ArticlePDF Available

Physicochemical Characterization of Biofield Treated Orchid Maintenance/Replate Medium

Authors:
  • Trivedi Global, Inc

Abstract and Figures

Orchids are used worldwide for indoor decoration, vanilla production, and beverage preparation. They are also reported for their therapeutic efficacy in brain-related problems. The in vitro micropropagation technique was used for their propagation using the orchid maintenance/replate (OMR) medium. The current study was based on analysing the effect of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical properties of OMR medium. A part of the sample was treated with Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy; various physicochemical properties were analyzed and compared with the untreated (control) part. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the decrease in crystallite size of treated sample (132.80 nm) as compared to the control (147.55 nm). The particle size analysis revealed 20.78% increase in average particle size and 39.29% increase in d99 (size below which 99% particles are present) of the treated OMR medium as compared to the control. Moreover, the surface area of the treated sample was reduced by 3.9%, supporting the data of particle size analysis. The thermal analysis studies revealed an increase in the thermal stability of the treated OMR medium as compared to the control. The analysis was done by using differential scanning calorimetry that showed increase in melting point (1.23%) and latent heat of fusion (135.7%); and thermogravimetric analysis that reported increase in onset temperature and maximum thermal degradation temperature of the treated sample as compared to the control. Besides, the CHNSO analysis revealed the increase in percentage of nitrogen (22.22%) as well as the presence of sulphur in the treated sample. The Fourier transform infrared and UV-visible spectroscopy also showed the differences in the spectra of the treated sample as compared to the control OMR medium. Hence, the overall data revealed the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical properties of the treated sample that might be used in better way in the in vitro culture techniques as compared to the control sample.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Journal of Plant Sciences
2015; 3(6): 285-293
Published online November , 2015 (http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/jps)
doi: 10.11648/j.jps.20150306.11
ISSN: 2331-0723 (Print); ISSN: 2331-0731 (Online)
Physicochemical Characterization of Biofield Treated
Orchid Maintenance/Replate Medium
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
1
, Alice Branton
1
, Dahryn Trivedi
1
, Gopal Nayak
1
, Ragini Singh
2
,
Snehasis Jana
2, *
1
Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, NV, USA
2
Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
Email address:
publication@trivedisrl.com (S. Jana)
To cite this article:
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Ragini Singh, Snehasis Jana. Physicochemical Characterization of
Biofield Treated Orchid Maintenance/Replate Medium. Journal of Plant Sciences. Vol. 3, No. 6, 2015, pp. 285-293.
doi: 10.11648/j.jps.20150306.11
Abstract:
Orchids are used worldwide for indoor decoration, vanilla production, and beverage preparation. They are also
reported for their therapeutic efficacy in brain-related problems. The in vitro micropropagation technique was used for their
propagation using the orchid maintenance/replate (OMR) medium. The current study was based on analysing the effect of
biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical properties of OMR medium. A part of the sample was treated with Mr.
Trivedi’s biofield energy; various physicochemical properties were analyzed and compared with the untreated (control) part.
The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the decrease in crystallite size of treated sample (132.80 nm) as compared to the
control (147.55 nm). The particle size analysis revealed 20.78% increase in average particle size and 39.29% increase in d
99
(size below which 99% particles are present) of the treated OMR medium as compared to the control. Moreover, the surface
area of the treated sample was reduced by 3.9%, supporting the data of particle size analysis. The thermal analysis studies
revealed an increase in the thermal stability of the treated OMR medium as compared to the control. The analysis was done by
using differential scanning calorimetry that showed increase in melting point (1.23%) and latent heat of fusion (135.7%); and
thermogravimetric analysis that reported increase in onset temperature and maximum thermal degradation temperature of the
treated sample as compared to the control. Besides, the CHNSO analysis revealed the increase in percentage of nitrogen
(22.22%) as well as the presence of sulphur in the treated sample. The Fourier transform infrared and UV-visible spectroscopy
also showed the differences in the spectra of the treated sample as compared to the control OMR medium. Hence, the overall
data revealed the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical properties of the treated sample that might be
used in better way in the in vitro culture techniques as compared to the control sample.
Keywords:
Orchid Maintenance/Replate Medium, Biofield Energy Treatment, In vitro Micropropagation,
Complementary and Alternative Medicines
1. Introduction
Orchids belonging to family Orchidaceae are widely
used due to their medicinal properties in several countries
around the world [1]. Several kind of research had shown
their therapeutic efficacy in case of hysteria, nervous
irritability, and other brain related dysfunctions. Besides,
several species are reported as a febrifuge, clearing
tapeworms, treating skin diseases, etc. [2, 3]. It was
reported that the biological activity was due to the presence
of alkaloids such as strychnine, morphine, nicotine,
reserpine, etc. [4]. Moreover, the orchid family is also
important for its horticulture uses. It is used for commercial
production of vanilla [5]. In Turkey, it is used in the
preparation of a traditional beverage called as salep [3]. It
has great importance as cut flowers and indoor decoration.
The general method of propagation of orchid is asexual but
it can produce only 2-4 plants per year as it is very slow
process [6, 7]. Hence, in vitro micropropagation technique
is frequently used that produces plantlets using tissue
culture techniques [8]. Micropropagation is the process
used to replicate the plant using plant seed or tissue in the
laboratory under the sterile conditions [9]. The most
important factor in successful tissue culture of plant cells is
286 Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al.: Physicochemical Characterization of Biofield
Treated Orchid Maintenance/Replate Medium
the composition of the medium. It provides the essential
nutrients for the survival of plant cells or tissues and the
optimum conditions such as pH, osmotic pressure, etc. [10].
Orchid maintenance/replate (OMR) medium is such type of
medium that consists of accurately defined organic and
inorganic chemical additives in the form of macro- and
micronutrients [11]. The constituents of the medium are
shown in Table 1. It differs from original orchid replate
medium as it contains banana powder to promote rooting
and growth, and agar as a gelling agent that provides
physical support [12]. Despite several advantages, it suffers
the problem of hygroscopicity due to which it needs to be
protected from atmospheric moisture and proper storage
conditions (2-8°C) [13]. Hence, some alternative is needed
that can improve its properties thereby its use as orchid
micropropagation medium.
Table 1. Components of the orchid maintenance/replate medium.
S. No. Ingredient milligram/litre
1 Potassium nitrate 950.00
2 Ammonium nitrate 825.00
3 Calcium chloride.2H
2
O 220.00
4 Magnesium sulphate 90.34
5 Potassium phosphate monobasic 85.00
6 Manganese sulphate.H
2
O 8.45
7 Boric acid 3.10
8 Potassium iodide 0.42
9 Molybdic acid (sodium salt).2H
2
O 0.13
10 Zinc sulphate.7H
2
O 5.30
11 Copper sulphate.5H
2
O 0.0125
12 Cobalt chloride.6H
2
O 0.0125
13 Ferrous sulphate.7H
2
O 27.80
14 EDTA disodium salt.2H
2
O 37.30
15 myo - Inositol 100.00
16 Thiamine hydrochloride 10.00
17 Pyridoxine hydrochloride 1.00
18 Nicotinic acid (Free acid) 1.00
19 Peptone 2000.00
20 Banana powder 30000.00
21 Sucrose 20000.00
22 MES 1000.00
23 Agar 7000.00
24 Activated charcoal 2000.00
MES: 2-(n-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid; EDTA: Ethylenediamine
tetraacetic acid
The biofield energy treatment is reported to affect the
health of human beings via interacting with their biofield
[14]. The National Centre for Complementary and
Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), which is the part of
National Institute of Health (NIH) also include the energy
medicines as complementary and alternative medicines
(CAM) [15]. It is a putative form of energy that is produced
by own emissions of the body and surrounds the body of all
living organisms. However, the frequency of this energy
depends on the physiological and mental state of the person.
The living systems are continuously exchanging this energy
with their surroundings to maintain themselves [16, 17]. The
non-living things also possess the biofield energy as
everything in the universe made up of same constituents;
however, they are not able to change their energy aura by
more than 2% [18]. Thus, the human has the ability to
harness the energy from the environment and can transmit it
to any living or non-living object. Mr. Trivedi is also known
to possess unique biofield energy, and the treatment is called
as The Trivedi Effect
®
. It is known for its impact on various
living organisms and non-living materials including
microorganisms [19], pharmaceutical compounds [20], and
yield, growth, and anatomical characteristics of plants [21,
22]. Hence, based on the importance of OMR medium and
the outcomes of the biofield energy treatment, the study was
designed to analyse the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield
energy treatment on various physicochemical properties of
the OMR medium.
2. Materials and Methods
Orchid maintenance/replate (OMR) Medium was procured
from HiMedia Laboratories, India. The sample was divided
into two parts and coded as control and treated. Mr. Trivedi’s
biofield energy treatment was provided to the treated part
while no treatment was given to the control part. For
treatment, the treated part was handed over to Mr. Trivedi in
sealed pack under standard laboratory conditions. Mr. Trivedi
provided the treatment to the treated part through his unique
energy transmission process, without touching the sample.
The control and biofield treated samples were further
characterised using various analytical techniques.
2.1. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) Study
The Phillips Holland PW 1710 X-ray diffractometer
system was used to obtain the X-ray powder diffractogram of
control and treated samples. The X-ray generator was
equipped with a copper anode with nickel filter operating at
35kV and 20mA. The XRD system used 1.54056Å
wavelength of radiation. The data were collected from the 2θ
range of 10°-99.99° and a counting time of 0.5 seconds per
step along with a step size of 0.02°.
The crystallite size (G) was calculated from the Scherrer
equation:
G = kλ/(bCosθ)
Where, k is constant (0.94), λ is the X-ray wavelength
(0.154 nm), b in radians is the full-width at half of the peak
and θ is the corresponding Bragg’s angle.
Moreover, the percent change in crystallite size was
calculated using the following equation:
Percent change in crystallite size = [(G
t
-G
c
)/G
c
] ×100
Here, G
c
and G
t
denotes the crystallite size of control and
treated powder samples, respectively.
2.2. Particle Size Analysis
For particle size analysis, laser particle size analyzer
SYMPATEC HELOS-BF was used, having a detection
range of 01-875 µm. Two parameters of particle sizes viz.
d
50
and d
99
(size below which 50% and 99% particles are
Journal of Plant Sciences 2015; 3(6): 285-293 287
present, respectively) were calculated. The percent change
in average particle size (d
50
) was calculated using following
equation:
%changeinparticlesize, d

=d


d

!"!#
$
d

!"!#
× 100
Where, (d
50
)
Control
and (d
50
)
Treated
represents the average
particle size of control and treated samples, respectively.
Similarly, the percent change in particle size d
99
was
calculated.
2.3. Surface Area Analysis
The surface area was measured by the Brunauer–Emmett–
Teller (BET) surface area analyser, Smart SORB 90. The
percent change in surface area was calculated using
following equation:
%changeinsurfacearea = S

− S
!"!#
$
S
!"!#
× 100
Where, S
Control
and S
Treated
are the surface area of control
and treated samples respectively.
2.4. Thermal Analysis
The thermal stability profile of OMR medium was
analyzed using DSC and TGA/DTG studies. The impact of
biofield treatment was analyzed by comparing the results of
treated sample with that of the control sample.
2.4.1. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) Study
The DSC analysis of control and treated samples was
carried out using Perkin Elmer/Pyris-1. The samples were
heated at a rate of 10°C/min under air atmosphere (5
mL/min). The thermograms were collected over the
temperature range of 50°C to 300°C.
2.4.2. Thermogravimetric Analysis/Derivative
Thermogravimetry (TGA/DTG)
The effect of temperature on the stability of the control and
treated sample of OMR medium was analyzed using Mettler
Toledo simultaneous thermogravimetric analyser
(TGA/DTG). The heating temperature was selected from
room temperature to 350ºC with a heating rate of 5ºC/min
under air atmosphere.
2.5. CHNSO Analysis
The control and treated samples of OMR medium were
analyzed using CHNSO analyzer using Model Flash EA 1112
series, Thermo Finnigan Italy.
2.6. Fourier Transform-Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopic
Characterization
For FT-IR characterization, the samples were crushed,
mixed with spectroscopic grade KBr and pressed into pellets
with a hydraulic press. The FT-IR spectra were recorded on
Shimadzu’s Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (Japan)
in the frequency range 4000-350 cm
-1
. The FT-IR spectral
analysis was used to determine the effect of biofield energy
on the strength of bonds and stability of compounds present
in OMR medium.
2.7. UV-Vis Spectroscopic Analysis
The UV-Vis spectral analysis was measured using
Shimadzu UV-2400 PC series spectrophotometer. The
spectrum was recorded using 1 cm quartz cell that has a slit
width of 2.0 nm.
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)
The X-ray powder diffractograms of control and treated
samples of OMR medium showed a series of sharp peaks in
the regions of 10º<2θ>40º. In the control sample, the peaks
were observed at 2θ equal to 11.67°, 16.72°, 18.72°, 18.88°,
19.64°, 21.49°, and 25.23°. However, the treated sample
showed the peaks at equal to 11.61°, 13.05°, 16.67°,
17.73°, 18.74°, 22.04°, 24.64°, and 25.17°. In addition, the
most intense peak in control sample was observed at 2θ equal
to 25.23°; however, in treated sample it was observed at
22.04°. It indicated that the relative intensities of XRD peaks
were altered in the treated OMR medium as compared to the
control sample. Besides, the crystallite size of the control
sample was found as 147.55 nm whereas; in the treated
sample it was found as 132.80 nm. It suggested that
crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly
decreased by 10% as compared to the control. The changes in
the relative intensities of peaks revealed the presence of
microstrain may be due to the biofield treatment. It may
result in change in dislocation densities and atomic
displacements that might be the reason for decreased
crystallite size [23, 24].
3.2. Particle Size Analysis
The particle size of control and treated samples of OMR
medium are presented in Fig. 1. It showed that the d
50
and d
99
were 26.03 and 236.92 µm, respectively in the control
sample. However, in treated sample, the d
50
and d
99
were
found as 31.44 and 330.01 µm, respectively. It revealed that
d
50
was increased by 20.78% and d
99
was increased by
39.29% in the treated sample as compared to the control. The
temperature has a significant effect on the particle size of the
sample [25]. Hence, it is presumed that the biofield treatment
may provide some energy to the sample that resulted in
increased particle size as compared to the control sample.
Moreover, the particle size was directly related to the
viscosity and gelling property of the compound [26]. Hence,
the treated OMR medium sample with increased particle size
might improve the gelling property of media, as the large
particles has less tendency to broken down and has stronger
water holding capacity as compared with the small particles.
288 Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al.: Physicochemical Characterization of Biofield
Treated Orchid Maintenance/Replate Medium
Fig. 1. Particle size analysis of control and treated samples of OMR medium.
3.3. Surface Area Analysis
The surface area of control and treated samples of OMR
medium was investigated using BET method. The control
sample showed a surface area of 2.327 m
2
/g; however, the
treated sample of OMR medium showed a surface area of
2.236 m
2
/g. It showed that the surface area was decreased by
3.91% in the treated OMR medium sample as compared to
the control. The decrease in surface area of treated OMR
medium sample may be due to the increase in the particle
size as evident from the particle size analysis. Besides, the
OMR medium has the problem of hygroscopicity [13] and
the surface area was directly related to the hygroscopic water
content of the sample [27]. Hence, it is assumed that the
treated OMR medium sample with decreased surface area
might reduce the problem of hygroscopicity as compared
with the control sample.
3.4. Thermal Analysis
3.4.1. DSC Analysis
Fig. 2. DSC analysis of control and treated samples of OMR medium.
The DSC thermograms of control and treated samples of
OMR medium are presented in Fig. 2. The thermogram of
control sample showed an endothermic peak at 180.36°C due
to the melting of the sample. In this process, the amount of
heat absorbed (latent heat of fusion, ∆H) was recorded as
23.00 J/g. The similar endothermic peak was observed in
Journal of Plant Sciences 2015; 3(6): 285-293 289
treated sample at 182.58°C and ∆H was recorded as 54.20
J/g. The result of DSC analysis revealed slight alteration
(1.23% increase) in the melting temperature along with
135.7% increase in ∆H. The particle size can influence the
melting temperature and ∆H of the corresponding sample as
it is directly related to the melting properties [28, 29]. Hence,
it might be a reason for the increase in melting temperature
and ∆H of the OMR medium as the particle size was found
increased after the biofield treatment.
3.4.2. TGA/DTG Analysis
The TGA/DTG studies analyse the pattern of thermal
decomposition of the sample during heating. The TGA/DTG
thermograms of the control and treated samples of OMR
medium are presented in Fig. 3. The thermogram of control
sample showed the degradation of the sample in three steps.
Moreover, the first step degradation of the sample was started
at 175.72°C and ended at 203.38°C. Besides, the treated
sample showed two-step degradation, where the first step
commenced at 187.61°C and completed at 237.96°C. It
indicated that the onset temperature of degradation was
increased in the treated sample as compared to the control.
Besides, DTG thermogram data showed that T
max
was
observed at 189.19°C in the control sample while 210.41°C
in the treated OMR medium. It indicated that T
max
was
increased by approximately 21°C in the treated sample as
compared to the control. Furthermore, the increase in onset
temperature of decomposition and T
max
in the treated sample
of OMR medium with respect to the control sample may be
correlated with the increased thermal stability. The particle
size has a significant impact on the onset and peak
temperature and they were found directly proportional to
each other [29]. Hence, the increase in particle size of OMR
medium after treatment might be a reason for the increase in
thermal stability. Besides, it is well known that the OMR
medium faces high-temperature treatment (e.g., autoclaving)
before used as culture media where it may suffer from the
problem of thermal degradation. Hence, the treated sample
with increased thermal stability might help in increasing the
efficacy and shelf-life of the treated sample as compared to
the control.
Fig. 3. TGA/DTG analysis of control and treated samples of OMR medium.
3.5. CHNSO Analysis
The CHNSO analysis was used to measure the percentage
of elements present in the given sample. The result of
CHNSO analysis of control and treated samples are presented
in Table 2. The data revealed that the percentage of nitrogen
was significantly increased by 22.22% whereas; the
290 Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al.: Physicochemical Characterization of Biofield
Treated Orchid Maintenance/Replate Medium
percentage of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen was slightly
decreased as 3.62, 8.51, and 1.92%, respectively in the
treated sample as compared to the control. Besides, the
treated sample showed the presence of sulphur that was not
detected in the control sample. It is well known that nitrogen
is the main component of media that is provided by
ammonium nitrate, potassium nitrate, and peptone. The
increased percentage of nitrogen in the treated sample may
help to improve the growth of orchid culture as compared
with the control.
Table 2. CHNSO data of orchid maintenance / replate medium.
Element Control Treated Percent change
Nitrogen 0.63 0.77 22.22
Carbon 43.90 42.31 -3.62
Hydrogen 6.93 6.34 -8.51
Oxygen 31.18 30.58 -1.92
Sulphur ND 0.27
ND: not detected
3.6. FT-IR Spectroscopic Analysis
Fig. 4. FT-IR spectra of control and treated samples of OMR medium.
The FT-IR spectra of OMR medium (control and treated
samples) are shown in Fig. 4. The sample contains several
ingredients such as ammonium nitrate, disodium EDTA,
ferrous sulphate, potassium nitrate, nicotinic acid, sucrose,
inositol, thiamine hydrochloride, and pyridoxine
hydrochloride, etc. Hence, the major vibration peaks were
observed (Table 3) related to the functional groups present in
these ingredients. The peak at 3336 cm
-1
in the control
sample was assigned to N-H stretching of ammonium nitrate
and O-H stretching (carboxylic acid) due to nicotinic acid
and disodium EDTA [30] [31]; however, the broadness of
peak suggests the hydrogen bonding within the compound.
Besides, in the treated sample it was shifted to a lower
frequency at 3323 cm
-1
. Further, the C-H stretching peaks of
disodium EDTA appeared at 2983 and 2896 cm
-1
in the
control sample, whereas, in the treated sample, the peaks
Journal of Plant Sciences 2015; 3(6): 285-293 291
appeared at 2941 and 2898 cm
-1
. The peak due to pyridine
ring of nicotinic acid and pyridoxine HCl was observed at
2815 cm
-1
in the control, while 2833 cm
-1
in the treated
sample. Similarly, the peak at 1753 cm
-1
in the control
sample was assigned to C=O stretching of lactone ring
present in sucrose; however, it was observed at 1735 cm
-1
in
the treated sample [30]. The peak at 1595 cm
-1
in the control
sample appeared as doublet and it was assigned to ring
stretching of the pyridine ring of nicotinic acid and
pyridoxine HCl [32]. The peak may also merge with the peak
due to S-O bond of CuSO
4
and P-O bond of KPO
4
[31].
Besides, in the treated sample the corresponding peak was
observed as a singlet at 1608 cm
-1
. Furthermore, the peak at
1380 cm
-1
in the control that was shifted to 1417 cm
-1
in the
treated sample was assigned to N-O symmetric stretching of
KNO
3
and pyrimidine ring of thiamine HCl [31, 32]. The
peaks at 1234 cm
-1
in the control sample and 1236 cm
-1
in the
treated sample was assigned to thiazole ring breathing of the
thiamine HCl [33]. Moreover, the peak at 1146 and 1130 cm
-1
in the control and treated samples, respectively was assigned
to S-O bond in FeSO
4
and ZnSO
4
, and pyrimidine ring of
thiamine HCl. The peak due to C-O stretching of alcohol
group in pyridoxine HCl was observed at 1047 cm
-1
in the
control and 1058 cm
-1
in the treated sample. The ring
breathing mode of inositol was observed at 1001 cm
-1
in the
control and 999 cm
-1
in the treated sample. Further, the peak
at 858 cm
-1
in both, control and treated sample was assigned
to B-O bond of boric acid and C-H out of plane bending of
thiazole ring in thiamine HCl. The IR peaks of control
sample were well matched with the reported literature. The
FT-IR spectra of the treated sample showed different IR
frequencies of respective functional groups as compared to
the control. It suggested the impact of biofield energy
treatment on the bond strength and dipole moment of the
compounds present in the OMR medium. However, further
studies are needed to analyse the effect of this treatment on
the specific compounds and their functions in OMR medium.
Table 3. Vibration modes observed in orchid maintenance/replate medium.
S. No.
Functional group Compound Wavenumber (cm
-
1
)
Control Treated
1 O-H stretching,
N-H stretching
Nicotinic acid,
Disodium EDTA
Ammonium nitrate
3336 3323
2 C-H stretching Disodium EDTA,
Thiamine HCl
2983,
2896
2941,
2898
3 C-H stretching Agar 2815 2833
4 C=O stretching
(lactone) Sucrose 1753 1735
5 Ring stretching
(pyridine)
Nicotinic acid,
Pyridoxine HCl 1595 1608
6
N-O stretching,
Ring stretching
(pyrimidine)
KNO
3
,
Thiamine HCl
1380
1417
7
Ring breathing
(thiazole),
S=O stretching
Thiamine HCl
MES
1234
1236
8
Pyrimidine ring
stretching,
S-O bond
Thiamine HCl,
FeSO
4
, ZnSO
4
1146 1130
9 C-O stretching (C-
OH) Pyridoxine HCl 1047 1058
10 Ring breathing
(carbon ring) Inositol 1001 999
11 B-O stretching Boric acid 858 858
12 Ring deformation
(cycloalkane) Inositol 561 551
3.7. UV-Vis Spectroscopic Analysis
The UV spectra of OMR medium (control and treated
samples) are shown in Fig. 5. The UV spectrum of control
sample showed absorption peaks at λ
max
equal to 212 and 257
nm. However, the biofield treated sample showed absorption
peaks at λ
max
equal to 212 and 275 nm. The peak at λ
max
257
nm in the control sample was shifted to higher wavelength i.e.
275 nm in the treated sample. It is hypothesized that biofield
energy treatment might affect the HOMO→LUMO transition
within the compounds of OMR medium due to which the peak
at λ
max
257 nm was shifted to 275 nm in the treated sample.
Fig. 5. UV-Vis spectra of control and treated samples of OMR medium.
292 Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al.: Physicochemical Characterization of Biofield
Treated Orchid Maintenance/Replate Medium
4. Conclusions
The XRD study showed 10% decrease in the crystallite
size of treated sample along with alteration in the relative
intensities of the peaks. It may occur due to the presence of
microstrains that might be generated after biofield energy
treatment. Moreover, the average particle size and d
99
were
increased in treated sample by 20.78% and 39.29%,
respectively as compared to the control. The surface area
data supported the results of particle size analysis and
revealed that the surface area was decreased by 4% in the
treated sample. The increased particle size and reduced
surface area might improve the gelling properties and
reduce the problem of hygroscopicity of the treated sample.
Besides, the melting temperature and ∆H was found
increased in the treated sample as compared to the control.
The TGA results also revealed that the onset temperature of
degradation and maximum degradation temperature was
increased in the treated sample. The increased thermal
stability may help in increasing the efficacy and shelf-life
of the treated sample as compared to the control.
Furthermore, the CHNSO analysis revealed increased
percent of nitrogen along with the presence of sulphur in
the treated sample as compared to the control. The FT-IR
and UV-vis spectra of the treated sample also revealed the
changes as compared to the control. The overall study
revealed the impact of biofield treatment on the physical,
thermal and spectroscopic properties of the OMR medium
that could make it more useful as compared to the control.
Acknowledgements
Authors greatly acknowledge the support of Trivedi
Science, Trivedi Master Wellness and Trivedi Testimonials in
this research work. The authors would also like to
acknowledge the whole team from the Sophisticated
Analytical Instrument Facility (SAIF), Nagpur and MGV
Pharmacy College, Nashik for providing the instrumental
facility.
References
[1] Atwood JT (1986) The size of the orchidaceae and systematic
position of epiphytic orchids. Selbyana 9: 171-186.
[2] Jalal JS, Kumar P, Tewari L, Pangtey YPS. Orchids: Uses in
traditional medicine in India. National seminar on medicinal
plants of Himalaya: Potential and prospect. Regional Research
Institute of Himalayan Flora, Tarikhet, India.
[3] Bulpitt CJ (2005) The uses and misuses of orchids in
medicine. QJM 98: 625-631.
[4] Bulpitt CJ, Li Y, Bulpitt PF, Wang J (2007) The use of orchids
in chinese medicine. J R Soc Med 100: 558-563.
[5] Sforza S (2013) Food authentication using bioorganic
molecules. DEStech Publications, Inc. USA.
[6] Khatun H, Khatun MM, Biswas MS, Kabir MR, Al-Amin M
(2010) In-vitro growth and development of Dendrobium
hybrid orchid. Bangladesh J Agr Res 35: 507-514.
[7] Nasiruddin KM, Begum R, Yasmin S (2003) Protocorm like
bodies and plantlet regeneration from Dendrobium formosum
leaf callus. Asian J Plant Sci 2: 955-957.
[8] Parvin MS, Haque ME, Akhter F, Moniruzzaman, Khaldun
ABM (2009) Effect of different levels of naa on in vitro
growth and development of shoots of Dendrobium orchid.
Bangladesh J Agr Res 34: 411-416.
[9] Leva A, Rinaldi LMR (2012) Recent advances in plant in vitro
culture. In Tech.
[10] Saad AIM, Elshahed AM. Plant tissue culture media. InTech
[11] Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid
growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol
Plant 15: 473-497.
[12] Mazumder PB, Sharma GD, Choudhury MD, Nath D,
Talukdar AD, et al. (2010) In vitro propagation and
phytochemical screening of Papilionanthe teres (Roxb.)
Schltr. Assam university journal of science & technology:
Biological and environmental sciences 5: 37-42.
[13] http://www.funakoshi.co.jp/data/datasheet/PHT/O799.pdf
[14] Garland SN, Valentine D, Desai K, Li S, Langer C, et al.
(2013) Complementary and alternative medicine use and
benefit finding among cancer patients. J Altern Complement
Med 19: 876-881.
[15] NIH, National Center for Complementary and Alternative
Medicine. CAM Basics. Publication 347. [October 2, 2008].
Available at: http://nccam.nih.gov/health/whatiscam/
[16] Saad M, Medeiros RD (2012) Distant healing by the supposed
vital energy- scientific bases. Complementary therapies for the
contemporary healthcare. InTech.
[17] Rubik B (2002) The biofield hypothesis: Its biophysical basis
and role in medicine. J Altern Complement Med 8: 703-717.
[18] Prakash S, Chowdhury AR, Gupta A (2015) Monitoring the
human health by measuring the biofield "aura": An overview.
IJAER 10: 27654-27658.
[19] Trivedi MK, Patil S, Shettigar H, Gangwar M, Jana S (2015)
Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of Pseudomonas fluorescens
after biofield treatment. J Infect Dis Ther 3: 222.
[20] Trivedi MK, Patil S, Shettigar H, Singh R, Jana S, et al.
(2015) An impact of biofield treatment on spectroscopic
characterization of pharmaceutical compounds. Mod Chem
appl 3:159.
[21] Sances F, Flora E, Patil S, Spence A, Shinde V (2013) Impact
of biofield treatment on ginseng and organic blueberry yield.
Agrivita J Agric Sci 35: 22-29.
[22] Patil SA, Nayak GB, Barve SS, Tembe RP, Khan RR (2012)
Impact of biofield treatment on growth and anatomical
characteristics of Pogostemon cablin (Benth.). Biotechnology
11: 154-162.
[23] Zhang K, Alexandrov IV, Kilmametov AR, Valiev RZ, Lu K
(1997) The crystallite-size dependence of structural
parameters in pure ultrafine-grained copper. J Phys D Appl
Phys 30: 3008-3015.
Journal of Plant Sciences 2015; 3(6): 285-293 293
[24] Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RR (2008) A transcendental to
changing metal powder characteristics. Met Powder Rep 63:
22-28.
[25] Qu Y, Yang H, Yang N, Fan Y, Zhu H, et al. (2006) The effect
of reaction temperature on the particle size, structure and
magnetic properties of coprecipitated CoFe
2
O
4
nanoparticles.
Mater Lett 60: 3548-3552.
[26] Sun Q, Wu M, Bu X, Xiong L (2015) Effect of the amount
and particle size of wheat fiber on the physicochemical
properties and gel morphology of starches. PLoS One 10:
e0128665.
[27] Amer AM (2009) Moisture adsorption capacity and surface
area as deduced from vapour pressure isotherms in relation to
hygroscopic water of soils. Biologia 64: 516-521.
[28] Levitas VI, Pantoya ML, Chauhan G, Rivero I (2009) Effect
of the alumina shell on the melting temperature depression for
aluminum nanoparticles. J Phys Chem C Nanomater
Interfaces 113: 14088-14096.
[29] Martinez E (1961) The effect of particle size on the thermal
properties of serpentine minerals. Am Mineral 46: 901-912.
[30] Lambert JB (1987) Introduction to organic spectroscopy.
Macmillan, New York, USA.
[31] Miller FA, Wilkins CH (1952) Infrared spectra and
characteristic frequencies of inorganic ions: Their use in
qualitative analysis. Analytical Chemistry 24: 1253-1294.
[32] Breda S, Reva ID, Lapinski L, Nowak MJ, Fausto R (2006)
Infrared spectra of pyrazine, pyrimidine and pyridazine in
solid argon. J Mol Struct 786: 193-206.
[33] Rao CNR, Venkataraghavan R (1964) Contribution to the
infrared spectra of five-membered N- and N, S-heterocyclic
compounds. Can J Chem 42: 43-49.
... It improved the overall productivity of crops in agriculture and livestock [9][10][11][12], positive impact on cancer [13,14], and altered characteristics features of microbes in the field of microbiology [15][16][17][18]. It also alters the structural, physical, and thermal properties of several metals and ceramics [19][20][21], causes genetic alteration in microbes [22,23], and improves various nutraceutical compounds in the areas of nutraceuticals [24,25] and biotechnology [26][27][28]. Many treatment strategies are available for the proliferation and differentiation of bone cells using synthetic drugs and chemicals. ...
Article
Full-text available
The bone health is an important part of healthy-life and longevity in general. The present study was investigated to see the effect of the Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) on the human bone osteosarcoma cells - MG-63 (ATCC® CRL-1427™) for the assessment of bone cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro. The study parameters were assessed using cell viability by MTT, collagen synthesis, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) on bone health using ELISA-based assay. The cell viability assay data showed significant response in all the tested groups; while in the Biofield Energy Treated group supplemented with 10% charcoal-dextran treated fetal bovine serum (CD-FBS) (G3) showed better response (increased 63%) in terms of cells proliferation compared to the untreated cell group (G1). The level of ALP was increased by 32% in the G3 group compared to the untreated cells group (G1). Additionally, the level of collagen synthesis was increased by 27% in the G3 group compared to the G1 group. The overall results demonstrated that the Biofield Energy Treatment has the potential for bone mineralization and bone growth as evident via increased levels of collagen and ALP. Therefore, the Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) Treatment might be useful as a bone health promoter for various bone-related disorders like low bone density, osteogenesis imperfecta, and osteoporosis.
... It improved the overall productivity of crops in agriculture and livestoc [7][8][9][10] , positive impact on cancer [11,12] , and altered characteristics features of microbes in the field of microbiology [13][14][15][16] . It also altered the structural, physical, and thermal properties of several metals and ceramics [17][18][19] , causes chromosomal changes in microbes [20,21] , and improved various nutraceutical compounds in the areas of nutraceuticals [22,23] and biotechnology [24][25][26] . Many therapeutic aspects are available for the proliferation and differentiation of macrophages cells by means of some chemical treatment. ...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of Biofield Energy Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) on Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM) and fetal bovine serum (FBS) in murine macrophage cells (RAW 264.7). The study parameters were evaluated using cell viability by MTT assay and estimation of proinflammatory cytokine like tumor necrosis factor - alpha (TNF-α) on immunomodulation using enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA). The cell viability using MTT assay data showed that more than 80% cell viability was observed in all the tested groups compared to the baseline control group (G1). The characteristics of cell morphology in the Biofield Energy Treated DMEM without FBS (G6) group showed some changes in the cell morphology as evidenced a transition from spherical to elongate and also showed maturation compared to the G1 group. The level of TNF-α expression was significantly reduced by 23.15% in the G3 group compared to the G1 group. Moreover, the secretion of TNF-α was altered by 38.06%, 35.77%, and 282.49% in the G4, G5, and G6 groups, respectively compared to the G1 group. The overall results demonstrated that the Trivedi Effect® - Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment has an impact on DMEM and FBS by alteration of cell morphology and reducing the level of TNF-α expression in immune cell (RAW 264.7). Therefore, the Trivedi Effect® treated DMEM and FBS might be useful as an immunomodulator for various immune-related disorders like Graves’ disease, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, etc.
... It improved the productivity of crops in agriculture and livestock [12][13][14][15], positive impact on cancer [16,17], and altered characteristics features of microbes in the field of microbiology [19][20][21]. It also alters the structural, physical, and thermal properties of several metals and ceramics [22][23][24], causes genetic alteration in various microorganisms [25,26], and improves various nutraceutical compounds in the areas of nutraceuticals [27,28] and biotechnology [29][30][31]. Wide spectrum of treatment approaches are available for the proliferation and differentiation of bone cells using conventional medicines. However, due to its high cost, anticipated toxicity, render it undesirable for the patients for longer uses. ...
Article
Full-text available
The bone health is an important part of healthy-life and longevity in current situation due to huge toxins and contaminants in the environment and food chain. Considering the importance of bone health in the modern era, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of the Consciousness Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) Treatment on Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) in which the human bone osteosarcoma cells - MG-63 (ATCC® CRL-1427™) was grown for the assessment of bone cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro. The study parameters were assessed using cell viability by MTT assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and collagen synthesis on bone health using ELISA-based assay. The cell viability was significantly increased by 24% in the Biofield Energy Treated group supplemented with 10% charcoal-dextran with fetal bovine serum (CD-FBS) (G3) compared to the untreated cells group (G1). The level of ALP was significantly increased by 72% in the G3 group compared to the G1 group. Additionally, the level of collagen synthesis was significantly (p≤0.001) increased by 19% in the G3 group compared to the G1 group. The overall results demonstrated that the Biofield Energy Treated DMEM has the potential for bone mineralization and bone cells growth as evident via increased levels of collagen and ALP. Therefore, the Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) Treatment could be useful as a bone health promoter for various bone-related disorders like low bone density, osteogenesis imperfecta, and osteoporosis, etc.
... This method is called as biofield energy treatment [16,17]. Mr. Trivedi is one of the eminent healing practitioners and has notable capability to alter the characteristic properties of several organic compounds [18][19][20], pharmaceuticals [21,22], nutraceuticals [23], metals and ceramic in materials science [24,25], culture medium [26,27] and improve the overall productivity of crops [28,29] as well as to modulate the efficacy of the various living cells [30][31][32][33]. Literature demonstrated that biofield energy treatment (also called as The Trivedi Effect ® ) has the remarkable capability for alteration of the isotopic abundance ratio in the organic compounds [34][35][36][37][38]. Spectroscopic and thermal analysis of thymol concluded that the physicochemical, structural and thermal properties of thymol were significantly altered due to the biofield energy treatment. ...
Article
Full-text available
Thymol is a natural monoterpenoid phenol possessing various pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, etc. The stable isotope ratio analysis has drawn attention in numerous fields such as agricultural, food authenticity, biochemistry, metabolism, medical research, etc. An investigation of the effect of the biofield energy treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) on the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM in thymol using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry was attempted in this study. The sample, thymol was divided into two parts - one part was denoted as control and another part was referred as biofield energy treated sample that was given Mr. Trivediꞌs unique biofield energy. T1, T2, T3, and T4 were represented to different time interval analysis of the biofield treated thymol. The GC-MS spectra of the both control and biofield treated thymol indicated the presence of molecular ion peak [M+] at m/z 150 (calculated 150.10 for C10H14O) along with the similar pattern of fragmentation. The relative intensities of the parent molecule and other fragmented ions of the biofield treated thymol were enhanced as compared to the control thymol. The percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield treated thymol at T1, T2, T3 and T4 was increased by 3.25, 6.31, 96.75, and 140.25%, respectively as compared to the control thymol. In addition, the percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM was increased in the biofield treated thymol at T1, T2, T3, and T4 by 5.33, 8.00, 101.33, and 140.00%, respectively with respect to the control sample. In summary, 13C, 2H, and 17O contributions from (C10H14O)+ to m/z 151 and 18O contribution from (C10H14O)+ to m/z 152 in the biofield treated thymol were significantly increased gradually with respect to the time and was found that biofield energy treatment has time dependent effect on it. Hence, the biofield energy treated thymol might display altered isotope effects such as physicochemical and thermal properties, binding energy and the reaction kinetics with respect to the control sample. So, biofield energy treated thymol could be advantageous for designing the synthetic scheme for the preparation of pharmaceuticals through its kinetic isotope effects. Besides, biofield treated thymol might be useful to overcome the problems associated with thymol for e.g. pungent flavor, high dose requirement for the activity through understanding its isotope effects and the determination of its pharmacokinetic profile, bioavailability.
Article
Iron sulphate is used in the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia and other chronic disorders such as heart and kidney diseases. This study has the objective to analyze the impact of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the physicochemical, spectroscopic and thermal properties of iron sulphate using various analytical techniques. In this, the test compound, i.e., iron sulphate was divided into two parts; one as control (without Biofield Energy Treatment), and the other as Biofield Energy Treated, which received the Biofield Energy Treatment remotely by the renowned Healer, Mr. Mahendra Kumar Trivedi. The PXRD analysis of the Biofield Energy Treated sample showed significant alterations in the range of -39.49 to 301.40% in the relative intensities, and from -15.40 to 33.36% in the crystallite sizes, compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size of the treated sample was also increased by 4.98% as compared to the control sample. The particle sizes in the treated sample at d10, d50, d90 and D(4,3) values were significantly increased by 67.12%, 47.72%, 33.18% and 42.01%, respectively; whereas, the specific surface area was significantly reduced by 38.39%, compared with the control sample. The TGA thermograms showed three steps of thermal degradation in which, the weight loss of Biofield Energy Treated sample in the first and second step was reduced by 5.82% and 16.09%, respectively, while, it was increased by 6.78% in the third step, compared to the control sample. The total weight loss in the treated sample was also reduced by 2.76%, along with slight alteration in the maximum thermal decomposition temperature, compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis showed the decrease in the melting temperatures of the 1st, 2nd and 4th peaks by 8.24%, 19.29%, and 0.61%, respectively, while 4.57% increase in the 3rd peak of the treated sample, compared with the control sample. The latent heat of fusion (ΔH) corresponding to the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th peaks of the treated sample also showed alterations by -92.29, -86.29, 60.92, and 6.37%, respectively, compared with the control sample. The Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment might produce a novel polymorphic form of iron sulphate having increased crystallite and particle size along with enhanced thermal stability. It may help in improving the quality, safety and stability during the process of handling, storage, and shipment of the iron sulphate with better therapeutic response against iron deficiency anaemia.
Article
Full-text available
The stability of any pharmaceutical compound is most desired quality that determines its shelf life and effectiveness. The stability can be correlated to structural and bonding properties of compound and any variation arise in these properties can be easily determined by spectroscopic analysis. The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on these properties of four pharmaceutical compounds such as urea, thiourea, sodium carbonate, and magnesium sulphate, using spectroscopic analysis. Each compound was divided into two groups, referred as control and treatment. The control groups remained as untreated and treatment group of each compound received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated samples of each compound were characterized using Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. FT-IR spectra of biofield treated urea showed the shifting of C=O stretching peak towards lower frequency (1684→1669 cm-1) and N-H stretching peak towards higher frequency (3428→3435 cm-1) with respect to control. A shift in frequency of C-N-H bending peak was also observed in treated sample as compared to control i.e. (1624→1647 cm-1). FT-IR spectra of thiourea showed upstream shifting of NH2 stretching peak (3363→3387 cm-1) as compared to control, which may be due to decrease in N-H bond length. Also, the change in frequency of N-C-S bending peak (621→660 cm-1) was observed in treated thiourea that could be due to some changes in bond angle after biofield treatment. Similarly, treated sample of sodium carbonate showed decrease in frequency of C-O bending peak (701→690 cm-1) and magnesium sulphate showed increase in frequency of S-O bending peak (621→647 cm-1) as compared to control, which indicated that bond angle might be altered after biofield treatment on respective samples. UV-Vis spectra of biofield treated urea showed shift in lambda max (λmax) towards higher wavelength (201→220 nm) as compared to control sample, whereas other compounds i.e. thiourea, sodium carbonate, and magnesium sulphate showed the similar λmax to their respective control. These findings conclude that biofield treatment has significant impact on spectral properties of tested pharmaceutical compounds which might be due to some changes happening at atomic level of compounds, and leading to affect the bonding and structural properties of compounds.
Article
Full-text available
Global emergence of Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) displays a mechanism of resistance to all existing antimicrobials. Due to its strong ability to acquire resistance, there is a need of some alternative treatment strategy. Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of P. fluorescens. P. fluorescens cells were procured from MicroBioLogics in sealed packs bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 49838) number. Two sets of ATCC samples were taken in this experiment and denoted as A and B. ATCC-A sample was revived and divided into two groups (Gr) i.e. Gr.I (control) and Gr.II (revived); likewise, ATCC-B was labeled as Gr.III (lyophilized). Gr.II and III were given biofield treatment and were measured by MicroScan Walk-Away® system before and after treatment. Parameters studied in experiment were antimicrobial sensitivity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical reactions, and biotype number of both control and treatment groups using MicroScan Walk-Away® system. Experimental results showed antimicrobials such as cefepime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin, tetracycline, and tobramycin showed altered sensitivity and MIC values in treated group as compared to control. Biochemical reactions showed positive reaction in malonate, melibiose, nitrate, galactosidase, ornithine, raffinose, sorbitol, sucrose, tobramycin and Voges-Proskauer in Gr.II. Arabinose, colistin, glucose, and rhaminose also showed positive reactions in Gr.II on day 10 while arginine and cetrimide showed negative reaction in Gr.III as compared to control. Biochemical tests results revealed a change in biotype number in Gr.II (34101173, day 5), (77103177, a very rare biotype on day 10) and Gr.III (40000043) as compared to control (02041722). Organism was identified as Enterobacter cloacae (GrII, day 10) and Vibrio fluvialis (Gr.III, day 10) with respect to control. These findings suggest that biofield treatment made significant alteration in sensitivity pattern, MIC values, and biotype number of P. Fluorescens.
Article
Full-text available
Pogostemon cablin is a known aromatic plant which is cultivated for its essential oil widely applicated in perfumery and cosmetic industries. In the present study, the effect of biofield treatment was studied on the growth of P. cablin. For this study an in vitro culture system was set up in two groups, viz., control and treatment, each of which was derived from three different explant sources, namely leaf, node and petiole. Further these in vitro plantlets were hardened and transferred to external environment. The stomatal cells and epidermal hair growth were also studied at various morphogenetic stages. The study revealed that a single spell of biofield energy treatment produced significant increase in growth in treated group throughout all the morphogenetic phases from in vitro to in vivo level. A remarkable increase in stomatal cells and epidermal hair was also seen in treated group.
Article
Full-text available
This study tested the Null Hypothesis for the effect of BioField Energy applied to two separate crops under typical growing conditions, namely ginseng and organic blueberry in commercial plantings in Wisconsin and California, respectively. Following treatment to replicated plots in standard experimental design, data were collected at harvest for yield quantity and quality. Ginseng plants treated both pre-harvest and a combination of pre- and post-harvest showed market grade increases of 33.3% and 40.0%, respectively. Point of sale gross return for this crop is dependent upon tuber quality, and from these data the economics of these treatments were calculated. Based on stand adjusted yields and quality values, a combination of pre- and post-harvest treatment increased gross income by 57.4%. The second crop showed similar trends in positive responses. In the two blueberry varieties studied, Emerald treated plants showed 96% statistical increase in yield, while Jewel showed 31% increase. At the time of treatment, each variety was in a different stage of flowering. The Emerald variety was in the flowering stage, and Jewel was predominately in the fruiting stage. Both treated cultivars however demons-trated increased yield quantity and quality. The specific mechanisms that lead to these pre-liminary results need further investigation.
Article
Full-text available
Effects of added wheat fiber, with different levels and particle sizes, on the physicochemical properties and gel morphology of wheat starch and mung bean starch were investigated, using rapid visco analyzer (RVA), texture analyzer (TPA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Each starch was added with wheat fiber at 10, 20, 30 and 40% (weight basis, g/100g), and different sizes of 60, 100 and 180 mesh, respectively. The peak viscosity (PV) of starches with wheat fiber were higher than the control. Starches had the highest PV with 40%, 60 mesh wheat fiber. The starches with wheat fiber showed higher hardness when compared to the control. Wheat starch and mung bean starch, with 40%, 60 mesh wheat fiber, had the highest hardnesses of 147.78 and 1032.11g, respectively. SEM showed that the dense honeycomb structure of starch gel was diminished with increasing wheat fiber. Additionally, the number of internal pores was reduced, and a large lamellar structure was formed.
Article
Full-text available
Various life processes in human beings involve physiological and mental activity. Interestingly, electromagnetic field is associated with such activities. Psychological perception of one's environment or a person's thought process induces characteristic electrical impulses in the brain. These signals travel throughout the central, sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system, creating the unique electromagnetic field of the organism that can radiate out of the body and is termed 'Aura' or 'Bio-energy field'. Thus, this radiation field has the information about the individual's physiological and mental status. Any changes in homeostasis, including parasitic infection, genetic mutation, arterial constriction, etc., will produce a corresponding modification in the bio-energy field that in turn would lead to various diseases. Thus, 'aura' gives the signature of the status of health prior to its manifestation in the physical body. Therefore, human health can be effectively monitored by measuring this radiation field.
Article
Full-text available
The experiment was conducted to investigate the combined effect of different plant growth regulators and charcoal supplementation in MS medium on growth and development of plantlets regenerated from protocorm like bodies (PLBs) of hybrid orchid. The combination of BAP + NAA, BAP + IAA, BAP + IBA, and IAA + IBA at different concentrations with charcoal supplementation was studied. The result revealed that the use of different growth regulators had significant effect on different parameters studied. The maximum weight of PLBs (5.123 g) was obtained from the combination of BAP + IBA at 1.0 mg/l each. The highest shoot height (3.239 cm) and maximum number of rooted plantlets (4.473) was obtained from 1.0 mg/l each of BAP + NAA combination. The maximum number of leaves (3.490) and the maximum length of leaves (1.946 cm) were obtained from 1.0 mg/l each of BAP + IBA and the highest leaf width (1.166 cm) was obtained from 0.5 mg/l BAP +1.0 mg/l IBA combination. The highest root length was obtained from 0.5 mg/l each of BAP + IAA and the maximum number of regenerated plantlets (20) was obtained from 0.5 mg/l IAA + 1.0 mg/l IBA combination. However, the maximum fresh weight of single shoot (0.219 g) and the maximum number of roots per plantlet (6.300) was obtained from 1.0 mg/I each of IAA + IBA combination.