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Staged Authenticity: Arrangements of Social Place in Tourist Setting

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... MacCannell (1973: 593-595) argues that, with reference to Everett C. Hughes (1959) who likened the tourist to the "pilgrim," tourists are incapable of detecting authenticity in modern social life, and so they turn into modern pilgrims who are in search of an authentic experience but are constantly disappointed in their search. According to MacCannell (1973), the journey of a pilgrim and that of a tourist have the exact same motivations. This similarity is not apparent in the sense of the organization of the journey, but also of the motivation that drives the individual to take the journey. ...
... In short, the tourist is conscious of his "otherness" to the life of the "other." MacCannell's (1973MacCannell's ( , 1976) work on tourist motivation and authenticity remains greatly influential in tourism literature as a scholar who first brought together tourism and sociology of modernity (Jamal & Hill, 2002: 77;Wang, 2000: 10). While the original conception of the notion of authenticity as outlined by Heidegger is accepted in some tourism research, MacCannell's front and back area/stage approach adopted from Goffman's stage theory became more prominent (Pearce & Moscardo, 1986: 121-123). ...
... With these words, MacCannell predicates that mass tourism is an area that fully encloses and entraps the tourists, and that the modern tourist is cursed with the inauthentic (Cohen, 1988: 373). MacCannell (1973) is doubtful about the tourists' capacity to truly witness the authenticity in a foreign culture which mostly presents quasi experiences. This is due to the fact that local communities in places that are experiencing great flows of mass tourism create areas that are called the backstage in order to protect themselves and their culture through isolation. ...
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Cultural tourism involves visiting historical and archeological sites, participating in the festivals of local communities, observing traditional dances and rituals, and the transaction of local and traditional goods (Okuyucu & Somuncu, 2012: 38). Heritage, on the other hand, is defined as a concept that involves concrete objects such as natural and cultural environments, sceneries, historical places, sites and built environments, collections, and abstract objects such as past and present cultural practices, knowledge, and life experiences (McKercher & Cros, 2002: 7). Yale (1991: 21) defines heritage tourism as “the type of tourism that is focused on what is inherited.” Thus, for Yale (1991), what is inherited can have a wide array of meanings to involve historical buildings, artworks, and beautiful sceneries. The definition of heritage tourism when analyzed in the light of these constituents as a part of cultural tourism, involves religion, language, costume, cuisine, tradition, music, dance, folklore, archeological artifacts, historical buildings and locations, artworks as sociocultural heritage, and landscape, flora, fauna, and soil as natural heritage (Özdemir, 2011: 131). In addition, heritage tourism consists of walking among artifacts in an open space touristic location to observe and experience these works. Thus, the notion of authenticity gained importance in heritage tourism (Chhabra, 2010: 806). https://www.peterlang.com/view/title/75548
... Le sujet de l'authenticité devient omniprésent dans les questions touristiques. Cette notion a fait l'objet des études de nombreux chercheures en sciences humaines et sociales (Boorstin, 1961 ;MacCannell, 1973MacCannell, , 1976Moscardo et Pearce, 1986 ;Reisinger et Steiner, 2006 ;Wang, 1999) Quelle que soit sa signification, l'authenticité, ou au moins sa perception, est l'un des attributs importants du tourisme culturel (Boniface et Fowler, 1993 ;Taylor, 2001 ;Waitt, 2000). En effet, l'authenticité est un principe de base pour ce type de tourisme (Fischer, 1999). ...
... Selon lui, c'est cette zone qui correspond à la « réalité ». Des fausses régions pourraient être mises en place pour tromper les touristes(MacCannell, 1973).Dans ce sens, Les touristes n'ont pas la capacité de qualifier ce qui est authentique dans les cultures de leurs destinations(MacCannell, 1973).Urbain (2002) considère aussi que le touriste « parti à la recherche des signes typiques d'un pays[…] prend pour émanation de l'authentique ce qui n'est qu'artifices trompeurs, nuée de signes factices témoignant d'un pittoresque trafiqué, d'une pseudo-authenticité à usage externe, destinée aux dupes ». ...
... Selon lui, c'est cette zone qui correspond à la « réalité ». Des fausses régions pourraient être mises en place pour tromper les touristes(MacCannell, 1973).Dans ce sens, Les touristes n'ont pas la capacité de qualifier ce qui est authentique dans les cultures de leurs destinations(MacCannell, 1973).Urbain (2002) considère aussi que le touriste « parti à la recherche des signes typiques d'un pays[…] prend pour émanation de l'authentique ce qui n'est qu'artifices trompeurs, nuée de signes factices témoignant d'un pittoresque trafiqué, d'une pseudo-authenticité à usage externe, destinée aux dupes ». ...
Thesis
Il y a presque une dizaine d’années, Baalbek-Hermel a commencé à changer d’identité. C’est une zone agricole riche en savoir-faire traditionnels mais pauvre et marginalisée par l’État depuis l’indépendance du Liban en 1943. Le nom de cette région est associé à la culture du cannabis et son éloignement de Beyrouth explique sa marginalisation. Dans notre thèse, nous chercherons à mettre l’accent sur l’importance de l’approche territoriale du développement durable et nous insistons sur le rôle du patrimoine et ses avantages économiques pour la communauté locale de Baalbek-Hermel. L’objectif est d’identifier au travers des critères économiques, sociaux et culturels les spécificités de la région et son potentiel de développer une activité touristique patrimoniale dans Baalbek-Hermel. A partir des résultats obtenus lors de l’étude de terrain, nous proposerons un modèle de développement touristique qui aboutira à la création d’une route touristique des savoir-faire et qui répondra aux attentes des différents acteurs tout en atténuant les faiblesses actuelles.
... This discussion would seem to have nothing to do with Foucault's theorising of the gaze in the medical fraternity. However, his concepts of objectification and gaze as well as control and surveillance have been adopted and extended to examining social interactions in cultural tourism by theorists (MacCannell 1973;Urry 1990, Urry andLarsen 2011). Tourism mainly involves objectifying people and their cultural heritage; it also privileges the visual aspect or gazing. ...
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Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH) drives economic growth and rural development in different provinces in Zimbabwe. The commodification of indigenous dance practices in the tourism industry has been practised since the colonial era to the present day in Zimbabwe. Cultural tourism has had positive and negative implications on indigenous communities and their cultural heritage. The performance of indigenous dances at Great Zimbabwe Monuments in the Shona Village promotes sustainability by transforming the dance and music practices into economic goods for consumption by tourists and, to some extent, sustaining the culture bearers' livelihoods. This article explores the issues of staged authenticity, commoditisation of indigenous dance, and the exploitation of cultural workers in the development and practice of cultural tourism in Zimbabwe. Furthermore, the article also examines the opportunities and challenges of exchanging indigenous dances for money at Great Zimbabwe Shona Village. It also provides perceptions on how the Karanga dance and music practitioners re-enact and reclaim their perceived authentic cultural legacy of "Karanga-ness" through performances that attempt to contest European cultural imperialism and the long history of mythologising the indigenous people such as the Karanga people.
... " (Jaroněk, 1930: 36). Dean McCannel calls this aspect of heritage interpretation staged authenticity (McCannel, 1973). ...
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This article explores the complex role played by the staff of open-air museums in the Czech Republic, their relationship with the communities they work with, and their impact on the intangible cultural heritage outside the museum gates. It further explores the considerable role played by researchers active in policy making at open-air museums. The position of open-air museums is rather intricate from the perspective of communities and the state administration, with many different roles and tasks that allow and sometimes even encourage open-air museum employees to transform heritage rules or create new ones. Our conclusions are based on several case studies illustrating how the staff of Czech open-air museums build their relationships with communities, groups and individuals and how this collaboration effects the safeguarding of the intangible cultural heritage. Ethical issues related to museum interpretation and perceptions of interpreted elements by the public are also discussed.
... Nowadays, companies can create an emotional bond between consumers and brands through nostalgia-based communication efforts to address the emotions of consumers in the changing market structure (G€ okaliler and Arslan, 2015). In this context, brands evoke a strong sense of authenticity to the product by reaching out to their past with nostalgic reminders (MacCannell, 1979;Kernis and Goldman, 2006;Stephan et al., 2012). ...
Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of consumer-based brand authenticity (CBBA) on customer satisfaction (CS) and brand loyalty (BL). The moderating effect of the variable “alternative attractiveness” in the relationship between CS and BL was further investigated. The study compared and analyzed the difference between global sportswear brands and domestic ones and the difference between global chocolate brands and domestic ones in terms of CBBA, CS, BL and attractiveness of alternatives (AA). Design/methodology/approach Structural equation modeling and multigroup analysis were conducted in order to analyze the data collected from 600 consumers via face-to-face survey. Findings The results showed that quality commitment and heritage-sincerity, which are subdimensions of CBBA, had a significant positive effect on CS. Additionally, both of them affected CS differently in the comparison of the global brands with the domestic ones. Furthermore, CS had a significant positive effect on BL, and AA had a negative effect on BL. Originality/value This study deepens the insights into the effects of antecedents of CBBA on CS and BL, enhancing the research with quantitative analysis through two different product groups. The study provides important cues on which antecedents of CBBA help to strengthen the authenticity of brands of Turkish and global origin, and also differs in that it examines to what extent the effect of CBBA on CS and BL varies across global and domestic brands.
... Its original object-based focus on materiality, which inspired the Venice Charter (ICOMOS 1964), was first challenged by the non-material, value-based approach of the Burra Charter (ICOMOS Australia 1979). The rise of experience-centred, tourist-related definitions of authenticity (McCannell 1973) widened the discussion from the object to the process of authentication, which is understood as the verification performed by heritage stakeholders. Authors like González Martínez (2019) and Boccardi (2019) point towards authenticity as a concept in crisis, particularly since the Nara Charter (UNESCO 1994) made it 'a question of judgment, rather than a scientific proposition' (Boccardi 2019, 6). ...
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The practice of ‘preservation by relocation’ is representative of China’s ‘heritage fever’. It is the source of a controversial debate regarding heritage conservation, and it remains understudied from a critical perspective. This paper addresses two cases of ‘preservation by relocation’ of Huizhou-style vernacular architecture, rebuilt as part of mixed hotel and residential developments on the outskirts of Shanghai and Shaoxing in China. Through this paper we will argue how the practice of ‘preservation by relocation’ stretches different notions of authenticity. Our research will show how relocations lead to a shift in the value of vernacular architecture, as it is used for the production of new identity for tourist and real estate developments in China. Using grounded theory based on site visits and semi-structured interviews, this paper proposes that originality and verisimilitude merge to become an authenticity-on-the-making, under the cover of dominant heritage discourses in China. This pursuit determines the heritage conservation practices of relocated assets, as they serve entrepreneurial interests and contribute to wider official narratives about the past in China.
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The study is intended to explore the validity of the component system of the rapport behavior of service providers. The purpose of this study was to understand how the components of the rapport behavior of service providers affect rational and emotional empathy. This study is intended to understand the relationship between rational and emotional empathy and customer satisfaction and the effect of customer satisfaction on revisit intentions. The main purpose was to identify the moderating effect of perceived authenticity on the causal relationship between rapport behavior, empathy, and customer satisfaction and revisit intentions. The sampling method used in this study was the judgment sampling, which is a method in which the researcher selects those study subjects that are thought by the researcher to be the most suitable samples for the purpose of the study. The total questionnaire period was a total of three months, from March 15 to May 15, 2020. The total number of valid samples was 1668. Uncommonly attentive behavior, courteous behavior, information-sharing, and connecting behavior, which are components of the rapport behaviors of service providers, were found to have positive effects on rational empathy with the service provider, but common grounding behavior, which is also a component of the rapport behaviors of service providers, was found to have no statistically significant effect on rational empathy with service providers. The rapport behaviors of service providers are judged to play an important role in maintaining and developing strong ties through long-term and continuous interactions with customers.
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