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Self-determination theory and actualization of human potential

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... From a theoretical perspective, there are three main assumptions that were related to affective outcomes: Students' attitudes towards PE [8], the basic need theory [9], and the motivational climate [10]. Firstly, students' attitudes are concepts of a cognitive and an affective component of opinions toward a specific content [8], for example, a specific activity in PE like soccer. ...
... The word "belonging" even appeared in the interview. These social bonds create emotional bonds that also foster intrinsically motivated behavior [9]. Thus, social bonds are beneficial to PE classes in secondary school. ...
... The findings of the present study are closely related to SDT, particularly with the three basic needs as emotional triggers: Social belonging, perceived competence, and autonomy [9]. We derived these results from our data, although we did not use the approach of SDT to analyze the interviews. ...
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Physical education (PE) can be the starting point for many students to be physically active throughout their lives. Positive emotional experiences in PE are discussed as beneficial for long-term physical activity, however, triggers of students’ emotions are still unclear. The purpose of this study is to explore, from a student’s perspective, emotions and their triggers, which occur in PE classes. N = 12 students (male: six, female: six, ø-age: 15.6 ± 1.2 years) have been interviewed using a focused semi-structured interview to identify their emotions in PE and to explore the situations in which they occurred. An inductive approach with elements of the Grounded Theory Method was implemented to analyze the data. Students reported a wide range of positive and negative emotions. Furthermore, four crucial triggers were identified: (I) Attractiveness of the task, (II) social belonging, (III) competence and (IV) autonomy. Parallels to existing theories, especially the Self-Determination Theory (SDT), will be discussed. These results can be used to improve teachers’ knowledge about students’ emotions in PE in order to build a basis for lifelong physical activity.
... Although the concept of self-actualization is not directly used within SDT, Deci et al. (2013) argue that "in SDT flourishing and actualization are seen as natural human potentials" (p. 110). ...
... Intrinsically motivated individuals follow their active nature to pursue activities for the sake of pursuing them. The understanding of individuals having an active nature is shared by the self-actualization theory (Deci et al., 2013;Maslow, 1962). Moreover, scholars generally regard selfactualization to be a universal human need that is deeply intrinsically motivated. ...
... Overall, Maslow's definition of self-actualization is quite vague and subject to critique in prior literature (e.g., Buss, 1979;Geller, 1982Geller, , 1984Shaw & Colimore, 1988). Apart from Maslow's definition of selfactualization, many related concepts exist, for example, thriving at work (Porath et al., 2012), eudaimonic workplace well-being (Bartels et al., 2019), the concept of flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990), and concepts related to SDT, namely, intrinsic motivation and need fulfillment (Deci et al., 2013). In the present study, we used a three-dimensional approach to assess OSA with the use of motivational, cognitive, and behavioral indicators. ...
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Authenticity at work (AAW) is an important work-related state. Little is known about how other work-related resources can promote AAW and the link between AAW and organizational self-actualization (OSA). In three studies, we drew on conservation of resource theory to determine whether AAW serves as a mediator between three distinct work-related resources (i.e., social support at work, job autonomy, authentic leadership) and OSA. Studies 1 and 2 used a cross-sectional design (Ns = 209; 597), and study 3 used a two-wave longitudinal design (N = 143) to evaluate data from employees. While studies 1 and 2 supported a positive, indirect relation between job autonomy, social support at work, and OSA via AAW, study 3 and additional post hoc findings challenged these results. Alternatively, a reciprocal, cross-lagged effect of OSA on AAW is plausible. Lagged effects from work-related resources to AAW or OSA were not supported in study 3. Authentic leadership (AL) was not related to OSA via AAW. Instead, post hoc analysis suggested two serially mediated links between AL and OSA. All three studies confirmed the proposed factor structures of AAW and OSA. The findings extend both our knowledge regarding the concepts of AAW and OSA and the promotion of AAW and its relation to OSA. We discuss the dynamics of work-related resources, AAW, and OSA and conclude with implications for future research, organizations, leaders, and employees.
... 1 7 A central tenet of SDT is that all humans have a natural propensity toward intrinsic motivation and internalization -the two underlying processes of development. However, this natural self-motivation and healthy psychological development can be either facilitated or forestalled by one's social context through the un-/fulfillment of the three essential psychological needs (Deci et al., 2013;. Intrinsic motivation refers to activities for which the only reward is the inherent engagement in those activities. ...
... These actions do not require external prompts or reinforcement contingencies, as they are usually spontaneous and express one's natural inclinations (Deci, 1975;Grolnick et al., 1997). In contrast, internalization is the process by which children integrate less interesting but important behaviours and values of their social environment (Deci, Eghrari, Patrick, & Leone, 1994;Deci et al., 2013;Schafer, 1968). Much of people's activities are not strictly intrinsically motivated, perhaps especially during early childhood, when numerous requests are often part of the socialization context. ...
... For parents, fostering children's optimal internalization represents more of a challenge then to simply let their children's intrinsic motivation flourish. While it can be relatively simple for socialisation agents to attain compliance from a child, the challenge lays in doing so without damaging the child's need for self-determination (i.e., 8 psychological autonomy; , 2008bDeci et al., 2013;Grolnick, 2003). ...
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Faculté des arts et des sciences Thèse présentée à la Faculté des études supérieures en vue de l'obtention du grade de Philosophiae Doctor (Ph.D.) en psychologie recherche et intervention option clinique Octobre, 2013
... Interestingly, a central tenet of self-determination theory (SDT; Deci and Ryan 1980, 2000, 2008b is that all human beings have a natural propensity toward internalization, a key developmental process (along with intrinsic motivation). Internalization is the process by which children integrate less interesting but important behaviors and values of their social environment (Deci et al. 1994(Deci et al. , 2013Schafer 1968) and is often seen as the central goal of socialization, when children "take in" social regulations, make them their own, and eventually self-regulate autonomously (e.g., Lepper 1983;Schafer 1968). From the SDT perspective, autonomous self-regulation does not refer to independent self-regulation ("I can do it on my own without supervision"), as in developmental research. ...
... Thus, SDT's autonomous self-regulation is based on volition, where one's actions, thoughts, and emotions are harmonious and integrated with one's hopes, desires, and values (Deci and Ryan 2008a, b). Importantly, SDT posits that this natural tendency towards autonomous self-regulation can be either facilitated or forestalled by one's social context through the un-/fulfillment of essential psychological needs (Deci and Ryan 2000;Deci et al. 2013;Ryan and Deci 2000a). Autonomy is one of the three essential psychological needs proposed by SDT, along with competence and relatedness (Deci and Ryan 1980, 2000, 2008bDeci et al. 2013). ...
... Importantly, SDT posits that this natural tendency towards autonomous self-regulation can be either facilitated or forestalled by one's social context through the un-/fulfillment of essential psychological needs (Deci and Ryan 2000;Deci et al. 2013;Ryan and Deci 2000a). Autonomy is one of the three essential psychological needs proposed by SDT, along with competence and relatedness (Deci and Ryan 1980, 2000, 2008bDeci et al. 2013). As mentioned, the need for psychological autonomy does not translate into independence. ...
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Motivational research conducted within self-determination theory suggests that autonomy-supportive (AS) parenting fosters rule internalization, while more controlling tactics hinder it. The goal of the present study is to examine how AS in a socialization context relates to toddlers’ internalization. Toddlers participated in a clean-up and a toy prohibition task at 2 and 3.5 years of age (T1: N = 102; T2: N = 85). Their parent’s disciplinary strategies were coded the first year. Toddlers’ committed compliance, indicative of rule internalization, was coded at both time points. After controlling for covariates and initial committed compliance, a linear regression was conducted to predict change in committed compliance over time. As expected, results reveal that parental AS strategies when toddlers were 2 years old were positively related to an improvement in committed compliance from 2 to 3.5 years of age, while controlling strategies predicted deterioration. This prospective, observational study suggests that supporting toddlers’ autonomy in socialization contexts fosters rule internalization.
... Mehrere empirische Studien stützen die Annahme, dass wir mehr Zeit und Engagement in sportliche Aktivitäten investieren, wenn wir es gerne tun (Jekauc, 2015). Das Erleben eines Affekts mit positiver Valenz steigert dadurch das Interesse an einer Tätigkeit (Deci, Ryan & Guay, 2013). ...
... Die Grundbedürfnistheorie ist Teil der Selbstbestimmungstheorie, kurz SDT (Deci & Ryan, 2015) (Deci et al., 2013). Im Hinblick auf den Zusammenhang von Affekt und intrinsischer Motivation zeigen Vallerand und Losier (1999, S. 158) in einem Literaturreview, dass intrinsische Motivation mit einem häufigeren Erleben positiver Affekte und extrinsische Motivation mit einem häufigeren Erleben negativer Affekte verknüpft sei. ...
... Intrinsische Motivation unterstützt das selbstbestimmte Handeln und fördert damit das persönliche Wachstum und die Selbstverwirklichung (Deci et al., 2013). Diese Art der Motivation wird als förderlich für das Wohlbefinden angesehen (Deci & Ryan, 2008), wobei ein Zusammenhang mit dem affektiven Erleben diskutiert wird (Isen & Reeve, 2005). ...
Article
ZUSAMMENFASSUNG | Im Sportunterricht fehlt es an experimentellen Studien zur Interaktion zwischen der Grundbedürfnisbefriedigung und dem Affekterleben. Dazu werden im Sportunterricht zwei Hypothesen geprüft: (1) Positives bzw. negatives Kompetenzerleben beeinflusst die affektive Valenz der Schülerinnen und Schüler im Sportunterricht positiv bzw. negativ; (2) erlebte Zugehörigkeit beeinflusst die affektive Valenz der Schülerschaft im Sportunterricht positiv. Im Rahmen der ersten Hypothesenprüfung ergab eine experimentelle Untersuchung von kompetenzorientierten Leistungsrückmeldungen mit n = 119 Versuchspersonen, dass eine positive bzw. negative Kompetenzrückmeldung die Valenz positiv bzw. negativ beeinflusst (η2 = .15). In einer zweiten experimentellen Studie wurde bei interaktiven Partnerübungen bei n = 135 Versuchspersonen gezeigt, dass das Erleben von Zugehörigkeit den Affekt positiv beeinflusst (η2 = .05). Kompetenz-und Zugehörigkeitserleben stellen somit wirksame Zugänge zu emotionalen Erfahrungen im Sportunterricht dar. ABSTRACT | Experiments in the context of physical education are still missing to analyse the interaction of basic need satisfaction and affective perceptions. To address this, we hypothesise that (1) positive or negative perception of competence influences positively or negatively the affective valence of the pupils in physical education classes and that (2) perceived belonging influences positively the affective valence of the pupils. First, an experiment analysing competence-oriented feedback with n = 119 pupils tested the first hypothesis and showed that positive or negative perceptions of competence affects the valence either positively or negatively (η2 = .15). Second, an experimental study with n = 135 pupils analysed interactive exercises with a partner and showed that the perception of belonging affects the valence positively (η2 = .05). For physical education, the results present a basis for effective implementation of emotional experiences in class.
... A SDT foi definida como uma macroteoria da motivação que propõe que todos os alunos possuem uma orientação geral para o seu engajamento, fundamentado em suas necessidades psicológicas inatas na direção da motivação autônoma (Ryan & Deci, 2000a, 2000bRyan et al., 2012). A Teoria da Autodeterminação é composta por quatro miniteorias: (Perassinoto, Boruchovitch, & Bzuneck, 2013 Clayton, Blumberg e Auld (2010) destacam que a motivação para a aprendizagem tem sido associada a uma aprendizagem de sucesso, estabelecendo que sua compreensão é o caminho para a promoção da aprendizagem efetiva (Clayton, Bumberg, & Auld, 2010). ...
... 86 Definição operacional: A Percepção de Apoio Social foi medida através da aplicação da versão brasileira do Social Support Appraisals (SSA)(Antunes & Fontaine, 1995) adaptado para o Brasil por Squassoni e Matsukura (2014).5.5.4. MotivaçãoDefinição constitutiva: "São os fatores que estimulam ou energizam o comportamento, iniciando, sustentando ou dirigindo as ações do indivíduo(Ryan, Deci, & Guay, 2012)".Definição operacional: Foi medida utilizando a Escala da Motivação para Aprender de alunos do Ensino Fundamental(Neves & Boruchovitch, 2007).5.5.5. Rendimento EscolarDefinição constitutiva: "Rendimento Escolar é o grau de conhecimento alcançado, centrado nos resultados, obtidos nas avaliações evidenciado pela nota"(Silva, Beltrame, Viana, Capistrano, & Oliveira, 2014).Definição operacional: O rendimento escolar foi registrado utilizando-se da média anual dos alunos, obtidas por meio das Atas de Conselho de Resultados Finais. ...
... Rosin-Pínola (2014) defende que a educação escolar deve constituir um espaço de valorização da diversidade humana e de promoção da aprendizagem social e acadêmica de todos os alunos. A valorização e a aprendizagem social podem acontecer através das práticas educativas dos professores centradas nas relações interpessoais(Brasil, 2014;Casali-Robalinho et al., 2015;Maia, 2013;Mariano, 2011), embora esta formação não esteja disponível para os profissionais que já estão em sala de aulaMotivação para AprenderA motivação é explorada pela Psicologia em um contexto que analisa os fatores que estimulam ou energizam o comportamento, iniciando, sustentando ou dirigindo as ações do indivíduo(Ryan et al., 2012). A motivação pode ser entendida como um passo anterior à ação do indivíduo e várias abordagens teóricas, embora diferentes entre si, se complementam em seu caráter multidimensional. ...
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O objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar e relacionar Habilidades Sociais de Adolescentes, Habilidades Sociais Educativas de pais e professores, Percepção de Apoio Social, Motivação para Aprender e o Rendimento escolar de estudantes com e sem defasagem idade/ano. Participaram da investigação 500 alunos e 500 pais ou responsáveis de escolas públicas dos municípios do Rio de Janeiro, Nova Iguaçu, Niterói e São Gonçalo, com idades variando entre 15 e 18 anos com seus pais e professores. Os estudantes foram divididos em dois grupos de 250 alunos de acordo com o seu fluxo escolar, seus pais que totalizaram 250 (ou responsáveis legais) e os professores que ministravam aulas para estes discentes investigados. O primeiro grupo matriculado no Ensino Fundamental, em defasagem idade/ano, em classes de aceleração. O segundo grupo matriculado no Ensino Médio, em seu fluxo regular de estudos. As variáveis foram medidas utilizando o Inventário de Habilidades Sociais de Adolescentes (IHSA) - (Z. Del Prette & Del Prette, 2009), Inventário de Habilidades Sociais Educativas nas versões pais professores (IHSE) - (Z. Del Prette & Del Prette), Escala de Motivação para Aprender no Ensino Fundamental (EMA-EF) – (Neves & Boruchovitch, 2014), Escala de Percepção de Apoio Social (SSA - Social Support Appraisals) (Antunes & Fontaine, 1995, adaptada para o Brasil por Squassoni & Matsukura, 2014) e dos Mapas de Conselhos de Classe das instituições participantes. Os pais e professores assinaram o Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido e os alunos o Termo de Assentimento. Os dados coletados foram analisados com a utilização do software SPSS versão 22.0, correlação de Pearson, teste t e Regressão Linear Múltipla. Os resultados apontaram que Habilidades Sociais Educativas dos professores apresentam associações positivas com as Habilidades Sociais de Adolescentes dos alunos com defasagem. Professores que organizam atividades de forma interativa, fornecendo instruções claras sobre a tarefa, podem iniciar ou desenvolver a frequência de comportamentos habilidosos em alunos de aceleração de estudos. Alunos sem defasagem apresentam médias mais altas nas frequências de Empatia, Autocontrole, Civilidade, Assertividade, Desenvoltura social e no total geral de suas habilidades sociais, mas, na comparação dos coeficientes de regressão (betas) entre os grupos, os alunos com defasagem só apresentam diferenças significativas nas frequências de Empatia, Civilidade, Assertividade, Abordagem afetiva e nas dificuldades de Civilidade, Abordagem afetiva e Desenvoltura social. Dentro do grupo em defasagem idade/ano, os alunos que apresentaram um repertório mais elaborado em HSA, Percepção de Apoio Social e Motivação para aprender apresentaram melhor Rendimento Escolar. Os dados da pesquisa apontaram que os recursos dos alunos e as variáveis envolvidas no processo se associaram ao rendimento escolar dos estudantes em distorção. Neste momento necessitam de uma atenção voltada às suas necessidades para ajustar o seu fluxo escolar. Com os dados encontrados no estudo é possível propor programas de intervenção com os alunos e professores para promover competências acadêmicas e habilidades sociais antes que estes alunos ingressem em defasagem idade/ano. The aim of this research was to identify and relate Social Skills for teenagers, Education Social Skills of parents and teachers, Social Support Appraisals, Motivation for Learning and School performance of students with and without age /year. Participated in the research 500 students from public schools the municipalities of Rio de Janeiro, Nova Iguaçu, Niteroi and Sao Gonçalo, aged between 15 and 18 years with their parents and teachers. Students were divided into two groups of 250 students according to their academic stream, their parents totaling 250 (or legal guardians) and teachers who teach classes for these students investigated. The first group enrolled in primary education in age / year, investigated in accelerated classes. The second group investigated in high school in his regular flow studies. The variables were measured using the Social Skills Inventory for Adolescents (IHSA) - (Z. Del Prette & Del Prette, 2009), Inventory of Social Skills Educational versions parents teachers (IHSE) - (Z. Del Prette & Del Prette) Motivation Scale for Learning in Elementary Education (EMA-EF) - (Neves & Boruchovitch, 2014), Scale of Perceived Social Support (SSA - Social Support Appraisals) (Antunes & Fontaine, 1995, adapted to Brazil by Squassoni & Matsukura, 2014) and schools councils maps of the participating institutions. All participants authorized to participate in the study. Parents and teachers signed the Consent and Informed and students the Consent Term. The collected data were analyzed using the software SPSS version 22.0, Pearson correlation, t-test and multiple linear regression. The results showed that social skills Educational teachers have also positive with HSA students with lag. Teachers, who organize interactively activities by providing clear instructions on the task, can initiate or develop the frequency of skilled behaviors in studies acceleration students. Without lag students have higher averages in the frequency Empathy, Self, Civility, Assertiveness, social Resourcefulness and overall total of their social skills. But in comparing the regression coefficients(betas) between groups with students lag only significant differences in the frequencies of Empathy, Civility, assertiveness, emotional approach and the difficulties of Civility, emotional approach and social Resourcefulness. Within the group in age / year, students who presented a more elaborate repertoire HSA, Social Support Appraisals and Motivation to Learn had better Educational Achievement. The survey data showed that the resources of the students and the variables involved in the process were associated with school performance in distortion. At this time require attention on your needs to fit your school flow. With the information gathered in the present research it will be possible to propose intervention programs with students and teachers to promote academic skills and social skills before they reach students enter into age gap.
... In this context, the Theory of Self-determination (TAD) points out to the satisfaction of basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relationships) as key factors to achieve well-being by encompassing universally essential elements to the integrity of human development (Deci and Ryan, 2012). Recent studies have indicated that when feeling independent to control emotions and truly connected to a social environment through the support of their coaches, athletes are more likely to reach selfdetermined motivation and consequently feel satisfied with their sports (Deci et al., 2013;Reynoulds and Mcdonough, 2015;Gurrola et al., 2016). ...
... Such evidence is supported by the micro theory of Basic Psychological Needs (Deci and Ryan, 2012), which states that social environments conducted by significant persons (such as teachers, coaches, parents) favor the satisfaction of athletes' basic needs for providing them with psychological experiences that positively affect their motivation and performance (Balaguer et al., 2012;Deci et al., 2013;González et al., 2015). In contrast, poorly adapted environments can frustrate the need of youngsters and consequently lower their participation in sports and sense of personal fulfilment, in addition to generate both emotional and physical fatigue (Bartholomew et al., 2011;Gurrola et al., 2016). ...
... Personal relationships are based on an innate capacity of individuals to perceive themselves truly connected to a social environment (Deci and Ryan, 2012;Reynoulds and Mcdonough, 2015). Researches indicate that athletes who see themselves as able to manage their actions within the sport context feel physically and psychologically able to performe their functions and feel accepted in their teams, in addition to being more likely to feel intrinsically motivated, thus facilitating the perception of sport satisfaction (Deci et al., 2013;Bekiari and Syrmpas, 2015;Reynoulds and Mcdonough, 2015;Gurrola et al., 2016;Monteiro et al., 2018;Vieira et al., 2018). ...
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Even though sport satisfaction has proved an important element for youngsters to keep practicing sports, little is known on the sport satisfaction of coaches. Moreover, the coach-athlete relationship is acknowledged as a key element for sport success, but whether its importance is the same for coaches and athletes is yet to be investigated. Our study analyzed the mediating role of the coach-athlete relationship in associating the satisfaction of basic psychological needs and sport satisfaction of Brazilian coaches and athletes. 364 coaches and athletes participated in the study representing 182 dyads from different sports according to the following instruments: Basic Needs Satisfaction Sport Scale (BNSSS), Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire, athlete and coach versions (CART-Q), and the Athletic Satisfaction Questionnaire (ASQ). Data analysis followed a Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with a significance level of p < 0.05, generating results in which the mediating model for coaches was not adequately fit, while the direct model, without mediation, was adequately fit and explained 48% of sport satisfaction variance. For athletes, the mediating model has shown adequate fit and explained 81% of the sport satisfaction variance, leading us to conclude that the quality of the coach-athlete relationship can be considered a determining factor for the satisfaction of young Brazilian athletes’ basic psychological needs as well as sport satisfaction, but proved not as relevant to their coaches.
... Self-determination is a fundamental factor of psychological well-being and actualizing human potential (Ryan, Deci, 2000b). Deci et al. (2013) explain that "intrinsic motivation is maintained and enhanced when social contexts support satisfaction of the basic psychological needs, but is undermined by conditions such as controlling use of rewards, threats of punishment, and controlling evaluations" (p. 126). ...
... In the summer reading program, our analytic model supported that students' prosocial efficacy could significantly moderate students' intrinsic regulation and their reading growth. Satisfaction from positive social relationships may contribute to effective learning under supporting students' intrinsic regulation in classrooms (Deci et al., 2013). ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among summer reading camp participants' initial prosocial efficacy, reading motivation, and their reading skill changes. Despite the theoretical explanation of social and emotional learning (SEL), there is a lack of empirical studies demonstrating the complex relationships and processes among students' social-emotional competencies and beneficial academic learning outcomes. The Freedom Schools reading camp provides learning opportunities during the summer vacation for children primarily from low-income families and minoritized racial and ethnic backgrounds. This study tested the linear relationship between students' initial reading motivation and reading growth with prosocial efficacy as a moderator (n = 67). We found that initial intrinsic regulation was related to students' reading comprehension skill growth, and prosocial efficacy moderated the relationship between reading skill changes and intrinsic regulation. Results provided clues about how students' efficacy for prosocial behavior could explain the relationship between students' reading motivation and reading growth.
... treinadores, por serem as figuras de autoridade no contexto esportivo, a sua responsabilidade pela administração dos treinos, comportamentos dos atletas e das relações sociais da equipe influenciam de forma significativa o desenvolvimento da motivação autodeterminada (Mageau e Vallerand, 2003). Ademais, ao sentirem-se mais competentes e autônomos, os atletas se conectam melhor com seus companheiros (Deci, Ryan e Guay, 2013). Essa situação é confirmada por Jowett e Shanmugam (2016), que apontam que as relações diádicas permitem a transformação de treinadores e atletas, de modo que uma conexão eficaz é benéfica aos sentimentos de pertencimento e valorização dentro das equipes. ...
... Ao analisar estes aspectos a partir dos princípios da TAD (Deci, Ryan e Guay, 2013), é possível identificar os elementos característicos da motivação autodeterminada, considerando que o indivíduo tem suas práticas pautadas no prazer, satisfação e diversão e ao sentir-se competente e autônomo para a realização das tarefas se envolve de forma mais efetiva. Dessa forma, entende-se que para o processo de desenvolvimento da motivação autodeterminada, não só as relações interpessoais são importantes, mas também a capacidade do atleta de sentir-se capaz frente às tarefas e atividades que se propõe a realizar. ...
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Pesquisas recentes evidenciam que a coesão de grupo é fundamental para o sucesso de uma equipe esportiva, uma vez que está diretamente ligada ao bem-estar, desempenho e realização de tarefas com maior eficiência (Eys, Jewitt, Evan, Wolf, Bruner e Loughead, 2013; Balaguer, Castillo, Ródenas, Fabra e Duda, 2015). Nesse sentido, na perspectiva do Modelo Conceitual de Coesão Esportiva proposto por Carron, Brawley, e Widmeyer (1998), a coesão é definida como um processo dinâmico composto por aspectos sociais e da tarefa refletido na tendência do grupo estar e permanecer unido em busca dos objetivos e da satisfação das necessidades afetivas dos membros. Estudos apontam a coesão como um processo multidimensional, influenciado por fatores ambientais e inerentes ao indivíduo (normativas, personalidade, perfeccionismo, relações sociais, liderança e auto eficácia) (Vieira, Vieira e Nascimento Junior, 2013; Mokhtari, Mashhoodi, Rahmati, 2013; Nascimento Junior, Contreira, Moreira, Pizzo, Ribeiro, Vieira, 2016) que podem interferir na percepção de coesão de equipes esportivas. Estes fatores ainda podem ser interpretados como mediadores entre a relação motivação/interação social como a coesão esportiva (Jowett e Chaundy, 2004; Alemu e Babu, 2012; Balaguer et al., 2015). A motivação, especificamente, é definida como as forças internas e externas que levam à iniciação, direção, intensidade e persistência do comportamento, direcionando as ações dos indivíduos (Vallerand, 2000). Tal variável pode ser investigada como um fator antecedente da coesão e decorrente dos objetivos do indivíduo frente às atividades, se tornando imprescindível para a permanência dos atletas no esporte, bem como para o desenvolvimento das relações sociais (Deci e Ryan, 2012; Balaguer et al., 2015). Além disso, também é vista como propulsora da coesão de grupo (Alemu e Babu, 2012; Garcia-Calvo, Leo, Gonzalez-Ponce, Sánchez-Miguel, Mouratidis e Ntoumanis, 2014) na medida em que as estratégias utilizadas pelos treinadores ao longo dos treinos favorecem a cooperação e comunicação da equipe. Quanto às relações sociais, o treinador tem sido apontado como um elemento que atua sobre o desempenho e bem-estar emocional dos atletas, ao considerar que as situações esportivas exigem do líder a utilização de diferentes comportamentos na condução das equipes (Chelladurai, 2007; Garcia-Calvo et al., 2014; Balaguer et al., 2015). Apesar da importância da liderança para a melhora do desempenho, investigações recentes têm evidenciado que não só os comportamentos dos treinadores são propulsores de um ambiente harmonioso, mas também as relações estabelecidas com seus atletas, abrangendo seus sentimentos e pensamentos (Mageau e Vallerand, 2003; Gillet, Vallerand, Amoura e Baldes, 2010). Nesta perspectiva, o relacionamento treinador-atleta (RTA) recebe destaque na literatura internacional (Jowett e Poczwardowski, 2007; Jowett e Shanmugam, 2016) por referir-se a uma situação dinâmica em que os aspectos cognitivos, comportamentais e afetivos de treinadores e atletas se relacionam de forma interdependente (Jowett e Poczwardowski, 2007). Jowett e Chaundy (2004) identificaram que a liderança mediada pelo RTA prediz uma maior variância da coesão de grupo, indicando que equipes com RTA de qualidade tendem a desenvolver altos níveis de coesão. Hampson e Jowett (2014) verificaram que o RTA foi um importante mediador do estilo de liderança e eficácia coletiva em equipes de futebol. Apesar do Revista de Psicología del ABSTRACT: The study of psychological variables in sport context is essential for the identification of the intervening factors in well-being and performance of the athletes and teams. This study investigated whether the coach-athlete relationship (CAR) is a key factor on the association between motivation and group cohesion. Participated 141 Brazilian professional football players. Data collection was conducted through Group Environment Questionnaire, Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire and Sport Motivation Scale-II. Structural Equation Modeling revealed that autonomous motivation had a positive effect on cohesion (social and task), while controlled motivation had a negative effect. Together, autonomous and controlled motivation explained 86% and 84% of the social and task cohesion variability, respectively. When the association was mediated by CAR, overall effect of negative trajectories of controlled motivation was reduced, indicating that CAR served as a moderator in the model. It was concluded that CAR is determinant so that the behavior regulated by external factors does not negatively influence the perception of group cohesion in the football context.
... treinadores, por serem as figuras de autoridade no contexto esportivo, a sua responsabilidade pela administração dos treinos, comportamentos dos atletas e das relações sociais da equipe influenciam de forma significativa o desenvolvimento da motivação autodeterminada (Mageau e Vallerand, 2003). Ademais, ao sentirem-se mais competentes e autônomos, os atletas se conectam melhor com seus companheiros (Deci, Ryan e Guay, 2013). Essa situação é confirmada por Jowett e Shanmugam (2016), que apontam que as relações diádicas permitem a transformação de treinadores e atletas, de modo que uma conexão eficaz é benéfica aos sentimentos de pertencimento e valorização dentro das equipes. ...
... Ao analisar estes aspectos a partir dos princípios da TAD (Deci, Ryan e Guay, 2013), é possível identificar os elementos característicos da motivação autodeterminada, considerando que o indivíduo tem suas práticas pautadas no prazer, satisfação e diversão e ao sentir-se competente e autônomo para a realização das tarefas se envolve de forma mais efetiva. Dessa forma, entende-se que para o processo de desenvolvimento da motivação autodeterminada, não só as relações interpessoais são importantes, mas também a capacidade do atleta de sentir-se capaz frente às tarefas e atividades que se propõe a realizar. ...
Article
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The study of psychological variables in sport context is essential for the identification of the intervening factors in well-being and performance of the athletes and teams. This study investigated whether the coach-athlete relationship (CAR) is a key factor on the association between motivation and group cohesion. Participated 141 Brazilian professional football players. Data collection was conducted through Group Environment Questionnaire, Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire and Sport Motivation Scale-II. Structural Equation Modeling revealed that autonomous motivation had a positive effect on cohesion (social and task), while controlled motivation had a negative effect. Together, autonomous and controlled motivation explained 86% and 84% of the social and task cohesion variability, respectively. When the association was mediated by CAR, overall effect of negative trajectories of controlled motivation was reduced, indicating that CAR served as a moderator in the model. It was concluded that CAR is determinant so that the behavior regulated by external factors does not negatively influence the perception of group cohesion in the football context.
... According to SDT, the satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness at school is a key ingredient for the actualization of students' optimal functioning and psychological well-being (Deci et al., 2013). On the contrary, the frustration of these needs is expected to alter students' development and increase symptoms of ill-being and even psychopathology ( Vansteenkiste et al., 2020). ...
... The frustration of autonomy refers to the experience of being controlled by others, and feeling pressured to act in a certain way. The need for competence concerns the perception of effectiveness and mastery and is satisfied when students have opportunities to use and improve their skills (Deci et al., 2013). Competence frustration arises from a sense of failure and under-accomplishment. ...
Article
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Psychological distress (PD) is highly prevalent among college students. However, not much is known about the role study programs can have in fostering or reducing PD. Two studies were conducted to assess the importance of study program climate in predicting students PD, in addition to that of teachers and peers. In Study 1 (N=1855), we developed and confrmed the validity of a questionnaire assessing need supportive/thwarting practices emitted by college teachers, peers, and study programs using a bifactor approach. In Study 2 (N=1797), we relied on this questionnaire to investigate the prediction of students’ PD. Our fndings showed that, taken individually, global levels of need support/thwarting from each source appear to be more important predictors of students’ PD than need-specifc subfactors. Taken concurrently, the importance of need support by teachers was marginal while need thwarting by peers and study programs had the strongest prediction of students’ PD. Overall, study program climate may be an important overlooked factor spiraling students’ PD.
... These findings indirectly suggest that undergraduate students who decided to attend university for self-determined reasons will develop a higher degree of academic adjustment and will be less likely to leave university. In fact, studies have shown that autonomous forms of motivation toward a behavior are associated with the implementation of and persistence with that behavior in various contexts and in several populations (Deci et al., 2013;Cerasoli et al., 2014;Girelli et al., 2016;Hagger and Chatzisarantis, 2016;Galli et al., 2018). ...
... Self-determination theory in the realm of education proposes that the interpersonal context can foster autonomous motivation and competence beliefs of an individual, this happens when the significant figures provide support for the autonomy of the individual in his social context (Deci et al., 2013;Deci and Ryan, 2016). For example, when significant others give an individual the opportunity to choose among several options, they give them a reason to implement an activity, or they accept the point of view of the individual, and provide feedback on skills, it has been shown they promote autonomous motivation and perceived competence in the individual (Hardre and Reeve, 2003;Turner et al., 2009;Gillet et al., 2012Gillet et al., , 2017Guay et al., 2016). ...
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Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the process that lead to academic adjustment of undergraduate students in the first year of higher education, by testing a predictive model based on self-determination theory with the inclusion of self-efficacy. The model posits that perceived autonomous forms of support from parents and teachers foster autonomous motivation and self-efficacy, which in turn predict academic adjustment. Method: A two-wave prospective design was adopted. Freshman students at an Italian university (N = 388; 73.5% females, Mage = 21.38 years ± 4.84) completed measures of autonomous motivation, perceived autonomy support from parents and teachers, self-efficacy, and intention to drop out from university at the start of their academic year. Students' past performance and socioeconomic background were also measured. At the end of the first semester, information about number of course modules passed and credits attained for each student were obtained from the department office and matched with the data collected in the first wave by an identification number. Results: Findings of structural equation modeling analysis supported the proposed model for first-year university students, after controlling for the influence of past performance and socioeconomic background. Specifically, autonomous motivation and self-efficacy predicted dropout intention and academic adjustment a few months later. Autonomous motivation and self-efficacy were encouraged by autonomy supportive behaviors provided by teachers and parents. Conclusion: According to our findings, in order to promote higher degree of academic adjustment in freshman students, interventions should aim to encourage autonomous motivation and self-efficacy through autonomous supportive behavior from the university and the family contexts.
... These findings indirectly suggest that undergraduate students who decided to attend university for self-determined reasons will develop a higher degree of academic adjustment and will be less likely to leave university. In fact, studies have shown that autonomous forms of motivation toward a behavior are associated with the implementation of and persistence with that behavior in various contexts and in several populations (Deci et al., 2013;Cerasoli et al., 2014;Girelli et al., 2016;Hagger and Chatzisarantis, 2016;Galli et al., 2018). ...
... Self-determination theory in the realm of education proposes that the interpersonal context can foster autonomous motivation and competence beliefs of an individual, this happens when the significant figures provide support for the autonomy of the individual in his social context (Deci et al., 2013;Deci and Ryan, 2016). For example, when significant others give an individual the opportunity to choose among several options, they give them a reason to implement an activity, or they accept the point of view of the individual, and provide feedback on skills, it has been shown they promote autonomous motivation and perceived competence in the individual (Hardre and Reeve, 2003;Turner et al., 2009;Gillet et al., 2012Gillet et al., , 2017Guay et al., 2016). ...
Article
Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the process that lead to academic adjustment of undergraduate students in the first year of higher education, by testing a predictive model based on self-determination theory with the inclusion of self-efficacy. The model posits that perceived autonomous forms of support from parents and teachers foster autonomous motivation and self-efficacy, which in turn predict academic adjustment. Method: A two-wave prospective design was adopted. Freshman students at an Italian university (N = 388; 73.5% females, Mage = 21.38 years ± 4.84) completed measures of autonomous motivation, perceived autonomy support from parents and teachers, self-efficacy, and intention to drop out from university at the start of their academic year. Students' past performance and socioeconomic background were also measured. At the end of the first semester, information about number of course modules passed and credits attained for each student were obtained from the department office and matched with the data collected in the first wave by an identification number. Results: Findings of structural equation modeling analysis supported the proposed model for first-year university students, after controlling for the influence of past performance and socioeconomic background. Specifically, autonomous motivation and self-efficacy predicted dropout intention and academic adjustment a few months later. Autonomous motivation and self-efficacy were encouraged by autonomy supportive behaviors provided by teachers and parents. Conclusion: According to our findings, in order to promote higher degree of academic adjustment in freshman students, interventions should aim to encourage autonomous motivation and self-efficacy through autonomous supportive behavior from the university and the family contexts. Introduction
... The ability of VLEs to foster engagement has been instrumental in maintaining pedagogical service continuity. In terms of fully understanding the utility of the digital space as a HE participation portal, Self-Determination Theory (SDT) (Deci, Ryan, & Guay, 2013;Niemiec & Ryan, 2009;Ryan & Deci, 2002;Ryan & Deci, 2017) highlights the importance of fostering students' multidimensional need to maintain engagement, notably autonomy, competence and relatedness. Autonomy emerges when students possess control and choice, a sense that they can exercise a degree of ownership over their learning experience. ...
Conference Paper
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Higher Education Institutions' approach to monitoring, managing and maintaining student engagement is evolving, accelerated by the Covid-19 pandemic and aligned prevalence of blended learning models. "Digital mediation", i.e. the use of digital and analytic tools by higher education staff in managing, monitoring and maintaining students' engagement, offers new opportunities in how interpersonal communication is facilitated and student data is collected. However, optimising its utility and effectiveness necessitates continually calibrating how digital and in-person engagement can be reciprocally and seamlessly integrated into student experiences. Here, University College Dublin's 'Live Engagement & Attendance Project' (UCD LEAP) has developed an online engagement monitoring resource providing Student Advisors with real-time programme-level engagement data. This resource supports them in providing students with timely and tailored interventions following potential disengagement. The purpose of UCD LEAP is twofold: achieving a more comprehensive picture of the student experience than would be available within module-specific engagement metrics, and helping staff create additional pathways for digitally-mediated student support. This paper explores ongoing learning from UCD LEAP, alongside the growth, evolution, and institutional embedding of digitally-mediated support interventions in higher education.
... Competence is the basic psychological need of humans to feel that they are achieving mastery (Adams, Little & Ryan, 2017). Finally, relatedness is our need to feel connected to others and part of a greater social context (Deci, Ryan, & Guay, 2013). These three needs are closely interconnected, as well as associated with our personal motivation (Deci & Ryan, 2000). ...
Article
Despite a drive towards more learning outside the classroom, teachers’ confidence to teach outdoors has been identified as a barrier to regular and positive outdoor experiences. Initial Teacher Education (ITE) has been seen as one of the ways to increase teachers’ confidence, yet such provision is variable and has not been studied extensively. In this study, we explore how a practical outdoor session can increase motivation to teach outdoors. Moreover, using a Self-Determination Theory framework we hypothesise that increased nature relatedness would be associated with higher perceived competence and willingness to teach outdoors. Forty-nine ITE students took part in the outdoor session, and responded to pre- and post-measures of nature relatedness, perceived competence and willingness to teach outdoors. Results suggest a positive correlation between nature relatedness and both perceived competence and willingness to undertake outdoor sessions. Moreover, nature relatedness was significantly higher after the outdoor environmental education session.
... Such results challenge some postulates derived from SDT (Ryan & Deci, 2017), which usually emphasizes the positive influence of motivational quality. While motivation intensity may promote better achievement in some school subjects, it is important to keep in mind that high-intensity controlled motivation could lead to negative psychological consequences for students, namely stress, anxiety, and fear of failure (Deci, Ryan, & Guay, 2013). ...
Article
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School motivation is a multidimensional concept. It can be qualitatively defined by various sources of regulation as well as by the school subject to which it pertains. Based on self-determination theory, we postulate that motivation types vary in terms of quality (from lower to higher quality these types are: external, introjected, identified, and intrinsic) and that higher motivational quality predicts positive outcomes. In this study, we examined school subject differentiation in motivational quality and prediction patterns of academic achievement. Results from bi-factor ESEM examining differences in motivational quality within a subject (French, math, and English as a second language) showed that high general levels of motivation in math and English predicted achievement, and more so in the corresponding school subject. Intrinsic motivation for a school subject was generally positively associated with achievement, but only in the corresponding school subject, whereas introjected and external regulations for most school subjects negatively predicted achievement in the corresponding school subject, but also in the other ones. Results from bi-factor ESEM examining differences in motivation levels for distinct school subjects for a given motivation type showed that general levels of intrinsic and external regulations across school subjects predicted achievement positively and negatively, respectively, in all school subjects, while intrinsic motivation, but also identified regulation, had positive subject-specific associations with achievement. The specificity of intrinsic and identified motivations and non-specificity of introjected and external motivations point toward various recommendations in school motivation research and practice. While assessment of autonomous motivations should be subject-specific, assessment of controlled motivations could be general with no loss of predictive power.
... On the other hand, some types of compliance (e.g., to avoid punishment) are associated with psychological discord and ill-being (Deci & Ryan, 2000;Dix, Stewart, Gershoff, & Day, 2007). The goal of this exploratory study is to search for ways in which parents of toddlers cope with the difficult task of simultaneously fostering their toddlers' internalization of important social requirements (Kuczynski, 1984;Kuczynski, Kochanska, Radke-Yarrow, & Girnius-Brown, 1987;Lytton, 1980) while also tending to their growing autonomy (Deci, Ryan, & Guay, 2013;Grolnick, 2003;Zigler & Child, 1973). The present study aims to help answer the question: When parents value supporting their toddler's autonomy, how do they go about making requests? ...
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Autonomy-supportive parenting is found to foster children’s adjustment but relatively few studies have been conducted with toddlers. In the present exploratory study, parents (N = 182) reported what practices they use when asking their toddlers (M age = 26.9 months) to engage in important yet uninteresting activities. Parents rated twenty-six potentially autonomy-supportive practices, along with a well-known scale measuring the extent to which they have a positive attitude towards autonomy support. Research Findings: Using correlational and factorial analyses, eight practices were identified: various ways to communicate empathy, providing developmentally appropriate rationales, describing the problem in an informational and neutral way, and modeling the requested behavior. This subset of autonomy-supportive practices for toddlers was positively related with toddlers’ rule internalization, providing them with further validity. Practice or Policy: These preliminary findings may be useful in guiding future conceptual, empirical, and applied work on the support of toddlers’ autonomy and its assessment in an emotionally-charged and challenging context.
... Τhe need of relatedness is satisfied when a person has a positive sense of connectedness with others, including the element of caring for others and being cared for (Deci et al. 2013). Within educational settings, relatedness is associated with a student feeling liked, valued, and accepted by the teacher. ...
Article
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Forest School offers opportunities for children and young adults to come into regular contact with nature. Although, in relevant literature, Forest School is seen as highly conducive to participants’ motivation to learn, there is no theoretical framework that examines how this motivation can be optimized in relation to Forest School pedagogy. Self-Determination Theory offers a broad perspective for motivational processes and will be used as a guide in this article to advance such a framework. Self-Determination Theory proposes that well-being, which has been identified as an aim of Forest School, is promoted through the support of three basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness. In this conceptual article, we make links between Forest School pedagogical practices and Self-Determination Theory, mainly focusing on the support of children’s basic psychological needs. Furthermore, we make suggestions for ways in which to enhance practice through explicit links with need-supportive teaching practices, as these are identified in the Self-Determination Theory literature.
... The motivation distinctions considered in this theory are dependent on the locus of control (or degree of autonomy) involved. Behaviours that are considered to be internally regulated and autonomous are seen as being at the one end of the locus of control spectrum and indicate a person's high levels of motivation and maintenance for the individual (Deci, Ryan and Guay, 2013). On the contrary, behaviours that are externally referenced and controlled (non-intrinsically motivated behaviours) are at the other end of the motivation spectrum and might imply a feeling of pressure for the person involved ( Deci and Ryan, 2000). ...
Article
Recent governmental policies in the UK have been focusing on the promotion of mental health in children and young people and mental health provision in school has now become a government priority (DfE, 2016; DH, 2014). In these government initiatives, the role of educational psychologists (EPs) as external professionals that can support students’ mental health has been frequently underrepresented and relatively limited to the delivery of therapeutic interventions (AEP, 2017). Existing research in mental health in educational psychology appears to focus on evaluations of therapeutic interventions. This study aims to extend the educational psychology evidence base and explain EPs’ successful mental health casework. It aims to inform future educational psychology practice and improve mental health outcomes for children and young people. The current study is qualitative and adopts a constructivist epistemology with elements of the transformative paradigm. The study uses a constructivist grounded theory methodology (Charmaz, 2014) and data was gathered through semi-structured interviewing with five educational psychologist participants of a single local authority. Data gathering and analysis followed the steps suggested by Charmaz (2014). The outcomes of the data analysis were theoretically sensitised based on literature from attachment theory in psychotherapy, person-centred counselling, self-determination theory, solution-focused approaches and consultation. The constructed grounded theory focuses on EPs’ direct work with school staff and parents and suggests that EPs use two sets of interacting processes in their work with adults. One relates to adults’ engagement in cognitively demanding problem solving activities that aim to enable them to support the needs of the child by challenging their perceptions, teaching them new skills and leading them to cognitive and behavioural change. The other set of processes aims at the development of a secure attachment base within the involvement that offers emotional support and comfort when the adults feel overwhelmed by the challenging processes involved. The grounded theory suggests a theoretical framework for educational psychology practice and implications for professional practice and future policy are discussed alongside limitations and suggestions for future research.
... SDT is based on the notion that people have a small number of core psychological needs (specifically, autonomy, competence and relatedness) that are being satisfied to different degrees (Deci & Ryan, 1985a, 1985b, 2012Ryan, Legate, Niemiec, & Deci, 2012;Ryan, & Guay, 2013). Individual differences in self-regulation and different types of motivation emerge from behaviours directed toward satisfying basic needs. ...
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Learning the skills to be a musician requires an enormous amount of effort and dedication, a long-term process that requires sustained motivation. Motivation for music is complex, blending relatively intrinsic and extrinsic motives. The purpose of this study is to investigate the motivation of musicians by considering how different aspects of motivational features interact. An international sample of 188 musicians was obtained through the use of an online survey. Four scales drawn from Self-Determination Theory (intrinsic, identified, introjected, and extrinsic regulation) were utilized along with other motivational constructs, including motivational intensity, desire to learn, willingness to play, perceived competence, and musical self-esteem. To integrate the variables into a proposed model, a path analysis was conducted among the motivation variables. Results showed that the intrinsic motives are playing the major role in the maintenance of the motivational system, while extrinsic motives are less influential. Support was found for a feedback loop, whereby desire to learn feeds into increased effort at learning (i.e., motivational intensity), leading to the development of perceived competence, which is then reflected back into increasing desire to learn. Increases in these variables help to create a virtuous cycle of motivation for music learning and performance.
... Cognitive evaluation theory and organismic integration theory, sub-theories of self-determination theory, suggest that needs are both (i) preconditions and (ii) outcomes of self-actualization (Ryan and Deci, 2000;Deci et al., 2013). As preconditions, needs are satisfied by others or experienced as such: we feel related, autonomous, and competent. ...
... Social psychology has a long tradition of examining how these two types of messages are experienced, employing self-determination theory (SDT; Deci and Ryan, 1985;Ryan and Deci, 2000), a theoretical framework for understanding human motivation which has been applied in experimental work examining strangers' interactions, in sports and education, parenting and close relationships, and clinical and health contexts, among others (e.g. Levesque and Pelletier, 2003;Hodgins et al., 2007;Radel et al., 2009;Weinstein and Hodgins, 2009;Deci and Ryan, 2012;Deci et al., 2013;Silva et al., 2014). SDT distinguishes two types of motivation: 'controlling' (as in the first example above) and 'autonomy-supportive' (as in the second example above) ( Deci and Ryan, 1985;Ryan and Deci, 2000). ...
Article
Here, we conducted the first study to explore how motivations expressed through speech are processed in real-time. Participants listened to sentences spoken in two types of well-studied motivational tones (autonomy-supportive and controlling), or a neutral tone of voice. To examine this, listeners were presented with sentences that either signaled motivations through prosody (tone of voice) and words simultaneously (e.g., "You absolutely have to do it my way" spoken in a controlling tone of voice), or lacked motivationally biasing words (e.g., "Why don't we meet again tomorrow" spoken in a motivational tone of voice). Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in response to motivations conveyed through words and prosody showed that listeners rapidly distinguished between motivations and neutral forms of communication as shown in enhanced P2 amplitudes in response to motivational when compared to neutral speech. This early detection mechanism is argued to help determine the importance of incoming information. Once assessed, motivational language is continuously monitored and thoroughly evaluated. When compared to neutral speech, listening to controlling (but not autonomy-supportive) speech led to enhanced late potential ERP mean amplitudes, suggesting that listeners are particularly attuned to controlling messages. The importance of controlling motivation for listeners is mirrored in effects observed for motivations expressed through prosody only. Here, an early rapid appraisal, as reflected in enhanced P2 amplitudes, is only found for sentences spoken in controlling (but not autonomy-supportive) prosody. Once identified as sounding pressuring, the message seems to be preferentially processed, as shown by enhanced late potential amplitudes in response to controlling prosody. Taken together, results suggest that motivational and neutral language are differentially processed; further, the data suggest that listening to cues signaling pressure and control cannot be ignored and lead to preferential, and more in-depth processing mechanisms.
... The Leadership Quarterly xxx (xxxx) xxxx (Deci & Ryan, 1985;Deci, Ryan, & Guay, 2013), human beings, especially young adults, have an inherent tendency to engage actively in various challenges and integrate new experiences into their sense of self in order to grow and achieve (Perreault, Cohen, & Blanchard, 2016). The development of leadership skills at this stage is driven by selfmotives and opportunities that one can benefit from, hence the term "self & opportunity oriented." ...
Article
Previous research has established leader development as an ongoing process across the entire lifespan. Experience, especially on-the-job experience, has been increasingly acknowledged as a needed condition for leader development. From a life span developmental perspective, however, individuals are exposed to a variety of critical experiences across their life course—from preschool, childhood, through adolescence, emerging adulthood, adulthood and well into late adulthood. These time periods, characterized by specific developmental experiences, serve as potential windows of opportunity for one's leader development. However, the extant research primarily focuses on the development of leadership through on-the-job experiences in adulthood; there is little integration of leader developmental experiences that occur before and after adulthood, as well as those that occur beyond the workplace. Additionally, the influencing mechanism of experiences during the leader development process has been understudied. Using an interdisciplinary perspective, we present a framework that explores the critical developmental experiences at each stage in the lifespan. These experiences influence one's expertise in leadership through the mediating role and dynamic interaction of the leader experience processing system and the leader self-view system that are introduced in the model of this framework. This theoretical study systematically explores experiential opportunities across the course of life and within multiple contexts, as well as the underlying mechanisms that foster leader development. There are important implications for enhancing process-oriented leadership research and leadership pedagogical practices.
... • leadership and management theory that includes participation of workers ); • job design theory (e.g., Karasek & Theorell, 1990); • socio-technical system (e.g., Huczynski & Buchanan, 2007); • chaordic systems theory (e.g., Hock, 1999;van Eijnatten, 2004); • multidimensional critical human resource management theory (Jabbour & Santos, 2008); • social exchange theory (Blau, 1964); • work ability theory (Ilmarinen, 2001); • conservation of resources theory (Hobfoll, 2001); • learning theory (Edwards, 2005); • (lifespan) motivation theory (Deci, Ryan, & Guay, 2013;Heckhausen, Wrosch, & Schulz, 2010;Kanfer & Ackerman, 2004); and • job crafting theory (Wrzesniewski & Dutton, 2001). ...
... According to SDT, these various forms of regulation can be placed along a continuum of self-determination (also referred to as a continuum of relative autonomy) ranging from intrinsic motivation, as the most selfdetermined regulation, to different types of extrinsic motivation and amotivation. Intrinsic motivation is defined as the pleasure and enjoyment individuals experience when performing an activity (Deci, Ryan, & Guay, 2013). The reward is thus in the activity itself. ...
Article
Based on an accelerated longitudinal design involving three cohorts of secondary school students followed during 3 consecutive school years, this study had three main objectives. First, we sought to identify different profiles of students following distinct trajectories of self-determined motivation over the secondary school years. Second, we examined whether different sources of relatedness (father, mother, teachers, peers) predict membership to these motivational trajectory profiles. Third, we looked at the consequences of these motivational trajectory profiles in terms of adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. Nine hundred forty-one students (56.1% girls) from three distinct cohorts participated in the first measurement time (309 students initially in Secondary 1, 346 students initially in Secondary 2, 272 students initially in Secondary 3). Results revealed that no generic decline in global levels of self-determined motivation was observed during the secondary school years. Five distinct trajectory profiles in which the proportion of students varied were identified. The many comparisons made between these five profiles indicate few significant differences on sources of relatedness. However, teachers and fathers were important positive predictors of membership to the profiles characterized by higher self-determined trajectories, in addition to having a direct effect on initial levels of self-determined motivation observed within each profile (teachers) and on within-profile increases over time in global levels of self-determined motivation (teachers and fathers). Finally, students in profiles characterized by low self-determined motivation trajectories showed lower levels of adaptive outcomes and higher levels of maladaptive outcomes.
... Moreover, the self-determination theory provides a parsimonious and well-established empirical foundation for a humanistic approach to psychological well-being, which remains consistent and supportive of the seminal work of humanistic theorists such as Maslow and Carl Rogers (Patterson and Joseph, 2007;Deci et al., 2013;DeRobertis and Bland, 2018). At the core of the theory is an appreciation for human motivation that is primarily oriented toward realization of its innate potential, grounded in an organismic wisdom, which can nevertheless be derailed or thwarted by the adoption of extrinsic motivations based on external pressures. ...
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In the midst of a global pandemic, psychology has a duty to identify dispositional or character traits that can be cultivated in citizens in order to create resiliency in the face of profound losses, suffering and distress. Dispositional joy holds some promise as such a trait that could be especially important for well-being during the current pandemic and its consequences. The concept of the Joyful Life may operate as bridge between positive psychology and humanistic, existential, and spiritual views of the good life, by integrating hedonic, prudential, eudaimonic and chaironic visions of the good life. Previous phenomenological research on state joy suggests that momentary states of joy may have features that overlap with happiness but go beyond mere hedonic interests, and point to the experience of a life oriented toward virtue and a sense of the transcendent or the sacred. However, qualitative research on the Joyful Life, or dispositional joy, is sorely lacking. This study utilized a dialogical phenomenological analysis to conduct a group-based analysis of 17 volunteer students, who produced 51 autobiographical narrative descriptions of the joyful life. The dialogical analyses were assisted by integration of the Imagery in Movement Method, which incorporated expressive drawing and psychodrama as an aid to explicate implicit themes in the experiences of the participants. The analyses yielded ten invariant themes found across the autobiographical narrative descriptions: Being broken, being grounded, being centered, breaking open, being uplifted, being supertemporal, being open to the mystery, being grateful, opening up and out, and being together. The descriptions of a Joyful Life were consistent with a meaning orientation to happiness, due to their emphasis on the cultivation of virtue in the service of a higher calling, the realization of which was felt to be a gift or blessing. The discussion examines implications for future research, including the current relevance of a joyful disposition during a global pandemic. Due to the joyful disposition’s tendency to transform suffering and tragedy into meaning, and its theme of an orientation to prosocial motivations, the Joyful Life may occupy a central place in the study of resiliency and personal growth in response to personal and collective trauma such as COVID-19.
... Furthermore, students who attend university for intrinsic and internal motivations rather than external reasons (such as to please parents and others) tend to be more academically competent and to achieve better academic outcomes (Kennett et al., 2013;Leontiev et al., 2020). Generally speaking, multiple studies across different countries and settings have contributed to shedding light on the role of self-determined motivation in developing and maintaining behavior that supports academic achievement (Deci et al., 2013;Girelli et al., 2016;Hagger & Chatzisarantis, 2016). ...
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University dropout represents a serious problem across the world. Past research has suggested the merits of studying both additive and multiplicative effects among the variables that affect the intention to drop out. In the present study, we tested the potential moderating effect of friendships at university, on both the association between self-regulated learning self-efficacy and intention to drop out and the associations between different motivations for attending university and intention to drop out. A sample of 404 Italian university students ( M age = 21.83; SD = 2.37) completed an online questionnaire. The outcomes showed that having friends at university was a protective factor in the relationship between self-regulated learning self-efficacy and intention to drop out. Students with a high number of university friends and low self-efficacy were less likely to intend to drop out than students with few university friends and low self-efficacy. Thus, having friends at university appears to protect students from developing the intention to drop out.
... Dürüstlük, destek, iş birliği, şefkat, saygı gibi olumlu duygular temelinde bir benimseme duygusuna ulaşma amaçlanır(174). Antrenör desteği ile kendisini sosyal bir çevreye (takıma) bağlı hisseden sporcunun, çabasından ve performansından daha memnun olduğu ve olumlu duygular içerisinde olduğu gözlemlenmektedir(175).Bu durum Temel Psikolojik İhtiyaçlar Teorisi tarafından da desteklenmektedir(176).Optimal olarak etkili antrenör -sporcu ilişkisi hem antrenörlerin hem de sporcuların olgunluğuna ve büyümesine yansır(177).Antrenörsporcu ilişkisinin kalitesi, spor bağlamında antrenör ve sporcuların düşüncelerini, duygularını ve davranışlarını içeren etkileşimlerin bir kombinasyonu olarak tanımlanan merkezi bir eksen olarak kabul edilir(172,178). Güçlü olmasının yanında sürekliliği de sağlanan antrenör -sporcu ilişkisi ile değişen ihtiyaç ve beklentilerin karşılıklı iletilmesi sağlanır (179) ve bu doğrultuda uyumun artırılması ve sürdürülmesine ortam oluşturulur. ...
Thesis
Bu araştırmanın temel amacı; futbolcularda duygusal zekânın, atletik zihinsel enerji üzerindeki dolaylı etkisinde antrenör – sporcu ilişkisinin aracılık rolünün belirlenmesidir. Araştırma kapsamında, futbolcularda duygusal zekânın, atletik zihinsel enerjiyi etkileyeceği ve antrenör – sporcu ilişkisinin bu ilişkide aracılık rolüne sahip olduğu ileri sürülen teorik bir model kurulmuş ve bu model yapısal eşitlik modellemesi kullanılarak test edilmiştir. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu 2019-2020 sezonunda Türkiye profesyonel futbol liglerinde futbol oynayan ve araştırmamıza gönüllü olarak katılan 334 futbolcu oluşturmuştur. Araştırmada sosyo-demografik değişkenler ile ilgili bilgiler, araştırmacı tarafından oluşturulan Kişisel Bilgi Formu ile toplanmıştır. Araştırmanın amacına ulaşmak için Türkçe uyarlaması Adiloğulları ve Görgülü tarafından gerçekleştirilen Lane ve arkadaşlarının “Sporda Duygusal Zekâ Envanteri”, Türkçe uyarlaması Altıntaş ve arkadaşları tarafından gerçekleştirilen Jowett ve Ntoumanis’ in “Antrenör – Sporcu İlişkisi Envanteri”, Türkçe uyarlaması Yıldız ve arkadaşları tarafından gerçekleştirilen Lu ve arkadaşlarının “Atletik Zihinsel Enerji Ölçeği” kullanılmıştır.Araştırma sonucunda duygusal zekânın, atletik zihinsel enerji ve antrenör – sporcu ilişkisini etkilediği; antrenör – sporcu ilişkisinin ise atletik zihinsel enerjiyi etkilediği ve duygusal zekâ ile atletik zihinsel enerji arasındaki dolaylı ilişkide aracılık rolü üstlendiği tespit edilmiştir. Sonuç olarak önerilen teorik model doğrulanmıştır. / The main purpose of this study is to determine the mediator role of the coach-athlete relationship in the indirect effect of emotional intelligence on athletic mental energy in football players. Within the scope of the research, a theoretical model has been established which suggests that emotional intelligence affects athletic mental energy and that the coach-athlete relationship played a mediator role in this relationship. This model has been tested using structural equation modeling. The study group of the research consists of 334 football players playing in Turkish Professional Football Leagues in the 2019-2020 season. In the study, information about socio-demographic variables were collected with a Personal Information Form created by the researcher. To achieve the purpose of the study, Lane et al’s “Emotional Intelligence Inventory in Sports”, adapted to Turkish by Adiloğulları and Görgülü; Jowett and Ntoumanis’s “Trainer – Athlete Relationship Inventory”, adapted to Turkish by Altıntaş et al; Lu et al’s “Athletic Mental Energy Scale”, adapted to Turkish by Yıldız et al were used. As a result of the research, it was determined that emotional intelligence affects athletic mental energy and the coach-athlete relationship. Also, it was determined that the coach-athlete relationship affects athletic mental energy and played a mediator role in the indirect relationship between emotional intelligence and athletic mental energy. Consequently, the proposed theoretical model has been confirmed.
... These two S-factors might represent elevated levels of internal and external contingencies and pressures that are associated with math and German, which, in turn, might come to undermine academic achievement. In fact, this latter finding is consistent with previous research reporting positive associations between controlled motivation and less optimal academic outcomes (Deci, Ryan, & Guay, 2013;Guay, Ratelle, & Chanal, 2008). Overall, while some previous studies (e.g., Ratelle, Guay, Vallerand, Larose, & Senécal, 2007;Vansteenkiste, Sierens, Soenens, Luyckx, & Lens, 2009) argued that the quality of each type of motivation (i.e., the unique nature of each specific factor) is more important than the global degree of self-determination, the present results suggest that both are important and relevant with respect to self-concept and academic achievement, and that a multidimensional approach might be the most optimal for SDT-based academic motivation . ...
Article
This study investigated the associations between academic motivation, self-concepts, and achievement in math and German using the bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling (bifactor-ESEM) framework. Data from two independent samples (N1 = 1402, N2 = 1154) of German elementary and secondary school students revealed that the bifactor-ESEM representation of academic motivation was the most optimal solution among all models (CFA, bifactor-CFA, ESEM, bifactor-ESEM). Measurement invariance was supported across domains and education levels for all models. Global self-determined motivation was strongly associated with both academic self-concept and academic achievement. The specific motivation factors also shared associations with these variables over and above those involving the global self-determined motivation factor. This study highlights the importance of distinguishing global and specific levels of academic motivation.
... When driven by integrated regulation, individuals assimilate the enactment of a behavior into their sense of self such that the behavior becomes a fully congruent element of their identity. However, it is commonly acknowledged that school students are too young to have integrated academic demands into their identity (Deci, Ryan, & Guay, 2013), which explains difficulties in empirically distinguishing integrated regulation from identified regulation in the educational context (Howard et al., 2017). As such, it is not often measured in academic motivation scales. ...
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Student outcomes are influenced by different types of motivation that stem from external incentives, ego-involvement, personal value, and intrinsic interest. These types of motivation as described in self-determination theory each co-occur to different degrees and should lead to different consequences. These associations with outcomes are in part due to unique characteristics and in part to the degree of autonomy each entails. In the current meta-analysis, we examine these different types of motivation in 344 samples (223,209 participants) as they relate to 26 performance, well-being, goal orientation, and persistence-related student outcomes. Findings highlight that intrinsic motivation is related to student success and well-being, whereas personal value (identified regulation) is particularly highly related to persistence. Ego-involved motives (introjected regulation) were positively related to persistence and performance goals, but also positively related with indicators of ill-being. Motivation driven by a desire to obtain rewards or avoid punishment (external regulation) was not associated to performance or persistence but was associated with decreased well-being. Finally, amotivation was related to poor outcomes. Relative weights analysis further estimates the degree to which motivation types uniquely predict outcomes, highlighting that identified regulation and intrinsic motivation are likely key factors for school adjustment.
... Integrated regulation occurs when behaviors are congruent with overarching individuals' values and needs. However, elementary school children generally do not have a clear conception of their various identities and therefore cannot respond to items relating to this construct (Deci, Ryan, & Guay, 2013). Intrinsic, identified, and integrated regulation are classified as autonomous motivation. ...
Article
Based on self-determination theory, this research aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of the CASIS professional development (PD) program for fostering (1) teachers' use of five recommended pedagogical practices during a writing lesson and (2) students' motivational resources (intrinsic, identified, and controlled regulations) toward writing. Two quasi-experimental studies with two-time points were conducted among preservice (Study 1, n = 32) and inservice (Study 2, n = 111) elementary teachers and their students (Study 1, n = 559; Study 2, sample 1, n = 1779; sample 2, n = 1471). In both studies, the CASIS PD program appeared to foster the use of two of the five recommended pedagogical practices. For the other three, some effects were observed in one study but were not always reproduced in the other. Although the CASIS PD program fostered greater use of the pedagogical practices, this effect did not always translate directly to the students' motivational resources. However, some significant differences were observed between students of the CASIS and the control groups on identified and controlled regulations, as a function of the socioeconomic background of the schools in which teachers and students were sampled. The results are discussed in light of past research and relevant theories.
... This can prove to be quite difficult during toddlerhood (i.e., between 16 to 36 months of age; Lally et al. 2003) as there are many demands placed upon toddlers that are not enjoyable (e.g., clean-up, going to bed) and self-regulation abilities are only emerging. As such, the task of socializing a toddler can prove to be more taxing for parents who wish to foster their toddler's compliance while also trying to be autonomy-supportive (Deci et al. 2013;Shaw et al. 2000). It is thus imperative to explore the factors that may impede parents from using autonomy-supportive practices with their toddlers in socialization contexts, i.e., when parents request that their toddlers engage in a task, ("Do" demand context; Kochanska and Aksan 1995) despite the latter's disinterest or resistance. ...
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The present study examined how toddler temperament (negative affectivity, effortful control, and surgency) and parent stress relate to parents’ use of autonomy support (AS) when making requests. Based on past studies pointing to parent stress and toddler difficult temperament as possible risk factors, we proposed a mediation model where toddler temperament was expected to be related indirectly to parents’ use of autonomy-supportive practices via parent stress. Parents (N = 181) reported how often they used autonomy-supportive practices when asking their toddlers (Mage = 27.7 months) to engage in important, yet uninteresting activities. They also answered questions regarding their toddler’s temperament and their own stress levels. A complete mediation hypothesis was supported for negative affectivity but not for the other temperament dimensions. Both toddler negative affectivity and effortful control were indirectly related to parents’ AS, via parent stress. However, effortful control was also directly associated with parent AS over and above parent stress, while surgency was not related to parent stress or parent AS. The present findings underline the need for more research on how to mitigate the impact of difficult temperamental characteristics so as to preserve parents’ support for their toddlers’ need for autonomy.
... The need for autonomy is defined as the necessity of experiencing a sense of choice, willingness, and volition as one behaves. Students will feel like the initiators of their actions and will act in ways that are coherent with their interests and values (Deci et al., 2013). The need for autonomy is thus intertwined with the "self" which is the active center of integration, initiation, and spontaneous engagement within the social context. ...
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The self-determination theory (SDT) has been used to understand students’ motivation at school in general as well as in various school subjects. This literature review conducted on a number of SDT studies showed that (1) autonomous types of extrinsic motivation as well as intrinsic motivation leads to positive consequences for students; (2) the types of goals and the regulation behind them are also important to predict school outcomes; (3) when the psychological needs for competence, autonomy and relatedness are satisfied this leads to autonomous motivation or autonomous goals endorsement; (4) autonomy supportive practices by parents and teachers are important catalyzers of needs’ fulfillment; (5) intervention programs designed for teachers or parents focusing on these psychological needs usually lead to greater autonomous extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation and better adjustment outcomes. The implication of this theory for school psychologists is underscored as well as its implications for the practice of teaching.
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Mentors rarely receive education about the unique needs of underrepresented scholars in the biomedical and behavioral sciences. We hypothesized that mentor-training and peer-mentoring interventions for these scholars would enrich the perceived quality and breadth of discussions between mentor-protégé dyads (i.e., mentor-protégé pairs). Our multicenter, randomized study of 150 underrepresented scholar-mentor dyads compared: 1) mentor training, 2) protégé peer mentoring, 3) combined mentor training and peer mentoring, and 4) a control condition (i.e., usual practice of mentoring). In this secondary analysis, the outcome variables were quality of dyad time and breadth of their discussions. Protégé participants were graduate students, fellows, and junior faculty in behavioral and biomedical research and healthcare. Dyads with mentor training were more likely than those without mentor training to have discussed teaching and work-life balance. Dyads with peer mentoring were more likely than those without peer mentoring to have discussed clinical care and career plans. The combined intervention dyads were more likely than controls to perceive that the quality of their time together was good/excellent. Our study supports the value of these mentoring interventions to enhance the breadth of dyad discussions and quality of time together, both important components of a good mentoring relationship.
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The transition from elementary school to the upper grades can lead to ambiguous feelings toward the new, male teachers. This study investigated whether collaborative animal care in biology lessons affects students’ feelings of relatedness toward their biology teachers positively during the first year after the school transition. Four hundred twenty fifth graders (Mage = 10.5 years, SDage = 0.6 years) of higher types of tracking participated. We designed one experimental group that involved caring for the living animals to be used in the upcoming lessons, and two control groups. The first control group included lessons with living animals, but did not include prior care of those animals, and the second incorporated neither living animals nor prior care. All groups received biology lessons with the same content. To examine the effects of caretaking, we used an adapted version of the scale “relatedness” (Ryan 1982). In both control groups, boys showed lower relatedness toward female teachers and girls toward male teachers, respectively. Collaborative mice care promoted equal relatedness across all gender combinations among teachers and students.
Article
Self-determination theory postulates various types of motivation can be placed on a continuum according to their level of relative autonomy, or self-determination. We analyze this question through the application of a bifactor-ESEM framework to the Academic Motivation Scale, completed by undergraduate (N = 547; Study 1) and graduate (N = 571; Study 2) students. In both studies, the results showed that bifactor-ESEM was well-suited to modeling the continuum of academic motivation, and provided a simultaneous assessment of the global level of self-determination and of the specific motivation factors. Global academic self-determination positively predicted satisfaction with studies and vitality. It also negatively predicted dropout intentions and ill-being. Specific motivation types additionally predicted outcomes over and above the global factor.
Article
This study aimed to identify high school student profiles of motivation for participating in extracurricular activities, predict profile membership using indicators of need satisfaction and gender, and verify whether the profiles predicted continued participation the following year. The sample included 263 Canadian students in disadvantaged high schools (54% girls, Mage = 14.54). Results revealed four profiles based on three types of motivation (intrinsic, identified, and introjected): Poorly motivated (low scores on all types), Moderately motivated (average scores on all types), Highly motivated (high scores on all types), and Autonomously motivated (high scores on intrinsic and identified, and low scores on introjected motivation). Autonomy support from the activity leader and competence predicted profile membership. The Autonomously motivated profile also predicted continued participation relative to the Poorly motivated profile. Results provide useful information for school staff about how to foster more autonomous forms of motivation for participating in extracurricular activities.
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This study was designed to investigate academic motivation profiles (and their similarity) among distinct samples of high school students. Anchored in recent developments in Self-Determination Theory, these profiles were estimated while considering both the global and specific nature of academic motivation. The role of fixed mindsets and parenting practices in predicting profile membership, as well as the implications of these profiles for several outcomes, were also investigated. Latent profile analysis revealed five profiles (Weakly Motivated, Moderately Motivated, Self-Determined, Amotivated, and Strongly Motivated) differing in global and specific motivation levels. Fixed mindset was weakly related to profile membership, perceived parenting practices showed more widespread associations. Most desirable outcomes were linked to the Self-Determined and Strongly Motivated profiles, and then to the Moderately Motivated, Weakly Motivated, and Amotivated profiles
Chapter
The decision-making process does not exist in a vacuum, either theoretically or practically. This process may incorporate multiple skills and abilities, such as problem-solving, goal-setting, or choice-making skills, and can integrate interests and values. Also, the decision-making process is influenced by contexts and the types of decisions being made. The purpose of this chapter is to situate decision making into the broader psychological construct of self-determination. Doing so enables us to better understand the development of decision-making skills and to understand how elements that may be incorporated into the decision-making process, such as problem-solving, goal setting and attainment, interests and preference, and motivation, interact and influence decisions. Further, it enables us to understand how decision making contributes to broader life outcomes, such as enhanced self-determination and autonomy.
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Driven by the growing popularity of serious games and their great potential for teaching and learning, the use of game-based learning (GBL) is gaining importance in and out of schools and is linked to high expectations in terms of motivation and learning success. There are numerous digital and analog serious games offered by a wide range of providers with respect to economics, particularly to promote financial literacy. However, there is little empirical knowledge about the effective use of the assumed potential of serious games in economics education. Against this background, the aims of the present chapter are (a) the presentation of a newly developed serious game to promote financial literacy, (b) its theoretical background, and (c) a description of the method of the empirical study regarding the observation of the effects of GBL on students’ basic needs experience as well as their content interest within the financial domain.
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This research project intends to explore the impact of “motivation” within Human Resource Management practice into DHL Dartford. Company can motivate employees to do a better job than they otherwise would. Incentives that must offer to staff including increase of pay or improved working conditions within DHL Dartford. Motivational theories will suggest ways to encourage employees to work better in DHL Dartford. In this day and age, a company must not only focus on making more or profit, but also to find the most effective workforce, which can provide positive efforts to the enterprise. However, first and foremost this study tried to find important motivational forces for employees at DHL Dartford, as it is the main driving force to the employees within the business organisation. The chosen methods for this project are questionnaire, survey and interview. Within this study, in terms of motivation, it was found that employees are mostly interested in financial incentive, taking part in decision making, bonus, health and safety with DHL Dartford regional distribution centre. As a solution performance based rating work must be accomplished and DHL Dartford needs to increase the time for achieving the set performances and this will increase profit and ongoing improvement within the business.
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The student recreation center (SRC) promotes quality of life among college students. Grounded in self-determination theory, this study examined the relationship between SRC use and subjective vitality using a sample of 540 students at a large state university in the United States. Results of structural equation modeling indicated that use of fitness and group sport facilities both had a positive relationship with subjective vitality, which were mediated by competence need satisfaction, relatedness need satisfaction, and perception of physical health. Implications of the study findings were discussed.
Thesis
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In dieser Dissertation wurde zur Untersuchung von Affekten und Emotionen als zentrales Phänomen im Sportunterricht ein Modell entwickelt, das das affektiv-emotionale Erleben im Sportunterricht aus Schülerinnen-Schüler-Perspektive als eigenständiges Phänomen betrachtet und in Bezug zu seinen Auslösern, Unterrichtsmaßnahmen und Konsequenzen setzt. Zur Beschreibung des affektiv-emotionalen Erlebens wurden Auslöser von Affekten und Emotionen in einer qualitativen Interviewstudie exploriert: Attraktivität der Aufgabe, Zugehörigkeit, Kompetenz und Autonomie erscheinen als entscheidende Auslöser des affektiv-emotionalen Erlebens aus Sicht der Schülerschaft. Daran anknüpfend wurden Kompetenz und Zugehörigkeit experimentell untersucht, um die Wirkung dieser Auslöser auf das affektiv-emotionale Erleben zu überprüfen. Eine positive bzw. negative Kompetenzbedingung führt zu einem positiven bzw. negativen Affekt und soziale Interaktion (Zugehörigkeitsbedingung) führt zu einem positiven Affekt bei den Schülerinnen und Schülern. Weiterführend wurden in einer systematischen Review Arbeit Unterrichtsmaßnahmen untersucht, die das affektiv-emotionale Erleben der Schülerinnen und Schüler im Sportunterricht effektiv beeinflussen können, indem sie die explorierten Auslöser anwenden. Dabei kann gezeigt werden: Autonomieunterstützende Unterrichtsmaßnahmen, die mit den identifizierten Auslösern zusammenhängen, können zu einem positiven affektiv-emotionalen Erleben bei den Schülerinnen und Schülern führen. Die identifizierten Auslöser des affektiv-emotionalen Erlebens und die effektiven Unterrichtsmaßnahmen werden in dieser Dissertation in ein heuristisches Modell zur Erklärung des affektiv-emotionalen Erlebens von Schülerinnen und Schülern im Sportunterricht integriert und hinsichtlich zukünftiger Forschungsansätze inhaltlich und methodisch diskutiert. Diese Dissertation schließt mit zukünftigen Forschungsfragen und praktischen Implikationen für die Bildungslandschaft.
Chapter
Traditional health promotion efforts focus on reducing factors that contribute to ill-health, such as sedentary behavior or smoking. Yet, this focus on negative or deficit behaviors overlooks those who engage in positive health activities and their reasons for doing so, as well as the positive health assets they gain as a result. Focusing on the absence of health promoting attitudes does little to shed light on why and how individuals successfully build states of good health and wellbeing. However, this information is useful for the development of health promotion initiatives. Consequently, this study investigates the experiences of ten physically active Emirati nationals and the psychosocial assets they have developed through their various activities. We also explore the relevancy of positive psychology and of positive health in particular, for health promotion efforts.
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A felsőoktatási oktatás lemorzsolódás jelentős oktatáspolitikai kérdés, amelynek hátterében számos befolyásoló faktor állhat. Az egyik legjelentősebb tényezőt a motiváció jelenti, s habár nehéz az öndeterminált és külső, mások által szabályozott motivációs szegmenseket élesen elkülöníteni egymástól, általánosságban nézve elmondható, hogy a belső motiváció a perzisztenciával korrelál, míg a külső motiváció inkább a lemorzsolódással hozható összefüggésbe. Tanulmányunkban e két típusú motiváció perzisztenciára gyakorolt hatását vizsgáltuk meg, az IESA-TESCEE 2015 (N=2015) adatbázisán keresztül. Eredményeink alapján a legkiemelkedőbb motivációs tényezőnek a baráti és családi példa követése mutatkozott, feltételezhetően internalizált motivációs bázisként. A tudásgyarapítás, valamint a munkavállalás kitolásának motivációja pozitívan hatott a perzisztenciára. Lineáris regresszióanalízisünk eredményei alapján a háttérváltozók kontrolálása mellett sem a külső, sem a belső motiváció faktorként való kezelése nem mutatott szignifikáns hatást a perzisztenciára, ugyanakkor a társadalmi háttérváltozók tekintetében a nem, az apa iskolai végzettsége, valamint a tanuló tagozatának típusa mutatkozott jelentősnek.
Article
We examine how intrinsic motivations in two health interaction contexts - online and doctor's office visit - influence online health information seeking (OHIS). Many studies have approached OHIS through short-term gratification of informational needs. Our study uses a conceptual framework of intrinsic human motivation to better understand OHIS as a form of sustained behavior. We applied Self Determination Theory's three key constructs (Autonomy, Competence, and Relatedness) within a locus of patient-physician relations. Our findings, based on a survey of 993 online health information seekers in India, show that support for Autonomy in the online context explains all three categories of OHIS behaviors: Diagnosis and Treatment Information Seeking, General Health Information Seeking, and Office Visit Information Seeking. Support for Relatedness in the online context explains only Office Visit Information Seeking. However, support for Autonomy, Competence, and Relatedness in the office visit experience could not explain why people engage in OHIS overall. Motivations for the office visit are not associated with the online experience, suggesting that online and offline are not just two kinds of substitute health interaction contexts.
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A motiváció szerepe a felsőoktatási lemorzsolódásban és perzisztenciában A motiváció nem csak a pszichológia, de a mindennapi élet területén is fontos fogalom. Tevékenységeinket nagymértékben a motiváltságunk alapján végezzük. A motiváció úgy definiálható, mint "a szervezeten belüli vagy a szervezetre kívülről ható erő, ami a cselekvést aktiválja, irányítja és fenntartja" (Bányai és Varga, 2013. 624.). Ha nincs megfelelő motiváció, teljesítményünk is rosszabb lehet az átlagosnál vagy az elvártnál. Az sem mindegy, honnan ered a motiváció. Valamilyen vágyott cél elérése a hajtóerő? Esetleg saját élmény és belső mozgatórugók miatt végezzük az adott tevékenységet? Az ok sokrétű lehet, fakadhat belülről, ugyanakkor kívülről is. Tanulmányunkban a felsőoktatási lemorzsolódásban szerepet játszó mögöttes motivációs tényezőiket keressük. Motiváció a lemorzsolódásban: külső vagy belső? E gyes diákok konkrét motivációval rendelkeznek annak tekintetében, hogy kilép-jenek a felsőoktatásból, például vonzó munkalehetőségek, anyagi nehézségek és családi kötelezettségek, mindez költséges következményekkel járhat mind a hallga-tókra, valamint az egyetemekre és a társadalomra nézve. A lemorzsolódott diákok keve-sebb munkalehetőséget kaphatnak, és esetükben alacsonyabb önbecsülés tapasztalható (pl. Lovitts, 2001). Ráadásul a befektetett idejük és energiájuk az életük más területeire irányul, vagy elvész. Az egyetem számára a lemorzsolódás csökkenti az erőforrásokat, a társadalom számára pedig alacsonyabb eredményességet és versenyképességet eredmé-nyez (Wendler és mtsai, 2010, 2012). A lemorzsolódási motivációt vizsgáló kutatások egyik alappillérét az öndetermi-nációs modell adhatja meg (SDT, Deci és Ryan, 1985). A modell azt állítja, hogy a motivációs erőforrások és az észlelt pszichológiai igények erősen képesek bejósolni a lemorzsolódás szándékát. Az SDT szerint az egyének alapvetően törekednek a pszicho-lógiai növekedésre és integrációra (Deci és Ryan, 2012b). Ez a tendencia az egyének fejlődésének társadalmi kontextusának és az összefüggésnek az a képességét jelenti, hogy támogassa és kielégítse annak három, veleszületett pszichológiai szükségletét: az autonómiát, a kompetenciát és a kötődést (Deci és Ryan, 1985, 2012a, 2012b). Az autonómia a választás és döntés érzését, az akarat és az szándék igényét jelenti (Deci, Ryan és Guay, 2013). A kompetencia a hatékonyságot és annak érzését foglalja magába, az egyén hatékonyan képes a környezetével együttműködni és képességeit alkalmazni is tudja. A kötődés az interperszonális kapcsolatok minőségére, az erős, Kovács Karolina Eszter
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