Article

Off-Duty Deviance: Organizational Policies and Evidence for Two Prevention Strategies

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Abstract

Anecdotal evidence suggests that organizations are increasingly concerned with employee off-duty deviance (ODD), yet management research has rarely investigated this type of deviant behavior. We define ODD as behaviors committed outside the workplace or when off-duty that are deviant by organizational and/or societal standards, jeopardize the employee's status within the organization, and threaten the interests and well-being of the organization and its stakeholders. Three studies are presented to better understand the relevance of ODD to modern organizations and then to understand potential approaches to reduce the incidence of ODD. The first study provides a qualitative review of publicly available ODD policies within the Fortune 500; the results showed that 13.4% of the Fortune 500 had a publicly available ODD policy, with the majority prohibiting criminal forms of ODD to protect the firm's reputation. The next 2 studies examine the efficacy of different approaches to reduce criminal ODD: policy adoption and personnel selection. In the second study, a longitudinal, quasi-experimental design showed a significant-albeit modest-reduction in criminal ODD following the adoption of a conduct policy. In the third and final study, a criterion-related validity design supported the predictive validity of general mental ability and prior deviance in predicting criminal ODD. This compendium of studies provides an initial empirical investigation into ODD and offers implications relevant to the deviance literature, policy development, and personnel selection. (PsycINFO Database Record

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... Additionally, some elites belong to more than one of these categories, such as wealthy and influential celebrity executives (Bangwanubusa, 2009;Hall, Blass, Ferris, & Massengale, focus of the present research is on a subset of elite deviance, namely executive deviance, whereby executives are responsible for their own deviance and the deviance of their subordinates. Furthermore, executive deviance may be committed while acting on behalf of the organization or while off-duty ( Lyons et al., 2016). We expand on executive deviance below. ...
... Due to the leadership and responsibilities of CEOs, they may be held accountable for the transgressions of their subordinates and organization (Daboub et al., 1995;Simon, 1996). The reason they are often held responsible is due to the CEO establishing the culture of his/her organization and disciplining subordinates ( Daboub et al., 1995;Lease, 2006;Litzky et al. 2006, Lyons et al., 2016Zahra et al., 2005). Furthermore, executives may be used as scapegoats following instances of workplace deviance committed by employees, despite evidence that the CEO did not contribute nor had knowledge of the misconduct ( Gangloff et al., 2016). ...
... We hypothesize: Off-Duty Deviance. Lyons et al. (2016) defined off-duty deviance (ODD) as "behaviors committed by an employee outside the workplace or off-duty that are deviant by organizational and/or societal standards, jeopardize the employee's status within the organization, and threaten the interests and well-being of the organization and its stakeholders" (p. 464). ...
... Indeed, a growing body of scholarship suggests that studying the observable deviant behaviors in sports can provide valuable insight for non-sports settings (Foreman, Soebbing, and Seifried 2019;Lyons et al. 2016;Wolfe et al. 2005). This article adds to this thread of the literature by conducting an empirical investigation of minor "workplace" deviance in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) from 2009 to 2018. ...
... Deviance can come at a substantial cost (Black 2005). Corporations are increasingly interested in the personal conduct of employees (Lyons et al. 2016); therefore, ethical and disciplined leaders and employees are in high demand. Several recent studies agree that various character traits deter deviant behavior (Bourdage et al. 2018;Gok et al. 2017;Louw et al. 2016). ...
... Because of this unique feature, it is increasingly common to study workplace phenomena using sports data (Wolfe et al. 2005). In particular, sports are used to examine several workplace issues, including matters specific to misconduct and deviance by organizational members (e.g., Foreman, Soebbing, and Seifried 2019; Lyons et al. 2016;Walker, Seifried, and Soebbing 2018). Bias and discrimination studies abound in the economics of sport literature (Harris and Berri 2016). ...
Article
Deviant behavior associated with a firm’s brand comes at a substantial cost to the organization. Corporations are becoming increasingly interested in the personal conduct of employees on and off duty. For this reason, firms may seek out employees with military backgrounds because they believe military training helps to shape ethical and disciplined habits. Several studies indicate military veterans may be less likely to engage in deviant behavior. However, other studies find deviant behavior is an extensive problem within the military. The purpose of this study is to compare the levels of minor workplace deviance between military and non-military organizations. In order to make this comparison, sample data from college football are utilized to compare on-field penalties—a proxy for workplace deviance. Results from an empirical model indicate that players with military training are less likely to engage in minor workplace deviance.
... physical and mental health, reduces employees' productivity, and increases organizations' health care costs (Frone, 2015). The prevalence and impact of the harm done by employees' problem drinking affect a number of organizational stakeholders (e.g., employees, organizations, stockholders, social communities located near the organizations; Lyons, Hoffman, Bommer, Kennedy, & Hetrick, 2016). Thus, it is important to study the antecedents and consequences (i.e., nomological network) of problem drinking. ...
... Specifically, we provide a novel theoretical explanation that aligns the hedonic tone of the focal variables in our research model to improve our understanding of why problem drinking is a coping mechanism in the stressstrain process. The gaps in knowledge we address are important to study because the health-related consequences of employees' problem drinking and somatic complaints at work are far reaching and have the potential to harm numerous organizational stakeholders (Lyons et al., 2016). ...
... Recent research demonstrates that organizations' efforts to manage harmful self-medication employee behaviors that occur outside the workplace (e.g., problem drinking, off-duty deviance) can help protect organizations and their stakeholders (Lyons et al., 2016). We advocate for practitioners' awareness that monitoring and discouraging employees' harmful self-medication coping attempts could help limit employees' somatic complaints at work (e.g., chest pain, dizziness, lightheadedness, shaking, shortness of breath). ...
Article
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Problem drinking is an important behavioral phenomenon with numerous implications for employees’ health and well-being within and outside the workplace. Although recent research has demonstrated that workplace stressors have effects on employees’ problem drinking, additional research is needed to examine the role employees’ problem drinking plays in the workplace stress–strain process. We draw from the transactional model of stress and the self-medication hypothesis to address this gap in prior research by offering a novel explanation for the indirect effects of hindrance stressors on employees’ somatic complaints at work through problem drinking. Overall, we find support for the hypothesized model using a time-separated data collection with a heterogeneous sample of employee respondents from the United States (n = 223). This study extends prior stress research by making two important contributions to theory and research. First, we make an empirical contribution by examining problem drinking and somatic complaints at work, which are both understudied organizational phenomena that have importance to numerous organizational stakeholders. Second, we draw from the transactional model of stress and the self-medication hypothesis in a novel way that provides an important explanation for why hindrance stressors in the workplace are indirectly associated with somatic complaints at work through employees’ use of problem drinking as a self-medication coping mechanism.
... While both of these examples concern an employee fired for off-duty behavior that employers only learned of from social media, many observers might approve of the firing in one case but not the other. Organizations are increasingly referencing off-duty behavior in employee code of conduct statements (Lyons et al. 2016), yet limited research has examined the potential impact of punishing employees for behavior outside of work. This leaves managers to address complicated, often public, situations with little understanding of how their actions will be perceived, whether their actions will produce backlash from other employees, and why observers might arrive at conflicting judgments about the situation. ...
... Some organizations have begun to incorporate statements regarding off-duty deviance in their company codes of conduct (Stohl et al. 2017). A content analysis of Fortune 500 firms' organizational codes of conduct found that 13% included an explicit statement regarding off-duty deviance (typically criminal) on their company website, and almost one out of five of these statements addressed social media usage (Lyons et al. 2016). As an example, the code provided to employees of General Motors (GM) states "you are the face of the Company, and what you publish reflects on GM and our brands. ...
... This effect was consistent across multiple examples of off-duty deviance. Establishing and publicizing an off-duty conduct policy that covers social media, as some large organizations have now done (Lyons et al. 2016;Stohl et al. 2017), may well reduce post-punishment backlash from employees who might otherwise object to actions taken against their coworkers, regardless of the nature of the off-duty conduct. A long-held principle of progressive discipline is that employees should be forewarned of prohibited workplace behaviors and their associated consequences (Noe et al. 2017); the findings presented here show that this principle also applies to prohibited off-duty behavior. ...
Article
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Drawing from moral foundations theory, we show that differences in sensitivity to distinct moral norms help explain differences in the perceived (un)fairness of punishing employees for off-duty deviance. We used an initial study to validate realistic examples of non-criminal behavior that were perceived as violating a specific moral foundation. Participants in the main study (n = 166) evaluated scenarios in which co-workers were fired for those behaviors, which took place outside of work but were revealed via social media. The extent to which participants valued the norm violated by the co-worker positively predicted perceived fairness of the firing, and negatively predicted expressed intent to take retributive action against the responsible manager. This effect was moderated by the presence of a pre-existing organizational policy regarding off-duty conduct, which uniformly decreased negative reactions to the firing. Because social media now makes the revelation of an employee’s off-duty behavior to a broad audience increasingly likely, our results suggest the importance of developing an approach for responding to employee off-duty deviance while highlighting the relevance of moral pluralism to the study of third-party reactions.
... This paper extends the literature on sports sponsorship by empirically analyzing the effect of off-field misconduct on the share prices of implicated indirect sponsors. The paper contributes to the literature on why stakeholders inconsistently sanction firm misconduct (Barnett, 2014;Chien et al., 2016) and how organizational policies deter employee off-duty deviance (Lyons et al., 2016). ...
... Second, results show that the impact of player off-field misconduct on team sponsor stock prices differs across different NFL Player Conduct Policy regimes, an organizational policy aimed at reducing employee off-duty deviance (ODD). A larger impact on team sponsor stock prices under the third PCP indicates that stakeholders perceived this policy to be more effective than earlier versions, providing support for the effectiveness of organizational ODD policies (Lyons et al., 2016). ...
... The impact of player off-field misconduct on sponsors also depends on league policies aimed at deterring this behavior. Off-field misconduct by NFL players represents a form of employee off-duty deviance (ODD) and the NFL PCP represents an organizational ODD policy (Lyons et al., 2016). Lyons et al. (2016) noted that public organizational ODD policies communicate important information to stakeholders and found that about 13% of Fortune 500 companies provided ODD policies on the company website. ...
Article
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Research Question: Does athlete off-field misconduct affect the stock price of sponsors of the athlete's team, stadium and league? No research on the impact of athlete off-field misconduct on indirect sponsors like team, stadium, or league sponsors exists.Research Methods: The paper employs quantitative analysis using an event study methodology. The paper performs an analysis of stock price data for 179 publicly traded firms sponsoring the National Football League (NFL), NFL teams, or NFL stadiums, based on 863 individual incidents of NFL player off-field misconduct over 2000–2017.Results and Findings: Off-field misconduct affects team sponsors, but not stadium or league sponsors. Cumulative average abnormal return for team sponsors amount to −0.3% ten trading days after events and more than −1.0% after the strengthening of the NFL personal conduct policy in 2014. The mean (median) impact of a misconduct incident on team sponsor market capitalization was −$157 million (−$44.7 million).Implications: Organizations considering sports sponsorship deals should understand that they assume a risk of negative effects of player off-field misconduct even if they sponsor teams and not individual athletes. Investors in firms that sponsor professional sports teams should realize that the price of their shares could decline if an athlete on a sponsored team violates laws or gets arrested. Sports leagues should recognize that changing personal conduct policies may have unintended consequences in terms of how the public, especially investors in firms sponsoring teams, react to violations of these policies.
... Further, the present study seeks to examine the effect of executive and employee deviance committed within the scope of job duties (i.e., cheating for a competitive advantage, e.g., falsifying documents) as well as employee deviance committed outside the workplace (e.g., domestic violence or unlawful possession of a firearm) on CEO dismissals. To analyze these forms of deviance committed at different levels (e.g., management and subordinates), a unique dataset of 16 National Football League seasons is used, which provides accurate and transparent measures of head coach and organizational performance (Day, Gordon, and Fink 2012;Wolfe et al. 2005), deviance (Lyons et al. 2016), and sociopolitical measures of executive dismissals (Holmes 2011;Wangrow, Schepker, and Barker 2018). ...
... We believe the present research contributes to the existing literature in several ways. First, while previous research explored various elements of employee and organizational deviance and misconduct (e.g., Lyons et al. 2016;Michalak and Ashkanasy 2013;Robinson and Bennett 1995), limited research explores the reactions by internal and external stakeholders to these behaviors. While Barnett (2014) explored the complexity related to stakeholders' decisions to hold firms accountable for misconduct, he noted that "stakeholders' attention is directed in certain ways that bound where they look, limit what they notice, bias their assessment, and constrain their willingness to act" (2014: 694). ...
... Consistent with the aforementioned examples of Volkswagen and Ford, the focus of the present research is on a subset of elite deviance, namely executive deviance, whereby executives are responsible for their own deviance and the deviance of their subordinates. Furthermore, executive deviance may be committed while acting on behalf of the organization or while off-duty (Lyons et al. 2016). We expand on executive deviance below. ...
Article
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The seminal model of CEO dismissals utilizes four sociopolitical forces that operate together in determining whether a CEO will be dismissed. Missing from the sociopolitical forces of CEO dismissals is executive deviance. We propose the inclusion of executive deviance as the fifth sociopolitical force in CEO dismissals, which is not limited to the deviant actions of the executive, but also the executive’s subordinates. Within the comprehensive CEO dismissal framework, the effect of executive deviance on head coach dismissals in the National Football League (NFL) from the 2000–2001 to 2015–2016 season is examined using four levels of executive deviance: (a) deviance committed directly by the executive, (b) minor workplace deviance by employees, (c) serious workplace deviance by employees, and (d) off-duty deviance by employees. Logistic regression results indicate all four levels of executive deviance increase the likelihood of executive dismissal and have more substantial effects than organizational performance. We encourage researchers to include executive deviance within their comprehensive, ceteris paribus models of CEO dismissals, empirically test the effects of executive deviance in various industries, and revisit past models of executive dismissals to mitigate potentially erroneous statistical results from confounding variables. 50 free full-text copies available here: https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/IV4UQVHQNE9PBUSDU9BF/full?target=10.1080/01639625.2019.1659261
... He observed infractions increased the probability of head coach dismissal. However, limited research exists regarding the effect of deviance on dismissals, which is largely due to the limited data available on deviance within organizations (Lyons, Hoffman, Bommer, Kennedy, & Hetrick, 2016). This limitation is especially striking given the effect deviance has on player career outcomes (Palmer, Duhan, & Soebbing, 2015), the substantial media attention devoted to deviance in sport (Ambrose, 2007;Rose, Cordell, Ham, Karcher, & Shukie, 2007), and the efforts sport governing bodies take to quell deviance and the media attention it receives (Ambrose, 2007;Edelman, 2008). ...
... Due to the leadership and responsibilities of executives, they may be held accountable for the transgressions of their subordinates and organization (Daboub et al., 1995;Simon & Eitzen, 1990), especially with their duties of establishing organizational culture and disciplining subordinates (Daboub et al., 1995;Lease, 2006;Litzky et al., 2006;Lyons et al., 2016;Zahra, Priem, & Rasheed, 2005). Furthermore, executives may be used as scapegoats following instances of workplace deviance committed by employees, despite evidence the executive did not contribute to nor had knowledge of the misconduct (Gangloff, Connelly, & Shook, 2016). ...
... 464). Research regarding ODD and its implications is limited, despite over 10% of Fortune 500 companies publicly provide information on their websites regarding their company ODD policiesand likely many more companies provide this information via internal documents (Lyons et al., 2016). Of the organizations that provided justification for company ODD policies, 82.8% of the organizations identified the reputation of the organization as a justification for the policies; however, organizations offered several other justifications, such as employee safety or ability to perform at work. ...
Article
See https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2018.06.012 Highlights: •Four types of deviance and a policy change are used to explain leader dismissals. •Deviance committed by subordinates increase the likelihood of leader dismissal. •Penalties and legal incidents increase dismissal likelihood after a policy change. •Leaders may forestall dismissal when punishments limit their available resources. Abstract: Effects of deviant behavior committed by NFL teams’ coaching staffs and players on head coach dismissals are examined before and after a personal conduct policy change. Using 505 observations from 2000 through 2015, survival analysis results indicate deviance committed by players affect head coach retention decisions. More specifically, workplace deviance committed by subordinates, as measured by player fines, increases head coach dismissal likelihood, regardless of the institutional emphasis on personal conduct, represented by a personal conduct policy modification. However, penalty yards and off-duty legal incidents committed by players only increase the likelihood of head coach dismissal following the personal conduct policy modification, which was implemented to deter deviant behavior viewed by external stakeholders. Though head coaches are dismissed following instances of player misconduct, when those instances of misconduct result in suspensions (i.e., coaches are unable to utilize all their resources), the likelihood of head coach retention increases, suggesting suspensions may operate as an excuse for poor performance, thus allowing head coaches of deviant players to potentially forestall their dismissal. Keywords: Conduct, Deviance, Dismissal, Leadership, Policy, Turnover
... Production deviance and property deviance are mainly the efforts to vandalize the organizational harmony individually. Counterproductive behavior, the most commonly used synonym of employee deviance (Lyons et al. 2016;Berry et al. 2007), may be an umbrella classification for production and property deviances. As the word of "counterproductive" addresses, the main aim of the employee deviance is to reduce the productivity of the work with "on-duty" behaviors by underperforming on the daily assignments on purpose. ...
... The literature shows that deviance may have some pioneers such as depression and low sales performance (Amyx and Jarrell 2016), attachment and continuance of commitment (Sims 2002), perceived justice (Aquino et al. 1999), general mental ability and prior deviance (Lyons et al. 2016), injustice of supervisors (Zoghbi-Manrique-de-Lara and Suarez-Acosta 2014), abusive supervisors (Avey et al. 2015), self-image congruence and impression management (Hochstein et al. 2017), and some personal characteristics which prevent the employee from deviance such as agreeableness, conscientiousness, and extraversion (Witt and Andrews 2006). The common ground of these mentioned pioneers is that they are all something about the employee's individual problems, perspectives, or relationships. ...
Chapter
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As spreading the information becomes easier with online technologies, consumers are able to both share their experiences and collect other users’ experiences. This may lead to affect the purchase decision of others who are exposed to online reviews. Hence, behaving deviant, the companies can use the power of online reviews for the benefit of themselves by manipulating the review content. In order to attract customers, companies can write positive reviews for their own business or negative reviews for those of competitors. However, consumers are getting aware of these devious moves day by day and they evaluate the believability of the online reviews in a more suspicious manner. This chapter proposes a conceptual model on the outcomes of perceived believability and perceived deviancy in online reviews, in terms of perceived ethicality of the company. The outcomes of the study are expected to provide a novel approach to the online competition strategy through consideration of the long-term value co-destruction for organizations in the competitive marketplace.
... The concepts of organizational deviance or crime have been sometimes used as familiar concepts (Lyons et al., 2016;Goode, 2015). Besides, organizational deviance is often associated and sometimes confused with an organized crime. ...
... Off-duty deviance (ODD) is a very specific type of deviance, which addresses interactions of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in different environment. Thus, ODD is divided into two subcategories: traditional ODD (Lyons et al., 2016) and computer-focused cyber deviance (Louderback and Antonaccio, 2017). Traditional ODD is defined as deviant behaviours of employees committed outside the workplace, which are targeted against "organizational or societal standards, jeopardize the employee's status within the organization that threaten the interests and well-being of the organization and its stakeholders" (Lyons et al., 2016, p. 463). ...
Conference Paper
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Organizational deviance is increasingly gaining more attention of academics, practitioners and policymakers, who are interested in how to reduce negative financial and non-financial outcomes. An increased interest in workplace aggression has been stimulated by the mass media and social networks. Nevertheless, the concept of deviance in a contemporary workplace remains ambiguous. Traditionally, deviance has been related to deviant behaviours, which refer to a range of volitional acts at work that harm or intend to harm organizations and their stakeholders, clients, employees, and customers. The paper addresses new trends in an interdisciplinary discourse and aims to provide conceptual clarity by distinguishing different types of deviance. By employing bibliometric analysis and snowballing techniques to investigate the state of the art in the main fields such as management, marketing, sociology, and psychology, this paper also provides an overview of the latest scientific literature. The findings reveal various types of deviance and insights for further investigations.
... Furthermore, sports data is both objective and readily available, which can afford organizational scholars and practitioners valuable opportunities to generalize findings and practices from sports into businesses and organizations. Recent management research has contributed to this trend, publishing papers using sports data (e.g., Avery, Tonidandel, & Phillips, 2008;Barnes, Reb, & Ang, 2012;Ertug & Castellucci, 2013;Humphrey, Morgeson, & Mannor, 2009;Hunter, Cushenbery, Throughgood, Johnson, & Ligon, 2011;Lyons, Hoffman, Bommer, Kennedy, & Hetrick, 2016; All authors contributed equally to this article. Whiting & Maynes, 2016). ...
Article
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In this introduction to the Special Issue on the use of sports data to inform research and practice in organizations, we first outline the state of research in this flourishing area to provide the need for this Special Issue. We note a similarity in the study of organizations and the study of sports and, in turn, how studies of sports can readily be compared to and applied to the study and practice of work in organizations. Next, we describe each of the six articles in this Special Issue, particularly noting that the articles sampled data from a variety of sporting domains, ranging from the National Football League to Olympic ice hockey. Topics of the studies included travel stress on team performance; pay standing and task performance; job hopping, organizational change, and performance of new employees; team work experience and performance; the effect of leadership transitions and changes to performance and human capital quality; and the effects of star performers and core team members. We then outline how these studies fit with the call for this Special Issue and provide common themes, such as methodological sophistication and novel analyses and the opportunity for sports data to provide both academic and practitioner audiences an awareness of evidence-based approaches to studies of work. We end this introductory article by providing some challenges in using sports data to enhance the study of organizations and possible areas for future research.
... The findings above reflect organizational trends detailed by Lyons et al. (2016), who found that 13.4 percent of Fortune 500 companies had a publicly available policy specific to criminal conduct occurring outside of work. Lyons et al. observed that some companies altered personnel selection practices to remove prospective employees who might engage in criminal behavior, using screening tools such as general mental ability and evidence of prior criminal deviance. ...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to identify factors that affect how managers assess the importance of criminal history for job seekers with criminal records in Ban the Box states. Design/methodology/approach This study uses a phenomenological investigative approach to examine narrative interview data obtained from 18 human resource (HR) professionals in organizations in five Ban the Box states. Findings Contrary to previous research, the findings presented in this paper show that managers are inclined to hire applicants with a criminal history. However, study findings indicate that those hiring decisions are positively influenced by: perceived value of criminal history; concerns about safety and cost; characteristics of the offense; motivation to hire; and evidence of applicant growth. Furthermore, a lack of systematic evaluation processes among hiring managers may present a barrier to employment. Originality/value This paper explores a poorly understood area of the HR management and employment inclusion literatures – the identification of factors that influence evaluations of applicants with a criminal history.
... In this situation, employees who feel obligated to report CWBs will likely perceive a high degree of alignment or reinforcement between their individual convictions and the organizational context (see Treviño et al., 2006), leading to an increased probability of reporting CWBs. However, the increased presence of surveillance systems and monitoring of on-duty and off-duty deviance (Lyons et al., 2016) could be perceived by employees as intrusive and thereby illegitimate, leading to an opposite effect. For example, if employees perceive a surveillance system as excessively intrusive, then the system will likely generate adverse reactions and perceptions of illegitimacy, thus rendering the system as ineffective (see Ferris et al., 1995;Lerner and Tetlock, 1999). ...
Article
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Purpose Unlike general codes of conduct, little is known about whether peer reporting policies achieve their intended purpose – that is, to increase the base rate of peer reporting counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs). The purpose of this paper is to use a person-situation perspective to examine if and when peer reporting policies impact the base rate of peer reporting CWBs. Design/methodology/approach The authors collected data from 271 employed participants and used moderated regression to examine whether policy presence and strength (situational variables) enhanced the relationship between a subjective obligation to report CWBs (person variable) and the base rate of peer reporting CWBs. This study also explored whether these interactions differ by CWB target (i.e. the organization vs coworkers). Findings Both situational variables – policy presence and policy strength – moderated the relationship between an obligation to report CWBs and the base rate of peer reporting CWBs. The interactions also differed by CWB target. Originality/value This study represents one of the initial academic investigations into the effectiveness of peer reporting policies. It primarily draws on the person-situation perspective to explain why peer reporting policies should influence the base rate of peer reporting CWBs. The results support the impact of peer reporting policies, but also suggest the benefit of examining different targets of CWB to help clarify when peer reporting policies are actually effective.
... Thus, practitioners likely would benefit from limiting employees' exposure to hindrance stressors (e.g., role ambiguity, role conflict, and role overload) as a means to manage employees' problem drinking and somatic complaints at work. Recent research demonstrates that organizations' efforts to manage harmful self-medication employee behaviors that occur outside the workplace (e.g., problem drinking, off-duty deviance) can help protect organizations and their stakeholders ( Lyons et al., 2016). We advocate for practitioners' awareness that monitoring and discouraging employees' harmful self-medication coping attempts could help limit employees' somatic complaints at work (e.g., chest pain, dizziness, lightheadedness, shaking, shortness of breath). ...
... As with prior management research utilizing similar samples (e.g.,Donovan & Williams, 2003;Grijalva et al., 2020;Kilduff et al., 2016;Lyons et al., 2016;Mach et al., 2010), the athletes in our sample were formally affiliated with a professional sports club. In other words, they are contractually attached to this institution, which serves as their employer. ...
Article
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The growing trend of introducing robots into employees’ work lives has become increasingly salient during the global COVID‐19 pandemic. In light of this pandemic, it is likely that organizational decision‐makers are seeing value in coupling employees with robots for both efficiency‐ and health‐related reasons. An unintended consequence of this coupling, however, may be an increased level of work routinization and standardization. We draw primarily from the model of passion decay from the relationship and clinical psychology literature to develop theory and test a model arguing that passion decays as employees increasingly interact with robots for their work activities. We demonstrate that this passion decay leads to an increase of withdrawal behavior from both the domains of work and family. Drawing further from the model of passion decay, we reveal that employees higher in openness to experience are less likely to suffer from passion decay upon more frequent interactions with robots in the course of work. Across a multi‐source, multi‐wave field study conducted in Hong Kong (Study 1) and a simulation‐based experiment conducted in the United States (Study 2), our hypotheses received support. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... Enterprise level represents organizational context. Online communication such as cyberbullying among adults (Lowry et al., 2016), cyber sexual harassment (Choi and Lee, 2017) among employees during working hours can be identified as on-duty deviance and offduty deviance (Lyons et al., 2016). Moreover, cyber incivility through e-mail messages tend to have a double-edge sword effect (Lim and Teo, 2009). ...
Article
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Rapid progress of information and communication technologies affected the evolution of sexual harassment. Cybersexual harassment can be exposed via social media but as well might be a tool for harassers to attack or stalk individuals after anonysmously. This evolution of phenomenon enter to virtual reality require changes in differenr levels: individual, enterprise and state to counter the hybrid threats. The proposed model reflects the main vulnerable groups, consequences reflects for the implementation of societal norms, organizational policies, political and security regulations.
... Fourth, there may be additional scrutiny on expatriates in their personal lives such that off-duty deviance (Dilchert, Mercado, & Ones, 2016;Lyons, Hoffman, Bommer, Kennedy, & Hetrick, 2016) may have a stronger tie to CWB in international contexts. In many cases, expatriates stand out from the host-country population (e.g., due to differences in race, ethnicity, socio-economic status, language, educational level, international orientation, and so forth), and draw attention and scrutiny even outside of work. ...
... For example, in 2016, an ESPN analyst was fired after posting a shared Facebook comment that was insensitive to transgender people (Sandomir, 2016). As social media use continues to grow, a concomitant increase of cases of employees' imprudent social media use can be witnessed (e.g., Johnston, 2015;Lyons et al., 2016). Therefore, companies need to identify employees who lack company reputation-related social media competence. ...
Article
Anything employees post on social media is in the public domain, where it can cause reputational damage to the company. As social media use continues to grow worldwide, employees’ imprudent social media uses appear to be on the rise. This article provides an assessment of the Walsh et al. (J Interact Mark 36:46–59, 2016) scale to measure employees’ company reputation-related social media competence (RSMC), which comprises five dimensions: technical competence, visibility awareness competence, knowledge competence, impact assessment competence, and social media communication competence. This research presents and assesses an abbreviated version of the RSMC scale which is some 40% shorter than the original 21-item scale, using data from three culturally distinct countries—Germany, China, and the United States. The findings suggest that the RSMC short scale is valid in all three national contexts, achieves partial metric invariance, and has equivalent predictive validity. The discussion outlines some implications for both managers and researchers.
... Originally viewed as an intoxicant used only by deviant members of society, cannabis is now the most widely used illegal substance in the United States, Canada, and Europe (Beck & Legleye, 2008;Frone, 2006;Hajizadeh, 2016); this popularity translates into millions of employees who consume cannabis. Given such a state of affairs, it should be of little surprise that organizations spend billions of dollars each year (Frone, 2006;Normand et al., 1990) addressing what many believe is a problem (Bass et al., 1996;Harris, 2004;Lyons et al., 2016). Whereas some might believe steps taken by governments and organizations to screen and/or prevent cannabis use are supported by empirical evidence, "such commentary is often based on speculation, vested interests, and pseudo-science rather than on objective interpretation of all available scientific data" (Frone, 2008a, p. 519). ...
Article
As more local, state, and national governments change laws regarding the legality of cannabis use, it is essential for organizations to understand how the workplace may be influenced by these changes. The current study begins to answer this question by examining the relationship between three temporal-based cannabis measures and five forms of workplace performance. Using data from 281 employees and their direct supervisors, our results indicate that cannabis use before and during work negatively relate to task performance, organization-aimed citizenship behaviors, and two forms of counterproductive work behaviors. At the same time, after-work cannabis use was not related (positively or negatively) to any form of performance as rated by the user’s direct supervisor. We discuss methodological, theoretical, and practical implications for researchers, organizations, and governmental agencies concerned with cannabis use.
... Further complicating our understanding of this relationship are the various studies showing that criminal records correlate with lower than average intelligence scores (Neisser et al., 1996) and higher levels of negative affectivity (Giordano et al., 2007). One the one hand, because these variables have also been shown to share a negative relationship with a number of valued employee behaviors such as learning motivation and non-deviant conduct (Colquitt et al., 2000;Lyons et al., 2016), it could be argued that these individuals should come into organizations and perform more poorly than their counterparts without criminal record. On the other hand, it could also be argued that stigma attached to criminal records produces a compensatory job performance effect by elevating levels of identity-related motivation. ...
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Between 70 million and 100 million Americans—or as many as one in three—have some type of criminal record (Vallas & Dietrich, 2014). Having even a minor criminal record often functions as a significant impediment to gainful employment and resultant economic security. This is especially problematic given that: (a) many companies now incorporate background checks within their hiring process and (b) little empirical research exists about the relationship between criminal records and job performance. Thus, this study examined the relationship between criminal records and objective performance of customer service representatives (N = 627) in a large telecommunications firm. Our regression analyses indicate that criminal record was not a predictor of job performance.
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The risk of off‐the‐job misconduct by high‐profile employees is a serious concern of top management in professional sport organizations, media and entertainment companies, and public‐facing entities in the government and education sectors. Yet there is little research on how to prevent or mitigate this form of misconduct in organizations. Utilizing upper echelons theory and the literature on demographic composition, we examine the relationship between the gender composition of executives of team organizations in a men's professional sport league, and subsequent misconduct by players on those teams. Specifically, we employed multilevel and logistic regression analyses to unique data on U.S. National Football League team organizations, and we found that firms with a critical mass of women executives experienced fewer player arrests. No support was found for executive power as a moderator of this relationship. We discuss the implications of our findings for the demographic composition literature. We also offer guidance for preventing and managing off‐the‐job misconduct by high‐profile employees.
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Research in organizations has tended to focus only on performance in the workplace and until recently has not paid much attention to behavior outside of the workplace. Conversely, the limited research on crime in the National Football League (NFL), the type of organization we study, has focused largely on misbehavior off-the-field. We confluence these lines of research by focusing on both on-duty and off-duty behaviors. We examine the relationship between on-duty behavior, measured through both the number of penalties and total penalty yards accumulated by an NFL player, as well as their off-duty behavior, measured through criminal arrests. Findings show that a higher number of penalties and a higher total number of penalty yards is associated with more total arrests, more nonviolent arrests, but has no effect on violent arrests. These findings hold in the regular but not post-season.
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Recent reports suggest that an increasing number of organizations are using information from social media platforms such as Facebook.com to screen job applicants. Unfortunately, empirical research concerning the potential implications of this practice is extremely limited. We address the use of social media for selection by examining how recruiter ratings of Facebook profiles fare with respect to two important criteria on which selection procedures are evaluated: criterion-related validity and subgroup differences (which can lead to adverse impact). We captured Facebook profiles of college students who were applying for full-time jobs, and recruiters from various organizations reviewed the profiles and provided evaluations. We then followed up with applicants in their new jobs. Recruiter ratings of applicants’ Facebook information were unrelated to supervisor ratings of job performance (rs = −.13 to –.04), turnover intentions (rs = −.05 to .00), and actual turnover (rs = −.01 to .01). In addition, Facebook ratings did not contribute to the prediction of these criteria beyond more traditional predictors, including cognitive ability, self-efficacy, and personality. Furthermore, there was evidence of subgroup difference in Facebook ratings that tended to favor female and White applicants. The overall results suggest that organizations should be very cautious about using social media information such as Facebook to assess job applicants.
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Although one of the most well-established research findings in industrial-organizational psychology is that general mental ability (GMA) is a strong and generalizable predictor of job performance, this meta-analytically derived conclusion is based largely on measures of task or overall performance. The primary purpose of this study is to address a void in the research literature by conducting a meta-analysis to determine the direction and magnitude of the correlation of GMA with 2 dimensions of nontask performance: counterproductive work behaviors (CWB) and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB). Overall, the results show that the true-score correlation between GMA and CWB is essentially 0 (-.02, k = 35), although rating source of CWB moderates this relationship. The true-score correlation between GMA and OCB is positive but modest in magnitude (.23, k = 43). The 2nd purpose of this study is to conduct meta-analytic relative weight analyses to determine the relative importance of GMA and the five-factor model (FFM) of personality traits in predicting nontask and task performance criteria. Results indicate that, collectively, the FFM traits are substantially more important for CWB than GMA, that the FFM traits are roughly equal in importance to GMA for OCB, and that GMA is substantially more important for task and overall job performance than the FFM traits. Implications of these findings for the development of optimal selection systems and the development of comprehensive theories of job performance are discussed along with study limitation and future research directions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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Purpose Social networking websites such as Facebook allow employers to gain information about applicants which job seekers may not otherwise share during the hiring process. This multi-study investigation examined how job seekers react to this screening practice. Design/methodology Study 1 (N=175) employed a realistic selection scenario examining applicant reactions to prospective employers reviewing their social networking website. Study 2 (N=208) employed a simulated selection scenario where participants rated their experience with a proposed selection process. Findings In Study 1, social networking website screening caused applicants to feel their privacy had been invaded which ultimately resulted in lower organizational attraction. Applicants low in agreeableness had the most adverse reactions to social networking website screening. In Study 2, screening again caused applicants to feel their privacy had been invaded, resulting in lower organizational attraction and increased intentions to litigate. The organization’s positive/negative hiring decision did not moderate the relationship between screening and justice. Implications The results suggest organizations should consider the costs and benefits of social media screening which could reduce the attractiveness of the organization. Additionally, applicants may need to change their conceptualization of social networking websites, viewing them through the eyes of a prospective employer. Originality/value This investigation proposed and tested an explanatory model of the effects of screening practices on organizational outcomes demonstrating how electronic monitoring, privacy, and applicant reactions can be integrated to better understand responses to technological innovations in the workplace.
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We selectively review the literature from the fields of organizational behavior and sport science with the overarching purpose of identifying and summarizing key themes and contributions. The literature is used to provide insights into the fundamental issues of competition (getting ahead) and cooperation (getting along) in organizations. Studies from the organization sciences that have incorporated individual and team data from the various fields of sport are reviewed and organized by topic into succession effects, motivation and performance, and studies of individual and team performance changes over time. In addition, selected studies from the sport science literature are reviewed from the topic areas of the “hot-hand” effect, choking under pressure, passion for life activities, and difficult career transitions. The evidence presents a clear argument that greater integration across the fields of organization and sport science is needed. Areas of future research consideration with regard to embodied cognition and emotions as well as networked approaches to team processes are proposed.
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Given the overwhelming research evidence showing the strong link between general cognitive ability (GCA) and job performance, it is not logically possible for industrial -organizational (I/O) psychologists to have a serious debate over whether GCA is important for job performance. However, even if none of this evidence existed in I/O psychology, research findings in differential psychology on the nature and correlates of GCA provide a sufficient basis for the conclusion that GCA is strongly related to job performance. In I/O psychology, the theoretical basis for the empirical evidence linking GCA and job performance is rarely presented, but is critical to understanding and acceptance of these findings. The theory explains the why behind the empirical findings. From the viewpoint of the kind of world we would like to live in - and would like to believe we live in - the research findings on GCA are not what most people would hope for and are not welcome. However, if we want to remain a science-based field, we cannot reject what we know to be true in favor of what we would like to be true.
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We discuss how meta-analysis, a method for synthesizing research findings, can meaningfully impact personnel selection practices. Specifically, we review important changes in professional and legal practices from the past 30 years resulting from meta-analytic findings. The implications of using meta-analysis methods for evaluating utilities of selection procedures and for assessing relative predictive capabilities of three popular selection tools (general mental ability tests, personality tests, and structured interviews) are further discussed. Based on these implications, we propose that meta-analysis can play an important role in bridging the gap between academic research and organizational practices.
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The purpose of this study was to determine the efficiency and equity of general mental ability (GMA) in a nontraditional employment setting—professional football. The National Football League (NFL) uses a measure of GMA, the Wonderlic Personnel Test, to evaluate potential draftees in an assessment-style environment. A total of 762 NFL players, represented from three draft classes, were included in our sample. In terms of efficiency, results indicated that GMA was unrelated to (a) future NFL performance, (b) selection decisions during the NFL Draft, and (c) the number of games started in the NFL. In regards to equity, differential prediction analyses by race suggested only the existence of intercept bias. The implications of these findings to the NFL and the selection literature are further discussed.
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The authors begin by reviewing the current "state of the practice" of analyzing longitudinal data to detect developmental change of psychological variables. They then critique current practices, comparing them with criteria defining a more idealized approach to the measurement of longitudinal change. A general introduction to one analytic technique, latent growth modeling (LGM), is made and followed up by applying LGM to an existing data set, comparing the information provided to that gleaned from more traditional analytic procedures. The interpretive differences that arise imply that there is much to be gained by measuring longitudinal change through newer "state of the art" statistical techniques. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The purpose of this paper is to discuss background checks and to describe local government agencies' use of criminal background checks. Although interest in protecting one's organization or public agency from negligent hiring lawsuits is growing, little is known about what government agencies are doing related to criminal background checks on new hires and current employees. We provide data indicating that conducting background checks is relatively commonplace among municipalities, depending on the type of job involved. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article summarizes the practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research in personnel selection. On the basis of meta-analytic findings, this article presents the validity of 19 selection procedures for predicting job performance and training performance and the validity of paired combinations of general mental ability (GMA) and the 18 other selection procedures. Overall, the 3 combinations with the highest multivariate validity and utility for job performance were GMA plus a work sample test (mean validity of .63), GMA plus an integrity test (mean validity of .65), and GMA plus a structured interview (mean validity of .63). A further advantage of the latter 2 combinations is that they can be used for both entry level selection and selection of experienced employees. The practical utility implications of these summary findings are substantial. The implications of these research findings for the development of theories of job performance are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Provides an integration and a quantitative review of the rater training literature. A general framework for the evaluation of rater training is presented in terms of 4 rating training strategies (rater error training, performance dimension training, frame-of-reference training, and behavioral observation training) and 4 dependent measures (halo, leniency, rating accuracy and observational accuracy). A meta-analytic review is presented to assess the effectiveness of the rater training strategies across the 4 dependent measures. Each of the 4 rater training strategies appeared to be at least moderately effective in addressing the aspect of performance ratings that it was designed to address. In most cases, each of the 4 training strategies resulted in positive effects on all of the 4 dependent measures. The effects of rater training on rating accuracy appeared to be moderated by the nature of the specific error training approach. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Many industrial/organizational (I/O) psychologists, both academics and practitioners, believe that the content validity model is not appropriate for cognitive ability measures used in personnel selection. They believe that cognitive tests can have criterion validity and construct validity but not content validity. Based on a review of the broader differential psychology research literature on cognitive skills, aptitudes, and abilities, this article demonstrates that with the proper content validity procedures, cognitive ability measures, including, ultimately, some de facto measures of general cognitive ability, can have content validity in addition to criterion and construct validity. Finally, the article considers, critiques, and refutes the specific arguments contending that content validity is inappropriate for use with cognitive skills and abilities. These research facts have implications for I/O practice, professional standards, and legal defensibility of selection programs.
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Drawing on justice theory, I examined the consequences of abusive supervisor behavior. As expected, subordinates who perceived their supervisors were more abusive were more likely to quit their jobs. For subordinates who remained with their jobs, abusive supervision was associated with lower job and life satisfaction, lower normative and affective commitment, and higher continuance commitment, conflict between work and family, and psychological distress. Organizational justice mediated most of these effects, and job mobility moderated some of the deleterious effects of abusive supervision.
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A growing literature explores abusive supervision, nonphysical forms of hostility perpetrated by managers against their direct reports. However, researchers have used different terminology to explore phenomena that overlap with abusive supervision, and extant research does not devolve from a unifying theoretical framework. These problems have the potential to undermine the development of knowledge in this important research domain. The author therefore provides a review of the literature that summarizes what is known about the antecedents and consequences of abusive supervision, provides the basis for an emergent model that integrates extant empirical work, and suggests directions for future research.
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To determine the empirical status of Gottfredson and Hirschi's (1990) “general theory of crime,” we conducted a meta-analysis on existing empirical studies. The results indicate that, regardless of measurement differences, low self-control is an important predictor of crime and of “analogous behaviors.” Also, low self-control has general effects across different types of samples. Contrary to Gottfredson and Hirschi's position, however, the effect of low self-control is weaker in longitudinal studies, and variables from social learning theory still receive support in studies that include a measure of low self-control. Finally, we argue that meta-analysis is an underutilized tool in discerning the relative empirical merits of criminological theories.
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The evidence suggests that employers discriminate against ex-offenders in the labour market. The problem is potentially serious as it involves a substantial proportion of the population, especially the male population. Since research has shown that most people with prior convictions stop offending by their late 20s or early 30s, the validity of selection based on criminal record remains questionable. This paper examines the need for legal protection of ex-offenders by limiting employers'' access to, and use of, information on criminal background. The rights and interests of the various parties involved, employers, ex-offenders, and the general public, are discussed. Approaches to the legal protection of ex-offenders in Australia are reviewed and legislative changes proposed.
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As corporate scandals proliferate, practitioners and researchers alike need a cumulative, quantitative understanding of the antecedents associated with unethical decisions in organizations. In this meta-analysis, the authors draw from over 30 years of research and multiple literatures to examine individual ("bad apple"), moral issue ("bad case"), and organizational environment ("bad barrel") antecedents of unethical choice. Findings provide empirical support for several foundational theories and paint a clearer picture of relationships characterized by mixed results. Structural equation modeling revealed the complexity (multidetermined nature) of unethical choice, as well as a need for research that simultaneously examines different sets of antecedents. Moderator analyses unexpectedly uncovered better prediction of unethical behavior than of intention for several variables. This suggests a need to more strongly consider a new "ethical impulse" perspective in addition to the traditional "ethical calculus" perspective. Results serve as a data-based foundation and guide for future theoretical and empirical development in the domain of behavioral ethics.
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This paper provides a multi-level theoretical model to understand why business Title VI National Resource Center Grant (P015A030066) unpublished not peer reviewed
Chapter
A model is said to be linear if the partial derivatives with respect to any of the model parameters are independent of the other parameters. This chapter introduces linear models and regression, both simple linear and multiple regression, within the framework of ordinary least squares and maximum likelihood. Influence diagnostics, conditional models, error in variables, and smoothers and splines are discussed. How to appropriately handle missing data in both the dependent and independent variables is discussed.
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This exploratory study evaluates the ethical considerations related to employees fired for their blogging activities. Specifically, subject evaluations of two employee-related blogging scenarios were investigated with established ethical reasoning and moral intensity scales, and a measure of corporate ethical values was included to assess perceptions of organizational ethics. The first scenario involved an employee who was fired because of innocuous blogging, while the second vignette involved an employee who was fired because of work-related blogging. Survey data were collected from employed college students and working practitioners. The findings indicated that the subjects' ethical judgments that firing an employee for blogging was unethical were negatively related to unethical intentions to fire an employee for blogging. Moral intensity was positively related to ethical judgments and negatively related to unethical intentions to fire an employee for blogging, while individual perceptions of ethical values were negatively associated with unethical intentions. Finally, subjects perceived that terminating an employee for innocuous blogging that did not target an employer was more ethically intense than was firing an employee for work-related blogging. The implications of the findings for human resource professionals are discussed, as are the study's limitations and suggestions for future research. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Understanding sources of sustained competitive advantage has become a major area of research in strategic management. Building on the assumptions that strategic resources are heterogeneously distributed across firms and that these differences are stable over time, this article examines the link between firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Four empirical indicators of the potential of firm resources to generate sustained competitive advantage-value, rareness, imitability, and substitutability are discussed. The model is applied by analyzing the potential of several firm resources for generating sustained competitive advantages. The article concludes by examining implications of this firm resource model of sustained competitive advantage for other business disciplines.
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This study integrates literature on performance management and organizational behavior with input from managers to develop a 27‐item measure of performance management behavior. We used 8 samples, including multisource data, to develop a reliable multidimensional scale that replicated across samples. The scale demonstrated content validity, both convergent and discriminant validity, and incremental validity, and criterion‐related validity was established through the scale's relation with measures of management effectiveness and job attitudes. Overall, this study suggests that the Performance Management Behavior Questionnaire (PMBQ) is a reliable and valid measure and that performance management behaviors have important implications for both employees and organizations.
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Many legal barriers exist that prevent ex-offenders from obtaining lawful employment, a principle means for reintegration. This article explores the scope and utility of these laws, which aim ostensibly to reduce the prospective employee’s likelihood of engaging in workplace crime. Irrelevance of the provisions to the effective assessment of job applicants’ risks of offending, shortcomings of criminal background checks, lack of empirical evidence linking ex-offenders to workplace crime, and the availability of viable alternatives underscore the need to scale back these significant obstacles to ex-offender reentry. The article concludes with recommendations for reasonable uses of risk assessment in employment screening laws.
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The importance of ethical behavior to an organization has never been more apparent, and in recent years researchers have generated a great deal of knowledge about the management of individual ethical behavior in organizations. We review this literature and attempt to provide a coherent portrait of the current state of the field. We discuss individual, group, and organizational influences and consider gaps in current knowledge and obstacles that limit our understanding. We conclude by offering directions for future research on behavioral ethics in organizations.
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Under the theory of negligent hiring, even when employees are off duty the employer may be liable for their behavior if the employer knew or should have known that the employee was likely to behave in a certain manner (e.g., the employee has a record of violent behavior) and there is some connection between the wrongful act and the job. Employers must use reasonable care in the selection of employees (especially those with frequent guest contact), including conducting some type of background check to determine applicants' suitability for particular positions. This also applies when transferring an employee from a low-guest-contact position to a high-contact position. The appropriate extent of a pre-hiring investigation depends on the position. The employer should maintain a file that documents the results and sources of reference checks. If an employer is found liable under the theory of negligent hiring, punitive as well as compensatory damages may be awarded.
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This study developed and tested a conceptual model explaining variability in the organizational structures firms develop to identify, analyze, and respond to their social and political environments. Institutional and resource dependence theories offer plausible explanations for these structural differences; we tested both, finding that those explanations are distinct but complementary. Issues management is both an institutional response and a strategic adaptation to external pressures. But contrary to our predictions, each theory provided only a partial explanation by accounting for particular responses. Institutional constraints appeared to limit managerial discretion over corporate social responses. We propose a new contingency model of corporate social performance based on these findings.
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This paper provides a multi-level theoretical model to understand why business organizations are increasingly engaging in corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives, and thereby exhibiting the potential to exert positive social change. Our model integrates theories of micro-level organizational justice, meso-level corporate governance and macro-level varieties of capitalisms. Using a theoretical framework presented in the justice literature, we argue that organizations are pressured to engage in CSR by many different actors, each driven by instrumental, relational and moral motives. These actors are nested within four "levels" of analysis: individual, organizational, national and transnational. After discussing the motives affecting actors at each level and the mechanisms used at each level to exercise influence, as well as the interactions of motives within levels, we examine forces across levels to propose the complex web of factors, which both facilitate and impede social change by organizations. Ultrimately, this proposed framework can be usd to systematize our understanding of the complex social phenomenon of increasing CSR engagement, and to develop testable hypotheses. We conclude by highlighting some empirical questions for future research, and develop a number of managerial implications.
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There are times when researchers want to examine sizeable set of leisure activities, often those pursued by a particular demographic category or those grouped according a particular theoretic classification. Yet, conventional qualitative methods are poorly suited to gathering the broad range of data they require for this purpose. These methods are too labour‐intensive, while quantitative surveys, if they are to be effective, are limited to known populations which can be properly sampled. But the need to gather data on sets of leisure activities persists; for considering all the leisure activities pursued in the world today, we have some, not even full, ethnographic knowledge of only a very small proportion. One way to solve this problem is through exploratory Internet data collection (EIDC): searching the Internet for exploratory qualitative data on large sets of leisure activities. The nature of the data found on the Internet and the sources there in which these data may be found are discussed. The Internet can be a rich source of descriptive, ethnographic, data. The advantages and disadvantages of EIDC are considered. Nine types of Internet data are set out. The issues of ethics and author copyright are also addressed. Most of the information gathered through EIDC is unavailable elsewhere, or available only in very limited fashion.
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The present chapter is organized as follows. First, we offer a brief review of the meaning of effect size. Second, we describe the urban legend that is the focus of this chapter as well as the kernel of truth that drives it. Third, we describe relevant lessons from W. V. Quine, the foremost authority on the language of science. Fourth, we use these lessons to uncover situations in which small effect size values justify strong conclusions. Finally, we apply these lessons to the opposite situation in which large effect sizes fail to justify strong conclusions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The effects of number of predictors, predictor intercorrelations, validity, and level of subgroup difference on composite validity, adverse impact ratios, and mean subgroup difference associated with various predictor composites, including and excluding a "high impact" ability measure, were assessed. The size of subgroup differences is substantially smaller when low-impact predictors are combined with a high-impact predictor, but hiring ratios for majority and minority groups still indicate a prima facie case of discrimination, using the fourth-fifths rule for most predictor-criterion combinations. However, the validity of a composite of alternate predictors and cognitive ability may exceed the validity of cognitive ability alone and reduce the size of subgroup differences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Although the prevalence of employee monitoring and surveillance technologies (MSTs; e.g. e-mail monitoring) is increasing, very little research has explored the question of whether employees simply accept these systems (compliance) or enact strategies for thwarting them (resistance). In the present study, we proposed a framework based on the theory of planned behaviour and ethical decision making research to predict employees' MST compliance and resistance intentions. We proposed that organizational commitment, organizational identification, and attitudes towards surveillance would predict intentions, with the relationships between attitudes and intentions being moderated by employees' perceived behavioural control and social norms. Moderated multiple regression models were tested and provided support for predictions about the attitudinal and belief constructs, and partial support for predictions about behavioural control and norms. Implications for organizational MST policies and practices are discussed.
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The paper explores the usefulness of analysing firms from the resource side rather than from the product side. In analogy to entry barriers and growth-share matrices, the concepts of resource position barrier and resource-product matrices are suggested. These tools are then used to highlight the new strategic options which naturally emerge from the resource perspective.
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The article reflects on the diffusion of the ‘resource-based view of the firm’ into academic and practitioner thought. The contributions of many people are noted. In closing, I offer some speculations about the future use of these ideas.
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To reduce employee counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs), organizations may choose to utilize a financial history (FH) instrument during the selection process. To date, no published empirical research has attempted to determine the validity of such a practice. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to determine if employees with FH concerns, which were identified during the selection process and their 5-year subsequent reinvestigation, were more likely to engage in CWBs, which were objectively measured through an examination of misconduct cases. Results from a random sample of 2519 employees indicated that those with FH concerns were significantly more likely to engage in CWBs than those without FH concerns. Implications to research and practice are discussed.
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Despite an emerging body of research on a personality trait termed core self-evaluations, the trait continues to be measured indirectly. The present study reported the results of a series of studies that developed and tested the validity of the Core Self-Evaluations Scale (CSES), a direct and relatively brief measure of the trait. Results indicated that the 12-item CSES was reliable, displayed a unitary factor structure, correlated significantly with job satisfaction, job performance, and life satisfaction, and had validity equal to that of an optimal weighting of the 4 specific core traits (self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, neuroti-cism, and locus of control), and incremental validity over the 5-factor model. Overall, results suggest that the CSES is a valid measure that should prove useful in applied psychology research.
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Situational strength pertains to the idea that various characteristics of situations have the ability to restrict the expression and, therefore, the criterion-related validity of individual differences. Despite situational strength's intuitive appeal, however, little information exists regarding its construct space. This review (a) categorizes extant operationalizations into four facets (constraints, consequences, clarity, and consistency), (b) examines the empirical literature on situational strength-relevant hypotheses, and, on the basis of the proposed taxonomy and literature review, (c) provides several avenues for future theoretical and empirical research. It is the authors' hope that these efforts will encourage additional research and theorizing on this potentially important psychological construct.
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Understanding sources of sustained competitive advantage has become a major area of research in strategic management. Building on the assumptions that strategic resources are heterogeneously distributed across firms and that these differences are stable overtime this article examines the link between firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Four empirical indicators of the potential of firm resources to generate sustained competitive advantage—value, rareness, imitability, and substitutability—are discussed. The model is applied by analyzing the potential of several firm resources for generating sustained competitive advantages. The article concludes by examining implications of this firm resource model of sustained competitive advantage for other business disciplines.ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR
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By articulating a general theory of crime and related behavior, the authors present a new and comprehensive statement of what the criminological enterprise should be about. They argue that prevalent academic criminology—whether sociological, psychological, biological, or economic—has been unable to provide believable explanations of criminal behavior. The long-discarded classical tradition in criminology was based on choice and free will, and saw crime as the natural consequence of unrestrained human tendencies to seek pleasure and to avoid pain. It concerned itself with the nature of crime and paid little attention to the criminal. The scientific, or disciplinary, tradition is based on causation and determinism, and has dominated twentieth-century criminology. It concerns itself with the nature of the criminal and pays little attention to the crime itself. Though the two traditions are considered incompatible, this book brings classical and modern criminology together by requiring that their conceptions be consistent with each other and with the results of research. The authors explore the essential nature of crime, finding that scientific and popular conceptions of crime are misleading, and they assess the truth of disciplinary claims about crime, concluding that such claims are contrary to the nature of crime and, interestingly enough, to the data produced by the disciplines themselves. They then put forward their own theory of crime, which asserts that the essential element of criminality is the absence of self-control. Persons with high self-control consider the long-term consequences of their behavior; those with low self-control do not. Such control is learned, usually early in life, and once learned, is highly resistant to change. In the remainder of the book, the authors apply their theory to the persistent problems of criminology. Why are men, adolescents, and minorities more likely than their counterparts to commit criminal acts? What is the role of the school in the causation of delinquincy? To what extent could crime be reduced by providing meaningful work? Why do some societies have much lower crime rates than others? Does white-collar crime require its own theory? Is there such a thing as organized crime? In all cases, the theory forces fundamental reconsideration of the conventional wisdom of academians and crimina justic practitioners. The authors conclude by exploring the implications of the theory for the future study and control of crime.
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A pesar de la relativamente corta historia de la Psicología como ciencia, existen pocos constructos psicológicos que perduren 90 años después de su formulación y que, aún más, continúen plenamente vigentes en la actualidad. El factor «g» es sin duda alguna uno de esos escasos ejemplos y para contrastar su vigencia actual tan sólo hace falta comprobar su lugar de preeminencia en los modelos factoriales de la inteligencia más aceptados en la actualidad, bien como un factor de tercer orden en los modelos jerárquicos o bien identificado con un factor de segundo orden en el modelo del recientemente desaparecido R.B.Cattell.
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As part of a blind longitudinal study, 5,465 job applicants were tested for use of illicit drugs, and the relationships between these drug-test results and absenteeism, turnover, injuries, and accidents on the job were evaluated. After an average 1.3 years of employment, employees who had tested positive for illicit drugs had an absenteeism rate 59.3% higher than employees who had tested negative (6.63% vs. 4.16% of scheduled work hours, respectively). Employees who had tested positive also had a 47% higher rate of involuntary turnover than employees who had tested negative (15.41% vs. 10.51%, respectively). No significant associations were detected between drug-test results and measures of injury and accident occurrence. The practical implications of these results, in terms of economic utility and prediction errors, are discussed.
Article
The purpose of the study was to test the replicability of a protective effect of high IQ against criminality. Support has been found in prior studies for the hypotheses that Ss at high risk would have an elevated risk of serious criminal involvement, that seriously criminal Ss would have a lower mean IQ score than noncriminal Ss, and that Ss at high risk who had not become involved in serious criminal behavior would have the highest IQs. This report tests these hypotheses in a prospective design. Subjects were 1,037 members of a longitudinal investigation of a New Zealand birth cohort. IQs were examined for male and female Ss who were divided into 4 groups formed on the basis of risk status at age 5 years and delinquency outcome at ages 13 and 15. Analyses were conducted with and without mild delinquents excluded from the nondelinquent groups. We found that male and female delinquents showed significantly lower IQ scores than nondelinquents. By varying S selection procedures, we also found that a very high IQ may help boys, even those at risk, to stay free of delinquency altogether.
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A NUMBER OF COMMON PRACTICES AND BELIEFS CONCERNING MULTIPLE REGRESSION ARE CRITICIZED, AND SEVERAL PARADOXICAL PROPERTIES OF THE METHOD ARE EMPHASIZED. MAJOR TOPICS DISCUSSED ARE THE BASIC FORMULAS, SUPPRESSOR VARIABLES, MEASURES OF THE IMPORTANCE OF A PREDICTOR VARIABLE, INFERRING RELATIVE REGRESSION WEIGHTS FROM RELATIVE VALIDITIES, ESTIMATES OF THE TRUE VALIDITY OF POPULATION REGRESSION EQUATIONS AND OF REGRESSION EQUATIONS DEVELOPED IN SAMPLES, AND STATISTICAL CRITERIA FOR SELECTING PREDICTOR VARIABLES. (50 REF.)