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The potential to use camelina (Camelina sativa L.) as a bioenergy crop has increased the need to develop management practices that would improve sustainable production. Th is study evaluated the effects by cultivars (Blaine Creek, Pronghorn, and Shoshone) and three spring seeding dates on the performance of camelina grown under rain-fed conditions in northern Wyoming. Results showed significant effects of cultivar and/or seeding dates on camelina establishment, phenology, yield, seed protein, oil content, and estimated biodiesel yield. Growing degree-day (GDD) requirements for plant emergence, flowering, and maturity were 34, 417, and 998, respectively. Among the three cultivars studied, Blaine Creek and Pronghorn had better establishment and subsequent seed yield in both years. Averaged across the 2 yr, seed yield of Blaine Creek and Pronghorn were 931 and 963 kg ha–1, respectively, greater than that of Shoshone (826 kg ha–1). Seeding date had no effect on seed yield in 2013. However, in 2014, early seeding increased camelina seed yield. Early seeding in 2014 resulted in a general increase in plant height, harvest index, protein yield, oil content, and estimated biodiesel yield, but reduced protein content. Our findings showed seeding camelina early resulted in good plant establishment, increased seed yield, oil content, and the estimated biodiesel yield. Nonetheless, early seeding could be restrained by wet field conditions prevalent in the spring in most regions of the Great Plains. Hard frost can also be problematic for young spring camelina seedlings.
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Agronomy Journal Volume 108, Issue 1 2016 349
C is an ancient crop believed to have evolved
as a weed in elds planted with ax, hence the name
“false ax” (Budin et al., 1995; Gugel and Falk, 2006).
According to Matthäus and Zubr (2000), camelina was cul-
tivated for oil in Europe during the Bronze and Iron Ages;
however, its production dwindled during the Middle Ages.
ere has been recent interest in camelina production because
of increased demand for biofuel and other industrial applica-
tions from non-edible oilseeds. Several attractive features
of camelina make it a potential oilseed crop. It is a low-cost
bioenergy crop and the oil has been used successfully as fuel
for diesel transport engines (Bernardo et al., 2003). According
to Shonnard et al. (2010), when camelina jet fuel was ight
tested, it met all the requirements for engine performance.
In addition, greenhouse gases emitted during combustion of
camelina-based fuels were lower than that of petroleum based
fuel. Pinzi et al. (2009) indicated that cold weather aects
the performance of most biofuels; however, fuel derived from
camelina is able to withstand lower temperatures because of
its high polyunsaturated fatty acid content. Besides biodiesel
potential, camelina seeds have an average oil content of 350 to
450 g kg–1, and the proportion of unsaturated fatty acid in the
oil is approximately 900 g kg–1 (Gugel and Falk, 2006). e
high content of unsaturated fatty acid makes camelina oil fast-
drying which is useful for making environmentally friendly
polymers, varnishes, paints, cosmetics, and dermatological
products (Zaleckas et al., 2012).
Agronomically, camelina has wide environmental adaptation
because it can grow under dierent climatic and soil conditions
(Zubr, 2003). According to Moser and Vaughn (2010), cam-
elina is able to grow well in semiarid regions and in low-fertile
and saline soils. Camelina requires low agricultural inputs and
its production cost is relatively low (Budin et al., 1995; Moser
and Vaughn, 2010). ough camelina ts well in crop produc-
tion systems in the semiarid regions in the Great Plains, there
Crop Economics, Production & Management
Evaluating Agronomic Responses of Camelina to Seeding
Date under Rain-Fed Conditions
Henry Y. Sintim, Valtcho D. Zheljazkov,* Augustine K. Obour, Axel Garcia y Garcia, and Thomas K. Foulke
Published in Agron. J. 108:349–357 (2016)
doi:10.2134/a g ronj2015 . 0153
Received 30 Mar. 2015
Accepted 16 Oct. 2015
Available freely online through the author-supported open access option
Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Agronomy
5585 Guilford Road, Madison, WI 53711 USA
All rights reserved
e potential to use camelina (Camelina sativa L.) as a bioen-
ergy crop has increased the need to develop management prac-
tices that would improve sustainable production. is study
evaluated the eects by cultivars (Blaine Creek, Pronghorn, and
Shoshone) and three spring seeding dates on the performance
of camelina grown under rain-fed conditions in northern Wyo-
ming. Results showed signicant eects of cultivar and/or seed-
ing dates on camelina establishment, phenology, yield, seed
protein, oil content, and estimated biodiesel yield. Growing
degree-day (GDD) requirements for plant emergence, ower-
ing, and maturity were 34, 417, and 998, respectively. Among
the three cultivars studied, Blaine Creek and Pronghorn had
better establishment and subsequent seed yield in both years.
Averaged across the 2 yr, seed yield of Blaine Creek and Prong-
horn were 931 and 963 kg ha–1, respectively, greater than that
of Shoshone (826 kg ha–1). Seeding date had no eect on seed
yield in 2013. However, in 2014, early seeding increased cam-
elina seed yield. Early seeding in 2014 resulted in a general
increase in plant height, harvest index, protein yield, oil con-
tent, and estimated biod iesel yield , but reduced protein content.
Our ndings showed seeding camelina early resulted in good
plant establishment, increased seed yield, oil content, and the
estimated biodiesel yield. Nonetheless, early seeding could be
restrained by wet eld conditions prevalent in the spring in
most regions of the Great Plains. Hard frost can also be prob-
lematic for young spring camelina seedlings.
H.Y. Sintim, and V.D. Zheljazkov, Univ. Wyoming, Dep. Plant Sci.,
and Sheridan Res. and Ext. Center, Laramie, W Y 82071; H.Y. Sintim,
Washington State Univ., Dep. Crop Soil Sci., Puya llup Res. Ext.
Center, 2606 West Pioneer, Puyallup, WA 98371; V.D. Zheljazkov,
Oregon State Univ., Columbia Basin Agric. Res. Center, P.O. Box 370,
Pendleton, OR 97801; A.K . Obour, Kansas State Univ., Agric. Res.
Center-Hays, 1232 240th Ave., Hays, KS 67601; A. Garcia y Garcia,
Univ. Minnesota, Dep. Agronomy and Plant Genetics, Southwest
Research and Outreach Center, 23669 130th St., Lamberton, MN
56152; T.K. Foulke, Univ. Wyoming, Dep. Ag ric. and Appl. Econ.,
1000 E. University Avenue, Laramie, W Y 82071. *Corresponding
author (;
Abbreviations: DAP, days aer planting; DOY, day of year; GDD,
growing degree-days.
Published November 23, 2015
350 Agronomy Journal Volume 108, Issue 1 2016
are limited production recommendations for camelina in the
region. is suggests the need for information on management
practices such as seeding dates, nutrient requirements, seeding
rates, weed control, and best cultivars for specic locations to
improve sustainable production.
Seeding date is an important management practice that
could be adapted to minimize the adverse eects of late frost,
moisture stress, and high temperature eects during critical
stages of crop growth. Nevertheless, frosts in early spring pose
potential threats to crop growth and development. is is typi-
cal for regions with variable weather conditions such as north-
ern Wyoming that usually experience temperatures below 0°C
in March through early May. Allen et al. (2014) indicated that
camelina can perform well even at temperatures below 0°C;
however, limited eld access as a result of wet soil conditions
can still impede early seeding.
Researchers have reported varying eects of seeding dates
on camelina growth and seed production under rain-fed con-
ditions. ese discrepancies in the literature may be due to
varying site-specic environmental conditions and edaphic
factors. Berti et al. (2011) observed signicant eects of seed-
ing dates on plant growth and yield of camelina cultivated on
ve locations in Chile. Conversely, Urbaniak et al. (2008) did
not observe any impact of seeding dates on plant emergence,
height, yield, or oil content of camelina grown in the Atlantic
region of Canada. Conceptually, early seeding is generally a
good practice. However, for a short-season crop such as cam-
elina (85–100 d; McVay and Lamb, 2008), the crop might be
able to compensate for slight delays in seeding without any
signicant impact on growth, yield, and quality by completing
its life cycle before the usual summer drought periods, depend-
ing on the type of cultivar used.
Crop cultivars dier in their absorption and translocation
of soil moisture, plant nutrients, photosynthates, and most
importantly, interactions with environmental factors. In addi-
tion, crop cultivars tolerate extreme temperatures, drought,
and toxicity and deciency of some nutrients dierently due
to genetic variability (Baligar et al., 2001). Camelina cultivars
were reported to dier in their response to temperature (Allen
et al., 2014) and nutrient assimilation (Jiang et al., 2013; Fujita
et al., 2014). It would therefore be benecial for growers to
identify camelina cultivars that will perform well in a specic
location. e objective of this study was to evaluate the eects
of cultivar and three spring-seeding dates on the growth, yield,
seed protein, and oil content of camelina for the environmental
conditions of northern Wyoming.
Experimental Site
e eld experiment was conducted at the Sheridan Research
and Extension Center (ShREC), University of Wyoming, 15 km
west of Sheridan, WY (44°48¢48² N, 106°46¢26² W, 1154 m
elevation). e soil at the experimental site was a Wyarno series
(ne, smectitic, mesic Ustic Haplargid), characterized as very
deep well drained, <0.5% slope, clay loam (31% sand, 36% silt,
and 33% clay). Soil samples collected in the top 0 to 15 cm in
2013 and 2014 were analyzed for soil chemical properties (at
Olsen’s Agricultural Laboratory, Inc., McCook, NE) follow-
ing standard soil test procedures. Soil pH (6.7 and 7.2); organic
matter (2.2 and 2.3%); nitrate N (5.0 and 3.6 kg ha–1); P (22.8
and 27.5 mg kg–1); and K (323 and 333 mg kg–1) for 2013 and
2014, respectively, were similar. e average rainfall distribution
during the 2 yr of the experiment deviated slightly from 30-yr
average (normal; Table 1). Total rainfall in April, May, and July
was greater in 2013 than in 2014, and vice versa for June and
August. In general, total rainfall during the summer months
(June–August) in both years were slightly higher than normal.
Mean temperature and total GDD (calculated with 5°C base
temperature) in 2013 and 2014 compared well to normal year,
except for August where they diered slightly (Table 1).
Plot Management
ree spring camelina cultivars (Blaine Creek, Pronghorn,
and Shoshone) were used in the study. In 2013, the window
for planting was short. is was because the soil was too wet
throughout March and April to perform any eld work. As
such, the seeding dates 122, 129, and 136 DOY were spaced at
1 wk interval. In 2014, camelina was initially seeded on 101,
114, and 125 DOY. However, because of complete loss of the
crops from frost damage (temperature below –4°C) at a critical
emerging stage of growth for the second and third seeding, the
plots were tilled and replanted. erefore, the actual seeding
dates in 2014 were 101, 153, and 160 DOY. e experiments
were set as randomized complete block in a split-plot arrange-
ment with four replications, and eects of year being non-
cumulative by planting at dierent areas situated 50 m apart.
e main plot treatments were the seeding dates, and subplot
treatments were the camelina cultivars.
e experiments were established on a previously fallowed
land under a reduced tillage system. e land was prepared
by one-time disking with a tandem disk (Allis-Chalmer
Co., Milwaukee, WI), followed by one-time harrowing
with an arena groomer (Parma Co., Parma, ID). Subplots
Table 1. Mean temperature, growing degree-days, and total monthly precipitation at Wyarno, Sheridan, WY, in 2013 and 2014.
Mean temperature Total growing degree-days‡ Total precipitation
2013 2014 Normal† 2013 2014 Normal 2013 2014 Normal†
–––––––––––––––– °C –––––––––––––––– ––––––––––––––– mm –––––––––––––––
April –0.70 5.9 6.30 113 175 182 51.9 22.9 33.3
May 10.2 11.7 11.5 455 431 407 90.8 58.6 65.5
June 17.0 16.0 16.8 680 583 678 84.9 99.9 62.2
July 22.6 21.1 21.5 997 946 957 25.6 9.60 30.4
August 22.7 20.0 20.4 1012 862 906 3.2 14.5 16.7
Total 256 205 208
† Normal = 30-yr average.
‡ Growing degree-days were calculated using 5°C base temperature.
Agronomy Journal Volume 108, Issue 1 2016 351
were approximately 1.5 by 6 m, and were seeded at a rate of
5.6 kg ha–1 to a depth of 7 mm using a cone drill seeder. Seed
germination was tested before every seeding to adjust for the
seeding rates. Urea was applied at a rate of 56 kg N ha–1 by
broadcasting. Round-up [glyphosate; isopropylamine salt of
N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine] was applied at 1.8 kg a.i. ha–1
to control weeds prior to seeding. Post-emergence weed control
was performed manually by hand removing the weeds. Flea
beetle (Phyllotreta cruciferae) infestation was observed during
the 2014 cropping season but not in 2013. is observation
could be due to canola (Brassica napus L.) that was cultivated
near the experimental site in 2013, but not in 2014, suggesting
that camelina is possibly an alternate host to ea beetle. Sevin
SL (Carbaryl; 1-naphthol N-methylcarbamate) insecticide was
applied at 1.5 kg a.i. ha–1 to control ea beetle on 3 June 2014.
e ea beetle damage was rated visually on a 1 to 10 point
scale for the rst seeding date before applying the insecticide.
e cultivars did not dier in ea beetle infestation, showing
an average of 16% damage.
Data Collection
Before seeding, the 1000-seed weights (adjusted to 8%
moisture content) of the camelina cultivars were measured.
Plant establishment data were collected at the 2 to 3 leaf stage
by counting the number of camelina seedlings within a 1-m
row at 10 randomly selected locations within a plot. e data
was used to calculate the average number of plants per meter
square. e percentage of plant emergence was computed as the
ratio of plants emerged to the total number of seeds planted
multiplied by 100. Flowering date was recorded when 50% of
the plants were at anthesis and the pod date when 50% of the
pods were formed. Flowering period referred to the number
of days between date of anthesis and pod date, and the days to
maturity represented the number of days between seeding to
when the plants were harvested. e GDD of plant emergence,
owering, and maturity were calculated as:
max min
where Tmax and Tmin are daily maximum and minimum air
temperature, respectively, and Tbase was the base temperature.
e GDD was calculated with 5°C base temperature (Aiken et
al., 2015).
Average plant height was determined by measuring the
length of 10 randomly selected plants from the soil surface to
the highest point on the plant at the time of maturity. Plant
stand at maturity was determined the same as to plant stand
at emergence. Plants were harvested when 75% of the silicles
were ripe (Sintim et al., 2015a). Entire plots were harvested
with a hedge trimmer at the soil surface (taking care to avoid
shattering) and the total aboveground biomass weighed before
threshing with a portable stationary thresher, cleaned, and
then weighed to determine seed weight. e crop harvest index
was calculated as dry seed weight divided by dry weight of total
aboveground biomass at harvest. Seed yields were adjusted to
8% moisture content.
Camelina Seed Protein and Oil Content
Analysis and Biodiesel Estimation
Seed protein and oil concentration were determined using
Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy and a specic
calibration derived for a scanning monochromater (Perten
DA-7200, Perten Instruments, Hägersten, Sweden) according
to McVay and Khan (2011). e seeds were air-dried, and the
moisture content measured before the oil analysis. Oil con-
tent in the seed was adjusted to 8% seed moisture. Biodiesel
yield was estimated according to Sintim et al. (2015b). e
estimation assumed 80% extraction eciency (Kemp, 2006),
10% postharvest loss, and oil yield conversion of 1 kg ha–1 to
0.439 L volume biodiesel.
Statistical Analysis
Data analysis was performed separately for each year because
the seeding dates were very dierent. e PROC MIXED
procedure in SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute, 2013) was used for the
analysis. Seeding date and cultivar were treated as xed eects,
and then block was considered as random eects. Mean separa-
tions were conducted at P < 0.05, using the least squares means
(LSMEA NS) and adjusted Tukey multiple comparison procedure.
Validity of equal variance, normality, and independence assump-
tions on the error terms were conrmed by assessing the residuals.
Phenological Growth Parameters
Seeding date × cultivar interaction was not signicant on all
measured phenological growth parameters for both years. Early
seeding prolonged the days to plant emergence, owering, and
maturity in both years. In addition, early seeding resulted in
longer owering period or pod formation. However, GDD for
the growth stages were not signicantly dierent among the
seeding date treatments (Table 2). In the central Great Plains
region of Nebraska, Pavlista et al. (2011) observed a reduction in
days to plant emergence but later owering date when camelina
and canola were late seeded. Similar results have been reported
previously (Zheng et al., 1994; Kirkland and Johnson, 2000).
According to Nykiforuk and Johnson-Flanagan (1994), pro-
longed days to emergence with early seeding is a result of low
soil temperature. Despite observing an eect of seeding date on
emergence and owering dates, Pavlista et al. (2011) reported no
dierence in the maturity date, contrary to what we observed.
Previous studies indicated camelina matures between 85 and
100 d aer seeding, when grown in the northern Great Plains
of Montana (McVay and Lamb, 2008). However, depending
on year and seeding date, camelina matured earlier or later
(75–112 d) in our current study (Table 2) than what was previ-
ously reported. e lack of dierence in GDD in this study to
seeding dates, even though calendar days varied signicantly,
emphasizes that accumulation of heat units is the impor-
tant factor for determining growth stages of plants. As such,
specifying number of days in which emergence, owering, or
maturity is expected to occur will not be relevant depending
on prevailing weather conditions. Photoperiod has also been
reported to inuence days to owering of camelina (Gesch
and Cermak, 2011). In the present study, the average GDD
for emergence, owering, and maturity were 34, 417, and 998,
respectively. e GDD for owering was lower than what was
352 Agronomy Journal Volume 108, Issue 1 2016
reported by Gesch and Cermak (2011) for two winter camelina
cultivars near Morris, MN. e authors observed 540 and
555 GDD (under no-till and chisel plowed, respectively) for
camelina cultivar BSX-WG I and 577 and 584 GDD (under
no-till and chisel plowed, respectively) for cultivar Joelle in the
2007–2008 cropping season. e lower GDD in the present
study compared to that reported by Gesch and Cermak (2011)
may be due to the dierent base temperature (5 vs. 4°C) and
cultivar (spring vs. winter type).
ough early seeding prolonged the number of days to vari-
ous growth stages, early seeded plots emerged, owered, and
matured at an earlier calendar date relative to delayed seeding.
Flowering before the usual summer heat and drought period
can help prevent pod abortion or other forms of stresses that
cause premature senescence (Adamsen and Coelt, 2005;
Chen et al., 2005). According to Clayton et al. (2004), heat
and moisture stress as a result of late seeding can hasten crop
maturity. Hence, the shorter owering time on late seeding
might be due to a more rapid accumulation of GDD under
warmer conditions that the late seeded plants may have expe-
rienced. Wang et al. (2003) indicated that plants respond to
harsh temperatures through physiological adaptations.
e cultivars used in this study emerged at similar times,
but Pronghorn owered and matured earlier than Blaine
Creek and Shoshone in both years (Table 3). Low protability
of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)–fallow system in dry areas
of the Great Plains has raised the need to replace the fallow
phase with an alternative crop (DeVuyst and Halvorson, 2004;
Obour et al., 2015). e crop must be well adapted to the
region and possess unique qualities that will t into the crop-
ping system. Identifying short growing camelina cultivars such
as Pronghorn in this study will be important for successful
incorporation of camelina into dryland wheat-based produc-
tion systems. is is because shorter growing cultivars will
Table 2. The number of calendar days and growing degree-days required for emergence, owering, and maturity of camelina as affected
by seeding date in 2013 and 2014.
Seeding date Emergence Emergence Flowering Flowering
period Maturity Maturity
122 7.1 ± 0.23a§ 30.6 ± 1.66a 50 ± 0.37a 402 ± 4.69a 13.0 ± 0.21a 79 ± 1.16a 1005 ± 21.4a
129 3.3 ± 0.13b 31.9 ± 1.45a 43 ± 0.48b 392 ± 11.1a 12.1 ± 0.19b 79 ± 0.71a 997 ± 11.1a
136 3.2 ± 0.13b 32.5 ± 1.04a 42 ± 0.36b 402 ± 5.61a 12.6 ± 0.15ab 76 ± 0.43b 1000 ± 7.3a
P value <0.001 0.734 <0.001 0.621 0.013 <0.001 0.244
101 13 ± 0.34a 37.5 ± 0.29a 72 ± 1.23a 406 ± 14.1a 13.3 ± 0.33a 112 ± 1.37a 970 ± 23.6a
153 2.5 ± 0.15b 35.2 ± 1.42a 41 ± 0.39b 441 ± 6.52a 11.3 ± 0.36b 84 ± 0.58b 1019 ± 8.51a
160 2.3 ± 0.13b 38.6 ± 1.31a 38 ± 0.43b 459 ± 7.56a 10.6 ± 0.28b 79 ± 0.43c 996 ± 4.75a
P value <0.001 0.431 <0.001 0.101 0.003 <0.001 0.384
† DOY, day of year; DAP, days after planting; GDD, growing degree-days.
‡ GDD was calculated using 5°C base temperature.
§ Within column and year, means followed by the same letter(s) are not signicantly different using the least squares means (LSMEANS) and adjusted
Tukey multiple comparison procedure (P < 0.05). Data are averaged across three camelina cultivars and four replications (n = 12), followed by the
standard error of the mean.
Table 3. Cultivar effects on the number of calendar days and growing degree-days required for emergence, owering, and maturity of
camelina in 2013 and 2014.
Cultivar Emergence Emergence Flowering Flowering
period Maturity Maturity
Blaine C. 4.6 ± 0.60a§ 31.7 ± 1.30a 45 ± 1.13a 399 ± 5.05ab 12.6 ± 0.19b 80 ± 0.57a 1025 ± 2.54a
Pronghorn 4.5 ± 0.56a 31.4 ± 1.28a 44 ± 1.16b 386 ± 10.2b 12.0 ± 0.17c 75 ± 0.28b 939 ± 7.37b
Shoshone 4.5 ± 0.56a 31.7 ± 1.29a 46 ± 1.14a 410 ± 5.14a 13.1 ± 0.15a 80 ± 0.75a 1037 ± 7.42a
P value 0.387 0.305 <0.001 0.022 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Blaine C. 5.7 ± 1.42a 37.1 ± 1.21a 50 ± 4.82a 441 ± 9.89a 12.1 ± 0.29a 93 ± 4.54a 1006 ± 17.1b
Pronghorn 5.8 ± 1.45a 37.1 ± 1.23a 48 ± 4.55b 413 ± 12.2b 10.7 ± 0.40b 90 ± 4.37b 971 ± 16.0c
Shoshone 5.8 ± 1.50a 37.6 ± 1.34a 51 ± 4.76a 452 ± 10.6a 12.6 ± 0.45a 93 ± 4.73a 1010 ± 11.5a
P value 0.195 0.348 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.001 0.003
† DAP, days after planting; GDD, growing degree-days.
‡ GDD was calculated using 5°C base temperature.
§ Within column and year, means followed by the same letter(s) are not signicantly different using the least squares means (LSMEANS) and adjusted
Tukey multiple comparison procedure (P < 0.05). Data are averaged across three seeding dates and four replications (n = 12), followed by the standard
error of the mean.
Agronomy Journal Volume 108, Issue 1 2016 353
mature early, allowing enough time for soil moisture recharge
when adopted in wheat–fallow cropping systems. Dierences
in GDD for owering and maturity among cultivars in the
present study may be attributed to varying photoperiod sensi-
tivity similar to that reported for winter camelina cultivars by
Gesch and Cermak (2011).
Plant Emergence and Stand at Maturity
Plant emergence and stand at maturity was not aected by
seeding date; however, they diered signicantly among the
cultivars (Table 4). Average plant emergence was 27 and 23%,
respectively, for 2013 and 2014. Plant emergence (20–28%) was
similar to what was reported in Nova Scotia and considerably
lower (45–72%) compared to Prince Edward Island Provinces
in Canada (Urbaniak et al., 2008). In contrast to our current
study, seeding date was observed to aect camelina emergence
at four sites in the Pacic Northwest (Lind, WA; Pendleton,
OR; Moscow, ID; and Corvallis, OR) from 2008 to 2010,
except for 2010 at Pendleton (Schillinger et al., 2012). ough
the seeding dates analyzed in this study showed no dierence
in plant emergence, complete loss of initial second and third
seeding in 2014 due to low temperatures in this study, suggests that
seeding date can play a signicant role in emergence of camelina.
Blaine Creek and Pronghorn had better emergence and stand
at maturity than Shoshone. Plant stand at maturity was consider-
ably lower than it was at emergence, implying some of the plants
that emerged thinned-out during crop growth. On average,
43, 44, and 35% for Blaine Creek, Pronghorn, and Shoshone,
respectively, in 2013 and 42, 43, and 29% for Blaine Creek,
Pronghorn, and Shoshone, respectively, in 2014 of the plants that
emerged thinned-out. Loss in plant stand from emergence to
crop maturity was not unprecedented because of the small seed
size and increased competition for water, nutrient sources, and
light (Leach et al., 1999). Not surprising, Shoshone with the least
plant emergence had fewer plants thinned-out.
Plant Height, Seed Yield, and Harvest Index
ere was a signicant interaction eect of seeding date and
cultivar on plant height in 2014 but not in 2013 (Fig. 1). Early
seeding resulted in taller plants among the cultivars. Blaine
Creek was generally the tallest cultivar, except when planted on
153 DOY in 2014 where the cultivars had similar plant height.
Average plant height ranged from 64 to 76 cm in 2013 and 59 to
77 cm in 2014. is was comparable to camelina plant height of
64 to 72 cm reported by Pavlista et al. (2011). ere was no seed-
ing date × cultivar interaction eect on seed yield and harvest
index. Seeding date had no signicant eect on the seed yield
in 2013. However, seeding date aected camelina seed yield in
the 2014 growing season. Delayed seeding in 2014 (153 and 160
DOY) resulted in decreased seed yield compared to when cam-
elina was seeded early (101 DOY; Fig. 2). Our results are in agree-
ment with the ndings of previous studies (Berti et al., 2011;
Schillinger et al., 2012) that showed that early seeding enhanced
camelina performance and increased seed yields. However,
under irrigated conditions in Scottsblu, NE, Pavlista et al.
(2011) reported no seed yield advantage in planting camelina
early. is indicated that signicant yield benet of early seeding
under rain-fed conditions may be attributable to soil moisture
availability. In dryland agriculture, moisture availability plays a
signicant role in crop performance and seeding camelina late
could result in moisture stress during reproductive stages of crop
growth due to untimely rainfall distribution. Under dry condi-
tions plants shed their leaves, which limits source (photosyn-
thate) for seed yield (Gan et al., 2004). However, camelina was
able to compensate for slight delays in seeding without signi-
cant eect on seed yield in this study. is was observed in 2013
when seeding dates were spaced at 1 wk intervals.
It is imperative to note that timely seeding, not necessarily
early seeding is the important factor in camelina production.
is is because frost at temperature of –4.4°C completely
damaged young camelina seedlings at critical emerging stages
when seeded on 114 and 125 DOY. Even the late seeded plots
(166 DOY) produced seed yield of 509 kg ha–1; whereas
those seeded earlier (114 and 125 DOY) produced nothing.
Camelina seedlings planted on 101 DOY were able to with-
stand the low temperatures because they were well established
before onset of the frost.
Among the three cultivars studied, Blaine Creek and
Pronghorn showed promise for higher seed production under
rain-fed conditions in drier areas of the Great Plains such as
Wyoming (Table 4). Yields were generally higher in 2013 than
in 2014. e reason is because yields are averaged across seeding
Table 4. Plant emergence, plant stand at maturity, seed yield, and harvest index in 2013 and 2014 as affected by camelina cultivar.
Cultivar Plant emergence Plant stand at maturity Seed yield Harvest index
––––––––––––––––––––––– % ––––––––––––––––––––––– kg ha–1
Blaine C. 35 ± 2.02a† 20 ± 0.98a 1018 ± 49.0a 0.243 ± 0.003a
Pronghorn 32 ± 1.64a 18 ± 0.58a 1068 ± 49.4a 0.246 ± 0.003a
Shoshone 14 ± 1.31b 8.7 ± 0.86b 932 ± 44.7b 0.246 ± 0.003a
P value <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.137
Blaine C. 28 ± 2.32a 16 ± 1.44a 843 ± 117a 0.196 ± 0.025b
Pronghorn 26 ± 1.97a 15 ± 1.15a 858 ± 111a 0.239 ± 0.025a
Shoshone 14 ± 1.93b 9.8 ± 1.33b 720 ± 88.7b 0.210 ± 0.020b
P value <0.001 <0.001 0.001 <0.001
† Within column and year, means followed by the same letter(s) are not signicantly different using the least squares means (LSMEANS) and adjusted
Tukey multiple comparison procedure (P < 0.05). Data are averaged across three seeding dates and four replications (n = 12), followed by the standard
error of the mean.
354 Agronomy Journal Volume 108, Issue 1 2016
dates and the two late seeding dates (153 and 160 DOY) in
2014 produced very low yields 698 and 509 kg ha–1, respectively.
However, seed yield when camelina was seeded early in 2014 (101
DOY) was greater (1214 kg ha–1) than the highest yield for 2013
(1174 kg ha–1). Reported camelina seed yield in Lingle, W Y
which is much drier than Sheridan, WY was 410 to 520 kg ha–1
(Aiken et al., 2015). In wetter climates, seed yield of 1338 to
1599 kg ha–1 has been reported in Canada (Urbaniak et al.,
2008) and as high as 2314 kg ha–1 in Chile (Berti et al., 2011).
In 2013, seeding date had no eect on the crop harvest
index, whereas in 2014 harvest index increased with early
seeding, similar to seed yield (Fig. 2). In addition, harvest
index of the cultivars in 2013 was similar but diered in 2014.
Pronghorn (0.239) showed the highest crop harvest index com-
pared to Blaine Creek (0.196) and Shoshone (0.210). In Chile,
Berti et al. (2011) observed signicant eect of seeding date
on crop harvest index of camelina at only one location out of
ve locations studied. Camelina harvest index observed in our
current study (0.159–0.320), compares well with that reported
Fig. 1. Plant height as affected by seeding date. Data are averaged across three camelina cultivars and four replication (n = 12) in 2013;
whereas in 2014, they were averaged across four replication (n = 4). Within year or cultivar, means followed by the same letter(s) are not
significantly different using the least squares means (LSMEANS) and adjusted Tukey multiple comparison procedure (P < 0.05). Error bars
represent 1 SE of the mean.
Fig. 2. Harvest index and seed yield as affected by seeding date. Data are averaged across three camelina cultivars and four replication
(n = 12). Within year, means followed by the same letter(s) are not significantly different using the least squares means (LSMEANS) and
adjusted Tukey multiple comparison procedure (P < 0.05). Error bars represent 1 SE of the mean.
Agronomy Journal Volume 108, Issue 1 2016 355
in the literature (Gesch and Cermak, 2011; Solis et al., 2013;
Liu et al., 2015).
e dierential responses of camelina cultivars to year
or seeding date shows that the cultivars had unique physi-
ological and biochemical adaptations because of genetic vari-
ability, and/or their interactions with environmental factors.
According to Fujita et al. (2014), genetic dierences among
camelina cultivars have a large inuence on their uptake and
ecient utilization of soil nutrients, and subsequent biomass
and grain production. is was conrmed in our current study
as the cultivars showed dierences in plant height, seed yield,
and harvest index.
Camelina Protein, Oil, and Biodiesel
ere was a general reduction in protein content with early
seeding in both years (Tables 5 and 6). However, protein yield
was greatest in the rst seeding dates in both years. Blaine
Creek was the superior cultivar in terms of protein content in
2013; however, in 2014, the cultivars had similar protein con-
tent. In general, protein yield was greater in Blaine Creek and
Pronghorn than in Shoshone. Contrary to seed protein, cam-
elina oil content increased with early seeding. Subsequently, it
translated to higher estimated biodiesel yield since seed yield
increased somewhat when camelina was planted early. is
was more evident in 2013 when seed yield was not aected by
seeding date, but there were signicant dierences in estimated
biodiesel yield. Blaine Creek had the least oil content in both
years, but not the least estimated biodiesel yield because it
yielded more seeds than Shoshone.
Pearson correlation analysis showed an inverse association
between the seed protein and oil concentration of camelina
(Fig. 3), which was consistent with previous studies (Jiang et
al., 2013; Sintim et al., 2015b). According to Canvin (1965),
temperature has profound eects on the oil content of rape-
seed and ax, observing highest oil content in both rapeseed
and ax at low temperatures and a continual decrease as tem-
perature during crop growth increased. Reduction in seed
oil content as a result of increased average daily temperature
during seed development in Cuphea sp. has also been reported
(Berti and Johnson, 2008). Saldivar et al. (2011) indicated that
levels of protein in sunower [Helianthus annuus (L.) Crantz]
decreased by 20 to 60 g kg–1 during the rst 3 to 5 wk aer
owering and gradually increased thereaer until maturity.
ey attributed it to rapid synthesis of oil and starch during
early seed development.
Table 5. Camelina protein content, protein yield, oil content, and estimated biodiesel yield as affected by seeding date in 2013 and 2014.
Seeding date Protein content Protein yield Oil content Calculated biodiesel yield
DOY† g kg–1 kg ha–1 g kg–1 L ha–1
122 290 ± 2.98b‡ 349 ± 14.6a 354 ± 3.46a 124 ± 4.93a
129 297 ± 2.16b 290 ± 6.71b 339 ± 2.46b 96.5 ± 2.27b
136 310 ± 2.13a 270 ± 8.50b 322 ± 4.48c 82.0 ± 2.84c
P value 0.002 0.007 <0.001 0.001
101 291 ± 3.64b 350 ± 22.5a 326 ± 4.78a 116 ± 9.99a
153 321 ± 2.79a 224 ± 11.3b 312 ± 3.85a 65.0 ± 3.74b
160 322 ± 2.06a 164 ± 7.80b 305 ± 6.11b 45.4 ± 2.56b
P value 0.004 0.004 0.041 0.009
† DOY, day of year.
‡ Within column and year, means followed by the same letter(s) are not signicantly different using the least squares means (LSMEANS) and adjusted
Tukey multiple comparison procedure (P < 0.05). Data are averaged across three camelina cultivars and four replications (n = 12), followed by the
standard error of the mean.
Table 6. Cultivar effects on camelina protein content, protein yield, oil content, and estimated biodiesel yield in 2013 and 2014.
Cultivar Protein content Protein yield Oil content Calculated biodiesel yield
g kg–1 kg ha–1 g kg–1 L ha–1
Blaine C. 304 ± 2.92a† 305 ± 14.3a 324 ± 5.29b 95.8 ± 6.05b
Pronghorn 297 ± 3.89b 320 ± 13.0a 344 ± 3.96a 109 ± 6.38a
Shoshone 298 ± 3.29b 277 ± 11.8b 344 ± 3.99a 94.2 ± 5.38b
P value 0.017 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Blaine C. 314 ± 5.79a 257 ± 30.0a 300 ± 4.87c 75.4 ± 11.6ab
Pronghorn 312 ± 5.82a 261 ± 27.5a 330 ± 3.58a 83.4 ± 11.7a
Shoshone 309 ± 3.63a 219 ± 24.1b 318 ± 4.37b 67.8 ± 9.02b
P value 0.066 <0.001 <0.001 0.001
† Within column and year, means followed by the same letter(s) are not signicantly different using the least squares means (LSMEANS) and adjusted
Tukey multiple comparison procedure (P < 0.05). Data are averaged across three seeding dates and four replications (n = 12), followed by the standard
error of the mean.
356 Agronomy Journal Volume 108, Issue 1 2016
e number of days from seeding to crop maturity was
higher with early seeding. However, early seeded camelina
matured at early dates compared to when it was late seeded.
Early seeding also enhanced plant growth, seed yield, oil con-
tent, and estimated biodiesel yields. Nonetheless, early seed-
ing was restrained by wet eld conditions in 2013. Camelina
is commonly identied as a cold tolerant crop, but in this
study, cold temperatures in the spring of 2014 (temperatures
below –4°C) caused complete loss to camelina seedlings soon
aer plants had emerged. Camelina seedlings withstood the
frost when they were well established. Flea beetle damage
of camelina as a result of the absence of their main host was
also observed and could be a potential challenge to camelina
Among the three cultivars studied, Blaine Creek and
Pronghorn had better establishment and subsequent seed yield
in both years. Pronghorn was the earliest maturing cultivar
and this can provide enough time for soil water recharge when
incorporated in the fallow phase in cropping systems with
wheat. e results indicate that seeding camelina as early as
eld conditions permit in northern Wyoming, while avoiding
the potential for hard frosts, enhances its growth, seed yield,
and oil content. In general, camelina shows promise as a poten-
tial oilseed crop that can be cultivated under rain-fed condi-
tions in water-limited environments.
The study was supported by the USDA-NIFA Biomass Research
and Development Initiative program (Grant no. 2012-10006-20230).
We thank Dr. Kent McVay, Dr. Qasim Khan, and Ms. Kelli Maxwell
of Montana State University, Southern Agricultural Research Center,
Huntley, MT, for helping us with the FT-NIR analysis. We thank Mr.
Dan Smith, and Mr. Jeremiah Vardiman, farm manager and research
associate respectively, at the University of Wyoming’s Sheridan
Research and Extension Center (ShREC), Sheridan, who helped with
the trial set up, management, and harvesting.
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... The lack of differences in performance was likely due to the need to improve these production traits in available commercial C. sativa cultivars [33]. However, the yields of all varieties fell within the range of yields reported in both, the irrigated [27,36] and rainfed [12,[23][24][25]31,32,34] field trials performed in the Western United States. A pseudorandomized field design was selected for this study to ensure the spatial distribution of replicates within the field and to prevent replicate adjacency in row, column, and diagonal dimensions. ...
... Notably, the mean seed oil content was generally higher in the years that corresponded to the higher natural precipitation (2011 and 2015) or to the higher amount of irrigation water applied (2014 and 2015). The range of C. sativa seed oil content observed in this study was within the range reported in the previous literature [12,[23][24][25]27,29,32,35,37], but it was lower than the C. sativa seed oil content reported by McVay and Khan [31]. The lower C. sativa oil content reported in our study was most likely due to water deficit, which was consistent with the observations made by other studies [18,35,37,56]. ...
... That study also suggested that factors affecting seed yield and oil content could also affect oil and biodiesel production [40]. Oil and biodiesel yield observed in this study among different cultivars were lower than previous studies conducted under similar growing conditions [35,56], but was within the estimated biodiesel range of 67.8-164 L ha −1 [23,25]. Regarding oil and biodiesel production, Columbia, Cheyenne, and Calena might be better suited for dryland production than other cultivars, but additional trials under arid conditions are needed to validate this claim. ...
Camelina sativa is a promising oilseed crop used for dietary oil and as a biofuel feedstock. C. sativa is a highly adaptable, cool season crop that can be grown on marginal lands with minimal inputs, making it potentially suitable for growth in Northern Nevada and other cooler and drier semi-arid regions of North America. A five-year (2011 to 2015) field trial was conducted to evaluate the seed yield, oil content, and oil and biodiesel production potential of eight C. sativa cultivars in semi-arid regions of Northern Nevada. Columbia, Cheyenne, Calena, and Blaine Creek were ranked as the top four varieties based on the five-year study of mean seed yield, oil content, and estimated oil and biodiesel production values, although none of the cultivars were significant (p > 0.05). Overall, Columbia displayed the highest seed yield, harvest index, oil yield and potential biodiesel production of 910 kg ha−1, 0.147, 273.4 kg ha−1, and 86.4 L ha−1, respectively, across five growing seasons. For each individual year across the eight cultivars, seed yield, oil content, oil and potential biodiesel production was highest in 2015, and lowest in 2012 and 2013 (the drier years). The seed yields of this study fall within the ranges of yields reported in both the irrigated and rainfed locations of the Western United States. Based on the seed yield, oil, and the estimated oil and biodiesel productivity reported in this study, C. sativa can be grown successfully with supplemental irrigation in semi-arid environments like Nevada.
... Camelina, a member of the Brassicaceae family known as false flax (Righini et al., 2019) has recently been cultivated for human consumption and biofuel production (Neupane et al., 2018;Anderson et al., 2019;Zanetti et al., 2021). Camelina seeds are rich in oil (30-48 %) (Vollmann et al., 2007;Mansour et al., 2014;Sintim et al., 2016;Leclère et al., 2021) and have a high nutritional value due to their richness in omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. The share of alpha-linolenic and linoleic acid in the fatty acids profile of camelina oil has been reported to be about (31-45 %) and (15-23 %), respectively (Zubr and Matthaus, 2002;Lunn and Theobald, 2006;Kirkhus et al., 2013;Jiang et al., 2014;Blasi et al., 2017;Popa et al., 2017;Schilligner, 2019). ...
... In this way, the water saved from the withholding irrigation at the end of the camelina growing season is going to be used to irrigate other crops grown in the spring. Fortunately camelina is considered as a highly adaptable crop to low fertilizer and water requirements (Moser, 2010;Gao et al., 2018;George et al., 2018) and also diverse environmental conditions (Jiang et al., 2014;Sintim et al., 2016;Zanetti et al., 2017Zanetti et al., , 2020Sanehkoori et al., 2021). ...
The high oil content and quality of camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz] seed oil for various uses, including human nutrition and industry, has encouraged many countries to increase the cultivation of this oilseed crop. Due to the coincidence of initial irrigations of summer crops with the final stages of camelina growth, production of this crop in arid and semi-arid regions depends on tolerance to the late-season water deficit stress. Therefore this two years field experiment focused on boron (B) and 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) foliar spray effect on seed yield, oil content, oil yield and fatty acids profile (FAs) of camelina in a semi-arid area (Iran) during 2018−19 and 2019−20 growing season. Experimental treatments were arranged in a split-plot design based on randomized complete blocks with three replicates. Irrigation regimes based on withholding irrigation (WI): [full irrigation (FI) at 50 % of available soil water (ASW); withholding irrigation with 20 % of ASW from full flowering to silicle formation (WI1); withholding irrigation with 20 % of ASW from silicle formation to harvesting (WI2)] were considered as the main plots and ten levels of foliar spray (FS) consisted of control (non foliar spray), distilled water, B (0.5 and 1%) and EBL (0.5 and 1 μM) and their concomitant use (B 0.5 % + EBL 0.5μm, B 0.5 % + EBL 1μm, B 1% + EBL 0.5μm, and B 1% + EBL 1μm) were randomized to the subplot units. Seed and oil yield decreased by 6.7–8.4 % and 10–12 %, respectively in response to the water deficit during the flowering and silicle formation stages. The negative effect of drought stress on the quality of camelina oil was recorded as 3.3–5.3 % increment in erucic acid and significant decrease in the unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) content, oleic acid (by 4.6–8.5 %), linoleic acid (by 3.5 %), linolenic acid (by 2.5 %) and 1.2–2.8 % for monounsaturated fatty acids (ΣMUFAs) content compared with the control treatment. While foliar spary of B and EBL increased oil content by ranged from 2 to 4% under-withholding irrigation treatments. Also ecosanoic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids (ΣPUFAs) content significantly increased under combined application of B0.5 + EBL (0.5 and 1).
... oleifera), camelina (Camelina sativa L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), and soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.), are an important source of vegetable oil, act as a renewable source of energy, and used as bioproducts in different industries Bujnovský et al. 2020;Ahmad et al. 2021a). Being an oil crop, camelina offers some competitive advantages, including its low input requirements with relatively low production cost (Budin et al. 1995), short growth cycle (Zanetti et al. 2021), low requirements of irrigation (Gao et al. 2018), better performance under high temperature compared with canola (Brassica napus L.) (Ahmad et al. 2021b), high oil content (Sintim et al. 2016), unique oil profile (Berti et al. 2016), can grow on saline and lower fertile soils (Moser and Vaughn 2010), and better performance on marginal lands (McKenzie et al. 2011). Oil content in camelina seeds ranges from 30 to 48% (Mansour et al. 2014;Leclere et al. 2021;Ahmad et al. 2022a,b) and is rich in omega-3 and 6 fatty acids due to a high proportion of alpha-linolenic and linoleic acid (31 to 45% and 15 to 23%, respectively), making its nutritional quality very high (Popa et al. 2017;Schillinger 2019). ...
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Purpose: Oilseed production under semiarid conditions in Pakistan is under the threat of thermal stress at the early and later stages of the crop. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of sulfhydryl thiourea on the performance and quality of late sown camelina. Methods: The study comprised of; i) sowing time (ST): ST1=10 November and ST2=30 November, ii) camelina genotypes: the Australian (611) and the Canadian (618), and iii) thiourea applications (1 g L-1): TU0= no application (Control-no applications), TU1= water spray at the vegetative stage (positive control), TU2= thiourea spray at the vegetative stage (1 g L-1), TU3= water spray at the reproductive stage (positive control), and TU4= thiourea spray at the reproductive stage (1 g L-1). Results: Sowing time, genotypes, and thiourea supplementation showed a significant effect on the parameters studied, including physiological attributes, seed yield, and quality parameters. Yield and yield attributes were negatively affected in the late sown crop due to a significant reduction in gas exchange and plant water status as compared with an early sowing. Seed quality was also affected by late sowing as saturated fatty acids increased and unsaturated fatty acids reduced under late sown crops. However, thiourea supplementation significantly improved the gas exchange, seed yield, and oil content than the control treatment. Thiourea applications improved the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic acid and linolenic acid) and decreased the concentration of saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acid). However, thiourea applied at the reproductive stage was more effective in relation to seed yield and seed quality parameters compared to thiourea application at the vegetative stage. The oleic acid desaturation ratio was reduced due to late sowing time; however, linoleic acid desaturation ratios were increased in late sown camelina as compared to an early sown crop. Among camelina genotypes, the Canadian camelina performed better in relation to physiological and yield attributes, and seed quality parameters relative to the Australian camelina. Conclusions: Thiourea supplementation improved seed yield and seed quality by improving unsaturated fatty acids under different sowing times with more improvement in the Canadian camelina as compared with the Australian genotypes.
... Differences in GDD between these studies may be due to the different base temperatures (4 vs 5°C), genotype used, and/or growing temperature conditions. The GDD derived from spring camelina sowing in the present study were consistent with the reported values of 1101-1216 at Morris, Minnesota (Gesch, 2012), 1096-1411 across multi-locations in Europe and Canada (Zanetti et al., 2017), 1019-1389 at Olsztyn, Poland (Krzyżaniak et al., 2019), and mean ranges of 971-1037 at Sheridan, Wyoming (Sintim et al., 2016). ...
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Agronomic performance evaluations of spring- and fall-seeded camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz] genotypes in China are limited despite a long tradition of growing this crop in the northern parts of the country (i.e., Gansu and Xinjiang provinces). A field experiment (2015-2019) was conducted to determine the seed yield and seed quality of spring- and fall-seeded Chinese camelina cv ‘Xiaoguo’ across five locations in semi-arid regions of China. The results showed that spring- and fall-seeded camelina ‘Xiaoguo’ has highly adapted to the different growing environments in central and northern China. Location and season were the key determinants for camelina seed yield, but not the year. Across locations and years, the mean seed and oil yields for fall-seeded camelina were more significant than those of spring-seeded camelina (seed yield: 2115 vs 1751 kg ha–1; oil yield: 672 vs 547 kg ha–1). Fall-seeded camelina at Huangzhong had the highest mean seed (2497 kg ha–1) and oil yield (784 kg ha–1), followed by fall-seeded in Anyang (2219 and 714 kg ha–1), compared to other locations (range of mean: 1566-2033 and 489-639 kg ha–1). The contents of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in camelina seed oil varied from 11-14% (mean: 12%), 31- 34% (mean: 32%), and 54-57% (mean: 56%), respectively. The mean β-sitosterol and total flavonoid contents across locations and years were 1723 μg g–1 (range: 1680-1778 μg g–1) and 3.4 mg g–1 (range: 2.7-3.8 mg g–1), respectively. In summary, its extensive environmental adaptability to drought and low temperature indicates that camelina is well-suited as an alternative oilseed crop or dual cropped with other crops in central and northern China or other countries with similar agricultural conditions. Camelina also showed great potential as a source of bioactive compounds (i.e., flavonoids, β-sitosterol) for pharmaceutical applications. Highlights - Agronomic performance of spring- and fall-seeded camelina cv ‘Xiaoguo’ was evaluated in semi-arid regions of China. - Camelina cv ‘Xiaoguo’ showed good adaptability to the different growing environments in central and northern China. - Spring camelina seedling transplanting provides an alternative approach to increase yield. - Bioactive compounds (i.e., flavonoids, β-sitosterol) were detected in camelina seed. - Camelina is promising as edible oil, biodiesel, and pharmaceutical source in semi-arid regions of China.
... Availability of minerals in soil (Sulfur) greatly influences PUFA concentration in C. sativa seed [73]. Camelina should be harvested when 75 percent of the silicles are ripe, according to Sintim et al. [74], to establish a balance between seed output, seed oil content, and tolerable loss due to breaking. To produce a high-quality seed, post-harvest seed washing and conditioning are required. ...
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Camelina sativa, belonging to the Brassicaceae family, has been grown since 4000 B.C. as an oilseed crop that is more drought- and cold-resistant. Increased demand for its oil, meal, and other derivatives has increased researchers’ interest in this crop. Its anti-nutritional factors can be reduced by solvent, enzyme and heat treatments, and genetic engineering. Inclusion of camelina by-products increases branched-chain volatile fatty acids, decreases neutral detergent fiber digestibility, has no effect on acid detergent fiber digestibility, and lowers acetate levels in dairy cows. Feeding camelina meal reduces ruminal methane, an environmental benefit of using camelina by-products in ruminant diets. The addition of camelina to dairy cow diets decreases ruminal cellulolytic bacteria and bio-hydrogenation. This reduced bio-hydrogenation results in an increase in desirable fatty acids and a decrease in saturated fatty acids in milk obtained from cows fed diets with camelina seeds or its by-products. Studies suggest that by-products of C. sativa can be used safely in dairy cows at appropriate inclusion levels. However, suppression in fat milk percentage and an increase in trans fatty acid isomers should be considered when increasing the inclusion rate of camelina by-products, due to health concerns.
... It has been shown that the LAI was affected by the sowing time in camelina (Neupane et al., 2019). Also, several researchers have reported effects of sowing times on growth parameters of camelina (Sintim et al., 2016;Ahmed et al., 2019). Sowing delay results in shortening of the vegetation period and reduced yield due to high temperatures during the seed filling period. ...
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This research was conducted to determine the change of main growth parameters and growth pattern of camelina depending on the sowing time and genotype. The research was carried out during 2017 and 2018 and the treatments (1, 11, 21 and 31 May & PI-650142 and PI-304269 genotypes) were arranged in split-plot design and 3 replications. It was determined that NAR, LAI, RGR and DM were affected by the sowing times. In addition, NAR, LAI and RGR were significantly affected by genotypes at all growth stages, whereas DM was affected only in the pre-flowering stage. Depending on the sowing times and genotype, NAR was found 0.014-0.016, 1.65-1.96 and 4.10-15.51 mg mm-2 day-1 in pre-flowering, flowering and post-flowering periods, respectively, while LAI was found 0.22-0.29, 0.23-0.33 and 0.10-0.23 mm 2 mm-2 , respectively. In pre-flowering, flowering, post-flowering and harvest period RGR was found 2.3-2.6, 3.3-4.4, 2.2-3.3 and 0.6-0.7 mg g-1 day-1 g-1 day-1 , respectively, while DM was 0.233-0.283, 0.410-0.553, 0.646-0.944 and 0.939-1.003 g per plant, respectively. Also, depending on the sowing time, the seed yield was determined as 190.85-810.07 kg ha-1 for the PI-650142 genotype and 190.94-360.65 kg ha-1 for the PI-304269 genotype. Consequently, it can be suggested that PI-650142 genotype can be used for general sowing once date is adjusted to 1 May in conditions of Samsun. This could be contributed to optimum temperature and day length during the flowering, seed formation and filling stage.
... Growth degree day (GDD) for seedling emergence, flowering and physiological maturity of spring cultivars has been reported to be 34, 417 and 998 C, respectively, indicating the low heat requirement and early maturity of this crop (Sintim et al., 2016). In another study, the average base temperature for five of the most important camelina cultivars in Montana was reported to be -0.7 C and had a daily growth rate of 1150 C (Allen et al., 2014). ...
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Oilseeds, as an important part of industrial crops, are among the products that spend billions of dollars annually to meet their needs in Iran. Conventional oilseeds such as soybean, rapeseed and sunflower, despite their many benefits, are products that require high water consumption to produce them. Therefore, the introduction of a new oilseed crop that can have an economical and satisfactory yield in drought conditions and rainfed lands, can be an effective and key solution in this regard. This is the exact situation that farmers welcome the cultivation of a new crop. Camelina oilseed has many properties and applications. From a nutrition and health point of view, its oil contains high amounts of omega-3, which helps prevent cancer and obesity. In industry, it is used as a biofuel, in the production of resins, waxes, as well as in the production of cosmetics, health and pharmaceuticals. This crop has advantages over rapeseed, including the low need for water and nutrients, adaptation to adverse environmental conditions and resistance to pests. Camelina is a crop that can adapt to cold and dry environmental conditions and is also found in warm areas. The plant can also tolerate drought stress in the early growing season. Studies show that camelina is a crop that can be economically viable in rainfed areas or during supplementary irrigation. Preliminary experiments in Iran have shown that camelina cultivation can be well developed in rainfed areas and will largely meet the country's need for oilseeds.
To date, there has been little agreement on supporting the hypothesis that how some key vegetative traits of camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz var. ‘Soheil’) are dependent on plant biomass. Therefore, the main aim of this investigation was to quantify the relationship between the size of camelina plants and seed production across a broad‐range of plant densities through modeling approaches. To make a wide range of plant densities, a fan design was used in eight replicates in an experimental field at Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Iran. To quantify the relation between plant density and other plant traits, a regression analysis was carried out and the coefficient of determination (R2) was considered to evaluate the goodness of fit model. A power model (y = axb) could describe well the relationship between plant density (ranged 113‐2905 plants m‐2) and plant biomass, seed production, number of seeds per plant, stem diameter, and siliques’ number, with the coefficient of determination (R2) values of 0.85, 0.87, 0.65, 0.64, and 0.90, respectively. The harvest indexes were 13.8–26.9%, depending on plant density. Seed production per plant was positively correlated to the siliques number (r = 0.85), the branch number (r = 0.80), and the seed number (r = 0.99) which could be key components of camelina seed production per plant. Furthermore, no significant correlation was found among plant height, thousand‐seed weight, and harvest index with seed production per plant. In conclusion, plant biomass could be considered an important trait to predict plant growth models of camelina. Also, a lower plant density of camelina can be compensated by a greater number of siliques, branches and seeds per plant.
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High population shifts and climate change are putting thrust on the food industry, especially edible oil production. Monoculture of high-input crops certainly affects the crop yield and soil health. The import of edible oil is increasing in the major part of the world, putting some burden on the national exchequer of the countries. The current oil crops are unable to meet the deficit to address the problems; a crop with distinct features must be incorporated in the cropping system. [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz], a unique profiled biodiesel crop, is famous as gold of pleasure, and its oil is famous as a golden liquid. Camelina oil is an outstanding feedstock for the bio-based industry since its unique composition allows multiple applications. It is a rich source of oil >43%, which comprises a huge amount of unsaturated fatty acids, which accounts for 90%, containing 30–40% of alpha-linolenic acid and 15–25% of linoleic acid. The revival of this unique oilseed crop was based on (a) numerous inherent promising physiognomies, vigorous agronomic characteristics, eye-catching oil profile, genetic continuity with Arabidopsis, and the comfort of genetic remodeling by floral dip; (b) the investment in camelina which is understood as it merits serious considerations as potential biodiesel and oilseed and which shares a big role toward the sustainability along with increasing the diversity and production of plant oils; and (c) a univocal and descriptive portrayal of the different growth stages of camelina which will be used as an important apparatus for agronomy and research. In this review, the extended BBCH (Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt, and Chemische Industrie) scale was used to describe the phenological stages. The best use of camelina in the industrial sector as a drop-in product of packing materials, coatings, and adhesions can be achieved by further research to enlarge the camelina market.KeywordsAgronomic aspectsIndustrial productsand biodieselBBCH scale Camelina sativa DiversificationMorpho-phenologyAttainable yield potential
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Camelina sativa is a self-pollinating and facultative outcrossing oilseed crop. Genetic engineering has been used to improve camelina yield potential for altered fatty acid composition, modified protein profiles, improved seed and oil yield, and enhanced drought resistance. The deployment of transgenic camelina in the field posits high risks related to the introgression of transgenes into non-transgenic camelina and wild relatives. Thus, effective bioconfinement strategies need to be developed to prevent pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) from transgenic camelina. In the present study, we overexpressed the cleistogamy (i.e. floral petal non-openness)-inducing PpJAZ1 gene from peach in transgenic camelina. Transgenic camelina overexpressing PpJAZ1 showed three levels of cleistogamy, affected pollen germination rates after anthesis but not during anthesis, and caused a minor silicle abortion only on the main branches. We also conducted field trials to examine the effects of the overexpressed PpJAZ1 on PMGF in the field, and found that the overexpressed PpJAZ1 dramatically inhibited PMGF from transgenic camelina to non-transgenic camelina under the field conditions. Thus, the engineered cleistogamy using the overexpressed PpJAZ1 is a highly effective bioconfinement strategy to limit PMGF from transgenic camelina, and could be used for bioconfinement in other dicot species.
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Seed yield of Brassica crops in semiarid environments can be increased by minimizing the crops' exposure to high temperature and water stress that often occurs during the growing season. A growth chamber study was conducted to determine the effect of short periods of high temperature and water stress at different developmental stages on seed yield and yield components of Brassica crops. Two canola-quality Brassica juncea 'PC98-44' and 'PC98-45', a Brassica napus canola 'Quantum', and a B. juncea oriental mustard 'Cutlass' were grown under 20/18°C day/night temperatures with photoperiod of 16/8 h light/dark. High (35/18°C) and moderate (28/18°C) temperature stress was imposed for 10 d during bud formation, flowering, and pod development. Low (90% available water) and high (50% available water) water stress was imposed in combination with the temperature treatments. On average, the 35/18°C stress reduced main stem pods by 75%, seeds pod-1 25%, and seed weight 22% from the control. Seed yield per plant was reduced by 15% when plants were severely (35/18°C) stressed during bud formation, 58% when stressed during flowering, and 77% when stressed during pod development. Plants stressed at earlier growth stages exhibited recovery, whereas stress during pod development severely reduced most of the yield components. Effect of water stress on seed yield was minimal regardless of crop developmental stage. The four Brassica cultivars responded similarly to water stress. In response to temperature stress, B. juncea produced greater number of pods per plant but had a great rate of pod infertility than B. napus. Seed yield of B. juncea in semiarid environments can be increased by improving pod fertility, whereas the seed yield of B. napus can be increased by improving pod production and retention.
Brassica napus L. canola production on the Canadian prairies often is limited by hot, dry growing conditions in early July and a short growing season. Brassica napus canola seeded in the fall just prior to freeze-up or in the early spring as soon as fields are passable may allow canola to avoid these adverse conditions. Our objective was to determine if late October (fall), or mid- to late April (April) seeding dates improve canola yield and quality relative to a mid-May (15 to 20 May) seeding date. Plant density and height, phenological development, seed yield, seed weight and seed oil content were assessed in plots sown to herbicide-tolerant B. napus canola at three seeding dates on five fallow sites and three stubble sites at Scott, SK, from 1994 to 1998. A thinner plant stand occurred for the fall compared with spring seeding dates; however, this difference rarely corresponded with less canola yield. Fifty percent flowering occurred 20 d earlier (June rather than July), reproductive growth (50% flowering to maturity) was 10 d longer, plants were 23 (fall) or 8 (April) cm shorter, and maturity occurred 13 d earlier when canola was seeded in the fall and April compared with mid-May seeding. Canola seed yield was 38% greater when seeded on the alternative dates rather than the more traditional mid-May seeding date. The yield advantage for alternative seeding dates was greater and more consistent on stubble than on fallow likely because of lack of soil crusting and temperature and wind protection from stubble. The response of seed weight to seeding date was similar to that for seed yield, indicating that a portion, of the positive yield response to alternative seeding dates was associated with larger seed size. Oil content also was greater for the fall and April compared with mid-May seeding dates, but the improvement was smaller (6%) than that for seed yield. Fall- and April-seeded canola tolerated spring frosts and avoided adversely hot, dry weather during the flowering period, thus improving canola seed yield and quality. Alternative seeding dates provide canola producers in semi-arid regions with a sustainable option to diversify their cropping systems.
Renewed interest in Camelina sativa is primarily due to the unique fatty acid profile of the seed oil and its potential value in industry, cosmetics and human nutrition. To exploit C. sativa in western Canada, more information is needed on the performance of this crop in this region. Following a preliminary evaluation in 2001, replicated agronomic trials were conducted in 2002 and 2005 with 19 C. sativa and three oilseed Brassica accessions at Saskatoon and Scott, Saskatchewan and Beaverlodge, Alberta. The C. sativa accessions matured relatively early and were more tolerant of drought and flea beetle infestations than the Brassica oilseeds. Some C. sativa accessions had seed yields competitive with those of the Brassica oilseeds, but seed size was significantly smaller. Seed yields and oil contents of all crop species tested were highest at Beaverlodge, the most northern location. The Brassica oilseeds generally had higher oil contents than C. sativa; the highest oil contents of each crop species tested were associated with the lowest protein contents. In general, average oil and protein contents for C. sativa ranged from 38 to 43% and from 27 to 32%, respectively; for the Brassica checks, oil and protein contents ranged from 38 to 53% and from 21 to 33%, respectively, across all species. Variation in fatty acid composition was higher among the C. sativa accessions than among locations, but overall the ranges of individual fatty acids were relatively narrow. The most abundant fatty acids were oleic (12.8-14.7%), linoleic (16.3-17.2%), linolenic (36.2-39.4%) and eicosenoic (14.0-15.5%). The prospects of developing improved C. sativa germplasm for particular western Canadian environments are good; of primary importance are increased seed size and oil content. Additionally, stand establishment, fertility requirements and broadleaf weed control options need to be investigated. Acceptance of this species as a new oilseed crop for western Canada will also require developing sustainable markets for the oil and meal.
Camelina (Camelina sativa L.), a member of the Brassicaceae family, can potentially serve as a low-input alternative oil source for advanced biofuels as well as food and other industrial uses. Winter annual camelina genotypes may be economically and environmentally advantageous for the northern Corn Belt, but little is known about their agronomic potential for this region. A 2-yr field study was conducted in western Minnesota to determine optimum fall sowing time for yield and oil content of two winter camelina cultivars in a no-tillage (NT) and chisel-plowed (CP) system. Seeding dates ranged from early September to mid-October. Plants reached 50% flowering as much as 7 d earlier in the NT than the CP system. Plant stands were generally greatest in the NT system, but yields were only greater than those in the CP system during the second year of the study, possibly due to differences in water logging of soil between tillage systems. Seed yield and oil content increased with sowing date up to early October. When sown in October, seed yield and oil content ranged from 419 to 1317 kg ha(-1) and 282 to 420 g kg(-1), respectively. Results indicate that camelina is a viable winter crop for the northern Corn Belt and that seed yields and oil content tended to be greatest when sown in early to mid-October. Moreover, fall-seeded camelina offered good weed suppression without the use of herbicide, supporting the contention that it can be successfully produced with low agricultural inputs.
There has been recent interest in camelina (Camelina sativa L.) because of its potential as a low-cost feedstock for biofuels and hence the need to optimize its production. We hypothesized that nutrient requirements under dryland environments with low and highly variable precipitation will depend on year and timely seeding. This study aimed at determining (a) the effects of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) application on the growth, yield, seed protein and oil content of spring-type camelina for the environmental conditions of northern Wyoming, USA, and (b) N and S requirement when camelina is seeded late. Four N levels (0, 28, 56, and 112 kg ha−1) and two S levels (0 and 25 kg ha−1) were studied. Sulfur had no significant effects on the measured responses. For trials established on May 13, 2013 and April 11, 2014, there was a general increase in plant height, seed yield, protein content, and protein yield with N application. Nitrogen application resulted in 31% seed yield increase but decreased oil content by 2.7% relative to the unfertilized control. As such, biodiesel that could be produced increased with N application. When seeded in May 24, 2014, N application caused a significant increase in the plant height, seed yield, harvest index and estimated biodiesel, but had no effect on the oil and protein content. The application of N showed a quadratic response to seed yield in all the trials. In general, applying N rate beyond 56 kg ha−1 did not result in significant increase in seed yield for trials established in May 13, 2013 and April 11, 2014, and 28 kg ha−1 for the trial established in May 24, 2014.
Poor stands of camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz., Brassicaceae] usually result from poor seedbed conditions or unfavorable environmental conditions. A 2-yr field study was conducted under dryland conditions near Huntley, MT to evaluate the effects of stand reduction at rosette and bolting growth stages on camelina grain yield and quality and to determine if camelina has compensatory ability for grain yield aft er a stand loss. Camelina exhibited tremendous compensatory ability to maintain grain yield across a wide range of plant populations. Stand reduction up to 50% either at rosette or at bolting stage had no effect on grain yield over 2 yr. A 90% stand reduction reduced grain yield by 50% when it occurred at bolting, but only 19% when stand was reduced at rosette stage. In general, stand reduction treatments increased seed protein content while reducing seed oil content. This change in protein and oil content was consistent and greater for bolting stage stand reduction treatments. Stand reduction resulted in reduced plant height and delayed plant maturity, however the response was not consistent over years and stand reduction treatments. Stand reduction at rosette stage had little effect on camelina maturity (1-2 d), while stand reduction at bolting stage delayed maturity up to 6 d. This implies that stand loss due to hail damage or other environmental conditions at bolting or later growth stages may cause delayed and uneven maturity which may result in harvesting problems and/or increased shattering losses.
More flexible and effective weed control with herbicide-tolerant B. napus canola allows for additional seeding management options, such as fall (dormant) and early spring (ES) seeding. Field experiments were conducted at Lacombe and Beaverlodge (1999-2001), Didsbury (1999-2000), and Lethbridge (2000-2001), Alberta, Canada, primarily to evaluate the effect of fall (late October-November), ES (late April-early May), and normal spring (NS) (ca. mid-May) seeding dates on glufosinate-, glyphosate-, and imidazolinone-tolerant canola development and yield. Fall seeding resulted in 46% lower plant density and nearly double the dockage than spring seeding. ES-seeded canola had 19% higher seed yield and 2.1% higher oil content than fall-seeded canola. ES seeding significantly increased yield compared to fall-seeded canola for 8 of 10 site-years or compared to NS seeding for 4 of 10 site-years; ES-seeded canola equalled the yield of NS-seeded canola for 6 of 10 site-years. Yield response to seeding date did not differ among herbicide-tolerant cultivars. Seeding date did not influence root maggot damage. Seeding canola as soon as possible in spring increases the likelihood of optimizing canola yield and quality compared to fall seeding and traditional spring seeding dates.