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Methods for Investigating Structural Equivalence

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Cross-cultural research is now an undeniable part of mainstream psychology and has had a major impact on conceptual models of human behavior. Although it is true that the basic principles of social psychological methodology and data analysis are applicable to cross-cultural research, there are a number of issues that are distinct to it, including managing incongruities of language and quantifying cultural response sets in the use of scales. Cross-Cultural Research Methods in Psychology provides state-of-the-art knowledge about the methodological problems that need to be addressed if a researcher is to conduct valid and reliable cross-cultural research. It also offers practical advice and examples of solutions to those problems and is a must-read for any student of culture.

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... Regarding equivalence, four major types or nested levels are commonly discussed: construct, structural, metric, and scalar equivalence. Construct equivalence concerns the extent to which a construct exists and has the same meaning across the cultures studied; structural equivalence means that the construct's dimensionality is identical across cultures and the same indicators can be used to measure it; metric equivalence describes the extent that the intervals of the measurement scale have the same meaning within each culture; and scalar equivalence implies that the cultural groups share a common scale (Fischer & Fontaine, 2010;Sireci, 2010;van de Vijner & Leung, 2010). These types of equivalence are usually evaluated hierarchically from lower to higher levels, and it is considered that metric equivalence is the minimum requirement for cross-group comparisons. ...
... The model that tests structural equivalence is normally defined as the baseline, and higher levels of equivalence (metric and then scalar equivalence) are tested by placing parameter constraints on this model. Researchers can determine that the measure shows a certain level of equivalence by demonstrating that the model in question fits the data well and additionally, in the case of metric and scalar equivalence, that its fit is not considerably worse than that of the preceding less constrained model (Davidov, Meuleman, Cieciuch, Schmidt, & Billiet, 2014;Fischer & Fontaine, 2010). When a certain type of equivalence is rejected, a partial form of it can be tested (i.e., partial equivalence), namely, a condition in which some but not all parameters of interest for the model are equivalent across groups. ...
... These modifications were theory-driven or basing on previous research. CFAs were first run in the reference group (the UK) and subsequently in the focal group (Taiwan) as per expert recommendations (Fischer & Fontaine, 2010). 6 The final structural model tested with MCFA was the final model specified for the UK. ...
Article
This article explores the cross-cultural equivalence of two composite measures of environmental concern derived from the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP): the pro-environmental views scale (PEVS) and the environmental awareness scale (EAS). Item response theory and multigroup confirmatory factor analysis were employed to evaluate comprehensively the target measures while focusing on a concrete cross-cultural comparison between Taiwan and the UK. The results indicated that both measures show nonequivalence to different extents. The PEVS presents substantial problems of validity in Taiwan, whereas in the UK it is a meaningful unidimensional measure if one item is excluded. Difficulties with construct equivalence, translation, and method bias were identified as potential causes of the scale's nonequivalence. The EAS is a suitable measure within both cultures, but it is affected by the cumulative effect of differential item functioning (DIF) that makes the comparison of group means imprecise. Taiwanese respondents' salient tendency to endorse higher response categories than expected for their latent levels of EA was determined as a potential cause of DIF, which may be related to bias induced by the response categories' labels. Above all, this study reminds the importance of examining carefully the measurements employed in cross-cultural research to avoid reporting findings that could be potentially misleading.
... In general, these statistical procedures can be classified into two groups: 1) exploratory and 2) confirmatory methods. Exploratory methods include exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and multidimensional scaling (MDS) (Fischer & Fontaine, 2011;Sireci, Patsula, & Hambleton, 2005), while the most popular confirmatory procedure is multiple group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA).The paragraphs below will illustrate the appropriateness of these methods for evaluating construct bias. ...
... As noted by Fischer and Fontaine (2011), there are four congruence measures: the linearity, the proportionality (Tucker's phi), the additivity, and the identity coefficient. These congruent coefficients can range up to 1 with higher values indicating greater congruence of factor loadings between groups. ...
... Therefore, if one were interested in evaluating congruence of factor loadings for more than two groups, multiple pairwise comparisons for each item would need to be conducted. For a step-by-step guide on how to conduct an EFA for cross-cultural research with calculations of congruence coefficients, the reader is referred to Fischer and Fontaine (2011). ...
... It is therefore necessary to investigate the equivalence of the internal structure in each new ethnic or cultural group where the instrument is applied. A stepwise data analytic approach is suggested by Fischer and Fontaine (2010) and Fontaine and Fischer (2010) to test the comparability of psychometric instruments: ...
... Evidence of measurement invariance or equivalence was sought using exploratory factor analysis with a matrix of polychoric correlation due to the use of ordinal response variables (Jöreskog, 1994). The analytical approach to test structural equivalence and isomorphism requires several analytical steps, as recommended in Fischer and Fontaine (2010) and Fontaine and Fischer (2010). For these analyses we used the continuous bullying and victimization variables. ...
... Eid et al., 2003) are advisable and should be prioritized in future research. Nevertheless, we found the exploratory factor analysis, as recommended by Fischer and Fontaine (2010), more suitable in respect to the instrument used (i.e., BVQ) despite the restricted sample size on an individual and cultural level. ...
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Bullying in schools is a widespread phenomenon, witnessed worldwide, with negative consequences for victims and perpetrators. Although it is an international issue, there are several issues with cross-national and cross-cultural/ethnic research that can make comparisons between countries and cultures/ethnic groups difficult including language, cultural perception, and/or methodological issues. As statistical techniques rapidly develop, there may be more scope to be statistically creative in how we assess the utility of one tool across different groups such as cultures, nations, etc. At the very least, an attempt to do this should be paramount in studies investigating different groups (e.g., from different countries) at one time. This study investigated bullying and victimization rates in a large cross-ethnic and -country comparison between adolescents from four countries and five different ethnic groups including: Israel (Jewish Israelis and Arab Palestinian Israelis), Palestine (the Gaza Strip), Germany, and Greece. A total of 3,186 school children aged 12–15 years completed self-report questionnaires of peer bullying/victimization. A stepwise data analytic approach was used to test comparability of the psychometric properties: (1) Structural equivalence contributes to the valid use of the instrument in cultural contexts other than the one for which the instrument has been developed. Structural equivalence is a necessary condition for the justification of indirect or direct comparisons between cultural groups. (2) Additionally, structural isomorphism is necessary to demonstrate that the same internal structure of the instrument applies to the cultural and individual levels. Findings support the internal structural equivalence of the questionnaire with the exception of the Palestinian sample from the Gaza Strip. Subsequently, exploratory factor analysis on the cultural level structure revealed a one-factor structure with congruence measure below 0.85. Thus, no evidence was found for internal structural isomorphism suggesting that no direct comparisons of cultural samples was justified. These results are discussed in detail and the implications for the international research community and cross-national/-ethnic comparison studies in bullying are addressed.
... An alternative strategy recommended for fitting personality structures is Procrustean Factor Rotation (McCrae et al., 1996). I used the original six factor structure from a representative sample of NZ citizens (Sibley et al., 2011) as input and used established guidelines for examining factor similarity (Fischer & Fontaine, 2011;Fischer & Karl, 2019). Table 1 reports on the factor loadings after procrustean rotation. ...
... However, loadings were relatively uneven and a number of sizeable cross-loadings can be observed. To quantify the resemblance, factor congruence coefficients of .90 or higher are taken as adequate (Fischer & Fontaine, 2011;Fischer & Karl, 2019). As Table 1 shows, I found poor factor recovery across all indicators (mean Tucker's phi = .60). ...
... This instrument had been used in a number of previous samples, but to date no selfreported personality study has been conducted in a Thai context. The failure to replicate the classic Big Five or FFM structure may be driven by underrepresentation of trait content due to using a short instrument (Fischer & Fontaine, 2011), semantic shifts during the translation, or the possibility of a different trait structure in this particular culture. A study of Chinese community members (Li et al., 2012) had replicated the five-factor structure, suggesting that the short form of the questionnaire may not be the primary reason. ...
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This paper reports on the first study of the structure of the Mini-IPIP in Thailand. A modified version was used that included additional Honesty-Humility items. A four-factor structure was found in a Southern Thai community sample (N=212), that did not match previously reported factor structures. When using a separate student sample (N=201), the structure was partially replicated. Two socially oriented dimensions (Social Approach versus Social Withdrawal; Traditional Affiliation), Neuroticism, and a broad Egotism factor capturing low Humility and low Conscientiousness items, emerged. The trait structure in this non-Western sample shows some meaningful divergence from standard five-factor models, suggesting possible cultural modulation of basic personality descriptions.
... Cross-cultural psychologists usually resort to the measurement invariance approach to test whether the internal structures of measurement instruments are equivalent between cultural groups (Fischer and Fontaine 2011;Meredith 1993;Meredith and Teresi 2006;Milfont and Fischer 2010). However, although a very valuable tool in cross-cultural testing research, it may not be appropriate for use with neuropsychological tests. ...
... However, although a very valuable tool in cross-cultural testing research, it may not be appropriate for use with neuropsychological tests. This is because all of the measurement invariance methods are based on factor analysis (Fischer and Fontaine 2011;Milfont and Fischer 2010), which are applied to questionnaires or scales that consist of a variety of different items with individual ratings or scores for each item. That is not usually the case for many neuropsychological tests. ...
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Cultural variables exert a powerful effect on test performance. This effect is now largely recognized in the field of neuropsychology, although rather underestimated. This paper has three parts. First, different sources of cross-cultural bias in neuropsychological testing are identified, using the taxonomy proposed by van de Vijver and Tanzer (Eur Rev Appl Psychol 54: 119–135, 2004), specifically, an examination of construct, method and item biases. Second, strategies proposed in the literature to address these biases are reviewed. Finally, a three-level approach to addressing these problems related to bias is proposed. These approaches are hierarchically organized from bottom-to-top: (1) a behavioral approach in the testing situation, (2) test adaptation and, (3) the development of a new generation of neuropsychological tests. Simultaneous test development across multiple cultures is emphasized. Guidelines for the development of these tests are proposed in order to obtain culturally fair and psychometrically robust tests.
... To examine the theoretical structure, we conducted a multidimensional scaling analysis with the smacof package (Mair et al., 2021) and Euclidean distances based on Pearson's correlations, ordinal data structure, and extracting two dimensions. Compared to the theory-predicted positions (Bilsky et al., 2011), our data showed acceptable conceptual similarity (congruence = 0.88) in line with minimum standards for conceptual replication (Fischer and Fontaine, 2011;Fischer and Karl, 2019). Since there is an ongoing debate in the literature about the need to ipsatize value scores prior to analysis (Fischer, 2004;Rudnev, 2021), we also computed ipsatized values by subtracting the overall value mean from each individual value item and then averaged these ipsatized scores per value type. ...
... We used the theory-predicted positions as the target matrix (Bilsky et al., 2011). Compared to ideal theory-based matrix, the congruence coefficient of the solution was 0.878 (alienation coefficient: 0.479), suggesting a conceptual similarity in structure (Fischer and Fontaine, 2011;Fischer and Karl, 2019). When focusing on the individual dimensions, the estimates of the individual dimensions suggested lower replicability; for dimension 1, we found r = 0.41 and for dimension 2, r = 0.46. ...
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We report three studies in which we applied a value dictionary to narratives. Our objective was to test a theory-driven value dictionary for extracting valuable information from autobiographical and narrative texts. In Studies 1 (N = 106) and 2 (N = 152), participants wrote short autobiographical narratives and in Study 3 (N = 150), participants wrote narratives based on ambiguous stimuli. Participants in all three studies also completed the Portrait Value Questionnaire as a self-report measure of values. Overall, our results demonstrate that it is possible to extract value-relevant information from these narratives. Extracted values from autobiographical narratives showed average correlations of 0.07 (Study 1) and 0.12 (Study 2) with self-reports compared to an average correlation of 0.01 for the extracted values from implicit motive tasks (Study 3). The correlations with self-reports were in line with previous validation studies. The most salient values in narratives diverged somewhat, with a stronger emphasis on achievement values compared to self-reports, probably due to the nature of salient episodes within one's life that require demonstrating success according to social standards. Benevolence values were consistently most important in both self-ratings and text-based scoring. The value structure emerging from narratives diverged from the theoretically predicted structure, yet broad personally vs. socially focused value dimensions were qualitatively discernible. We highlight opportunities and challenges for future value research using autobiographical stories.
... Before comparisons of scores between different cultural groups can be made, one must first ensure that the instrument in question meets measurement equivalence (also referred to as measurement invariance in the literature); in other words, the instrument must measure the same construct in the same manner across different cultural contexts (Chen, 2008;Millsap, 2011). Measurement equivalence is established by meeting four increasing restrictive criteria: (1) functional equivalence; (2) structural equivalence; (3) metric equivalence; and (4) scalar (or full score) equivalence (Fischer and Fontaine, 2011;Millsap, 2011) 1 . Functional equivalence is established when the same construct (e.g., depression) can be observed across different groups. ...
... While there are confirmatory bifactor models, we did not have a clear confirmatory structure for the bifactors as only a single study (de Miranda Azevedo et al., 2016) has examined bifactor models in the BDI; however, we expected the items to load on the general factor in a similar way. To assess the congruence between groups, we made use of Tucker's congruence coefficient (Fischer and Fontaine, 2011) to measure the congruence of the resulting exploratory bifactor solutions between the groups. Tucker's coefficient of congruence for a vector of loadings on a particular dimension in two groups over k items is ...
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Depression is commonly seen in survivors of conflict and disaster across the world. There is a dearth of research on the validity of commonly used measures of depression in these populations. Measurements of depression that are used in multiple contexts need to meet measurement equivalence, i.e., the instrument measures the same construct in the same manner across different groups. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was administered to female trauma survivors in the United States (n = 268) and female survivors of war in Sri Lanka (n = 149). Three metrics of measurement equivalence—structural, metric, and scalar—were examined. Two- and three-factor structures of the BDI that have been identified in other populations did not provide a good fit for our data. However, a bifactor model revealed a similar general distress dimension across populations, but dissimilar secondary dimensions or subfactors. The Sri Lankan subfactor comprised of predominantly somatic symptoms and the United States subfactor comprised of cognitive and somatic symptoms. While intercepts of individual BDI items differed, their differences seem to be offsetting. Total BDI scores across these two populations are roughly comparable, although caution is recommended when interpreting them. Making comparisons on subscales is not recommended.
... Equivalence in the current context refers to the comparability of measured scores between cultures and can be broken down into three levels that can be empirically assessed: structural equivalence, metric equivalence, and scalar equivalence (Fontaine 2005;Van De Vijver and Leung 2011). Structural equivalence implies that the same items can be used to measure the same latent constructs across cultures (Fischer and Fontaine 2010). In other words, measures show structural equivalence if the same items are used across cultures and these items form the same dimensional structure in all cultures. ...
... The average Φ ranged from .850 to .954 for the individual countries (all results are in Table 11 in the supplementary material), where .90 can be considered good fit (Fischer and Fontaine 2010). Overall, 11 countries (Australia, Austria, Chile, China, Germany, Spain, Norway, New Zealand, Portugal, Sweden, USA; 68.75% of all countries) showed good congruence to the ideal structure. ...
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Objectives The goal of the current study was to investigate the universality of the five-factor model of mindfulness and the measurement equivalence of the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ).Methods The study used FFMQ data from published and unpublished research conducted in 16 countries (total N = 8541). Using CFA, different models, proposed in the literature, were fitted. To test the cross-cultural equivalence of the best fitting model, a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis was used. Further, the equivalence of individual facets of the FFMQ and potential sources of non-equivalence was explored.ResultsThe best fitting models in most samples were a five-facet model with a higher-order mindfulness factor and uncorrelated positive and negative item-wording factors and a five-facet model with a correlated facets and uncorrelated positive and negative item-wording factors. These models showed structural equivalence, but did not show metric equivalence (equivalent factor loadings) across cultures. Given this lack of equivalent factor loadings, not even correlations or mean patterns can be compared across cultures. A similar pattern was observed when testing the equivalence of the individual facets; all individual facets failed even tests of metric equivalence. A sample size weighted exploratory factor analysis across cultures indicated that a six-factor solution might provide the best fit across cultures with acting with awareness split into two factors. Finally, both the five- and six-factor solution showed substantially better fit in more individualistic and less tight cultures.Conclusions Overall, the FFMQ has conceptual and measurement problems in a cross-cultural context, raising questions about the validity of the current conceptualization of mindfulness across cultures. The results showed that the fit of the FFMQ was substantially better in individualistic cultures that indicate that further data from non-Western cultures is needed to develop a universal conceptualization and measurement of mindfulness.
... I take this as an indication of universality of the structure of concrete operational thinking. Indeed, the method of demonstrating structural equivalence between the theoretical expectation and the data, or between two or more cultural groups, using various forms of factor analysis and in particular principal components, has become the standard practice in crosscultural psychology (Fischer & Fontaine, 2011). ...
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Psychology, including cross-cultural psychology, as well as other social sciences including anthropology, are born and have grown up in the last century mainly in Europe and North America. Hence they are inculturated in the Western "minority" world, disregarding what Kagitçibasi (1996) has called the "majority word" in which most of the human populations live. As such, we cannot hold this against these sciences; after all, each one of us is born and raised in a particular group, of which we learn the rules and the tricks, and which gives us our identity. It only becomes a problem when we compare these rules and tricks to those of others, and believe that our own are better, if not the only valid ones, and when we try to set them up as models and impose them on others. Ethnocentrism is surely one of the most universal processes! How can we overcome it? Unfortunately, most textbooks of psychology are based on Western theories and research, and it is therefore difficult to decide what is and what is not appropriate in Africa. Until there are truly African textbooks of psychology, some elements of (cross-)cultural psychology should be useful.
... Para verificar la invarianza de los resultados psicométricos, se hicieron 2 exploraciones: una comparando nuestros resultados de la estructura factorial frente a los obtenidos por Gil-Monte (2016) en el estudio original. Esta evaluación se enfoca en las cargas factoriales, permitiendo identificar el grado en que la variable latente está vinculada estadísticamente con sus ítems (Fischer y Fontaine, 2011). La evaluación de este tipo se hizo aplicando el reciente marco basado en perfiles (Hartley y Furr, 2017), en el que se examina en profundidad la congruencia de las soluciones factoriales comparadas, incluyendo el coeficiente de congruencia, la saturación factorial general (media) y diferencial (dispersión) de las cargas factoriales, así como la similaridad de la saturación general (diferencia de medias) y diferencial (diferencia de la dispersión). ...
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Introducción y objetivos: El presente estudio obtuvo las primeras evidencias de la validez de la estructura interna e invarianza de la Escala de Apoyo Social en el Trabajo, una medida integrada en la batería de pruebas UNIPSICO para la evaluación de factores psicosociales de los recursos. Material y método: Participaron 177 ingenieros (74% varones) de 19 a 64 anos ˜ provenientes de la ciudad de Lima, Perú. Se examinó la estructura interna mediante 2 modelamientos: el enfoque no paramétrico de la Teoría de Respuesta al Ítem y el modelamiento SEM; se probó el funcionamiento diferencial de ítems según el sexo y la confiabilidad fue estimada con los coeficientes alfa de Cronbach y Omega. Resultados: Se verificó una fuerte estructura unidimensional de la Escala de Apoyo Social en el Trabajo con ambos enfoques (cargas factoriales entre .46 y .82); no se detectó funcionamiento diferencial respecto al sexo y los coeficientes de la confiabilidad fueron aceptables y muy similares (.79). Conclusiones: La Escala de Apoyo Social en el Trabajo presenta resultados satisfactorios en cuanto a validez y confiabilidad y apertura hacia futuras investigaciones en el contexto peruano.
... The survey was translated and back translated between Arabic and Hebrew and pilot-tested by children and expert adults fluent in both languages to ensure ecological validity and equivalence of the scenarios. An assessment of measurement invariance (Fischer & Fontaine, 2011) found the measure equivalent across the two groups (φ(PeI, J-I) = 0.99; Lorenzo-Seva & ten Berge, 2006). The measure was also highly reliable at all time points for both groups (Cronbach's alphas P-I: T1 = 0.94, T2 = 0.95, T3 = 0.94; J-I: T1 = 0.96, T2 = 0.96, T3 = 0.96). ...
Article
Although contact-based interventions are the cornerstone of prejudice reduction, in high-conflict environments, incendiary contact with outgroups can instead exacerbate negative attitudes. Supplementing contact interventions with social-cognitive/emotional approaches may, instead, help facilitate positive contact. This study evaluated the effectiveness of two prejudice reduction interventions among 148 Palestinian-Israeli and 154 Jewish-Israeli 5th grade students (Mage.years = 10.55, SD = 0.26) in a high conflict area. Schools in Jaffa, Israel were assigned to a social-cognitive/emotional skills-based intervention, a skills- and contact-based intervention (i.e., skills, skills+contact), or the control group-all delivered as part of the curriculum. Prejudice was assessed through participants' judgments of and justifications about hypothetical scenarios of intergroup exclusion in peer and home contexts at pre-test, post-test, and 6-month follow-up. Repeated measures ANOVAs showed various main effects including gender, ethnicity, and context in which the exclusion occurred (peer/home). Significant higher level interactions with group by time demonstrated the positive influence of both treatment groups on prejudice reduction. The skills and skills+contact groups became more rejecting while the control group became more accepting of exclusion across time. Additionally, the skills and skills+contact groups increased in moral and empathic reasoning over time, whereas the control group increased in social conventional and stereotyped prejudiced reasoning. These findings illustrate the effectiveness of in-school social-cognitive/emotional skills and combined skills+contact approaches in reducing the prejudiced attitudes of Palestinian- and Jewish-Israeli pre-adolescents, especially in areas with protracted conflict.
... The most stringent index is the correlation coefficient (also called identity coefficient). Other coefficients such as linearity, or additivity can be computed, if necessary (for a general review of these options, see van de Vijver and Leung, 1997;Fischer and Fontaine, 2010). Factor congruence coefficients vary between 0 and 1. Conventionally, values larger than 0.85 can be judged as showing fair factor similarity and values larger than 0.95 as showing factor equality (Lorenzo-Seva and ten Berge, 2006), values lower than 0.85 (ten Berge, 1986) are indicative of incongruence. ...
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Psychology has become less WEIRD in recent years, marking progress toward becoming a truly global psychology. However, this increase in cultural diversity is not matched by greater attention to cultural biases in research. A significant challenge in culture-comparative research in psychology is that any comparisons are open to possible item bias and non-invariance. Unfortunately, many psychologists are not aware of problems and their implications, and do not know how to best test for invariance in their data. We provide a general introduction to invariance testing and a tutorial of three major classes of techniques that can be easily implemented in the free software and statistical language R. Specifically, we describe (1) confirmatory and multi-group confirmatory factor analysis, with extension to exploratory structural equation modeling, and multi-group alignment; (2) iterative hybrid logistic regression as well as (3) exploratory factor analysis and principal component analysis with Procrustes rotation. We pay specific attention to effect size measures of item biases and differential item function. Code in R is provided in the main text and online (see https://osf.io/agr5e/), and more extended code and a general introduction to R are available in the Supplementary Materials.
... indication of structural equivalence (cf.Fischer & Fontaine, 2011) supports the universality of the structure of concrete operational thinking.Together with research in Australia and Canada, the results in Côte d'Ivoire and ...
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This chapter starts with the "integrated theoretical framework" for the cross-cultural study of behavioural development, which uses an eco-cultural perspective, and shows that child development occurs in the micro-system of a "developmental niche" consisting of the physical and social contexts in which the child lives, educational practices, and parental ethnotheories. The latter are linked to values and cosmologies at the cultural level of the macro-system, such as religious beliefs and practices. Enculturation and socialization are the main processes of cultural transmission, while acculturation also has to be taken into account. The second part then presents a review of the cross-cultural literature on culture and cognition, from which we conclude that cultural differences occur in cognitive styles rather than in the presence or absence of particular cognitive processes. These two theoretical propositions are then illustrated with examples drawn from our research on the development of spatial language and cognition, in particular results from Bali, Indonesia. For example, the likelihood of choosing a geocentric frame of spatial reference is found to be higher in rural, more traditional children who speak Balinese rather than urban, more acculturated children choosing Bahasa Indonesian (a language that favors an egocentric frame). The general conclusion of our research program is phrased in terms of an egocentric vs. geocentric cognitive style. We show supportive evidence from the study of geocentric language and cognition, and discuss the counterexample of results in Switzerland (Geneva), where children did not use a geocentric frame at any time.
... Наибольшее количество факторов устанавливали с помощью параллельного анализа и MAP-теста (O'Connor, 2000). Воспро изводимость факторов в двух исследованиях оценивали с помощью коэффициента конгруэнтности после вращения варимакс и целенаправленного вращения (Fischer, Fontaine, 2011). Вклад пола, возраста и чувствительности к наказанию и вознаграждению в иерархическую структуру личности и психопатологии изучали с помощью корреляционного анализа и общих линейных моделей (General Linear Model). ...
... In addition, the advanced three-step approach of LPA may also be very useful to provide validity evidence of the classification by testing the equality of within-group means of students' mathematics performance and non-cognitive outcomes across the three MA profiles. More importantly, multi-group LPA makes it possible for direct comparisons between different countries by testing measurement invariance of different models, thus differences/similarities between different cultures can be meaningfully interpreted (Fischer and Fontaine, 2010). The application of multi-group LPA in cross-cultural research may provide an important tool to explore the cultural differences of MA in a wide context instead of a single context. ...
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Using PISA 2012 data, the present study explored profiles of mathematics anxiety (MA) among 15-year old students from Finland, Korea, and the United States to determine the similarities and differences of MA across the three national samples by applying a multi-group latent profile analysis (LPA). The major findings were that (a) three MA profiles were found in all three national samples, i.e., Low MA, Mid MA, and High MA profile, and (b) the percentages of students classified into each of the three MA profiles differed across the Finnish, Korean, and American samples, with United States having the highest prevalence of High MA, and Finland the lowest. Multi-group LPA also provided clear and useful latent profile separation. The High MA profile demonstrated significant poorer mathematics performance and lower mathematics interest, self-efficacy, and self-concept than the Mid and Low MA profiles. Same differences appeared between the Mid and Low MA profiles. The implications of the findings seem clear: (1) it is possible that there is some relative level of universality in MA among 15-year old students which is independent of cultural context; and (2) multi-group LPA could be a useful analytic tool for research on the study of classification and cultural differences of MA.
... To analyze the underlying structures of obsessions, we used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) for both the pooled data and the data from each cultural group separately. For ease of interpretation, we chose varimax rotation (Fischer and Fontaine, 2010). Before the analysis, we centered each item based on cultural group mean scores to prevent EFA to be affected by mean differences (Leung and Bond, 1989;Fischer, 2004). ...
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There is a growing interest in the role of culture in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, yet cultural studies to date have suffered from methodological limitations and lack a clear theoretical framework. In the current study, we adopted a rigorous methodological approach, and a clear cultural psychological framework. We compared the structure and frequency of obsessions in non-clinical samples (N = 706) from Belgium, a Western culture, and Turkey, a non-Western cultural context. Obsessions were measured by a newly compiled instrument that included a broad range of obsessions. Cross-cultural equivalence of the structure of obsessions was assessed both in the pooled data, and in each culture separately. At an abstract level, we found a two-factor structure that was cross-culturally invariant, and that fit both cultures equally well. These two types of obsessions each corresponded with a different model of agency. Compared to the Turkish sample, the Belgian sample reported more obsessions that can be understood from a disjoint (independent) model of agency as frequently found in Western cultures, whereas the Turkish sample, compared to their Belgian counterparts, reported more obsessions that can be tied to a conjoint (shared) model of agency as frequently found in non-Western cultural contexts. Differences in the prevalent types of obsessions were systematic and interpretable, therefore. In addition to the cross-culturally equivalent two-factor structure, we found culture-specific factor solutions; these solutions point to cultural differences in the experience of obsessions that have yet to be fully understood. In the Discussion, we outline future directions of the research on culture and obsessions.
... Finally, scalar invariance (i.e., similar item intercepts across samples) is preferred when scale means will be compared (Meuleman & Billiet, 2011;Steenkamp & Baumgartner, 1998;Fischer & Fontaine, 2011). ...
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Background: People differ in action versus state orientation, or the capacity for volitional action control. Prior research has shown that people who are action- rather than state-oriented are better able to perceive and satisfy own motives (e.g., affiliation, achievement, power), which translates into greater psychological well-being (Baumann, Kaschel, & Kuhl, 2005; Baumann & Quirin, 2006). However, most of the extant literature has been limited to samples from European countries or the US. To address this shortcoming, the present paper investigated the associations between action versus state orientation, psychological well-being, and anxious style of motive enactment among samples in Germany, New Zealand, and Bangladesh (combined N = 862). Methods: To examine the consistency of our results across countries, a multi-group structural equation model (SEM) was used to examine the associations between action orientation, anxious motive enactment, and well-being. Subsequent mediation analyses assessed whether anxious motive enactment mediated the relationship between action orientation and well-being across each of the three samples. Results: Across all three cultural groups, action-orientation was associated with less anxious motive enactment and higher well-being. Moreover, mediation analyses revealed significant indirect paths from action orientation through less anxious motive enactment to well-being that were similar across the three samples. Conclusions: These findings suggest that individual differences in action versus state orientation have a similar psychological meaning across Western and non-Western cultures.
... Наибольшее количество факторов устанавливали с помощью параллельного анализа и MAP-теста (O'Connor, 2000). Воспро изводимость факторов в двух исследованиях оценивали с помощью коэффициента конгруэнтности после вращения варимакс и целенаправленного вращения (Fischer, Fontaine, 2011). Вклад пола, возраста и чувствительности к наказанию и вознаграждению в иерархическую структуру личности и психопатологии изучали с помощью корреляционного анализа и общих линейных моделей (General Linear Model). ...
Article
The questionnaire study examined the contribution of gender, age and reinforcement sensitivity to the common structure of child personality and problem behaviors in two samples, parent reports of 2-18-year-olds (N = 968) and self-reports of 11-18-year-olds (N = 1543), using the Inventory of Child Individual Differences — Short version (ICID-S) to measure personality, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to assess emotional and behavioral problems, and the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ). A joint factor analysis of the ICID-S and SDQ scales suggested a four-factor structure, including Organization, Positive, Behavior Problems, and Internalizing. This four-factor model was remarkably similar to previously reported models of personality and psychopathology. Congruence coefficients indicated that factors based on parent reports and adolescent self-reports were highly similar at all levels of the hierarchy. Gender, age, sensitivity to punishment, and sensitivity to reward generally made independent contributions to personality-psychopathology factors. Sensitivity to reward made a substantial contribution to Externalizing (conduct problems, hyperactivity and inattention), whereas sensitivity to punishment contributed to Internalizing (shyness, fears and emotional symptoms). The link between sensitivity to punishment and Internalizing in older adolescents was stronger than in younger. The protective effect of punishment sensitivity on Externalizing was found in girls only. These findings demonstrate the role of motivational brain-behavior systems in the development of normal and abnormal patterns of behavior and emotions.
... Principal components analysis (PCA) was adopted as the preferred method of analysis, as suggested by Fischer and Fontaine (2011), for exploratory purposes in crosscultural research. Costello and Osborne (2005) note the often heated debate concerning the relative merit of PCA as opposed to factor analysis. ...
Article
This article introduces the Masculinities Representations Inventory (MRI), English version, as a multidimensional measure of gender (re)presentation. It provides structural, convergent, and divergent validity, as well as reliability evidence, in support of its use among English speakers in South Africa. Principal components analysis with a male student sample (n = 319) confirms the measure’s construct multidimensionality. Three factors inform a 29-item total- and subscale measure, including dominant Representations of Othering (Anti-Effeminacy and Homo-Negativity), Responsibility (Dependability and Success), and Control (Dominance and Toughness). Evidence of convergent validity is seen in predicted patterns of correlation between MRI scale scores and those of the Male Role Norms Inventory as well as Gender Role Conflict Scales. Evidence of divergent validity is apparent in nonsignificant correlations, in all but one case (Masculinity), with the Personal Attributes Questionnaire scale scores.
... Measurement invariance is best assessed within the framework of structural equation modeling. Specifically, multidimensional scaling, principal component analysis, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis are the four principal methods used for assessing equivalence of psychological measures (Fischer & Fontaine, 2010). ...
... The configural model was in turn used as a baseline for comparisons with nested models in which parameters were increasingly constrained (see Fischer & Fontaine, 2010;Milfont & Fischer, 2010;Vandenberg & Lance, 2000). We increasingly constrained the measurement weights and measurement intercepts in MGA that was performed for the purposes of the current study; invariance at these two levels of measurement respectively establishes "weak" versus "strong" evidence for invariance. ...
Article
European colonial powers invaded and then dominated a large part of the African continent from the sixteenth to the twentieth century. The influence of colonialism did not cease after independence as it still impregnates the cultures and identities of both formerly colonising and formerly colonised peoples. The question of how inhabitants of formerly colonised and formerly colonising countries represent the colonial past is a key issue in understanding this lasting influence. Social representations of European colonial action were investigated among young people (N=1134) in three European countries and six African countries. Social representations of the colonial past were structured around two main dimensions across African and European samples: Exploitation and Development. Social representations of colonialism denoted by Exploitation were more strongly endorsed by the European compared to the African subsample, whereas those denoted by Development were more strongly endorsed by the African compared to the European subsample. However, while African participants considered colonialism less negatively than Europeans, they also had higher expectations concerning Europeans' collective guilt feeling and willingness to offer reparations. By contrast, European participants' social representations of colonialism were more negative but they were less likely to believe that present-day European peoples and governments are accountable for the misdeeds of colonialism in the past. Finally, national identification mediated the association between the Exploitation dimension of colonialism and both group-based emotions and support for reparation in the African, but not the European, subsample.
... This discrepancy is a common situation encountered in crosscultural studies involving measurements on the same scale, as most of the time there is no universal conceptualization of the constructs across cultures and consequently no measurement equivalence. Such equivalence is usually identified at three different levels (Fontaine, 2005;Fischer and Fontaine, 2010;Van De Vijver and Leung, 2011): structural equivalence, when the same manifest variables can be used to assess the same latent variables in different cultures; metric equivalence, when the item loadings are the same across cultures; and scalar equivalence, pertaining to the fact that respondents with the same levels of the latent construct give similar answers to the items regardless the culture. As the measurement stage in our case reveals, the AICS does not elicit any of the equivalence properties, although the differences within the corresponding latent variables between Italy and Romania are not fundamentally different. ...
Article
The practice of collaborative consumption is increasingly spreading and diversifying nowadays, impacting both individuals and businesses. This paper seeks to contribute to the emerging debate that acknowledges its global importance by providing a cultural understanding of the deeper mechanisms underlying attitudes and intentions associated with collaborative consumption. The survey design aims to integrate personal norms, behavioral beliefs and individualism-collectivism constructs within the theory of planned behavior framework and thus to better explain the intention to engage in collaborative consumption. The study was conducted in Romania and Italy and a Partial Least Squares-Path Modeling approach was implemented to analyze the data. The findings illustrates the role played by responsibility, uniqueness and advice, as cultural facets revealed by the Auckland Individualism and Collectivism Scale-as significant predecessors of attitude and subjective norms related to collaborative consumption. Responsibility is the dimension with a positive impact on attitude in both countries, and even on behavioral intention in Italy, while advice and uniqueness show a certain degree of leverage only in Romania. The implications reinforce the need for tailored approaches at the cultural level in order to increase the uptake of collaborative consumption.
... Many authors have discussed ways of identifying and addressing measurement equivalence (Chen, 2008;Cheung & Rensvold, 1999;Fischer & Fontaine, 2011;Milfont & Fischer, 2010;Steenkamp & Baumgartner, 1998;van de Vijver & Leung, 1997, 2011Vandenberg & Lance, 2000). In particular, a study by Milfont, Duckitt, and Cameron (2006) provided an application of measurement invariance testing in the area of environmental psychology. ...
Book
This handbook is the first to comprehensively study the interdependent fields of environmental and conservation psychology. In doing so, it seeks to map the rapidly growing field of conservation psychology and its relationship to environmental psychology. The Oxford Handbook of Environmental and Conservation Psychology includes basic research on environmental perceptions, attitudes, and values; research on specific environments, such as therapeutic settings, schools, and prisons; environmental impacts on human well-being; and ways to promote a more sustainable relationship between people and the natural environment. This handbook presents an extensive review of current research and is a thorough guide to the state of knowledge about a wide range of topics at the intersection of psychology and the physical environment. Beyond this, it provides a better understanding of the relationship between environmental and conservation psychology, and some sense of the directions in which these interdependent areas of study are heading.
... Correlation matrices and factor structures should also remain similar (Cheung, 2008). We measured metric equivalence using the orthogonal procrustean factor rotation (Fischer & Fontaine, 2011), following GLOBE's approach to compare factor structures across countries (House et al., 2014: 181-185). This helps determine equivalence in factor loadings for culture scales across countries. ...
Article
This paper assesses whether societal culture moderates the relationship between human resource management (HRM) practices and organizational performance. Drawing on matched employer–employee data from 387 organizations and 7187 employees in 14 countries, our findings show a positive relationship between HRM practices combined in High-Performance Work Systems (HPWS) and organizational performance across societal cultures. Three dimensions of societal culture assessed (power distance, in-group collectivism, and institutional collectivism) did not moderate this relationship. Drawing on the Ability–Motivation–Opportunity (AMO) model, we further consider the effectiveness of three bundles of HRM practices (skill-enhancing, motivation-enhancing, and opportunity-enhancing practices). This analysis shows opportunity-enhancing practices (e.g., participative work design and decision-making) are less effective in high-power-distance cultures. Nevertheless, in markedly different countries we find combinations of complementary HPWS and bundles of AMO practices appear to outweigh the influence of societal culture and enhance organizational performance.
... excellent (e.g. Fischer & Fontaine, 2010;Lorenzo-Seva & ten Berge, 2006). Finally, the coordinates of the 80 emotion terms in each language in the common structure are correlated with the coordinates of these emotion terms in the sample-specific structures after (oblique) Procrustes rotation. ...
Article
Free download from: https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/3XPIP6W3KRW68EM4PKJV/full?target=10.1080/02699931.2021.2013163 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- While dimensional models play a key role in emotion psychology, no consensus has been reached about their number and nature. The current study sheds a new light on this central issue by examining linear and non-linear relationships among the dimensions in the cognitive emotion structure. The meaning of 80 emotion terms was evaluated on 68 features representing appraisals, action tendencies, bodily reactions, expressions, and subjective experiences by 213 English-speaking US, 156 French-speaking Swiss, and 194 Indonesian-speaking Indonesian students. In a two-dimensional valence and arousal representation, neither linear nor non-linear relationships were observed. In a four-dimensional valence, power, arousal, and novelty representation, both linear (e.g. a positive relationship between valence and power) and non-linear (e.g. a strong positive correlation between valence and power found only for positively valenced emotion terms) relationships were observed. Joy- and sadness-related emotion terms where about as well represented by the two- than by the four-dimensional representation. However, especially anger- and surprise-related terms were only adequately represented by the four-dimensional representation. These findings were generalisable across the three languages. Even though a two-dimensional structure fits the data well in general, four dimensions are needed to sufficiently represent the cognitive structure of the whole gamut of human emotions.
... Measurement model: Invariance analysis and means comparison. Multi-cultural investigations and cross-national comparisons are meaningful only under the assumption that the constructs, as well as the scores that represent these constructs, are comparable across the contexts under study (Fischer & Fontaine, 2011).We tested this assumption before conducting any further analyses, by investigating if the measurement model parameters for key measures (dimensions of COVID-19 impact, Intolerance of Uncertainty, Future Life Perception, and Financial Future Perception scales) were invariant across the six countries. Recognizing that these parameters may not be exactly equal (Byrne & van de Vijver, 2017), we conducted measurement invariance (MI) analyses in two steps. ...
Article
The present research examined the association of perceived impact of COVID-19 on emerging adults' perceptions of their future and the potential mediating role of intolerance of uncertainty on these associations. Specifically, we investigated the associations of perceived financial impact, needed resource impact, and psychological impact on perceptions of future life and financial future. Using online survey data from emerging adults (N = 1768) living in six countries (China, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Slovenia, and USA), we found that the perceived dimension of impact (i.e., finances, needed resources, and psychological) was negatively associated with perceptions of future life and financial future, despite mean level differences by country. The ability to tolerate uncertainty was a significant mediator only for psychological impact. We conclude the article with suggestions for applying our findings in the design of future interventions.
... One important issue that arises while developing multicultural measures is the question of appropriate fit in crosscultural comparisons that have not been addressed in the literature, which has been dominated by monocultural research. Fischer and Fontaine (2011) argue that the "uncritical application of criteria established primarily on monocultural research, may lead to an erroneous rejection of models in cross-cultural research" (p. 204). ...
Article
Research on romantic involvement among young adults in non‐Western populations is very sparse. In Study 1, using data from 718 young adults from India, we tested the factorial structure and measurement invariance (MI) of a 30‐item Romantic Inclination Scale (RIS). The results showed that a seven‐factor, 23‐item solution fitted the data well. MI analysis demonstrated partial metric invariance across gender and partial scalar invariance across relationship history. In Study 2, involving participants from India (n = 424) and the United States (n = 459), we compared the psychometric properties of the RIS. The seven‐factor, 23‐item version of the RIS fitted the data adequately, and partial metric invariance was achieved across the Indian and US samples. Cross‐cultural research implications and future directions are discussed.
... First, we examined the similarity with previously reported factor structures (Ashton et al., 2004). We used Procrustes factor rotation to rotate the factor structure extracted from the text to the factor structures identified in rating studies of real individuals and computed Tucker's phi coefficients (Fischer & Fontaine, 2010;Van de Vijver & Leung, 1997) to examine factorial similarity. In psycholexical research, a threshold of .80 has been suggested as indicating sufficient similarity when dealing with structures that come from different sets of terms (De Raad et al., 2010). ...
Article
We present a new method for personality assessment at a distance to uncover personality structure in historical texts. We focus on how two 19th century authors understood and described human personality; we apply a new bottom‐up computational approach to extract personality dimensions used by Jane Austen and Charles Dickens to describe fictional characters in 21 novels. We matched personality descriptions using three person‐description dictionaries marker scales as reference points for interpretation. Factor structures did not show strong convergence with the contemporary Big Five model. Jane Austen described characters in terms of social and emotional richness with greater nuances but using a less extensive vocabulary. Charles Dickens, in contrast, used a rich and diverse personality vocabulary, but those descriptions centred around more restricted dimensions of power and dominance. Although we could identify conceptually similar factors across the two authors, analyses of the overlapping vocabulary between the two authors suggested only moderate convergence. We discuss the utility and potential of automated text analysis and the lexical hypothesis to (i) provide insights into implicit personality models in historical texts and (ii) bridge the divide between idiographic and nomothetic perspectives. © 2020 European Association of Personality Psychology
... In order to determine if the measurement pattern of latent constructs remains invariant across different samples, we calculated configural (testing if the same items measure our constructs across groups), metric (testing for the group equivalency of the factor loadings) and scalar invariance (testing for the group equivalency of the item intercepts), in line with, e.g. (Fischer and Fontaine 2011;Putnick and Bornstein 2016) in Amos 24.0. We compared male and female teachers with presumption that the structure of the Motivations and Beliefs scales for the two groups would not differ. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to validate the structure of the FIT-Choice scale on a Serbian sample of pre-service teachers, as well as to determine the motivations and beliefs about the teaching profession, and test if motivation differs across different groups of pre-service teachers. After prospective class and subject teachers (N = 433) filled in the FIT-Choice scale, the CFAs were performed. For Motivations, the adjusted 12-factor model fits the data best. Ten original factors were replicated, and Bludging and Time for family appeared as separate factors, like in the first version of the FIT-Choice model, while Transferability and Security merged into one. The six-factor Beliefs model with one item removed had the best fit indices. Intrinsic value, Social utility value and Perceived teaching ability were the highest rated motivations. Females and prospective class teachers were more motivated by altruistic motives and perceived the profession as more demanding than males and prospective subject teachers. The authors conclude that the FIT-Choice scale demonstrated acceptable structural and known-groups validity and reliability, and that the results on Motivations were similar to those obtained in Western countries.
... Several authors (Fischer & Fontaine, 2011;Lorenzo-Seva & Berge, 2006) suggested using Tucker's coefficient congruence based on an Orthogonal Procrustes Rotation to assess structural equivalence, especially when multivariate normality is violated. We therefore used this method in order to assess factor solutions similarity between the French, US and Indian samples. ...
Article
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A major underlying assumption of positive psychology is that we can influence our well-being through our own behavior. It remains an open question as to whether the general public shares this perception, and how this is related to their actual level of well-being. Do they feel a sense of control over their well-being or do they see it more as subject to external influences? There is currently no defined scientific construct to describe this phenomenon. Therefore, the aim of the present research was to define a concept of a locus of control specific to well-being (WB-LOC) and develop a multidimensional scale with which to measure it (WB-LOC12). To examine the psychometric properties of the WB-LOC scale, we conducted three studies with the following analyses: an exploratory analysis in Study 1 (n = 349), a confirmatory analysis with validity and reliability evaluations in Study 2 (n = 341), and a third study (n = 586), in which we translated the scale from French into English and evaluated the factorial structure and internal consistency in diverse cultural samples. Results indicated a solid reliability and validity. Moreover, exploratory and confirmatory analyses supported the three-factor structure in both the French and English versions. In conclusion, the WB-LOC12 scale shows robust psychometric properties and can be used in further research.
... Results of a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis composed of British-Canadians and Hong Kong Chinese (many of whom were also participants in our study) were largely supportive-especially in terms of metric invariance. This finding suggests that, as per Fischer and Fontaine (2011): " … the intervals between the numeric values of the scale have the same meaning in all cultural groups" (p. 182). ...
Article
Although research identifies both leisure and paid work as important contributors to subjective well-being (SWB), the mechanisms by which they do so remain understudied especially in non-Western contexts. A framework relevant to both leisure and work is basic psychological need theory, which posits that satisfaction of autonomy, relatedness, and competence needs enhances SWB. Therefore, this study examined the influence of basic need satisfaction during leisure and work on domain and global life satisfaction (GLS) among Hong Kong Chinese (HKC) workers. Cross-sectional data were collected through a telephone survey from 585 randomly sampled HKC. Structural equation modeling indicated that: (a) satisfaction of autonomy, relatedness, and competence positively correlated with leisure and work domain satisfaction, except for work competence; and (b) leisure and work domain satisfaction positively and similarly related to GLS. The findings are discussed in relation to the literature on leisure, work, SWB, and culture.
... Thus, the closer the Tucker's phi is to 1 the more the observed pattern of loadings corresponds with the hypothetical pattern of loadings across items. In the literature, Tucker's phi values of 0.85, 0.90, and 0.95 are considered to point to a fair, a good and a very good congruence, respectively, between the observed and hypothetical loading pattern (Lorenzo-Seva and ten Berge, 2006;Fischer and Fontaine, 2010). The Tucker's phi congruence coefficients have been computed in SPSS (version 26) using a syntax command, which can be obtained from the first author (Johnny.Fontaine@ugent.be). ...
Article
Full-text available
Principal Component Metrics is a novel theoretically-based and data-driven methodology that enables the evaluation of the internal structure at item level of maximum emotional intelligence tests. This method disentangles interindividual differences in emotional ability from acquiescent and extreme responding. Principal Component Metrics are applied to existing (Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test) and assembled (specifically, the Situational Test of Emotion Understanding, the Situational Test of Emotion Management, and the Geneva Emotion Recognition Test) emotional intelligence test batteries in an analysis of three samples (total N = 2,303 participants). In undertaking these analyses important aspects of the nomological network of emotional intelligence, acquiescent, and extreme responding are investigated. The current study adds a central piece of empirical validity evidence to the emotional intelligence domain. In the three different samples, theoretically predicted internal structures at item level were found using raw item scores. The validity of the indicators for emotional intelligence, acquiescent, and extreme responding was confirmed by their relationships across emotional intelligence tests and by their nomological networks. The current findings contribute to evaluating the efficacy of the emotional intelligence construct as well as the validity evidence surrounding the instruments that are currently designed for its assessment, in the process opening new perspectives for analyzing existing and constructing new emotional intelligence tests.
... indicate that they are fairly similar (Lorenzo-Seva & Ten Berge, 2006). Before computing factor congruence coefficients, it is important to align the two loading matrices by a Procrustes rotation, which rotates the axes of one of the matrices to align with the other while preserving the pairwise distances between points in each dataset (Fischer & Fontaine, 2011;Fischer & Karl, 2019). This procedure is particularly important in the case of EFA, because there are infinitely many factor solutions that are mathematically equivalent (a topic that we revisit later). ...
Chapter
Two questions have motivated much of our research. What is the structure of social judgments from faces and what is the perceptual basis of these judgments? Twelve years ago, we proposed a simple 2-dimensional model, according to which faces are evaluated on perceived valence and power, and introduced data-driven computational models, which reveal the physical variation of faces that drive specific judgments. First, using data from our lab collected more than 10 years later and from a large cross-cultural replication project, we show that the simplistic 2D structure model is remarkably stable and generalizes to all world regions, in which data have been collected. We also discuss misunderstandings and limitations of structure models. Second, we make the assumptions of the data-driven modeling approach transparent and discuss recent developments. The computational framework allows for precise parametric manipulation of the appearance of faces, for control of shared variance between judgments, and for relating models at different levels of face processing. We also explore analyses mapping multiple social judgments simultaneously to the physical face space. We conclude with two future directions: models of hyper-realistic faces and the underappreciated role of stable individual differences in judgments.
... A small number of studies within non-Western samples exist, but given the lack of cross-culturally sound scales, these studies are not conclusive about the cross-cultural similarities and differences in intrusive thoughts (see for a review of these studies: Ozcanli et al., 2019). As psychological scales developed in one context do not automatically translate to other cultural settings (Fischer & Fontaine, 2010), the development of a cross-culturally sound instrument will be essential for an adequate assessment of cultural variations in intrusive thoughts. The aim of the present study is to develop such instrument, by further investigating the psychometric properties of a recently developed measure of intrusive thoughts, the Leuven Obsessional Intrusions Inventory (LOII; Ozcanli et al., 2019) for nonclinical samples in two different cultures (Belgium and Turkey). ...
Article
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Obsessions- recurrent unwanted intrusive thoughts -are one of the two pillars of the Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Although OCD has been reported across many different cultures, research on these cultural variations is hampered by the lack of cross-culturally sound instruments to assess intrusive thoughts. The aim of the current study is to investigate the psychometric properties of the recently developed Leuven Obsessional Intrusions Instrument (LOII) in two different cultural contexts. Turkish (N = 663) and Belgian (N = 496) participants were sampled from non-clinical student populations. Results from confirmatory factor analyses yielded a shortened version of the LOII (i.e., LOII-R) with a four-factor solution-aggressive, sexual, and contamination intrusions, and 'just-right' doubts-as the best fitting model across both cultures. The model met most criteria for strong measurement invariance and proved to be both valid and reliable. The results of this study suggest that the LOII-R is a good candidate for cross-cultural studies on obsessional intrusions.
... However, more rigorous tests of measurement invariance (or equivalence) are needed (e.g., Rios & Hambleton, 2016). Thus, future studies need to establish measurement invariance via multi-group structural equation modelling (e.g., Fischer & Fontaine, 2011;Vandenberg, 2002;Vandenberg & Lance, 2000) before we can draw meaningful conclusions about crosscultural differences in PWBs. ...
Article
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The objective of this conceptual article is to illustrate how differences in societal culture may affect employees’ proactive work behaviors (PWBs) and to develop a research agenda to guide future research on cross-cultural differences in PWBs. We propose that the societal cultural dimensions of power distance, individualism–collectivism, future orientation, and uncertainty avoidance shape individuals’ implicit followership theories (IFTs). We discuss how these cross-cultural differences in individuals’ IFTs relate to differences in the mean-level of PWB individuals show (whether), in the motivational states driving individuals’ PWBs (why), in the way individuals’ enact PWBs (how), and in the evaluation of PWBs by others (at what cost). We recommend how future research can extend this theorizing and unpack the proposed cross-cultural differences in PWBs, for example, by exploring how culture and other contextual variables interact to affect PWBs.
... MI can be empirically assessed at three levels: configural, metric, and scalar invariance (van de Vijver & Leung, 2011). Configural invariance refers to the fact that all items can be used to measure the same construct across cultures and, moreover, these items conform to the same dimensional structure across groups (Fischer & Fontaine, 2011). On the other hand, metric invariance implies that all items have similar factor loadings in all groups. ...
Article
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The Spanish version of the 5-item Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS-5) is a brief measure of the general tendency to be attentive and aware of experiences in the present moment during daily life. The MAAS-5 has been used in different countries; however, an assessment of its cross-cultural measurement invariance (MI) has not been conducted. Therefore, the study aimed to evaluate the cross-cultural measurement invariance of the MAAS-5 in university students from two countries: Peru and Mexico. A total of 1144 university students from Peru ( N = 822) and Mexico ( N = 322) responded online to the Spanish version of the 5-item Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS-5). A multigroup confirmatory factor analysis was performed. Measurement invariance tests the hypothesis that the model behind a set of scores is comparable between groups. The results showed that the unidimensional structure of the MAAS-5 is the same between Peruvian and Mexican university students. Therefore, it is suggested that university students from both countries conceptualize the mindfulness in a similar way. As a result, the MAAS-5 can be used to compare differences between countries. No significant differences were observed in the MAAS-5 score between Peruvian and Mexican university students. The present study contributes to a better understanding of the psychometric properties of the MAAS-5 by presenting MI results in two Latin American countries. Implications of the findings are discussed, which will facilitate a more solid and reliable use of the MAAS-5 in future cross-cultural studies.
... To examine whether behavioral observations cluster similarly to ratings we conducted a REFA using the observational data and calculated congruence coefficients for the factors following procrustean rotation, a target rotation of factors to provide a statistical estimate of factor similarity (McCrae et al., 1996). We carried out Procrustes rotation using syntax developed by Fischer and Fontaine (2010). Coefficients exceeding 0.85 are considered to indicate fair replicability, and coefficients exceeding 0.95 are considered to indicate good replicability (Lorenzo-Seva & ten Berge, 2006). ...
Article
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Rehabilitation and release are commonly used for confiscated, surrendered, and rescued primates. To improve release efficacy it is important to generate accurate behavioral profiles of release candidates. Research on primates traditionally uses observer ratings to measure individual differences. This method is easily implemented, but its validity has been questioned. We evaluated whether observer ratings reflect behavioral data indicating forest adaptation in 18 free-ranging rehabilitant orangutans ( Pongo pygmaeus morio ). In 2017, we used a species-specific questionnaire to measure how often orangutans engaged in behaviors linked to living successfully in the wild (e.g., nest building) and the extent to which they express personality traits that may influence forest adaptation. We collected 11 months of observational data on 17 of the orangutans concurrently to validate the questionnaire items, and collected further questionnaire data for 16 of the individuals in 2019. We used regularized exploratory factor analysis (REFA) and parallel analysis to condense the ratings and determine that two factors could be reliably extracted. We conducted another REFA using the observational data, and calculated factor congruence coefficients following procrustean rotation. The first of the two factors represented forest skills and human aversion, and was congruent with observational data. The second factor reflected boldness, sociability, and exploration, and was not congruent with observational data. Ratings correlated significantly with observations for all five questionnaire items reflecting adaptation to forest life, and for three of seven items reflecting personality traits. We conclude that ratings can be a valid approach to obtain individual-based behavioral information reflecting forest adaptation in free-ranging rehabilitant orangutans, and may be particularly useful in summarizing behaviors relevant to forest adaptation that are otherwise challenging to gather in primates.
... Correlation matrices and factor structures should also remain similar (Cheung, 2008). We measured metric equivalence using the orthogonal procrustean factor rotation (Fischer & Fontaine, 2011), following GLOBE's approach to compare factor structures across countries (House et al., 2014: 181-185). This helps determine equivalence in factor loadings for culture scales across countries. ...
Article
As a concept, romantic intimacy may be examined through Schaefer and Olson's (1981) measure, the Personal Assessment of Intimacy in Relationships (PAIR), which identified five dimensions of intimacy: emotional, intellectual, recreational, sexual, and social intimacy. Moore, McCabe, and Stockdale's (1998) attempt to replicate this five-factor model was not successful, and they instead proposed a three-factor model of intimacy: engagement, communication, and shared friendships. The objective of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the PAIR with individuals involved in same-sex couple relationships using these two models. Three hundred fifty participants completed the PAIR, the Experiences in Close Relationships, and the brief 4-item version of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Confirmatory factor analyses were not able to replicate both the original five-factor structure and the proposed three-factor structure of the PAIR. Rather, results supported the factor structure, reliability, and concurrent validity of our revised version of Moore et al.'s (1998) three-factor model of intimacy, which retained the three dimensions after various modifications (i.e., addition of covariance terms, deletion of an item, and transference of items) were made. Links were found between these three dimensions of intimacy and insecure romantic attachment, as well as relationship happiness.
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In this paper, we tackle three central questions: (1) How is cultural sensitivity currently shaping development agendas? (2) How can collaborations between development agencies and (cross-) cultural psychologists ensure that development priorities are culturally sensitive and bottom-up, rather than culturally universal and top-down? And finally, (3) How can utopian thinking be used as a bottom-up research device to tap into the content of the social imaginary of people across cultures and contexts in a way that can inform and guide development paradigms? We review relevant literatures and research from development agencies, cultural, and cross-cultural psychology, highlight advancements in devising culturally sensitive development goals, and advocate for a bottom-up approach to prioritizing needs and goals of citizens across different cultures. To that end, we propose that utopian thinking could be leveraged as a culturally sensitive research tool that could illuminate culturally specific development needs and goals that have been left untapped by contemporary development approaches. We conclude by reiterating the importance of leveraging knowledge, research methods, and expertise from cultural and cross-cultural psychology to reach the ultimate development goal—the improvement of the human condition in a sustainable, equitable manner.
Article
We investigated the relationship between satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and/or relatedness and intrinsic motivation during leisure, and how this process was similar and/or different for British/Canadians (N = 259) and Hong Kong Chinese (N = 583) employees. Self-reported, cross-sectional data were collected in English and/or Cantonese and/or Pŭtōnghuà (Mandarin). A hierarchical regression analysis with British/Canadians found, in Step 1, age group negatively, and intrinsic motivation during paid work positively, correlated with intrinsic motivation during leisure. In Step 2, autonomy and competence satisfaction also positively correlated with intrinsic motivation during leisure. A hierarchical regression analysis with Hong Kong Chinese discovered, in Step 1, age group negatively, and intrinsic motivation during paid work positively, correlated with intrinsic motivation during leisure. In Step 2, autonomy and relatedness satisfaction also positively correlated with intrinsic motivation during leisure. These findings are discussed in regard to psychological and leisure theory and organizational and recreation practice.
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Cambridge Core - Social Psychology - Personality, Values, Culture - by Ronald Fischer
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Despite the empirical robustness of the 5-factor model of personality, recent confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) of NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) data suggest they do not fit the hypothesized model. In a replication study of 229 adults, a series of CFAs showed that Revised NEO-PI scales are not simple-structured but do approximate the normative 5-factor structure. CFA goodness-of-fit indices, however, were not high. Comparability analyses showed that no more than 5 factors were replicable, which calls into question some assumptions underlying the use of CFA. An alternative method that uses targeted rotation was presented and illustrated with data from Chinese and Japanese versions of the Revised NEO-PI that clearly replicated the 5-factor structure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Publisher Summary This chapter addresses the universals in the content and structure of values, concentrating on the theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries, and its four basic issues: substantive contents of human values; identification of comprehensive set of values; extent to which the meaning of particular values was equivalent for different groups of people; and how the relations among different values was structured. Substantial progress has been made toward resolving each of these issues. Ten motivationally distinct value types that were likely to be recognized within and across cultures and used to form value priorities were identified. Set of value types that was relatively comprehensive, encompassing virtually all the types of values to which individuals attribute at least moderate importance as criteria of evaluation was demonstrated. The evidence from 20 countries was assembled, showing that the meaning of the value types and most of the single values that constitute them was reasonably equivalent across most groups. Two basic dimensions that organize value systems into an integrated motivational structure with consistent value conflicts and compatibilities were discovered. By identifying universal aspects of value content and structure, the chapter has laid the foundations for investigating culture-specific aspects in the future.
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This study examined whether values moderate the relationship between procedural justice perceptions and work outcome variables. Based on the relational model of authorities (Tyler & Lind, 1992), it was predicted that the effect of procedural justice on organisational commitment and on self-reported compliant and proactive aspects of extra-role behaviour would depend on the value orientations of individuals. It was found that employees from British and German organisations who endorsed Schwarte's (1992) openness to change values were more influenced in their organisational commitment and compliant extra-role behaviour by the absence of perceived justice than those who do not endorse openness values. The effects found for extra-role behaviour were stronger among UK respondents. Conservation values moderated the relation between justice and organisational commitment only among Germans. These moderation findings extend our understanding of the way that value measures can explain cultural differences in the effects of perceived organisational justice.
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A growing body of research supports the notion that individuals simultaneously hold two views of self. Members of collective cultures have stronger interdependent images of self, but less strong independent images, than do individualist groups. University students in Hong Kong (n = 271), Hawaii (n = 146), and mainland United States (n = 232) completed the Self-Construal Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Modigliani Embarrassability Scale. As expected, levels of independence and interdependence were related to ethnocultural group (Euro-American, Asian American, and Hong Kong Chinese). Independence and interdependence accounted for most of the variance in embarrassability attributable to ethnocultural group. Contrary to predictions based on terror management theory, there was no difference in the relation between self-construal and self-esteem across the three ethnocultural groups. Across all groups, a more independent and less interdependent self-construal predicted higher levels of self-esteem. It is concluded that similar psychological processes contribute to self-esteem and embarrassability across the ethnocultural groups in the study.
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In this article, we provide guidance for substantive researchers on the use of structural equation modeling in practice for theory testing and development. We present a comprehensive, two-step modeling approach that employs a series of nested models and sequential chi-square difference tests. We discuss the comparative advantages of this approach over a one-step approach. Considerations in specification, assessment of fit, and respecification of measurement models using confirmatory factor analysis are reviewed. As background to the two-step approach, the distinction between exploratory and confirmatory analysis, the distinction between complementary approaches for theory testing versus predictive application, and some developments in estimation methods also are discussed.
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By means of pseudorandom procedures factor similarity indices are computed that come close in numerical values to those taken by H. J. Eysenck and associates as sufficient evidence for metric identity of EPQ scales across cultures. It is argued that considerable bias in the results by no means can be ruled out and that intercultural comparison of mean scores obtained on EPQ scales is unwarranted.
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Data are said to be ipsative when the sum of the measures obtained over the variables is a constant for each individual. In this article, three types of ipsative data that are commonly encountered in social research are discussed. Each of them can be used to control the effect of different response set biases. Using an artificial example in the context of factor analysis, however, it is showed that the three types of ipsative data cannot simply be analyzed as if they were normative because this will give us misleading and improper results. Correct methods for factor-analyzing the additive and the ordinal ipsative data are discussed. Empirical results from our examples indicate that the suggested methods recover the normative factor structure successfully. It is concluded that ipsative data, if analyzed appropriately, can provide us useful information in psychological research.
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Extreme response styles (ERS) and acquiescence response styles (ARS) may constitute important sources of cross-cultural differences on survey-type instruments. Differences in ERS and ARS, if undetected, may give rise to spurious results that do not reflect genuine differences in attitudes or perceptions. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis is recommended as the most effective method of testing for ERS and ARS and determining whether cultural groups can be meaningfully compared on the basis of factor (latent) means. A detailed numerical example is provided.
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The purpose of this study was to examine the use of and attitudes toward silence in Japan and the United States. Five factors emerged in a first-order decultured factor analysis: (a) use of silence to avoid communicating, (b) negative view of silence, (c) strategic use of silence, (d) others' silence creates uncertainty, and (e) positive view of talking. Two dimensions were obtained in a second-order factor analysis: (a) negative view of silence and (b) strategic use of silence. Japanese reported a more negative view of silence when communicating with strangers than when communicating with close friends, but Americans did not. There also was a difference in negative view of silence between Americans and Japanese when communicating with strangers but not when communicating with close friends. Americans reported more strategic use of silence than did Japanese. Respondents also reported strategically using silence with strangers more than with close friends.
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The present study examines personality correlates of personal collectivism (allocentrism) both in an individualist culture (the United States) and in collectivist cultures (Korea and Japan). It was expected those with higher allocentric tendencies would be more concerned with rewards and punishments from in-group members and thus have a lower need for being unique as compared to those with lower allocentric tendencies. Undergraduates in the three countries were administered a Collectivism Scale, the Affiliative Tendency and Sensitivity to Rejection Scale, and the Need for Uniqueness Scale. The results confirmed that allocentric tendencies are associated with higher affiliative tendency, higher sensitivity to rejection, and lower need for uniqueness in all of the three countries. These results support the concurrent validity of the Collectivism Scale across cultures.
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In cross-cultural psychology a major goal is to identify dimensions of culture. For this purpose, the cross-cultural analysis (referred to as ecological analysis by Hofstede, 1980) is often used. Two methodological difficulties associated with this method are discussed, and their solution is proposed. A method intended to identify universal dimensions of individual difference, the pancultural analysis, is likely to produce results similar to those obtained in a cross-cultural analysis and hence is unable to achieve its purpose of identifying individual dimensions. A new procedure, based on a within-culture standardization procedure, is introduced for this purpose. A case study of the differences in the results produced by the cross-cultural and the new analyses is then used as a springboard for a further discussion of Shweder's(1973) between-within issue. The theoretical meaning of cultural and individual dimensions is also discussed.
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It is argued that the impressively high factor congruence coefficients observed in cross-cultural studies with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire cannot be taken as sufficient evidence for the "similarity" or "essential identity" of these factors in the cultures concerned. Arguments presented by Eysenck (1986) to challenge this viewpoint are refuted. The conclusion by Bijnen, Van der Net, and Poortinga (1986) that cross-cultural comparisons of factor scores on the EPQ are likely to be affected by cultural bias is upheld.