Article

A Tamil Asylum Diaspora: Sri Lankan Migration, Settlement and Politics in Switzerland

Authors:
Article

A Tamil Asylum Diaspora: Sri Lankan Migration, Settlement and Politics in Switzerland

If you want to read the PDF, try requesting it from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... McDowell notes that the agreement made it much more difficult for Sri Lankan asylum seekers to prove their cases in host countries (McDowell 1996). ...
... If the rejected asylum seeker appears at the airport as requested, the repatriation is considered 'voluntary'. If the asylum seeker refuses to cooperate, then the officials would resort to deportation (McDowell 1996). He also argues that the concept of returning 'home' is questionable, in the context of some Tamil refugees who do not have a clear sense of what home is. ...
... He also argues that the concept of returning 'home' is questionable, in the context of some Tamil refugees who do not have a clear sense of what home is. Few choose to return to the violent North and East while they do not consider the South of Sri Lanka as an alternative 'home' (McDowell 1996). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study is to chart the factors that may govern migration of Sri Lanka national from the UK back to Sri Lanka. The sample size was relatively small with 20 return interviewed, but the sample was stratified to reflect a broad a picture of returning migrants as was possible with such limited number. Half of the sample had returned under the UK’s Voluntary Assisted Return and Reintegration Programme (VARRP) and were contacted through IOM. These individuals were interviewed at locations around the island. The remaining half had all studied in the UK and some of them had gone onto work, before returning permanently to Sri Lanka.
... The temple festival in Jaffna's most important temple in Nallor was attended by thousands of visitors during the Ceasefire. Transport facilities to Jaffna were fully booked far in ad-9 These activities are strongly tied to processes of safeguarding memory and preserving identity, which have been analysed for the Canadian Tamil diaspora by Cheran (2001;, the Swiss Tamil diaspora by McDowell (1996) and for the Norwegian context see Fuglerud (2001). As such, these processes are a feature of "diaspora" itself (see for example Brubacker 2005). ...
... TRO organises a range of activities in the receiving countries in order to attract Tamils to donate for community work in the North-East. These activities are strongly influenced by LTTE's political ideology (McDowell 1996). At the same time, TRO pioneered a new development in the translocalisation of development and reconstruction which has been discussed as knowledge transfer in the recent migration-development debate. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Do the current changes of both geographical and symbolic boundaries lead to the emergence of a world society? How do transnational migration, communication and worldwide economic and political networks manifest themselves in globalised modernity? This book presents innovative contributions to transnationalisation research and world society theory based on empirical studies from Asia, Africa, Latin America and Europe. Practicable methodologies complete theoretical inquiries and provide examples of applied research, which also might be used in teaching.
... This outflow accelerated during the UNP regime of 1977, and it gained further momentum after the civil conflicts in 1983 (Black July). This outflow moved on gradually till recent times, leading to the formation of a Tamil diaspora in Europe (McDowell 1996;Rotberg 1999;Van Hear 2003). During this period, visas were not required for Sri Lankans to reach European countries. ...
... Even though the war affected the lives of all those who lived in the border areas, irrespective of identity, status, and income level, there are some reports of the devastating effects of conflict which were more severe on the poorer and more marginalized sections of the population. Using their contacts and resources, the richer people moved out to safer areas (Mcdowell 1996;Fuglerud 1999). The rest of the people suffered from scarcity of important assets for a good life and experienced landlessness, joblessness, homelessness, powerlessness, etc. Twenty (20) years of war has caused damage to the lives of many people who were mere victims of the war (see next chapter for more details). ...
Book
Full-text available
This study explores the process of internal displacement, settlement, return and resettlement in threatened villages in North and North-Central Sri Lanka during the ceasefire period between 2002-2006. The thesis investigates the diverse factors that affected internally displaced persons (IDPs) and their decision to stay in the host communities as well as their unwillingness to return to their original villages following the ceasefire agreement. The study has two main aims: The first is to understand the factors that attracted the IDPs to remain in the host communities. The second is to understand the IDPs’ practical situation in the original villages compared with the host communities. Within this context, the thesis examines the nature of the IDPs’ socioeconomic and political relationships with the host communities as well as the obstacles encountered when they resettle in their original villages. To explore this central question, this research examines three main factors: social relationships, economic relationships, and (in)security situations. The thesis explores how IDPs built social relationships, economic relations, and livelihoods, and their security amidst host communities as well as in their original villages. The thesis establishes how these social, economic, and (in)security factors affected the IDPs’ attraction to the host community, as well as how the factors operated as obstacles for IDPs to return to their original villages. For its empirical evidence, the thesis is based on qualitative methods, and data for the research have been collected using primary as well as secondary sources. The qualitative data were collected mainly through interviews, including long interviews, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. Secondary sources have been used to help interpret the primary data. The study areas lie within the districts of Anuradhapura and Vavuniya. Six village locations were selected as host communities for examination, and the northern part of Anuradhapura and the southern part of Vavuniya district were considered as the original villages. The research finds that there is no one single reason that affected the decision to remain or to return, but rather a combination of several key factors. For example, accessibility of land for cultivation and residence are some of the main economic reasons for IDPs to return or remain. Social relationships and life (in)security situations affect the IDPs’ decision to find a place where they can stay with safety. In addition, the infrastructural facilities within the host community/area and the original villages have an impact on the decision to remain or to return. Theoretically and conceptually, the research contributes to building up a new conceptual framework/model of social relationships, livelihood strategies, and security perceptions by using existing literature and new practical knowledge. The conceptual framework contributes to understanding matters pertaining to the field of displacement, settlement, and return and resettlement process in Sri Lanka. Empirically, the thesis undertakes a systematic data collection of social, economic, and (in)security factors. This thesis illustrates that the displacements and their settlements show both marginalization and innovation between both types of people: the IDPs and the people in the host communities.
... The temple festival in Jaffna's most important temple in Nallor was attended by thousands of visitors during the Ceasefire. Transport facilities to Jaffna were fully booked far in ad-9 These activities are strongly tied to processes of safeguarding memory and preserving identity, which have been analysed for the Canadian Tamil diaspora by Cheran (2001;, the Swiss Tamil diaspora by McDowell (1996) and for the Norwegian context see Fuglerud (2001). As such, these processes are a feature of "diaspora" itself (see for example Clifford 1994 andBrubacker 2005). ...
... TRO organises a range of activities in the receiving countries in order to attract Tamils to donate for community work in the North-East. These activities are strongly influenced by LTTE's political ideology (McDowell 1996). At the same time, TRO pioneered a new development in the translocalisation of development and reconstruction which has been discussed as knowledge transfer in the recent migration-development debate. ...
... It was an agreement relating to persons of Indian origin in Ceylon who were once recruited from Tamil Nadu, India by the British to Ceylon as indentured labourers to work in tea garden plantations in Kandy, in central Sri Lanka. It dealt with the status and future of those indentured labourers of Indian origin (Christopher, 1996) in Ceylon whose number was approximately 975,000 as of that date. It included only the Indian passport holders and this data did not include illicit immigrants. ...
... The Dravidian parties, DMK (Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam) and AIDMK (All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam), and their alliance parties have been active. The issue of the Sri Lankan Tamil refugee deserves to be understood from all dimensions since the north-eastern provinces of Sri Lanka are linked to Tamil Nadu not only geographically but also culturally (Christopher, 1996). Tamil Nadu is also linked to the Hill County Tamils who are in tea-estate plantation work in Kandy, Sri Lanka. ...
... However, what is perhaps 4 In all we conducted 24 interviews, usually with individuals but at times with small groups. In addition, we attended various events organised by expatriate Sri Lankans. 5 On Europe, this literature includes Erdal (2006), Hess and Korf (2014), Orjuela (2008) and McDowell (1996). An exception concerns the Sinhalese community in Italy, see Brown (2011Brown ( , 2014Brown ( , 2016, Nare (2010), Pathirage andCollyer (2011) andHenayaka-Lochbihler andLambusta (2004). ...
Article
Although expatriate remittances are a major topic of study in the world of development, relatively little research has taken place on the motives and meanings of international remittances. This article examines Sri Lankan expatriates in the United Kingdom. It focuses on charitable and philanthropic activities and argues that these can only be understood within the context of the personal histories of the donors.
... The asylum-migration was a lucrative way to the Colombo and Jaffna-based Tamils to establish themselves in other European countries such as Switzerland and Germany too corresponding to the civil war situation in 1983-1991(McDowell 1996. Many Colombo-based Tamils entered Switzerland represented middle class and entrepreneurial community. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
ABSTRACT- This paper challenges traditional as well as homogenous scales of appraising ethnic entrepreneurship that exists in concurrent ethnic entrepreneurship literature, with paying attention to diverge and dynamic characteristics of Tamil entrepreneurship. It emphasizes that the Tamil business may classify into several factions as far as mobilizing different peculiarities of each sub profile without narrowing down one group as “Tamil entrepreneurship”. Therefore the study has cast a new gaze upon comparing entrepreneurialism of ‘outsider’ entrepreneurs and mainstream business groups. For instance, the Chettiars and the Muslim Tamils, who are mainly Tamilnadu, Jaffna and Colombo based Tamils, represent the mainstream of the worldwide ethnic commercial network of Tamils. Their particular identity is likely to be on account of both primordial and situational aspects of ethnic entrepreneurship. On the other hand, the entrepreneurial mobility of the bottom level of the Up-country Tamils shows particular characteristics of the ‘outsiders’ of business. The initiation of the Upcountry Tamil business from micro level is greatly dependent on the unlimited dedication of an entrepreneur. The research has entirely based on literature on Tamil business communities worldwide undertaken into historical analysis scheme. Therefore, this paper will be important in terms of widening theoretical approaches of ethnic entrepreneurship by emphasizing the need of multiple approaches to comprehend each sub section of an ethnic group. Key Words: Ethnic Entrepreneurship, Tamil Business, Mainstream and outsider traditions
... Big countries were seen as places of prosperity. Some families were receiving money from relatives abroad, although others were not always certain about 41 For example, Amarasingam (2015), Bruland (2015), A. David (2007), Fuglerud (1999), Jacobsen (2009), Jones (2016), Sidharthan Maunaguru (2009Maunaguru ( , 2019, McDowell (1996), Thanges (2018aThanges ( , 2018b, Thiranagama (2010). this. ...
Conference Paper
This thesis is an investigation of the relationship between the village, caste, and Catholicism in northern Sri Lanka. Drawing on almost two years of ethnographic fieldwork in Mannar District, as well as subsequent archival research, it provides a detailed analysis not only of the postwar context but also of prewar history, with a particular focus on the nineteenth century. In this thesis, I analyse three overlapping topics. First, I problematise ‘village’ through an examination of ‘cultural’ and ‘state’ village concepts, before arguing that within the complex social diversity of the village of Marudankandal there is a numerically dominant Tamil caste group, the Kadaiyars, whose prominence is reflected both rhetorically and through the control of institutions such as the Catholic village church. From this, I turn to two central dimensions of local caste praxis. First, I offer a historical explanation for the regional prevalence of village churches controlled by single castes, which remains a key characteristic of local Catholicism today. Second, I argue that despite the lessening of certain kinds of hierarchical caste relationships in recent decades, caste identities continue to be mobilised and expressed through regional communities, some of which maintain caste associations. In the absence of the LTTE, expressions of caste have become more visible, the most notable example of which is the Mannar Martyrs Social Welfare Organization. Created after the war by the Catholic Kadaiyars, the Mannar Martyrs Social Welfare Organization articulates the caste’s identification with the earliest Catholic converts in the district. It is unusual in the public nature of its activities and in the way that it has catalysed a stronger Kadaiyar identity throughout Mannar and beyond.
... During the forced migration period between 1983-1991, approximately 200,000 SLTs fled to Western Europe, including 17,000 to Britain (McDowell 1996). More recently it has been estimated that the SLT community in the UK numbers around 180,000 (International Crisis Group 2010; Orjuela 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article takes an empirical approach to investigate how diasporic identification with the home-land and host-land interacts with language in a mutually influencing dynamic interplay, giving rise to new language ideologies and identities. Since scholars are increasingly of the opinion that the processes of dislocation and resettlement create multi-layered connections with the home-land and host-land (David 2012:377), it is crucial we recognise that the relationship between fixed geographical territories and communities, and the cultural-linguistic practices associated with them, need to be denaturalised (Rosa & Trivedi 2017:331). In doing so, it is possible to retheorise diasporic identity as a sociocultural process. Attention to language can help shift diasporic phenomena away from being defined as ‘bounded, territorialised, static and homogeneous’ (Canagarajah & Silberstein 2012:82). Examining Sri Lankan Tamil diasporic experiences of the home-land and host-land and their relationship with language will promote such an agenda. (Diaspora, space, home-land, host-land)*
... The de jure oppressions faced by Tamil minorities escalated into a brutal civil war following the 1983 pogroms, pitting the Sri Lankan Armed Forces against the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). Over the course of a quarter-century, the war killed 100,000 people and displaced at least 300,000 Sri Lankan Tamils, resulting in an "asylum diaspora" with large settlements in Canada, the United Kingdom, Malaysia, Norway, and India (McDowell 1996;Fuglerud 1999). ...
Article
This article analyzes displacement in the context of three communities in South Asia: Afghan refugees in Pakistan, Sri Lankan Tamils in India, and Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh. In each of these cases, refugee management emerges out of the complexities of geopolitics and humanitarianism and becomes central to urban questions of the right to move and remain in the city. Drawing on scholarship in the geopolitics of migrant (im)mobilities, refugee studies, and South Asia studies, we argue that displacement threatens the contours of belonging and citizenship across South Asian nation-states. For these reasons, the cities where the displaced live have become the locus of national unbelonging and state violence through entangled forms of securitization and urbanization. In particular, we detail the spatial and socioeconomic segregation of displaced populations in which they are subject to mundane bureaucratic violence and the role that social class plays in navigating the exclusions triggered by displacement. In the cities where the displaced settle, the displaced shape the urban economy, whereas the state applies strategies of spatial control that aim to nationalize urban space while maintaining the refugees as forever displaceable.
... In a similar vein, at some stage in the Indian-led peacekeeping campaign in Sri Lanka 1 3 (1987)(1988)(1989)(1990), rape of Sri Lankan Tamil girls and adult women was pervasive. Following a rape, Tamil women are considered "spoiled goods" and Tamil culture does not allow them to find a spouse (McDowell 1996). This has motivated numerous Tamil females to become Tamil Tigers (for both security and revenge purposes) against the Sri Lankan government. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines symbolism in female terrorism through five overarching themes. These themes symbolize (1) continuity of the fight, (2) strategic desirability, (3) revenge, (4) restoration of honor, and (5) change. For example, during the First Intifada, Palestinian women were symbolic warriors in the resistance movement. Today, terror propagandists increasingly exploit this type of female zeal to further justify terrorism against their enemies. Taken as a whole, these five overarching themes shed light on a phenomenon that tends to be underrepresented in the mainstream media. An important conclusion of this analysis is that female terrorism is a grand strategy to strike the enemy in unremitting ways (i.e., “continuity of the fight”), in unprecedented ways (i.e., “strategic desirability” and “change”), and sometimes as the only viable way (i.e., “revenge” and “restoration of honor”).
... Much has been written about the displacement and migration of Tamils originating from the war-torn Jaffna (Brun, 2008;Brun & Jazeel, 2009;Chattoraj, 2017;Chattoraj & Gerharz, 2019;Hasbullah & Korf, 2013;McDowell, 1996), activist figurations in the diaspora (Amarasingham, 2015), transnational linkages (Cheran, 2007;Gerharz, 2010;Maunaguru & Van Hear, 2012), feminist dimensions of migration and displacement (Hyndman & De Alwis, 2003, 2004, and also on the different Tamil language policies in Singapore (Saravanan, 1993;Schiffman, 2003). Nevertheless, there remains an under-researched area of the diverse experiences of return and integration, the various challenges, aspirations and the strategies to cope in two different countries like Sri Lanka and Singapore. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sri Lanka has been in the limelight for quite a long time due to the civil war of 1983. This forced many Sri Lankan Tamils to flee and seek refuge in different parts of their country as well as in several South-East Asian countries particularly in Singapore and Malaysia. With the end of the war in 2009, some internally displaced persons (IDP) decided to return to their homes in Jaffna. However, some that those migrated abroad, decided to integrate at their displaced locations. Although desire to return was related to high expectations, in many cases, this desire was replaced by a deep sense of disappointment due to the sociopolitical and economic changes in their hometown. Nevertheless, a few returnees experienced their new lives in their old hometown as a life-changing and enriching experience. This provided them with new opportunities and a scope for personal fulfillment. This article is based on the analysis of empirical data stemming from narrative interviews and observations with Sri Lankan Tamil women, both in Sri Lanka and Singapore. Based on this and additional material collected during fieldwork in 2013 and 2018, this paper analyzes the different cases in relation to the diverse experiences of return and integration; the various challenges, aspirations and the strategies to cope in two different countries of Sri Lanka and Singapore. Th e article argues that migration has brought several discernible changes to their lives in transforming their sense of belonging and cultivating a new kind of attachment towards home. It also elucidates how notions of home have changed. With an emphasis on a gendered perspective, the author aims to compare and contrast the female population have managed to fi nd their place in a male dominated (Sri Lankan and Singaporean) society and how their engagement with society creates new potential for social, cultural, and possibly also political change.
... The number of women increased later, owing partly to marriage and family reunification, but also because of the increasing danger for women of being recruited by the LTTE. Several sources agree that the vast majority (about 90%) of Tamils living in the diaspora originated from Jaffna (McDowell 1996). Shops and small businesses, schools and cinemas, religious and cultural institutions mark the infrastructure in Tamil diaspora centres. ...
Chapter
This chapter situates the question, How do the Displaced Persons (DPs) construct the notion of ‘home’ and ‘belonging’ and lays out pertinent academic debates revolving around displacement, home and belonging. Consisting of several sub-sections, this chapter provides a brief synopsis of the Sri Lankan historical context and relates to the Tamil notion of ‘Ur’. Hence, by relating to former works broadly on the same topic, the research gap is defined. Furthermore, while stating the aim, the main argument of the book has been documented: for the elderly, memories of home create a strong desire to return to their Ur. By contrast, younger people are reluctant to return because of the painful memories they associate with their former homes at wartimes. In between, the middle generations are stuck with both memories of their homes and of eviction. The narratives also portray the choices of elements namely, social relations, nature, culture, identity, social status, economic benefits, retrospective memories, imprisonment, estrangement and threats, that make home for them. In addition, this chapter also briefs about the research methods used. Finally, the structure of the book is described at the end in a clear and concise manner.
... Das mach-te sie bei der einheimischen Bevölkerung unpopulär und verlieh fremdenfeindlichen und rassistischen Tendenzen Auftrieb. Dies wirkte wiederum einschränkend auf den Integrationsprozess der tamilischen Diaspora.Assimilation in Küchen, Altersheimen und PutzdienstenBei den ersten tamilischen Flüchtlingen handelte es sich um junge, gebildete Männer, die zu über sechzig Prozent der relativ statushohen und dominanten Vellãar-Landbesitzer-Kaste angehörten(McDowell 1996); zwölf Prozent waren Handwerker aus mittleren Kasten mit wenig Bildung, dreizehn Prozent tieferkastige Karaiyãr, die in Sri Lanka im Staatsdienst, der Tiefseefischerei oder im Küstenhandel tätig waren; elf Prozent waren Tiefkastige. Die einreisenden Männer waren entweder bereits verheiratet oder heirateten später eine tamilische Asylsuchende. ...
Article
Full-text available
"Zur «Aufarbeitung der Vergangenheit». Der Zweite Weltkrieg, die Schweiz und die Flüchtlinge – eine Nachgeschichte", in: Terra Cognita, Zur Geschichte des Asyls in der Schweiz, 34, 2019, Seite 60-64; Online: http://www.terra-cognita.ch/de/ausgaben/
... Die Migrationsdynamiken werden von zwei sozialstrukturellen Dimensionen geprägt: Zum einen stand der Weg in die Diaspora vor allem jungen Männern offen, denen nicht nur größere Eigenständigkeit zugeschrieben wird als Frauen, sondern die so auch vor der drohenden Rekrutierung durch die LTTE bzw. vor der Gefahr, vom Militär für LTTE-Mitglieder oder Sympathisanten gehalten zu werden, geschützt wurden (McDowell 1996). Zum anderen verfügten lediglich Angehörige der höchsten Kaste, der Vellalar, über die fi nanziellen Mittel um nach Großbritannien, die USA und später auch in andere Teile Westeuropas, nach Nordamerika oder Ozeanien auszuwandern. ...
Article
Full-text available
Schlüsselwörter: Religion; Diaspora; Tamilen; Wiederaufbau; Entwicklungsvisionen ----- “Who benefits from all these temples?” Religion, Development and Transnational Social Spaces in Northern Sri Lanka. Abstract Starting from the observation that the reconstruction of places of worship in war-torn Sri Lanka is a highly disputed terrain full of controversies, this article investigates the motivations and rationalities underlying Tamil migrant commitment to the reconstruction of temples in the northern part of the country. Social and culturally embedded practices are geared towards the maintenance and constitution of social order. Donating to religious institutions is a conventional way to engage in social work and charity, and at the same time this practice serves the aim of securing social status within the community of origin. Particularly illuminating is the contrast between Hindu institutions, predominantly temples, and Christian institutions, which are a minority in Jaffna. The questions at stake are: Does this serve the reconstruction and development process in post-war Sri Lanka? In what way do these practices instigate social change? What are the development visions promoted by the institutions’ representatives? How do they relate to particular systems of knowledge? The analysis reveals that poverty alleviation is always at the core of these religious activities; however, this is not always accompanied by visions of a more egalitarian society. This relates to questions concerning the localisation of religion in the globalized world, as well as its relationship with and integration into the global developmental space. Keywords: religion; diaspora; Tamil; post-war-reconstruction; development visions
... The private actors who act transnationally to influence domestic and international politics are well documented (Cheran 2004;Chalk 1999Chalk & 2008Dequirez 2011;Fair 2007;Fuglerud 1999;McDowell 1996;Madavan 2013;Wayland 2004). Indeed, migration from Sri Lanka and the founding of many Hindu temples have resulted in Tamil identity-building from abroad, mixing religion and ethnicity. ...
... The private actors who act transnationally to influence domestic and international politics are well documented (Cheran 2004;Chalk 1999Chalk & 2008Dequirez 2011;Fair 2007;Fuglerud 1999;McDowell 1996;Madavan 2013;Wayland 2004). Indeed, migration from Sri Lanka and the founding of many Hindu temples have resulted in Tamil identity-building from abroad, mixing religion and ethnicity. ...
Book
Following a workshop held in Paris in 2015, the purpose of this special issue is to start from the Sri Lankan case to study how Hinduism and Hindus define others and interact with them, and what these interactions reveal about Hinduism in general and about Sri Lankan Hinduism in particular, especially regarding religious, social, political and territorial issues. By addressing such relations to the Other from the Hindu point of view, the volume proposes more broadly to develop a critical conception of Hinduism, which considers this religion as a point of contact between various social and religious groups. Indeed, we argue that questioning the importance of these multiple realities of contact, whether they are recognized or denied, also helps renewing the debate about the delicate definition of Hinduism, articulated by both Hindus and scholars.
... Viele Tamilen verließen Sri Lanka seit den ausgehenden 1970er Jahren, als der schwelende Konflikt zwischen der singhalesischen Mehrheit und der tamilischen Minderheit eskalierte. Insbesondere nach dem Pogrom an der tamilischen Bevölkerung 1983 stieg die Zahl von Flüchtlingen und Asylbewerbern stark an, so auch in der Schweiz (McDowell 1996). In den 1980er Jahren bestimmten Medienberichte über Kleinkrimi-10 Einen Teil der Ausstellung "Hinduistisches Zürich" bildete ein Filmbeitrag, der eine nordindische Familie bei der Durchführung des dreitägigen Festes zu Ehren von Ganesha (Ganesha chaturthi) zeigt. ...
... The number of women increased later, owing partly to marriage and family reunification, but also because of the increasing danger for women of being recruited by the LTTE. Several sources agree that the vast majority (about 90%) of Tamils living in the diaspora originated from Jaffna (McDowell 1996). Shops and small businesses, schools and cinemas, religious and cultural institutions mark the infrastructure in Tamil diaspora centres. ...
Book
This book focuses on the concept of ‘home’ or ‘place of origin’ (expressed in Tamil as ‘Ur’) and its various dimensions, in turn related to issues of belonging, attachment, detachment, and commonality among the war-affected population in the post-war era of Sri Lanka. Little research has been undertaken on displacement and forced migration since the end of the war, and so this book provides new insight into the intersections between externally and internally displaced people and notions of home in relation to gender, age, caste and class. It excavates the roots of the problem of not being able to return due to combinations of uncertainty, unemployment, and the loss of people and property. The author shows that notions of ‘home’ vary considerably depending on multiple variables, and this is particularly pronounced between the different generations. The book also confronts how the migration from Sri Lanka over the border to India has brought on discernible changes to the lives of women in particular, in transforming their identities in multiple re-invented cultural manifestations, and cultivating a new kind of attachment towards their new homes. Interdisciplinary in tenor, this book will be of interest to scholars in development studies with a focus on South Asia, as well as graduate students and researchers in the fields of migration, conflict studies, Sri Lanka studies, and sociology. It may also have an impact on policymakers owing to its comprehensive, empirically-based analysis of the consequences of the Sri Lankan civil war for Tamils.
... Although migration itself is not a new phenomenon, its implications are challenging the traditional ideas of citizenship more than ever before (Bauböck, 2005). Yet, until recently, immigrants' perceptions of host and adoptive country citizenship have been given little attention (Fozdar, 2013;Fozdar & Spittles, 2010 (Balistreri & Van Hook, 2004;Bennour, 2020;Bernard, 1936;Bueker, 2005;Cho, 1999;Foner, 2001;Garcia, 1981;Jones-Correa, 2001;Miller & Barry, 2009;Paquet, 2012;Portes & Mozo , 1985;Yang, 1994); 2) immigrants' integration with the host society (Ager & Strang, 2008;Bloemraad, 2000Bloemraad, , 2006Bloemraad, Korteweg, & Yurdakul, 2008;Constant, Gataullina, & Zimmermann, 2009;Ersanilli & Koopmans, 2010;Glover et al., 2001;Hoonaard & Hoonaard, 2010;Joppke, 2004;Nagel & Staeheli, 2004;Ramakrishnan, S Karthick Espenshade, 2001;Scipioni, 2017); and 3) immigrants' relations with their home country (Adamson, 2019;Arkilic, 2016;Cheran, 2003;Cohen, 1996Cohen, , 2008Faist, 2010;Henayaka-Lochbihler & Lambusta, 2004;McDowell, 1996;Orjuela, 2008Orjuela, , 2011Ragazzi, 2014;Safran, 1991;Sriskandarajah, 2002;Zhou & Liu, 2016). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Migration from developing to developed countries has led to the naturalisation of millions of immigrants in their new destinations. Meanwhile, the trend of relaxing dual citizenship policies by many states has offered immigrants the option of retaining their home country citizenship as well as obtaining citizenship in their new country. Thus, legally, immigrants whose home and adoptive country both allow dual citizenship, can continue to be citizens in both countries at the same time, although such multiple attachments challenge the traditional meaning of belonging of a citizen: that one citizen can belong to one country only. In this thesis, I analyse the meaning immigrants ascribe to citizenship when they are legal members of two states. In particular, I am interested in understanding the factors that lead emigrants/immigrants to see their home and host country citizenship in terms of the material benefits they provide, and those that lead them to see citizenship as an expression of loyalty and belonging. I do this by exploring the similarities and differences in the way Sri Lankan immigrants give meaning to their adoptive (Australian or New Zealand) citizenship as opposed to their home (Sri Lankan) citizenship. To explore Sri Lankan immigrants’ views, this study employs a qualitative methodology. I collected data through forty-nine semi-structured interviews with first-generation Sri Lankan immigrants in Melbourne, Sydney, Auckland and Wellington, and used thematic analysis to interpret my data. I found that my participants give different meanings to their Sri Lankan, Australian, and New Zealand citizenship. In terms of the adoptive country citizenship, participants’ instrumental and patriotic views were intertwined. My findings show that Sri Lankan immigrants’ loyalty and sense of belonging to Australian or New Zealand society has developed on top of their positive thoughts about achieving socio-economic or political migratory expectations. In contrast, participants viewed the patriotic spirit and the instrumentalist value of home country citizenship separately, and the strength of their feeling about loyalty and belonging was not affected by the material aspects of citizenship. Based on these findings, I highlight the need to understand immigrants’ perceptions of citizenship differently than those of native citizens. I argue that assumptions, such as only good immigrants can belong and be loyal to the host society in isolation to their materialistic interests of citizenship, are highly misleading and result in ineffective policy decisions. The findings also show that home country factors that affect the way my participants see citizenship vary across ethnic lines. While the way Sinhalese participants perceive their Sri Lankan and Australian or New Zealand citizenship are more affected by socio-economic factors, Tamil participants’ views are mostly influenced by political factors, due to the ethnic suppression they faced in Sri Lanka. Thus, I conclude that migration scholarship should acknowledge heterogeneity within immigrant communities and migrants’ unique, individual, experiences, and subjective realities.
... The number of women increased later, owing partly to marriage and family reunification, but also because of the increasing danger for women of being recruited by the LTTE. Several sources agree that the vast majority (about 90%) of Tamils living in the diaspora originated from Jaffna (McDowell 1996). Shops and small businesses, schools and cinemas, religious and cultural institutions mark the infrastructure in Tamil diaspora centres. ...
Chapter
This chapter reveals and discusses the different ways in which people voice their relationship to ‘Ur’. I differentiate six different dimensions, whereupon I take cases of individuals (and partly also their family members) as the starting point for the analysis. The voices of people range from those who have migrated back to Jaffna to those who would never imagine returning. I have also displayed the cases of Muslims who were expelled from Jaffna in the 1990s and whose memories are in stark contrast to earlier times, not only because the war has changed the place in general, but also because their position as a minority stipulates social integration even further. The case of camp people particularly reveals the significance of social status and how this is linked to place. Pfaffenberger’s (1981: 1145–1157) important ethnographical studies have provided background knowledge here which have enabled me to provide a more in-depth analysis of what the notion of ‘Ur’ actually means. And finally, in displaying the actual negotiations people undertake to find a way to get along with their relationship to their place of origin in past and present, the chapter hints at the necessity to differentiate different dimensions of belonging (e.g. emotional and rational, …).
... Ähnliches lässt sich für tamilische Zuwanderer festhalten, wie Studien zu tamilischen Zuwanderern in der Schweiz und Deutschland aufweisen (vgl. McDowell 1996;Lüthi 2003;Salentin 2002Salentin , 2003. Das gewissermaßen ›strebsame Arbeitsethos‹ zielt bei beiden Zuwanderergruppen auf einen möglichst raschen Verzicht auf staatliche Unterstützungsleistungen und ein eigenständiges berufliches Auskommen hin. ...
... In western countries, on which this paper focuses, a difference exists between migrants from the first wave of migration, who fled Sri Lanka before the 1990s, came from a relatively high social and caste background, and settled in priority in the UK and Canada, and those from the second wave of migration, who came from a lower socio-economic and caste background and often settled in non-English speaking countries, after the UK and Canada had closed their doors to Tamil refugees. Beyond these divisions, strong community ties have been established in all host-countries, favoring the active maintenance of a collective Tamil identity abroad (Mcdowell 1996;Fuglerud 1999;Dequirez 2007). 5 The Tamil diaspora has attracted the attention of political scientists due to its active involvement in the Sri Lankan conflict. ...
Article
Tamil diaspora political mobilization against the Sri Lankan government shows that, contrary to a commonly held view, migrants’ transnational political engagement can be a vector, rather than an obstacle, to their political inclusion in their country of settlement. But the articulation of a homeland-oriented struggle with the broader political participation of migrants has been a highly contentious issue in the diasporic political field, some activists seeing in these dynamics a risk of co-optation and dilution of the Tamil cause. While LTTE diasporic associations promoted a form of political inclusion which did not challenge the primacy of the Tamil cause, independent diasporic groups incorporated external ideological influences in their conception of the Tamil struggle and merged their homeland-oriented activism with a broader engagement in host-country politics. The case of Tamil diaspora politics shows that the modalities of incorporation of diaspora activists into host-country politics can be a major stake for them, leading to thorough reflections about their role as migrant political actors, to deep disagreements between various poles of a diasporic field, and to diverse pathways of insertion in the host-country political arena.
... The number of women increased later, owing partly to marriage and family reunification, but also because of the increasing danger for women of being recruited by the LTTE. Several sources agree that the vast majority (about 90%) of Tamils living in the diaspora originated from Jaffna (McDowell 1996). Shops and small businesses, schools and cinemas, religious and cultural institutions mark the infrastructure in Tamil diaspora centres. ...
Chapter
This chapter provides the background information about the Sri Lankan society, its ethnic composition and religious diversity. Migration which is a common feature in the country has also been detailed. Apart from this, the different aspects of the civil war are demonstrated including the roots of conflict and its aftermath. The post-war scenario in the Northern part of the country has been highlighted which has been used as a contextual framework for the empirical findings. This part also helps to learn more about historical and contemporary social and cultural dimensions of Jaffna’s Tamil life and explores how these have been analysed and discussed in the literature which has provided some more differentiated knowledge about the significance of ‘home’ in Tamil life. The idea of return, among the DPs in their places of displacement, has also been taken into account. Towards the end, this chapter also locates the DPs who are trying to migrate to Australia, illegally, to have a better future. Finally, the chapter concludes with the reconstruction and development programmes taken up by the Government with the support of various NGOs and INGOs.
... The number of women increased later, owing partly to marriage and family reunification, but also because of the increasing danger for women of being recruited by the LTTE. Several sources agree that the vast majority (about 90%) of Tamils living in the diaspora originated from Jaffna (McDowell 1996). Shops and small businesses, schools and cinemas, religious and cultural institutions mark the infrastructure in Tamil diaspora centres. ...
Chapter
This chapter reveals and discusses the different ways in which people voice their relationship to ‘Ur’. I differentiate six different dimensions, whereupon I take cases of individuals (and partly also their family members) as the starting point for the analysis. The voices of people range from those who have migrated back to Jaffna to those who would never imagine returning. I have also displayed the cases of Muslims who were expelled from Jaffna in the 1990s and whose memories are in stark contrast to earlier times, not only because the war has changed the place in general, but also because their position as a minority stipulates social integration even further. The case of camp people particularly reveals the significance of social status and how this is linked to place. Pfaffenberger’s (1981: 1145–1157) important ethnographical studies have provided background knowledge here which have enabled me to provide a more in-depth analysis of what the notion of ‘Ur’ actually means. And finally, in displaying the actual negotiations people undertake to find a way to get along with their relationship to their place of origin in past and present, the chapter hints at the necessity to differentiate different dimensions of belonging (e.g. emotional and rational, …).
... The number of women increased later, owing partly to marriage and family reunification, but also because of the increasing danger for women of being recruited by the LTTE. Several sources agree that the vast majority (about 90%) of Tamils living in the diaspora originated from Jaffna (McDowell 1996). Shops and small businesses, schools and cinemas, religious and cultural institutions mark the infrastructure in Tamil diaspora centres. ...
Book
This book focuses on the concept of ‘home’ or ‘place of origin’ (expressed in Tamil as ‘Ur’) and its various dimensions, in turn related to issues of belonging, attachment, detachment, and commonality among the war-affected population in the post-war era of Sri Lanka. Little research has been undertaken on displacement and forced migration since the end of the war, and so this book provides new insight into the intersections between externally and internally displaced people and notions of home in relation to gender, age, caste and class. It excavates the roots of the problem of not being able to return due to combinations of uncertainty, unemployment, and the loss of people and property. The author shows that notions of ‘home’ vary considerably depending on multiple variables, and this is particularly pronounced between the different generations. The book also confronts how the migration from Sri Lanka over the border to India has brought on discernible changes to the lives of women in particular, in transforming their identities in multiple re-invented cultural manifestations, and cultivating a new kind of attachment towards their new homes. Interdisciplinary in tenor, this book will be of interest to scholars in development studies with a focus on South Asia, as well as graduate students and researchers in the fields of migration, conflict studies, Sri Lanka studies, and sociology. It may also have an impact on policymakers owing to its comprehensive, empirically-based analysis of the consequences of the Sri Lankan civil war for Tamils.
... Ähnliches lässt sich für tamilische Zuwanderer festhalten, wie Studien zu tamilischen Zuwanderern in der Schweiz und Deutschland aufweisen (vgl. McDowell 1996;Lüthi 2003;Salentin 2002Salentin , 2003 Im Hinblick auf die spezifisch religiösen Traditionen, hier die zentral dargestellten buddhistischen und hinduistischen Traditionen, lässt sich in übertragenem Sinne von einer strukturellen ›Kompatibili-tät‹ sprechen. Die religiösen Inhalte, Konzepte und ›Heilsziele‹ sind sicherlich grundlegend verschieden von den in Deutschland und in den meisten westlich-industriellen Gesellschaften prägenden, vielfach dominanten christlichen Traditionen. ...
... As a result, a vast diaspora of thousands of people feel that they cannot possibly return to their ancestral home, which for many is also their birthplace. This is the reason why the Tamil diaspora from Sri Lanka has been variously termed a "victim diaspora" (Cohen 2008), an "asylum diaspora" (McDowell 1996;Ashutosh 2013, 197) and a "conflict diaspora" (Pragasam 2012). Notwithstanding the differences between them, all of these terms point to the harsh experience of dispossession that Tamils from Sri Lanka have undergone. ...
Article
Full-text available
The ethics of care is a central element in the novel The Story of a Brief Marriage (2016), written by Anuk Arudpragasam in response to the slaughter which the Tamil community suffered in the final months of the Sri Lankan civil war in 2009. This article discusses the novel from this theoretical perspective, positing that care is played out as a strategy to enhance the jeopardised human condition of those involved. The narrative bears witness to the intense suffering of this community at a time when the situation was deadly for civilians, who were confined in the so-called “No Fire Zone.” Paradoxically, this area was systematically shelled, its conditions responding to what Achille Mbembe has described as necropolitics. In the midst of this horror, however, Arudpragasam’s novel finds a deeply moving ethics of care in people’s attitudes to one another, which signals a desperate attempt to keep the bereaved community together or at least maintain an essential sense of humanness. Care is also identified as intentio autoris since the novel becomes a powerful reminder of the huge toll of human lives and the immense pain that occurred in this dark episode, as well as the failure—or lack of interest—of the international community to intervene in order to save thousands of innocent lives.
... The number of women increased later, owing partly to marriage and family reunification, but also because of the increasing danger for women of being recruited by the LTTE. Several sources agree that the vast majority (about 90%) of Tamils living in the diaspora originated from Jaffna (McDowell 1996). Shops and small businesses, schools and cinemas, religious and cultural institutions mark the infrastructure in Tamil diaspora centres. ...
... The Kurdish participants experienced a better level of adjustment in school and in society, while their Somali counterparts experienced high levels of disengagement from school and their adopted community. The Somali participants experienced similar levels of fragmentation found in other communities stemming from a lack of political voice within their school, economic voice, and support (Dorais, 1991;Gold, 1992;McDowell, 1996). ...
... 7. In Italy, Palermo is the center where the Tamil diaspora is primarily concentrated; while in Europe the most important destinations are England, France, Germany, Switzerland and the Scandinavian countries (Fuglerud, 1999;McDowell, 1996). ...
Article
Full-text available
The paper focuses on the metaphor of the saints' body/border as a means to analyse the social field of the migratory flows between Sicily and Sri Lanka. The saints' body is viewed as important on a symbolic-sacred level, but even more broadly as a centre of what migrants experience in the in-between space spanning 'here' and 'there': as living simulacra of a civic-religious cult that crosses borders, the saints' relics function as a site of agency and a medium of communication. Far from a rigid and pre-established container that constrains migrants' lives, the social field established by the flows between Sri Lanka and Sicily is an embodied and circular space forged in part through civic-religious practices that make migrants feel at home in the borders.
Chapter
There is a substantial literature on the implications for countries of origin of voluntary migration. In broad terms, there are three main approaches. One considers the effects of the absence of migrants, with a particular focus on the concept of ‘brain drain’, whereby the educated and skilled dominate outmigration (for example, Adepoju, 1991). Another considers the ways that migrants continue to interact with their country of origin from abroad, with a focus on economic remittances (for example, Lim, 1992). The third approach considers the potential benefits of return migration for countries of origin (for example, Diatta and Mbow, 1999).
Chapter
Full-text available
The cumulative effect of ten years of European Union (EU) policies on migration has been an overriding emphasis on control at the borders, and beyond the borders, of EU states through a series of measures: carriers’ liability, stricter visa requirements, readmission treaties with Central and Eastern European states, and electronically fortified borders. As several case studies have shown, trying to keep economic migrants out has had, among others effects, the result of allowing the development of networks of human smugglers (Koser, 1997; McDowell, 1997; Salt and Stein, 1997; Ghosh, 1998; Messe et al., 1998; Morrison, 1998; Van Hear, 1998; Koslowski, 2000; Peter, 2000; Salt and Hogarth, 2000; Snyder, 2000). Migration control policies have affected asylum seekers in much the same way as other groups of migrants, forcing them to resort to illegal migration to reach Western Europe, and therefore criminalizing them in blatant contradiction of international law governing the status of refugees (Engbersen and van der Lun, 1998; Van Hear, 1998).
Article
Full-text available
A partir d'une enquête quantitative sur les communautés religieuses en Suisse, cette contribution montrera l'institutionnalisation des traditions bouddhistes et hindoues en contexte européen. Deux types d'organisations apparemment antagonistes caractérisent les groupes de ces traditions. Une institutionnalisation autour du modèle communautaire du temple caractérise principalement les groupes issus de la diaspora, alors qu'une faible institutionnalisation de groupes en réseau de la nébuleuse mystique-ésotérique distingue les groupes composés principalement de fidèles occidentaux. Les données disponibles permettent de montrer qu'une large part des groupes de ces deux confessions est petite, ne rassemblant pas plus d'une douzaine de fidèles. Elles indiquent également qu'une petite part des groupes est organisée en communauté ou en temple, qui attirent une proportion conséquente de fidèles. L'articulation entre les groupes est donc différente selon les deux confessions, avec un clivage assez net pour l'hindouisme et une interrelation des types de groupes pour le bouddhisme.
Chapter
Hindus are found in almost every country in the world and this is the case also in Europe. Both Hindus of South Asian ancestry and members of ISKCON have eagerly established numerous temples on the European continent, and some of these temples and sacred sites have become objects of Hindu pilgrimage travel. Hinduism is today likewise a term associated with geographical space, especially with the nation of India, and the great majority of the world's Hindus, 94%, live in the nation state of India. India is an exporter of Hindu religious specialists to the Hindu diasporas. The maṭhas in Europe have often been founded by Hindu gurus, who have gathered disciples around them, or by a guru's disciples. The religious narratives of Hinduism are believed to have taken place on earth, in India and South Asia, but as Hindus continue to migrate to other lands, such narratives take place in new countries.
Article
Most of the migration studies or diaspora studies predominantly focus on migration patterns, human movements and their circulation over space. Recently a shift occurred focusing on nonhumans and immobility to analyze migration and diaspora. In this article by taking one of the features of Sri Lankan Tamil transnational marriage between Sri Lankan Tamils from Sri Lanka and Sri Lankan diaspora, I argue the importance of time and temporality to rethink about migration and diaspora studies. I show how different temporalities of things and humans that get (dis)entangled at different places and different points in the marriage migration process allow us to shift our lens slightly in future studies on migration and diaspora.
Article
Full-text available
A minority of about 50,000 Hindu Tamils has come to Switzerland during the past three decades. Among other things, the Tamil refugees from Sri Lanka have established numerous Hindu temples and sought to recreate self-defined structures to preserve their cultural and religious identity. Taking leave from existing studies and recent research, this article applies the concept of civic social capital to Hindu Tamil priests and temples. It differentiates the dimensions of bonding, bridging and linking capital in order to apply a new analytical perspective on processes of social integration of Hindu Tamils in Switzerland. Emphasis is on aspects such as social and communal “services” provided in temples, priests and temple presidents participating in interreligious activities, and priests maintaining active relations with the media, municipalities, and other social institutions. It argues that in some cases priests and temple presidents have been successful in their use of bridging and linking capital to enhance their status and prestige as well as provide enhanced visibility to the Hindu Tamil minority, thus far more or less unnoticed in Switzerland. Keywords: Hindu Tamils, Switzerland, Hindu temple, civic social capital, priests
Article
Nous observons, depuis la fin officielle du conflit sri lankais en 2009, un recadrage des actions collectives de la diaspora tamoule, caractérisé par un discours de reconnaissance du génocide. Ce dernier marque une rupture importante avec le discours d’indépendance des Tigres de libération de l’Eelam tamoul (LTTE), prédominant pendant le conflit. L’objectif de cet article est d’expliquer ce recadrage en mobilisant la littérature sur les mouvements sociaux et l’action collective, particulièrement les concepts de fenêtre d’opportunité et de structures mobilisatrices. À l’aide d’une analyse de cadrage qualitative, nous avons retracé, sur la plateforme Tamilnet.com, le discours de cinq acteurs collectifs diasporiques tamouls de 2000 à 2015. Nous soutenons ainsi que la fenêtre d’opportunité demeure à elle seule insuffisante pour expliquer le recadrage. En revanche, nous démontrons que ce changement s’explique plutôt par l’émergence de nouveaux acteurs collectifs, eux-mêmes porteurs d’un nouveau discours.
Article
Wie lässt sich die Disposition zur Integration und das Integrationsmass bei emigrierten Personen erklären? Welche Rolle spielen dabei die strukturellen und kulturellen Charakteristika ihrer Herkunftsgebiete und diejenigen ihrer Person? Eine repräsentative Befragung von Eltern aus Portugal, Sri Lanka und der Türkei (türkisch und kurdisch Sprechende getrennt) zeigte, dass Migrantinnen und Migranten in sich oft bestimmte Merkmale kumulieren. Ein Art Konglomerat, das sich durch unterschiedliche idealtypische Lebensentwürfe auszeichnet. Nur für einige von ihnen ist Integration im Emigrationskontext eine Möglichkeit. Wird Integration jedoch beabsichtigt, kann sie nur vor dem Hintergrund der eigenen Ressourcen und durch die "richtige" Handlungsauswahl erreicht werden. Jedoch handeln Individuen nicht im luftleeren Raum, den Zugangschancen zu gesellschaftlich relevanten Bereichen sind ebenfalls wirksam. Diese Gemeinschaften benützen drei idealtypische Hauptstrategien, um einen Spannungsausgleich zu erreichen: interkontextuelle Mitgliedschaft; selektive Mitgliedschaft; ethnischer Ruckzug. Regressionsverfahren zeigen, dass integrative Handlungen von der Integrationsdisposition und der perzipierten Verhaltenkontrolle über die beabsichtigte Handlung bestimmt werden. Das Integrationsmass der Gruppen ist deshalb unterschiedlich, weil auch ihre Handlungsabsicht und die Chancen auf Erfolg verschieden sind. Individuen vermögen sich nur soweit zu integrieren, wie sie dies beabsichtigen und inwiefern sie an den Integrationserfolg glauben. How can the intention to integrate and the level of integration among emigrants be explained? What role do the structural and cultural characteristics of their native regions and those of their individual personalities play? A representative survey of parents from Portugal, Sri Lanka and Turkey (separated into Turkish speakers and Kurdish speakers) showed that migrants often accumulate certain characteristics within themselves, creating a kind of conglomerate that is characterized by various idealized life plans. Integration in the context of emigration is possible only for some of these people. Yet if integration is the intention, it can only be achieved against the background of one's own resources and through the "correct" behavioural choices. But individuals do not operate in a vacuum; opportunities to access socially relevant areas are also effective. These communities employ three broad strategies in the main in order to achieve a balance: intercontextual membership, selective membership and ethnic withdrawal. Regression analyses reveal that integrative behaviour is determined by the integrative intention and the perceived behavioural control over such intended behaviour. The level of integration varies among these groups because their behavioural intent and opportunities for success vary. Individuals can only integrate to the extent that they intend to do so and to the extent that they believe in their chances of succeeding at integrating.
Article
Full-text available
The war and subsequent displacements changed the social and spatial practices around caste, which resulted in an increase in inter-caste marriages, which had been taboo before. This unintentional rebellion was mounted to the very core of caste through these inter-caste marriages. However, the new caste practices and performances that now revolved around these new inter-caste kin networks continued to reproduce old hierarchies, even as it created space for change. This study highlights how various determining factors such as repeated displacement of families, the close geographic proximity resulting from inevitable cross-caste interactions, love and intimate relationship, the safeguard different caste individuals extended to each other during the periods of crisis and emergency and socioeconomic advancements have together contributed to the steady growth of inter-caste interaction and marriages and have over-ridden caste taboos. This study mainly focuses on two areas namely Puṅgudutīvu and Mallākam in Jaffna, Northern Sri Lanka, where 116 inter-caste marriages were recorded and three were taken for a detailed case study.
Article
Eelam Tamils have a growing connection with Indian Tamils through shared language, cultural heritage, history, and cosmology, despite not having a shared geography or homeland. This paper contributes to understanding this peculiar connection by focusing on the cultural impacts of Indian Tamil films on Eelam Tamil refugees resettled in Australia in the 1980s and 1990s. Building on the existing scholarship on pan-Tamil identity, memory, and film, the paper asks: how did consuming Tamil films affect Eelam Tamils’ cultural identities in their refugee resettlement? Transcultural memory is used as a framework to examine this interaction and the multi-focal identities and orientations among Eelam Tamils towards pan-Tamilness. Tamil refugees used film in a novel way to recall difficult memories of the pressures felt by a young war generation to sustain their cultural heritage while adjusting to the cultural norms of Australia. Consuming films become formative to reconstructing their cultural identities and enables the possibilities for exploring the cultural linkages and disconnections that constitute the heterogeneity of pan-Tamil subjectivities.
Book
Full-text available
This detailed study in religious studies is intended as a contribution to the study of Hinduisms. It reconstructs Hindu temple practices in Zurich and Vienna, representative of two national contexts. The focus is on the question of the practical execution of events in the Hindu temple, i.e. the question of which practices create a temple as such. Committed to an ethnomethodological approach, the study reconstructs the routine of communal Hindu temple practice - the 'doing mandir'. In doing so, it fills a research gap and contributes to the establishment of practice theory approaches in religious studies and their translation into the concretion of empirical research.
Book
This book is about new forms of religiosity and religious activity emerging in the context of their dialectic relations with contemporary multicultural realities. World religions are effectively a major agent of the multiculturalization of contemporary societies. However, multiculturalism pushes them not only toward change and reforms, but also toward new conflicts between and within them. This process should remind us of the Jewish legend of the Golem – an animated being created by man which finally challenges the latter’s control over it - a dialectic relation, indeed. World religions today greatly contribute to a world (dis)order that is multicultural both when viewed as a whole, and from within most societies that compose it. It is a development that contrasts both with the assumption that globalization implies one-way homogenization and convergence to Western modernity, and the expectation that globalization would be bound to polarize homogeneous civilizations.
Article
Full-text available
In the late eighties and early nineties, almost all Western European nations adopted an increasingly restrictive policy towards the growing number of asylum seekers. We develop a push-and-pull model and evaluate whether these newly created deterrence measures had a significant impact on the number of asylum applications in Switzerland. The statistical tests in the form of Box-Tiao intervention analyses shows that states are only partially able to control global migration. We particularly demonstrate that only one of the unilateral measures adopted by the Swiss government reached the main goal and led to a substantial reduction in the number of applications in 1990. Further, legal reforms did not affect the number of asylum requests of refugees fleeing from a violent conflict in the neighborhood of the host country.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.