower the odds of being a victim versus not being a victim. The latter effect constituted a genuine context effect. These findings redress a neglect of the social bases of workplace bullying and suggest that bullying needs to be understood within a broader perspective of workgroup identities.
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This study surveyed 165 care professionals on their experience of workplace bullying. The results showed that in a 2-year period 40% had been bullied and 68% had observed bullying taking place. Of the 67 care professionals that had been bullied 44% were experiencing high levels of PTSD symptoms based on the general factor of the IES-E. However, when these results were examined further it was found that the symptoms clustered rather differently to those of victims of other forms of trauma. In victims of bullying, the symptoms of arousal and re-experience formed a single cluster of symptoms with avoidance remaining as a separate cluster. These results are challenging in both the classification of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and for the treatment of victims of bullying.
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This article uses the concept of depersonalized bullying to explain the way in which call-centre agents employed in international call centres in Mumbai and Bangalore, India experience their work as an oppressive regime. The characteristics of this bullying regime can be attributed to the service level agreement between employers and clients which determines organisational practices. Call-centre agents' professional identities and material gains facilitate their acceptance of their tough work conditions, causing them to participate in their own oppression. As well as clarifying the concept of depersonalised bullying, the article highlights the critical role of capitalist labour relations in workplace bullying, allowing for a contextualised and politicised understanding to emerge.
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Although organizational change has often been cited as an important cause of workplace bullying, only few studies have investigated this relationship. The current article aims to address this issue by exploring a direct as well as indirect relationship (i.e. mediation by various job and team-related stressors) between organizational change and bullying. Data were collected in 10 private organizations in the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium (N = 1260). Results show a significant relationship between organizational change and bullying. Role conflict, job insecurity, workload, role ambiguity, frequency of conflict, social support from colleagues and social leadership are all related to bullying. Regression analyses reveal a relationship between change and role conflict as well as job insecurity. The other stressors were not associated with organizational change and, hence, do not mediate. Finally, regression analysis shows that the relationship between organizational change and bullying is fully mediated by role conflict and job insecurity.
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A petty tyrant is defined as one who lords his or her power over others. Preliminary empirical work suggests that tyrannical behaviors include arbitrariness and self-aggrandizement, belittling others, lack of consideration, a forcing style of conflict resolution, discouraging initiative, and noncontingent punishment. A model of the antecedents of tyrannical management and the effects of tyranny on subordinates is presented. Petty tyranny is argued to be the product of interactions between individual predispositions (beliefs about the organization, subordinates, and self, and preferences for action) and situational facilitators (institutionalized values and norms, power, and stressors). Tyrannical management is argued to cause low self-esteem, performance, work unit cohesiveness, and leader endorsement, and high frustration, stress, reactance, helplessness, and work alienation among subordinates. It is further argued that these effects may trigger a vicious circle which sustains the tyrannical behavior. Research implications are discussed.
Article
Objectives Long-term exposure to systematic negative acts at work, usually labeled workplace bullying, is a prevalent problem at many workplaces. The adverse effects of such exposure may range from psychological symptoms, such as depression and anxiety to somatic ailments like cardiovascular disease and musculoskeletal complaints. In this study, we examined the relationships among exposure to negative acts, genetic variability in the 5-HTT gene SLC6A4 and pain. Methods The study was based on a nationally representative survey of 987 Norwegian employees drawn from the Norwegian Central Employee Register by Statistics Norway. Exposure to bullying in the workplace was measured with the 9-item version of the Negative Acts Questionnaire - Revised (NAQ-R) inventory. Pain was rated using an 11-point (0-10) numeric rating scale (NRS). Genotyping with regard to SLC6A4 was carried out using a combination of gel-electrophoresis and TaqMan assay. Results The data revealed a significant interaction between exposure to negative acts and the SLC6A4 genotype with regard to pain (linear regression with 5000 resamples; age, sex, tobacco use and education were included as covariates). The relationship between negative acts and pain intensity was significantly stronger for subjects with the LALA genotype than for subjects with the SLA/LALG/SLG genotype. No significant difference between subjects with the LALA genotype and SS genotype was observed. Conclusions Our data demonstrated that the relationship between bullying and pain was modified by the 5-HTT genotype, ie, genetic variation in SLC6A4. The association between negative acts and health among vulnerable individuals appeared more potent than previously reported.
Article
This study investigates the defining features that distinguish workplace bullying from interpersonal conflict – being frequency, negative social behaviour, power imbalance, length and perceived intent – by contrasting the characteristics of conflict incidents in a group of workplace bullying victims versus a group of non-victims. A group of 47 victims and 62 non-victims were identified based on a questionnaire time 1 and time 2 (time lag of 6 months). The conflict incidents were assessed between time 1 and time 2 using an event-based diary study that was filled out for a period of two times 20 working days with a break of 4 months in between. Hierarchical linear modelling (HLM) showed that conflict incidents differed for victims versus non-victims, in line with the defining aspects of workplace bullying: victims’ conflict incidents related more to the work context and included more personal and work-related negative social behaviour. Victims perceived more inferiority and less control in the conflicts, indicated more continuation of previous conflict incidents and reported more negative intentions from their opponent. These findings validate the conceptual differentiation between interpersonal conflict and workplace bullying, while at the same time adhering to their related nature.
Article
Incivility refers to rude, condescending, and ostracizing acts that violate workplace norms of respect, but otherwise appear mundane. Organizations sometimes dismiss these routine slights and indignities—which lack overt malice—as inconsequential. However, science has shown that incivility is a real stressor with real consequences: though the conduct is subtle, the consequences are not. We now know a great deal about how common incivility is, who gets targeted with it, under what conditions, and with what effects. The first half of this article reviews and synthesizes the last 15 years of workplace incivility research. In the second half, we look beyond that body of scholarship to pose novel questions and nudge the field in novel directions. We also point to thorny topics that call for caution, even course correction. Incivility in organizations is as important now as ever. Our goal is to motivate new science on incivility, new ways to think about it and, ultimately, new solutions.
Chapter
The general aggression model (GAM) is an integrative, bio-social-cognitive, developmental framework for explaining human aggression that incorporates many domain-specific theories of aggression. This entry discusses and defines important concepts in the study of aggression (i.e., aggression, violence, proactive vs. reactive aggression, direct vs. indirect aggression, and displaced and triggered displaced aggression). Next, the theoretical precursors to GAM (i.e., cognitive neoassociation theory, social learning theory, script theory, excitation transfer theory, social interaction theory, and the general affective aggression model) are reviewed. Finally, the structure and functions of GAM are described and implications for media effects are discussed.
Article
There is a growing awareness of the problem of bullying behaviour in the workplace. Most of our knowledge of bullying behaviour in Ireland is gained from international research. This paper reports some results from a study involving self-referred victims of workplace bullying in Ireland. The nature and effects of bullying are examined, as are views of the cause of victimisation. The findings support international research that bullying is damaging to the physical and mental health and to the careers of victims. The results highlight the need for early intervention and the development of anti-bullying programs in the workplace.
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Workplace emotional abuse Just before leaving for the weekend, George answers a call on the help line and quickly realizes it's from Mr. French, who's always got a problem late in the day. His computer's crashed again, he informs George, and this time he demands to talk to somebody competent! George has had his share of problems with Mr. French, the sales department manager. On several occasions in management meetings, he's questioned George's competence. He just ignores George anytime he meets him in the hall, and George has heard he bad-mouths him to his staff. When it becomes clear that Mr. French has no one but George to turn to this late in the day, he gets even more insulting about George's inability to fix his problem. Just before he slams the phone down, Mr. French lets loose one final attack: “I should come down there and knock some sense ...
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Over the past three decades, a growing body of international literature points to a relationship between workplace bullying and certain changes to organizational and employment policies. Some of these changes include an increase in precarious employment, greater workloads, restructuring and downsizing, and the reduction in third-party intervention in workplace relations. However, while governments and many organizations have introduced policies in response to workplace bullying, there is little evidence that they have been successful in either the prevention or resolution of the problem. This article explores reasons for this apparent policy failure by reviewing workplace bullying literature and using data collected from interviews with policy actors in Australian public sector organizations. What emerges from these analyses is that prevailing theorizations and policy definitions emphasize the individual aspects of bullying and overlook the significance of organizational, employment and cultural factors. The article argues that narrow explanations of workplace bullying limit the capacity of policies to prevent or resolve the problem. Finally, the article concludes by suggesting that a multidisciplinary approach to understanding workplace bullying as a work and employment relations issue is a fundamental step in its prevention. © Australian Labour and Employment Relations Association (ALERA), SAGE Publications Ltd, Los Angeles, London, New Delhi, Singapore and Washington DC.
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Reviewed the research and compared the definitions, operationalizations, and empirical data on the prevalence and moderating conditions of social exclusion and harassment (referred to as "mobbing at the worksite" or "bullying at school," respectively). The predominantly descriptive research on bullying focuses on the offender, whereas the mobbing discussion stresses the work environment. An integration reveals that a more comprehensive picture of harassment requires both perspectives. Evidence on mediating mechanisms can be found in research on, for example, social status among peers, which has received little attention in either mobbing or bullying research. These studies show the impact of features of the victim (e.g., certain social cognitive styles and social competence) and the group (in particular, individual-group misfit) on an individual's social status. Conceptual considerations with regard to definitions and processes of bullying/mobbing are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Bullying or mobbing is used for systematically harassing a person for a long time. In the context of stress theory, bullying is a severe form of social stressors at work, whereas in terms of conflict theory, bullying signifies an unsolved social conflict having reached a high level of escalation and an increased imbalance of power. Based on a qualitative study with 20 semi-structured interviews with victims of bullying and a quantitative questionnaire study with a total of 149 victims of bullying and a control group (N = 81), it was investigated whether bullying victims use specific conflict management strategies more often compared with individuals who are not bullied, and whether coping strategies used by successful copers with bullying differ from those of the unsuccessful copers. Successful copers were those victims who believe that their situation at work has improved again as a result of their coping efforts. The qualitative data showed that most victims started with constructive conflict-solving strategies, changed their strategies several times, and finally tried to leave the organization. In the interviews, the victims of bullying most often recommended others in the same situation to leave the organization and to seek social support. They more often showed conflict avoidance in the quantitative study. Successful victims fought back with similar means less often, and less often used negative behaviour such as frequent absenteeism. Moreover, they obviously were better at recognizing and avoiding escalating behaviour, whereas in their fight for justice, the unsuccessful victims often contributed to the escalation of the bullying conflict.