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Autostereotipi i heterostereotipi Srba u Srbiji

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... Za banjalučke ispitanike Bošnjaci su religiozni, nacionalisti, konzervativni, nazadni, fanatični, dok su za sarajevske ispitanike Srbi nacionalisti, agresivni, ratoborni, nemilosrdni i okrutni. Popadić i Biro (2002), u svom istraživanju rađenom 1997. godine na uzorku od 400 ispitanika srpske nacionalnosti iz Srbije, ispituju stereotipije prema pripadnicima deset naroda putem liste od petnaest bipolarnih atributa. ...
... Vidimo da je skorašnji konflikt gotovo isključivo oblikovao izrazito negativne stereotipije jednih prema drugima, dok su stereotipi naroda s kojima nije bilo direktnog konflikta gotovo neutralni. Do sličnog zaključka dolaze i Popadić i Biro (2002) u istraživanju rađenom u Srbiji. ...
... i Havelka, 1973;Lazarevski, 1975;Pantić, 1991), tek je sa raspadom SFRJ došla do punog izražaja što se moglo vidjeti kako u brojnim istraživanjima (npr. Golubović i drugi 1995;Đipa, 1996;Čorkalo, 1998;Popadić i Biro, 2002) -tako i u stvarnom životu 6 . Nije trebalo biti genije da bi se vidjelo kako zatvaranje u odnosu na druge postaje društvena norma koja socijalizacijom biva inkorporirana u psihički život svakog pojedinca, koji time postaje oprezan ili čak neprijateljski nastrojen u odnosu na druge. ...
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This research, which used a sample of 407 members of both Bosniak and Serb nationality in Sarajevo and Banja Luka, analyzes the structure and content of ethnic stereotypes of Bosnia and Herzegovina's youth. The results reveal significant negative stereotypes of Bosniak and Serb youth toward one another, but also show conspicuous similarities regarding their stereotypes toward other ethnic groups. The concluding remarks set forth theoretical and pragmatic consequences of the results obtained. It can be concluded that people are clearly divided into groups based on the ethnicity criterion. This, substantiated by the earlier history of conflict, creates perceptions and assessments saturated by negative attributes, and can lead to potential conflicts in future. The research suggests that possible solution lies in a conflict resolution education, greater interethnic communication.
... Popadić i Biro (Popadić & Biro, 2002), u svom istraživanju rađenom 1997. godine na uzorku od 400 ispitanika srpske nacionalnosti iz Srbije, ispituju stereotipije prema pripadnicima deset naroda putem liste od petnaest bipolarnih atributa. ...
... U ovom kontekstu je zanimljivo da se atribut gostoljubivi pojavljuje u svakom hetero i autostereotipu, što je očigledno atribut koji se javlja kao opšta karakteristika ne samo naroda koji žive u BiH, već i svih južnoslovenskih naroda, u sklopu generalno percipirane otvorenosti i komunikativnosti (npr. Popadić & Biro, 2002;. Pored ovog atributa, koji je zajednička tačka svih ispitivanih stereotipa, slikovit je i nalaz da se atribut složni pripisuje samo pripadnicima drugih grupa, a tek rijetko kao karakte rističan za sopstvenu grupu. ...
... As the majority of parents had a low level of self-blame, it could be that parents indeed did not blame themselves for the child's condition. Another explanation could be seen through the cultural premise -as Serbian people see themselves as a very proud and brave nation (Popadić & Biro, 1999), parents might not share their true feelings to avoid showing their vulnerability. Alternatively, as the nature of the research involves the questionnaires only, it could be that parents did not feel comfortable sharing intimate thoughts. ...
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Little is known about self-blame in parents of children with disabilities despite previous findings of negative effect of self-blame on well-being. Thus, the aim of the present research was to explore self-blame among Serbian parents of children with autism spectrum disorder and physical disabilities. In addition, we wanted to examine the effect of children’s problem behavior, personality traits, perceived and experienced stigma, and sociodemographic characteristics on parental self-blame. The convenient sample included 82 parents from several large cities in the Republic of Serbia. For the purpose of this study, the seven-item Parental Self-Blame Scale was developed. Overall, parents reported a lower level of self-blame. A total of 22% had moderate to high degree of self-blame. Furthermore, self-blame did not differ between two groups of caregivers. Additionally, with an increase in children’s emotional problems and a decrease in agreeableness, parents blamed themselves more. No effects of sociodemographic variables nor effects of perceived and experienced stigma on self-blame were found. Our results suggest that in supporting families of children with autism spectrum disorder and physical disabilities, clinicians need to take into consideration the variability in their experiences and that the Parental Self-Blame Scale could be used to identify the most vulnerable individuals. Additionally, support should also be provided to the child and thus decrease the child’s emotional problems and consequently support the whole family.
... Correspondingly, research studies on ethnic stereotypes in Serbia, following the end of the conflict, indicated that Serbs held negative stereotypes towards Bosniaks: they typically described them as primitive, dishonest, not fond of other ethnic groups, dirty, and rude. At the same time, Serbs described themselves in a highly favorable manner: as hospitable, proud, sensitive, brave, and fond of other peoples (Popadić & Biro, 2002). There was a black-or-white perspective: the majority members (i.e., Serbs) idealized their own group and perceived the minority group (i.e., Bosniaks) as extremely negative. ...
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Serbia has been characterized by ethnic and religious disparities, a major source of low-scale conflicts and an obstacle for development of stronger social cohesion. This chapter reflects on the importance of exploring perspectives of young people who live in a post-conflict region on existing ethnic and religious divisions and ways to overcome it. Authors present data on the process of drawing borders between Us and Them, and discuss it in the light of a social identity approach and research findings. Moreover, the chapter offers youth perspective on redefining invisible but very tangible group borders and building more inclusive societies. Through a case study of relations between Serbs and Bosniaks, the authors provide a glimpse of the complexity of a post-conflict social environment and closely interwoven factors affecting social relations among youth.
... Almost identical patterns of stereotypical selfdescriptions and descriptions of others were noticed in consequent studies in the area (Turjačanin, 2007;. In a similar study on stereotypes conducted with Serbs living in Serbia, Popadić and Biro (2002) revealed a black-or-white perspective, where one's group is idealized, while other groups are perceived as extremely negative. ...
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This chapter reviews the relevant empirical literature on ethnic, religious, and national identities of the youth in the Western Balkans, relating the issues of identity to the quality of intergroup relations. Its focus is primarily on the most recent research (from 2000 onwards) conducted in Serbia, Kosovo, Macedonia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Some of the topics discussed include alternative understandings of national identity and citizenship, primordial conceptions of ethnic identity, the increasing importance of religious identity, as well as construction of exclusive ethnic-religious overlaps in identity. The divergences of majority and minority perspectives are discussed, as well as the role of the factors contributing to maintenance of intergroup divisions, as the media, educational system, and political factors.
... Etnički stereotipi su mjereni preko 14 bipolarnih atributa (odnosno parova pozitivno-negativnih atributa), gdje srednja tačka petostepene skale procjene označava da ni jedan od dva navedena atributa nije izražen više od drugog. Metod i spisak atributa su bazirani na istraživanju Popadića i Biroa u Srbiji (Popadić i Biro, 2002). Mete stereotipa su bile slijedeće etničke grupe: Bošnjaci, Hrvati, Srbi, Slovenci, Romi, Kinezi, Jevreji, Rusi. ...
Article
Osnovni problem ovog istraživanja svodi se na ispitivanje izraženosti etničkih predrasuda i socijalnih distanci studenata Filozofskog fakulteta u Banjaluci prema određenim etničkim grupama, kao i povezanosti istih sa pojedinim socio-demografskim karakteristikama ispitanika. Uzorak su činili 150 studenata Filozofskog fakulteta u Banjaluci, srpske nacionalnosti, starosti između 18 i 29 godina, sa prosjekom godina od 21.25. U istraživanju su primjenjeni sljedeći mjerni instrumenti: Upitnik sociodemografskih karakteristika (upitnik sadrži deset pitanja), Skala etničke distance (prilagođena Bogardusova skala socijalne distance) i Skala etničkih stereotipa (stereotipi su mjereni preko 14 bipolarnih atributa). Mete stereotipa su bile etničke grupe: Bošnjaci, Hrvati, Slovenci, Romi, Kinezi, Jevreji, Rusi. Dobijeni rezultati pokazuju da su prema Romima uočeni najnegativniji stereotipi (nekulturni, primitivni, nepošteni, drski, lijeni itd). Najizraženija distaca je prema Romima i to za odnos Da budemo u braku (M = 0.08) i Da budem u vezi sa njom/njim (M = 0.18). Rusi su okarakterisani najpozitivnijim osobinama. Žene generalno pokazuju pozitivnije stavove prema drugim nacijama u odnosu na muškarce gdje ispitanice pozitivnije opisuju Hrvate u odnosu na muške ispitanike, a postoji statistička značajnost i za etničke grupe Bošnjaci, Romi, Slovenci i Jevreji (p < .05). Uočava se da žene više prihvataju odnose sa Hrvatima i Bošnjacima od muškaraca. Ispitanici što su stariji više prihvataju odnose sa Kinezima, Slovencima i Jevrejima (p < .01). Ispitanici koji imaju rodbinu i prijatelje druge nacionalnosti pokazuju pozitivnije stavove i veće prihvatanje prema drugim etničkim grupama. Rodbinski i prijateljski krug se javlja kao najznačajniji faktor ublažavanja predrasuda. Iz rezultata je uočljivo da ispitanici čiji su roditelji boljeg materijalnog statusa pokazuju veće prihvatanje sa Bošnjacima, Romima, Kinezima i Slovencima, a najznačajnije su razlike u prihvatanju Roma i Kineza. Od praktičnih prijedloga smanjenja etničkih predrasuda moguće rješenje je u edukaciji mladih i veća međusobna povezanost mladih u BIH a i sa svijetom uopšte.
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This monograph includes the scientific findings of the author from the field of ethnolinguistics of cognitive type over the last ten years. These results have for the most part been published in the form of individual papers in domestic and Slavic specialized magazines (predominantly in Serbian, followed by Russian and Polish), but for this occasion they have been revised, expanded, adapted in theoretical and methodological as well as terminological aspects to the tenets of the Ethnolinguistic school of Lublin, used as a model we repeatedly referred to, while the remaining ones make their first appearance in this publication. According to our knowledge, these investigations of ours, based on the cognitive approach, which set the goal of tracing “the place and role of culture in language”, the linguistic and human worldview, in the semantics of linguistic/lexical units, belong to one of the recent trends in the development of Serbian ethnolinguistics. And indeed, the fi rst, introductory subchapter of this monograph (I. 1) is devoted to the development of Serbian ethnolinguistics, whereas in other subchapters we deal with some current theoretical and practical issues in cognitive ethnolinguistics. From a theoretical aspect, we focused on an open question of the relation between the terms “concept” and “stereotype” as the basic units of linguistic knowledge (II. 1); and also, on the question of the status of profiles in the conceptual structure and their relation to the semantics of the words for those concepts, that is, to individual meanings of lexemes (I. 2 and I. 3). With the aim of resolving practical problems, we have chosen those that were close to our professional background and that concern applied cognitive ethnolinguistics in lexicography, such as the question of the structure of a dictionary entry in presenting certain concepts/stereotypes, the selection of elements that are to make part of a cognitive definition of the naive/linguistic portrait of a specific concept in the compilation of an axiological dictionary in the sense of representativeness of both universal and specific national andcultural values, as well as in the sense of standardizing the metalanguage of cognitive defi nition (III. 4 and IV. 5); furthermore, we looked at the question of the relation between a dictionary of the said type and encyclopedias as lexicographic works whose entries provide information on various kinds of human knowledge – an axiological lexicon on the subjective/naive linguistic knowledge, and encyclopedias on the objective/scientifi c knowledge. In relation to that, we pondered the question of the boundaries between the two types of knowledge, as well as that of the extent to which encyclopedic information is included in a dictionary entry of a lexicon in the reconstruction of concepts or stereotypes (I. 2). Questions of a contribution of certain types of sources in the conceptualization and stereotypization of culture concepts can be found in all the chapters which present some concepts or stereotypes, since they were reconstructed upon various types of evidence. The most comprehensive corpus of evidence lies in the reconstruction of the concepts of H􀉈ME and F􀈺MILY, as it comprises all three types of sources (systemic, survey-driven and textual), indispensable in the methodology of the Ethnolinguistic school of Lublin. These chapters also represent the central part of our monograph not only in terms of scope, but also in terms of a validity check of the abovementioned methodology in the treatment of the material and in terms of the representativeness of sources in certain types of material. Thus, we concluded that among systemic descriptive dictionary sources the most representative is a comprehensive dictionary such as the Dictionary of SASA, as a source for the reconstruction of a general, stable concept/ stereotype typical of a contemporary linguistic portrait of a concept and its most relevant profi les, which is particularly emphasized in subchapter (I. 3), and the signifi cance of this material as well as material taken from other relevant dictionaries of Serbian (Dictionary of Matica Srpska and one-volume Dictionary of the Serbian Language) is confi rmed in the initial subchapters on the concepts of HOME, FAMILY, and subchapters on the linguistic portrait of the concept of NATION and autostereotype SERB(S). For linguistic portraits of some concepts, such as NATION, SERB(S), GREEK, apart from corresponding sources of dictionary material, no less important was the selection of relevant genres of textual discourse. For the profi ling of the fi rst two concepts very important information was obtained by an analysis of texts to do with social theories and public media discourse from the fi elds of anthropological and political orientation (sociological and social-psychological, socialpolitical), as well as survey-driven data in investigations of that sort, sources that enriched these concepts with information of encyclopedic type. This body of information became part of linguistic knowledge in an indirect manner, through metaphors and symbols, in the form of so-called encyclopedic connotations, whereas for the stereotype of GREEK we gathered information by analyzing the folkloristic discourse of Serbian folk epic poems. The survey- driven material, material derived from dictionaries of associations and from electronic corpora is most representative of the linguistic portrait of the concept of contemporary colloquial language, as a neutral linguistic idiom. It indicates the current dynamics of alterations in values in the conceptualization or stereotypization of certain concepts in relation to social-historical changes. The fi rst two types of material (survey-driven and associative) offer a whole range of values which, ranked on the positive-negative scale, predominantly suggest an ambivalent, individual, subjective view of a linguistic concept. A lack of systematized material in the analysis and description is especially notable in the reconstruction of heterostereotype RUSSIAN(S), whose linguistic portrait, that is, elements of the linguistic portrait of this concept, are reconstructed solely upon word associations material.
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This book examines the identities of young adults in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia, Kosovo, and Macedonia. With research drawn from a large multidisciplinary project exploring a potential for reconciliation in post-conflict societies, the authors discuss the interplay between ethnic, religious and national identities that have been the source of recent violent conflicts. They focus on people aged 18-30, representing generations that are socialized after the wars, but live in ethnically divided societies burdened with a difficult history. Another aim of the project was to compare majority and minority perspectives within each country, and to provide a unique view on how to reinterpret and build more inclusive social identities. Scholars and organizations interested in areas of social psychology, political science and sociology will find this research of great value.
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This paper presents a case study about a reunion of the evicted members of the German national minority in Vojvodina, who after almost five decades came to visit their homeland, and the local population in Gakovo. The case study attests about lengthy and very complicated process in resolving post-conflict situations. The process’ launch is dependent on the willingness of the individuals involved to face not only one’s own pain caused by the enemy, but also on ability to comprehend, during an encounter with “the dark side of one’s past”, sufferings and humiliation experienced by the adversary. Awareness and acceptance of one’s own responsibility in the conflict are a prerequisite for forgiveness and reconciliation of the opposing parties. The outcome of this process is uncertain to the very end and conditioned upon the entire network of interlocking political, economic and cultural factors.
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In this work are analyzed, in basis of survey data, acceptability of some identification frames by means of national minorities’ membership importance of nation, birth area, Serbia, State Community Serbia and Monte Negro and European Community reviewing. The data says the nationality is the most important determinant of make up one’s mind and that there are tendencies that different nationalities members estimate importance of offered entities membership in different way. General result is that the most importance is given to local and national membership but the least to Serbian and Federal membership. We can conclude that there isn’t consent between national minorities about offered identification frames. Minorities can bee divided in two groups: first which accept Serbia as their state (Romanians and Slovaks at first) and the second group which aren’t gracious toward Serbia as frame for their social identification (here belong Albanians at first but Hungarian and Muslims/Boshnak partly). The problem with second group is that they are thickly concentrated minorities on some parts of country. In basis of data we can suppose possibility of potential crisis and conflicts developing about and around particular nations in close future.
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