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Values, schemas, and norms in the culture-behavior nexus: A situated dynamics framework

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Abstract

International business (IB) research has predominantly relied on value constructs to account for the influence of societal culture, notably Hofstede's cultural dimensions. While parsimonious, the value approach's assumptions about the consensus of values within nations, and the generality and stability of cultural patterns of behavior are increasingly challenged. We review two promising alternatives-the constructivist approach centering on schemas and the intersubjectivist approach centering on norms-and the evidence that demonstrates their usefulness in accounting for international differences in the behavior of managers, employees, and consumers. We propose a situated dynamics framework, specifying the role of values, schemas, and norms in accounting for cultural differences, and delineating conditions under which each causal mechanism is operative. Values play a more important role in accounting for cultural differences in weak situations where fewer constraints are perceived; schemas play a more important role when situational cues increase their accessibility and relevance; and norms play a more important role when social evaluation is salient. Directions for future research based on this integrative framework and its implications for the measurement of culture and application in IB are discussed.

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... While nine papers are presented in Table 2, to adequately address the issues of what we know and do not know, we included recent (i.e., published after 2000) theoretical and empirical papers that represent important advances in the field of culture in IB, e.g., Venaik and Midgley (2015) and Leung and Morris (2015), as well as work in other fields (organization theory, cognitive social neuroscience, etc.) that may have been overlooked, such as Weeks and Galunic (2003), even though they are highly relevant, or work that sheds light on important methodological advances in other fields that could be beneficial for research on culture in IB, e.g., emerging methodologies such as neurosciencebased assessment (Waldman, Wang, & Fenters, 2016). Socio-economic approach (Harbison & Myers, 1959) Asserts that economic development/industrialization has a homogenizing effect on cross-cultural differences albeit there are varying paths to industrialization, i.e., culture's influence is subordinate to that of industrialization Environmental approach (Farmer & Richman, 1964) Asserts that the institutional environment (educational, legal, political, sociological, economic development) accounts for cross-country differences Psychic distance ...
... They draw on insights from topology and matrix algebra to identify cultural archetypes -''perfect examples of the configurations of values shared by groups of individuals'' -at both the intra-national and transnational levels, thereby capturing the dual emicetic (insider-outsider) nature of culture. Another promising approach, discussed later, is Leung and Morris' (2015) ''situated dynamics framework'' that integrates the values-based approach with an expanded focus on norms and schemas as additional components of culture and explicates under what conditions values, norms and schemas play a more important role in determining behavior and other outcomes. Venaik and Midgley's (2015) and Leung and Morris' (2015) approaches are both rooted in the traditional, values-based approach to understanding culture but transcend it -the former by looking at the complex configuration of values shared by the members of a group and the latter by advocating the use of schemas and norms in addition to values. ...
... Another promising approach, discussed later, is Leung and Morris' (2015) ''situated dynamics framework'' that integrates the values-based approach with an expanded focus on norms and schemas as additional components of culture and explicates under what conditions values, norms and schemas play a more important role in determining behavior and other outcomes. Venaik and Midgley's (2015) and Leung and Morris' (2015) approaches are both rooted in the traditional, values-based approach to understanding culture but transcend it -the former by looking at the complex configuration of values shared by the members of a group and the latter by advocating the use of schemas and norms in addition to values. Other authors see a need for a more radical break from the dimensional and values-based approach. ...
Article
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This paper takes stock of the literature on culture in International Business by looking back in terms of evaluating what we know and what we do not know; and looking forward by identifying emerging trends and outlining avenues for future research. Unresolved issues, gaps and limitations include: (1) narrow conceptualization of culture and fragmented approach to the study of culture; (2) failure to adopt a multilevel approach and insufficient attention to level of analysis; (3) insufficient attention to context and process; (4) failure to adopt a more dynamic view of culture; (5) tendency to equate country with culture and failure to explore other national differentiators; and (6) Western-centric approach to the study of culture. Suggestions on redressing the unresolved issues include: (1) broadening the definition of culture and transcending the values-based approach to include schemas, norms, and “memes”; (2) paying more attention to process/context by exploring the situation-dependent and dynamic nature of culture; and (3) entertaining alternative research designs/methods, such as emic approaches, qualitative methods, experimental designs, neuroscience-based methods, and replication studies. While these may represent a major departure from methodologies popular in our field, their use can hopefully help us overcome the fragmented, discipline-based approach which has contributed to the persistent problems that have plagued the study of culture in IB in the past.
... Accordingly, the goal of this study is to introduce an approach toward capturing some portion of said intranational cultural variance. We borrow from Leung and Morris (2015) and project GLOBE (House et al., 2004) to operationalize differences as cultural value configurations coupled with normative cultural practices. To do so, we utilize both theoretically-driven ecological practices-based approaches, and datadriven psychological values-based approaches, to study intranational differences in collectivism as predicted by the climato-economic theory of culture, with Turkey as a test case. ...
... In terms of specific operationalizations, and as explained in more detail below, we utilize two ecological practice-based indexes of collectivism based upon prior theorizing by Geert Hofstede ("Hofstedebased index"; Hofstede, 1980/2001), andEdward Hall ("Hall-based index";Hall, 1959Hall, /1981, respectively, and two psychological valuesbased measures of collectivism based on both the aggregate ("standardized Schwartz social focus value mean") and the overall dispersion ("archetype-based Schwartz collectivism") of collectivistic value orientations as measured by Shalom Schwartz's cultural values survey (Schwartz et al., 2001;2012). Taken together, these four measures holistically represent the overarching construct of individualism-T collectivism, both as objective, normative behavioral or spatial practices, and as subjective value aggregates or configurations (c.f., House et al., 2004;Leung & Morris, 2015). The extent to which theoretical predictions based upon the climato-economic theory of culture are supported is examined for each measure. ...
... The present research responded to these calls, via introduction of a two-pronged, ecological-psychological approach toward conceptualizing intranational culture, in Turkey, an east-west axially oriented country representing a strong test of withincountry cultural differences based upon the climato-economic theory of culture (Laitin et al., 2012). The approach models culture as both values and practices (House at al., 2004;Leung & Morris, 2015), by operationalizing culture both ecologically, as either normative behavioral or spatial practices across regional cultures within Turkey, and psychologically, as either the overall orientations toward collectivism that individual cultural value schemas are configured toward in a given Turkish region, or simply the average collectivistic value orientation that individuals within those respective regions hold. Consistent with research by Santos et al. (2017) indicating socioeconomic development to be the primary source of cultural variation, we found that this factor was correlated very strongly and negatively with both ecological practice measures and with the dispersion-based psychological values measure. ...
Article
We introduce an approach toward predicting intranational variance in individualism-collectivism, via utilization of ecological cultural practices and psychological cultural values. Using the climato-economic theory of culture, we modeled intranational collectivism using four measures, including normative behavioral and spatial collectivism practices, and the mean and dispersion of collectivism values, in one country, Turkey. Results evidenced confluence of findings based on both ecological measures and dispersion-based collectivism values. Conversely, mean collectivism values fared poorly. Study predictors explained up to ≈87% of the variance in intranational collectivism. Richer provinces with harsher climates were less collectivistic; vice-versa for poorer provinces with harsher climates.
... A second use of SCVDs is to represent the cultural context of relationships studied at the firm or Other studies use multilevel modeling or metaanalytic techniques to model the effects of SCVDs on relationships among individual-level constructs (e.g., Smith, Peterson, & Thomason, 2011). Leung and Morris (2015) relabel some SCVDs as injunctive norms to explain their relevance to societal culture differences in judgment and decision-making. Integrating SCVDs as cultural context indicators with research at the individual level faces criticism from several commentaries that Tung and Stahl (2018) emphasize. ...
... Such theories explain how societal culture strongly influences what individuals experience and, hence, non-conscious behavior and meanings, and weakly influences the values that they consciously endorse (DiMaggio, 1997;Kitayama, 2002;Peterson & Barreto, 2014). Tung and Stahl (2018) highlight Leung and Morris's (2015) reintroduction of dual-processing theory to IB (Kostova, 1999;Smith, & Peterson, 1988). Critically for IB, societal context forces individuals to understand and react to their society's institutional system including the values that are implicit in it, although it does not force individuals to consciously accept or agree with their society's values (DiMaggio, 1997). ...
... Improving the use of dual-processing theories in IB would benefit from recognizing the implications of SCVDs and institutional systems in which they are embedded for automatic, deliberative and control processing. Although the term socialization can describe societal influences on cognitive development (Grusec, 2011), it typically emphasizes learning explicit societal values (e.g., Leung & Morris, 2015;Thornton et al., 2012). We will use instead the term societal expertise because it emphasizes the unique cognitive abilities including automatic, deliberative and control processes of those who know something better than do others. ...
Article
Societal cultural value dimension scholarship can both learn from and inform the family of interrelated approaches to culture research in IB that appear in recent commentaries. It can exchange insights about societal values and meaning systems with neo-institutional and institutional logics research. It can also exchange insights with dual-processing cognition theories that are used to understand individuals in an international context by treating societal culture values and institutional characteristics as essential to interpreting personal values and attitudes. Rather than merging them, integrating culture-related specialties by exchanging insights can promote the further development of research in each of these societal and individual level fields.
... International business research that compares people across countries has historically assumed most people are representative of their home countries (e.g., Gelfand, Erez, & Aycan, 2007;Tsui, 2007), implying that culture influences individuals in a uniform, predictable, and generalizable way, and allowing for relatively straightforward cross-country comparisons. While this approach has helped develop the field of cross-cultural management, the simplifying assumption of monoculturalism does not represent today's culturally diverse employees (Lücke, Kostova, & Roth, 2014), and IB researchers are calling for culture to be reconceptualized at the individual level (Caprar, Devinney, Kirkman, & Caligiuri, 2015;Leung & Morris, 2015). It is now common for organizations to employ individuals who belong to more than one societal culture, such as Chinese-Canadians, British-Arabs, and Indian-Australians. ...
... A weakness of this approach is that most of these studies are primarily concerned with how cultural schemas guide perceptions and interpretations Cheng et al., 2006;Hong et al., 2000;Ringberg et al., 2010), with less regard for which cultural meaning systems are present (Hong et al., 2000;Leung & Morris, 2015). For example, researchers might examine when individuals access their Japanese and Brazilian schemas, rather than how the meaning systems of Japanese-Brazilian individuals differ from others such as Zambian-British individuals. ...
... Internalization drives thoughts, feelings, and behavior (Markus & Kitayama, 1991), such that many of the purported cognitive advantages of multiculturalism are thought to stem from internalization of multiple cultural schemas (e.g., creativity and cognitive flexibility, Crisp & Turner, 2011;cognitive complexity, Benet-Martínez et al., 2006). Further, frame switching -a widely studied phenomenon in the psychology literature on multiculturalism -is predicated on internalization of multiple cultural schemas (Hong et al., 2000;Leung & Morris, 2015). Finally, by including internalization as a dimension of multiculturalism, we avoid conflating cultural identification and cultural internalization (Chiao et al., 2010;Stroink & Lalonde, 2009), which is problematic because identities are not internalized; instead, one internalizes cultural schemas (Hong et al., 2000). ...
Article
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In a globally connected world, it is increasingly common for individuals to belong to and be influenced by more than one culture. Based on a critique of conceptualizations from psychology, management, marketing, anthropology, and sociology, we bring clarity and consistency to conceptualizing and measuring multiculturalism at the individual level. We propose that individual-level multiculturalism is the degree to which someone has knowledge of, identification with, and internalization of more than one societal culture, and recommend methods to measure each dimension. Finally, we suggest how individual-level multiculturalism influences, and is influenced by, social networks and power dynamics in international organizations.
... One such new focus is that of norms (e.g. Leung & Morris, 2015;Morris, Hong, Chiu, & Liu, 2015), which is related to a practices interpretation of culture, in that regularities in practices are taken as reflections of underlying cultural norms. ...
... Fischer andSchwartz (2011, p. 1140) In other words, context is of crucial importance, and this is being increasingly acknowledged by intercultural theorists (e.g. Leung and Morris, 2015;Morris, Hong, Chiu and Liu, 2015). As Morris et al. (2015, p. 1) point out , "cultural influences on individual judgment and behavior are dynamic and situational rather than stable and general, especially as people span multiple cultures." ...
... The limitations of an explanatory reliance on cultural values are increasingly being acknowledged, and attention is turning to 'new' (yet old!) concepts such as norms. Yet as Leung and Morris (2015) argue, multiple concepts are needed. The complexity of explaining how culture can impact the dynamics of interaction is too great to be accounted for by a single concept. ...
Chapter
This chapter explores the interconnections between culture and behaviour. These interconnections can be two-way, but here we just focus on the potential impact of culture on behaviour, not vice versa. Our goal is not to try to use cultural factors to predict behaviour; such an approach is bound to fail because behaviour will always result from numerous influences, some spontaneous and dynamic, others expected and anticipated. Nevertheless, it is important to grapple with this complex issue. The chapter is divided into three parts. Part I discusses how culture and behaviour have been defined and conceptualised. Part II turns to the main focus of the chapter: how culture may influence behaviour. It critically considers three main perspectives: the impact of values and beliefs, the impact of norms and the impact of schemas. Part III considers applications of the discussion and offers some practical advice on interpreting culturally unfamiliar behaviour.
... Others have made similar arguments. For example, Leung and Morris (2015) have proposed a "situated dynamics framework" that incorporates the role of the situation and integrates values, schemas, and norms in the culture-behavior nexus. In line with this, researchers (Morris, Hong, Chiu, & Liu, 2015;Zou & Leung, 2015) have drawn attention to the importance of norms and the role they play in linking culture and behavior. ...
... In line with this, researchers (Morris, Hong, Chiu, & Liu, 2015;Zou & Leung, 2015) have drawn attention to the importance of norms and the role they play in linking culture and behavior. In terms of culture, Leung and Morris (2015) have further argued that the situation is an "integral part of culture because situations are nested within culture, and the influence of culture cannot be fully understood without considering the situation" (p. 1042). ...
... Injunctive norms refer to what people believe they should do (or not) in a given situation because important others approve (or disapprove) of it (the norms of "ought," previously also called prescriptive or social norms). Consequently, "people adhere to injunctive norms out of moral emotions such as shame at wrongdoing" (Leung & Morris, 2015, p. 1033. In sum, "whereas descriptive norms inform behavior, injunctive norms enjoin it" (Cialdini, 2012, p. 297). ...
... With this essentialist paradigm of culture, a singular national identity is often a determinant factor and culture is considered to be static, holistic, bounded, and deterministic (Nathan, 2015 [82]). A major advantage of viewing culture from a positivist perspective is that it possesses distinct characteristics that can be measured and even manipulated (Leung and Morris, 2015 [69]; Kogut and Singh, 1988 [64]). ...
... From a situated dynamic perspective, Leung and Morris (2015) [69] advocated the need to consider a more complex construct of culture. In light of their recent study, scholars perhaps need to consider not just the values in the construct of culture, notably Hofstede's dimensions, but should also examine the typical situations and identify relevant schemas (Gioia, 1986 [36]; Gioia and Manz, 1985 [37]; Gioia and Poole, 1984 [38]; Vygotsky, 1962 [124]; Luria, 1976 [76]) and norms (Sherif, 1936 [107]; Asch, 1956 [5]; Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975 [33]; Buchtel and Norenzayan, 2008 [15]; Norenzayan et al., 2002 [85]) that shape decision making and intercultural interaction. ...
... This paper also raised some issues relevant to the concept of cultural risk. The concept generates two related concerns: first, culture's dynamism (Holden, 2002 [50]; Søderberg and Holden, 2002 [111]; Leung and Morris, 2015 [69]), and, thus, the difficulty to measure such dynamism in order to quantify inherent risks; and second, how to measure non-financial risks (Andersen and Schroder, 2010 [2]). And if culture changes, how can a firm be prepared for such cultural frictions? ...
Article
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This paper outlines a view of cultural issues, connecting it to the risk literature. Culture, as a risk-driver of the firm, has not previously been fully explored. International business scholars tend to ignore either the external or the internal aspects of a firm's cultural environment, emphasizing only one side: either cultural diversity issues within the organization or host country cultural challenges. Using strategic management, this paper suggests that cultural risk should consider both out there according to product-market-positioning concepts and in here with the resource-based view of the firm to capture the essence of the firm's cultural dynamics. This paper proposes a theoretical framework to assess cultural risks under an enterprise-wide risk management (ERM) process to better manage such risks. The suggested framework can serve as a tool to benefit researchers as well as practitioners.
... The current research chose to explore the role of partially to fully integrated motivations, namely, introjected motivation, identified motivation, and intrinsic motivation in explaining variances in the development of desirable organizational commitments in different contexts. This choice was informed by the highlighted importance of values, beliefs, and norms in cultural psychology (Leung and Morris, 2015). The influence of norms on individuals' behavior heavily relies on their group membership and the type of situation. ...
... The influence of norms on individuals' behavior heavily relies on their group membership and the type of situation. According to Leung and Morris (2015), in situations in which individuals are more dependent on others in their cultural group, cultural norms are more salient, and they profoundly influence individuals' behavior. For instance, in a cultural context with high social evaluative pressure, individuals' behavior is more likely to be driven by cultural norms (Van Knippenberg and Sleebos, 2006). ...
Article
This article investigates how factors that contribute to the development of organizational commitment can be adjusted to take account of cultural diversity among employees, by taking the mediating effects of motivational processes and leadership into account. Survey data were obtained from two similar organizations in two different cultural contexts—Australia and Iran. The findings showed that both intrinsic and identified motivations and leadership are critical to the development of desirable organizational commitment. The introjected form of motivation was found to be the factor that mediates variances in employee commitment between the two cultural contexts. The current study explains this mediation role by referring to the different degrees to which conformity is salient across the two contexts, thereby providing managers, who are working in culturally diverse contexts, a means of understanding how and why different motivational techniques are more or less likely to contribute to the development of organizational commitment. Furthermore, the present study contributes to the existing literature on organizational commitment by comparing and contrasting the nature and prominence of employee commitment profiles in two different cultural contexts.
... 2 An important development in extant culturerelated research is an increased focus on the more dynamic notion of culture (e.g., Caprar et al., 2015;Chao & Moon, 2005;Gelfand et al., 2017;Leung & Morris, 2015). Along these lines, research on multicultural individuals who deeply self-identify with more than one culture (Hong et al., 2000;Nguyen & Benet-Martínez, 2007) has been linked to domains such as cultural adjustment and expatriation (Bell & Harrison, 1996;Nguyen & Benet-Martínez, 2013), global boundary spanning (Kane & Levina, 2017), and creative and professional success (Tadmor et al., 2009). ...
... Also more generally, the ethical theories outlined in this chapter may be insightful considering the increasingly dynamic notion of culture. For example, Leung and Morris's (2015) situated dynamics framework, which delineates the conditions and causal mechanisms under which values, schemas, and norms account for cultural differences, postulates that values play a stronger role in situations involving moral or ethical decisions. In explaining the emergence, changes, and relevance of these values, ethical theories may be useful, from both a comparative and an intercultural perspective. ...
... Future research should expand on these findings and examine the influence of vertical-collectivism and horizontalindividualism at the individual level of analysis to see if the effects are similar to what we found at the supra-national level. Perhaps, country-level values operate differently from individual-level values because the former exert a more normative influence on employees' responses whereas the latter reveal more personal preferences (Leung & Morris, 2015). Leung and Morris' (2015) ''situated dynamics framework'' may offer fruitful avenues to expand cultural theorizing. ...
... Perhaps, country-level values operate differently from individual-level values because the former exert a more normative influence on employees' responses whereas the latter reveal more personal preferences (Leung & Morris, 2015). Leung and Morris' (2015) ''situated dynamics framework'' may offer fruitful avenues to expand cultural theorizing. Going beyond cultural values, these authors highlight culturally-derived schemas and norms as alternatives to values in capturing the role of culture at the individual level. ...
Article
The authors meta-analyze relationships of perceived organizational support (POS) with attitudinal and behavioral outcomes in Western (i.e., horizontal-individualistic) and Eastern (i.e., vertical-collectivistic) cultures. The social-exchange perspective suggests that POS effects are stronger in Western cultures because employees are more likely to see the self as independent and understand their relationship with the organization in terms of reciprocity. However, the social-identity perspective suggests that POS effects are stronger in Eastern cultures because employees are more likely to see the self as interdependent and are more attuned to organizational support as an identity-related cue. Addressing these competing hypotheses, meta-analytic results from 827 independent samples (n = 332,277) across 54 countries show support for both perspectives. In the West, POS was more strongly associated with social-exchange processes than organizational-identification processes. In contrast, In the East, POS was more strongly associated with organizational-identification processes than social-exchange processes. Overall, POS was more strongly related to job attitudes and performance in the East than in the West. Cultural differences in POS effects on attitudinal outcomes were found to be increasing over time. We discuss the implications of these findings for organizational-support theory and research.
... Yet there is little research on the relative importance of internalized values versus the intersubjectively important values in explaining cross-cultural differences in consumer perception of brands, despite the increased recognition of both internalized values and culturally prescribed norms as important predictors of consumer behaviors (e.g., Aaker et al., 2001;De Mooij & Hofstede, 2002;Luna & Gupta, 2001). Some researchers (Leung & Morris, 2015) posit that internalized cultural values are more influential than perceived norms in shaping judgments and behavioral decisions that are of high self-relevance. Self-brand connection-whether consumers perceive connection between their self-identities and the symbolic meanings embodied by a brand-captures the degree of self-relevance in brand evaluation. ...
... Furthermore, internalized values and intersubjectively important values have been shown to be two distinct mechanisms of cultural influence. Individual tend to form judgments and behave in accordance with internalized values when self-relevance is high while socially acceptable norms are better predictors of attitudes and behaviors under contextual constraints (Leung & Morris, 2015). Therefore, internalized cultural values shape individual judgments and behaviors more in scenarios that allow and encourage expression of self-identity and value commitments. ...
Article
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The present research investigates cross-cultural differences in the characteristics associated with brand strength evaluation and the mechanism underlying these cultural differences. Using data from the United States and China, we found that American consumers judge brands with personal characteristics to be stronger than those with relational characteristics, while Chinese consumers show a reversed pattern. Furthermore, cultural differences in brand strength evaluation were salient only when consumers rated brands that were connected with their self-concepts, suggesting that cultural differences in brand strength evaluation ensue from consumers’ internalized preferences. Our findings have theoretical and practical implications for branding management and understanding the mechanism through which culture influences individual behaviors.
... Third, in line with Leung and Morris (2015), we maintain that culture needs to be seen as integrated with situation and behavior, rather than separate from it. Cultural socialization affects not only values but also conceptions of situational variables and behavioral norms, leading to various kinds of cultural patterns, all of which affect behavior in complex and interacting ways. ...
... Cultural socialization affects not only values but also conceptions of situational variables and behavioral norms, leading to various kinds of cultural patterns, all of which affect behavior in complex and interacting ways. We build on and extend Leung and Morris's (2015) framework in two ways. First, we add content to their depiction of scripts, rather than just describing what activates them. ...
... Similar to the personal values paradigm, ample research has documented the effect of social norms on various behaviors (for a review, see Miller & Prentice, 2016). Different societies may thus develop different social norms to facilitate or block specific behaviors among their members (Leung & Morris, 2015). For example, shaking hands may be a prevalent form of greeting in Western cultures, whereas bowing head may be a prevalent form of greeting in Eastern cultures representing differences in the content of social norms. ...
... In contrast, loose cultures, which tend to have less threat, are characterized by the prevalence of weak situations in which there is no one predetermined way to behave (Gelfand et al., 2011). In such cultures, individuals are socialized to follow their internal guiding principles and pursue their important goals (Leung & Morris, 2015). They are attuned to their personal attributes and are likely to consider them when making decisions (Tam & Chan, 2017). ...
Article
Objective Ample research documented the effects of guiding principles in people’s lives, as reflected in personal values, on a variety of behaviors. But do these principles universally guide behaviors across all cultural contexts? To address this question, we investigated the effect of cross‐cultural differences in the strength of social norms (i.e., tightness‐looseness) on value‐behavior relationships. Method Using the archival data from the World Value Survey for 24 nations (N = 38924; 51.40% female; M age = 44.98, SD = 16.87), a multi‐level analysis revealed that cultural tightness moderated the effects of individual differences in personal values on behaviors from different life‐domains. Results As hypothesized, the relationships between self‐transcendence values with civic involvement and pro‐environmental behaviors, and between conservation values with religious behavior were significantly stronger in loose cultures that have weak norms and were almost nonexistent in tight cultures that have strong norms, even when controlling for individualism‐collectivism or GDP. Conclusions Thus, despite the common believe that people behave in line with their guiding principles, our findings suggest this might not be the case in cultural contexts that put a strong emphasis on norms.
... Global or local preferences across product categories are determined by generalized category-specific perceptions of global or local brand superiority engraved in consumers' product category schemata (Davvetas and Diamantopoulos 2016). In international business literature, schemata have been conceptualized as culture-laden cognitive structures used to interpret marketplace stimuli (Leung and Morris 2015). Schemata represent information structures including organized accumulated knowledge of relevance for a task (Fiske and Taylor 1991). ...
Article
Research has long established the existence of a global brand halo that benefits global brands by triggering “global equals better” inferences by consumers. Nevertheless, little is known about the conditions under which this halo may or may not be used or about whether and, if so, how it can situationally fade. Drawing from regret theory, the authors posit that anticipating regret can conditionally both attenuate and accentuate consumers’ use of the global brand halo and develop a serial conditional process model to explain the mechanism underlying regret’s influence. The results of two experimental studies show that anticipated regret affects global brand halo use—and subsequently relative preference for global or local brands—by increasing consumers’ need to justify their purchase decision. Whether and how consumers will use the global brand halo depends on consumers’ product category schema, while the intensity of the halo’s use depends on consumers’ maximization tendency. The findings offer a decision-theory perspective on the competition between global and local brands and empirically based advice on managerial interventions that can influence global or local brand market shares.
... setting (e.g., the appropriateness and risks of challenging the status quo) are social events or are discussed among team and organization members. Research on shared cognition (Healey, Vuori, & Hodgkinson, 2015) and culture (Hanges et al., 2000;Leung & Morris, 2015) suggests that the knowledge structures of group (e.g., organization or team) members who were present at particular events (e.g., in a general assembly or team meeting) are likely to converge, because they shared the same experience and may talk about it, for example, during lunch breaks. Joined experience with content-relevant people, events, or situations (e.g., observing how a manager responds to a challenging remark in a meeting), vicarious learning (e.g., thinking about how one would act while observing a colleague arguing with her supervisor), and collective elaboration (e.g., during lunch breaks) reduces variability in organization and team members' attitudes and, eventually, their behavior. ...
Article
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Employee silence impedes sustainable organizational development, and it can conceal harm for internal and external stakeholders. Established approaches to overcoming silence in organizations draw on the assumption that employees withhold their views based on deliberate elaborations on the effectiveness and risks they associate with voice. Our research aims at complementing these approaches. Applying an information processing approach to culture and using implicit voice theories (IVTs; i.e., taken‐for‐granted beliefs about when and why speaking up at work is risky or inappropriate) as an example, we introduce a model proposing ways through which shared implicit knowledge structures emerge in teams and organizations, and how they affect motives to remain silent. We examine parts of the model with a sample of 696 employees nested in 129 teams and 67 organizations. Our findings show that IVTs can be shared at the team‐ and organizational level, that shared IVTs explain variance in silence motives above and beyond perceptions of organizational climate and manager openness at the team‐ and organization level, and that IVTs functioned as a mediator between team manager openness and silence motives. In sum, our findings point at shared IVTs as a way to conceptualize underlying basic assumptions of cultures of silence.
... Tight cultures tend to have higher population density and resource scarcity, which demand greater social order and thus stricter adherence to norms, which facilitate smooth social organization (Roos et al., 2015). Leung and Morris'(Leung & Morris, 2015) situated dynamics model proposed that tightness-looseness that norms are more salient for behavior when the right course of action is ambiguous and social evaluation pressures increase. Indeed, a recent analysis (Cao et al., 2020) demonstrated that tight societies with greater enforcement of laws, regulations and imposing stronger norms were better able to contain the spread of the virus. ...
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We examined the effectiveness of attitudes, social norms and perceived behavioral control on behavioral intentions and behaviors that prevent and mitigate COVID-19 infections and collateral negative consequences. We conducted a random-effects meta-analysis with 29 effect sizes from 19 studies involving data from 11 countries (N = 15,328). We found strongest effects for perceived behavioral control, but also moderately strong effects of social norms. This is practically important in a pandemic environment because social norms in other health contexts typically show negligible effects and advice based on non-pandemic contexts may be misguided. Examining moderator effects, we are the first to demonstrate that in contexts with strong endorsement of social norms, norm-behavior effects were strengthened. Focusing on societal level differences, both wealth and individualism increased the strength of association between perceived behavioral control and behavioral intentions. We discuss the practical and theoretical implications of the findings for behavior change and public health interventions.
... According to national culture theory, culture is defined as "the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one human group from another" (Hofstede et al., 2010, p. 6) and as a multidimensional construct representing unique patterns of cultural values across countries (Hofstede et al., 2010). While Hofstede (1980) initially identified four cultural dimensions (i.e., power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism-collectivism, and masculinity-femininity), subsequent studies have agreed there are many other cultural values, beliefs, and norms and thus have encouraged researchers to explore those beyond the seminal work by Hofstede (Beugelsdijk, Kostova, & Roth, 2017;Kirkman, Lowe, & Gibson, 2006Leung & Morris, 2015). In addition, national culture has been conceptualized as a shared property of individuals within countries at the national level (Hofstede, 2001 interact with organizational practices to predict firm-level processes or outcomes (Gelfand, Erez, & Aycan, 2007). ...
Article
Research linking broad‐based employee stock ownership (BESO) with firm performance continues to receive considerable attention both in and outside the field of management. Despite the evidence being generally positive regarding the BESO–firm performance relationship, there has been a relative dearth of research providing insights into the circumstances surrounding the effectiveness of BESO. With this research gap in mind, we formulated and launched this special issue. This guest editor introduction begins with a look at the research on this topic, followed by a brief discussion of each article accepted for publication. We conclude by highlighting the major themes from the collective contributions of the articles and share insights regarding future research in this growing research domain.
... In addition, communication norms, which are deeply embedded in the individual's local culture, differ across cultures and impose additional constraints on effective communication (Hall & Hall, 1990;Hogg & Reid, 2006). Cultural differences in communication norms mean different rules of politeness, behavior and knowledge exchange (Adair, Hideg, & Spence, 2013;Glikson & Erez, 2013;Leung & Morris, 2014;Merkin, Taras, & Steel, 2014;Zhao, Street, & Hinds, 2012). While in some cultures, such as Israel, the meaning is generally conveyed in a direct manner, in other cultures, especially in East Asia, this approach is perceived to be rude, inappropriate and even offensive (Brew & Cairns, 2004;Katriel, 1986;Oetzel & Ting-Toomey, 2003). ...
Article
Focusing on the micro-dynamics of intercultural communication in global virtual teams, we hypothesize that relationally-oriented content, communicated in the first message, and exchanged in the early stage of team formation, facilitates the emergence of psychologically safe communication climate, which in turn improves team performance. We test our hypotheses by examining early asynchronous communication in sixty global virtual teams of MBA students and measuring team communication climate and performance. Our findings support the hypotheses and reveal the anchoring role of the first message exchanged between team members, extending previous research on intercultural communication and relationally-oriented content within global virtual teams.
... Each of these momentary identifications are likely to influence the individual's perceptions and actions, thus creating and recreating various types of cultural influence, some of them dependent on relevant values, others more dependent on relevant norms applicable to the role they are instantiating (McAuley et al., 2002) or other features of the situation they are encountering (Reis, 2008). Recent studies have illustrated the way in which these momentary identifications can be manipulated experimentally (Hong et al., 2000;Leung and Morris, 2015;Morris et al., 2015b). Our focus here is on the way in which everyday life can prime one's identifications in a similar manner. ...
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Valid understanding of the relationship between cultures and persons requires an adequate conceptualization of the many contexts within which individuals work and live. These contexts include the more distal features of the individual’s birth ecology and ethno-national group history. These features converge more proximally upon individual experience as “process” variables, through the institutional–normative constraints and affordances encountered through socialization into a diverse set of cultural groupings. This enculturation is then revealed in the individual’s response profile of values, beliefs, choices, and behaviors at any given time. Cross-cultural psychologists have typically compared these encultured responses cross-nationally by averaging the scores of equivalent groups of persons across national groups, terming these average differences “cultural differences.” This procedure has generated considerable resistance, primarily due to careless over-generalization of results to all members of a given cultural group. Critics of nation-based characterizations have challenged their methodological and conceptual inadequacies, but we now know better how to address the measurement-related aspects of culture-level “psychological” variables, such as individualism–collectivism. In challenging the accuracy of these measures, critics have also neglected to acknowledge the continuing predictive and discriminant validity of these dimensions of national culture. We here review the utility of more recent measurements. We then show how nation-level comparisons can be used by psychologists to improve our understanding of individual, rather than group, outcomes. Nations are heterogeneous amalgams of ethnicities, social classes, organizations, school systems, and families. Individuals’ socialization into these groups affects their functioning at any given point in life. These enculturations are further dependent on their gender, age, and education. Assessment of culture’s relation with individual functioning requires adequate measurement of both personality and normative aspects of situations in which behavior is enacted. Once this integration of cultural influences is achieved, the logic and methodology for integrating national culture into psychological models of individual behavior can be applied within any nation where research focuses on how within-nation cultural variation affects individual functioning. Culture, conceptualized as normative group constraints, becomes more widely amenable to study, and the hard lessons learned from cross-national research can be used to guide the practice of more locally sensitive research.
... According to Schwartz (2014) individual reports of values and norms can then be used as indirect indicators of the culture, prevailing across the many contexts to which people are exposed in their lives within a society. The terms cultural values and norms can be used interchangeably to describe a specific individual attitude and/ or behavior given by the cultural context (see Leung and Morris, 2015). ...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess statistically the shared cultural values scale that incorporates Malaysia’s multi-ethnic cultural values. Design/methodology/approach This study involved three phase statistical testing. In the first phase, the authors evaluated the 152 items for the affiliation, community embeddedness, respecting elders, harmony, faith, brotherhood, morality, future orientation, conformity and survival cultural dimensions with a sample of 270 employees from three organizations. In the second phase, 355 employees from two organizations completed a survey test-retest reliability and a factor analysis consisting of community embeddedness, focus on respect, conformity and future orientation as a four-factors solution with 22 items. Confirmatory factor analysis based on data from 310 employees in two organizations verified that the four dimensions correlated with affective commitment. Findings The results suggest that shared cultural characteristics is a multidimensional construct and at the individual level makes a unique contribution in explaining employees’ affective commitment. Managers from multinational corporations operating in this emerging market will benefit from this new scale because they can use it to identify specific individual cultural characteristics within their organization and develop a strategy to target employees’ affective commitment. Originality/value The new shared cultural characteristics scale for Malaysia’s multi-ethnic society demonstrates adequate reliability, validity and across-organization generalizability for this specific cross-cultural communication setting.
... According to national culture theory, culture is defined as "the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one human group from another" (Hofstede et al., 2010, p. 6) and as a multidimensional construct representing unique patterns of cultural values across countries (Hofstede et al., 2010). While Hofstede (1980) initially identified four cultural dimensions (i.e., power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism-collectivism, and masculinity-femininity), subsequent studies have agreed there are many other cultural values, beliefs, and norms and thus have encouraged researchers to explore those beyond the seminal work by Hofstede (Beugelsdijk, Kostova, & Roth, 2017;Kirkman, Lowe, & Gibson, 2006Leung & Morris, 2015). In addition, national culture has been conceptualized as a shared property of individuals within countries at the national level (Hofstede, 2001). ...
... With this table, we highlight a range of other cultural dimensions that could potentially explain variances in team functioning and could be measured in future team research in different team settings. Finally, even though researchers have recognized that cultures differ in terms of their values and preferences for behavior, communication, and cognition, there is a lack of research on how these variables should be considered-alone or together when studying teams (Kirkman et al., 2017;Leung & Morris, 2015;Straub et al., 2002). Because of this, the vast majority of researchers have examined cultural effects independently (e.g., Vatrapu & Suthers, 2007). ...
Article
Feedback is a critical component of teamwork regulation. Research underscores the importance of feedback processes for its effectiveness in teams and further notes how individual differences can affect these processes. Nonetheless, few have theorized on the cultural dimensions associated with feedback to specify how these can attenuate such processes. We contend that research can be advanced by specifying how cultural dimensions may shape individual perception and processing of feedback and team processing of feedback in homogeneous and heterogeneous teams with respect to cultural dimensions. To address this foundational question, we review and integrate the literature on feedback in teams and culture in teams by (a) incorporating the role of culture in team feedback models, (b) discussing how cultural dimensions could influence the perception and processing of feedback, and (c) highlighting important directions for future inquiries at the intersection of feedback and cultural theories. We discuss the links between cultural dimensions derived from the field of intercultural communication and feedback behaviors and processes and provide propositions concerning culturally informed differences in specific feedback responses at individual and team levels.
... Since we investigated a German sample in the public sector, it is not clear whether the results can be generalized to private sector companies and work cultures and environments outside Europe (cf. Leung & Morris, 2015). ...
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In an effort to coalesce current occupational stress and organizational change research, the present paper examines the lagged effects of challenge stressors on employee strain and well-being using panel data from two different studies. Guided by the theoretical assumptions underlying the challenge- hindrance stressor framework, we assumed that time pressure and concentration demands are challenge stressors for employees who are not confronted with significant personal or organizational change. Data from a first study (N = 394) showed that both stressors had positive lagged effects on professional efficacy but not on emotional exhaustion. By contrast, we expected that the effects on professional efficacy are lower for employees confronted with a change. Given that organizational change requires high resource investment, we hypothesized that stressor effects depend on constraints for successful coping. Therefore, ambiguity intolerance and procrastination were considered to be moderators. Using a time-lagged quasi-experimental design (change group: N = 140; control group: N = 257), data showed that challenge stressors had positive effects on emotional exhaustion in both groups, but only positive effects on professional efficacy in the control group. Moderator analyses for the change group revealed that time pressure and concentration demands had positive effects on professional efficacy when employees were high in ambiguity tolerance and low in procrastination and negative effects when employees were low in ambiguity tolerance and high in procrastination. Overall, we provide support for positive effects of challenge stressors over time and emphasize the role of coping capabilities in the context of organizational change.
... As entrepreneurship is an individual-level endeavor (Stephan and Uhlaner 2010), it is the personal perceptions about culture that are relevant for the individual to take entrepreneurial action (Autio et al. 2013;Liñán et al. 2016). Using individual-level perceptions of culture has been advocated (McCoy et al. 2005;Shinnar et al. 2012) because considerable heterogeneity exists in how culture is perceived among individuals within a single country (García-Cabrera and García-Soto 2008; Jaén and Liñán 2013; Leung and Morris 2015). Country-level cultural indicators will hardly be able to predict whether and to what extent cultural aspects induce some individuals (but not others) to create a new venture. ...
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The present research analyzes the way in which gender role orientation (GRO) and perceived entrepreneurial culture affect the advancement of women through the different stages in the entrepreneurial process. To do so, a sample of 1,195 Spanish women is studied using Bem’s Sex Role Inventory to identify their GRO, and a perceived regional culture (PRC) scale. The results confirm that women with a masculine or androgynous orientation are more likely to develop entrepreneurial careers. Besides, for masculine GRO women the perception of a supportive entrepreneurial culture in their region fosters their advancement in entrepreneurship. In contrast, the effect of perceived culture is negative for women with an androgynous GRO. These results contribute to advance knowledge on the entrepreneurial process for women. Based on our results, the debate about women’s entrepreneurship should be expanded to fully acknowledge the relevance of GRO.
... With this table, we highlight a range of other cultural dimensions that could potentially explain variances in team functioning and could be measured in future team research in different team settings. Finally, even though researchers have recognized that cultures differ in terms of their values and preferences for behavior, communication, and cognition, there is a lack of research on how these variables should be considered-alone or together when studying teams (Kirkman et al., 2017;Leung & Morris, 2015;Straub et al., 2002). Because of this, the vast majority of researchers have examined cultural effects independently (e.g., Vatrapu & Suthers, 2007). ...
... In the context of cross-border B2B relationships, our findings reveal that each party learns and internalizes norms of reciprocity through continuous observation of their international partner's past actions. Numerous SET studies discuss the cross-cultural differences of norms accepted in different societies (Gelfand & Jackson, 2016;Leung & Morris, 2015). In a cross-border partnership, common grounds on appropriate reciprocity may be limited due to cultural differences. ...
Article
Grounded in Social Exchange Theory (SET), this study is motivated by two unresolved issues. First, scholars find mixed results on how relationship duration facilitates business-to-business (B2B) trust. The lack of consensus results from the assumption that relationship duration is a measure of prior trust-building efforts. We contend that trust-building lies in exchanges between B2B partners, and relationship duration moderates the effects of reciprocal exchanges. Second, although Transaction Cost Analysis (TCA) is one of the most used theoretical lens in the study of B2B trust, TCA is criticized for neglecting the exchange process in B2B trust-building. To provide clarity to these issues, we validate the expectation that bilateral asset specificity constitutes social exchange processes, which communicate goodwill reciprocity and equivalence reciprocity. Empirical findings suggest that, within bilateral asset specificity: (1) achieving goodwill reciprocity always enhances trust, regardless of the duration contingency; and (2) violating equivalence reciprocity impairs trust over the duration.
... Much work in social/cross-cultural psychology and the intercultural field has focused on the impact of different values on behaviour (e.g., Gudykunst, 2004;Hofstede, 2001;Triandis, 1995), but recently there has been increasing awareness of the potential impact of conceptions of situation or context Leung & Morris, 2015;Smith, 2015;Ting-Toomey & Oetzel, 2013). The notion of situation or context can be unpacked in various ways, but for understanding communicative interaction, Brown and Fraser (1979) classic depiction is extremely useful (see Lefringhausen et al., 2019 for an overview). ...
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This article examines the ways in which professionals from different countries handle first encounters when they wish to initiate and establish business/professional relations. The majority of research on business relations in intercultural contexts has so far focused on misunderstandings, face threats, and conflict. There has been comparatively little research into the initiation and establishment of relations from a positive perspective. This article addresses this lacuna by analysing how Chinese delegates built positive relations with American counterparts on a visit to the USA. Drawing on insights from the analysis, it proposes a conceptual framework for future research in this area.
... Although these three pathways (personal preferences, institutionalization, perceived norms) are sometimes portrayed as competing explanations of culturally typical behaviors (Yamagishi et al., 2008;Zou et al., 2009), these sources of cultural influences are not mutually exclusive. Instead, they have partial overlaps, and they reinforce one another (Leung and Morris, 2014). For example, an organization that has (vs. ...
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Past research on pathways to cultural influence on judgment has compared the explanatory power of personal preferences, perceived descriptive norms and institutionalization. Positive education is an education movement inspired by Western positive psychology. The present study examined how these factors jointly predict Hong Kong teachers’ evaluation of imported positive education programs in their schools. In a field study, we measured teachers’ personal endorsement of growth mindset (a positive psychology construct developed in the US) and their evaluation of adopting positive education programs in their schools. We also measured teachers’ perception of the extent of institutional and normative support for positive education in their schools. The results show that teachers’ personal preferences for growth mindset predict more favorable evaluation of positive education programs when institutional and normative support for positive education programs are both weak, or when they are both strong. We interpret these effects from the perspectives of the strong situation hypothesis and the intersubjective theory of culture.
... With occasional exceptions (e.g., Leung & Morris, 2015), CCOP primarily uses societal IC to explain how organizations operate rather than how individuals cognize. Although societal IC affects explicit organization structures, policies, and programs, its stronger influence is on how organizations actually operate (Ellemers & Haslam, 2011;Hofstede, 2001). ...
... Clusters and levels of analysis.Gilal et al., 2018b;Leung & Morris, 2015;Luo & Shenkar, 2011;Tung & Stahl, 2018 ...
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This study explores the role of culture and international business in internationalization outcomes through a systematic review and analysis of articles published between 2009 and 2019. By mapping the current research domain, this review reflects the avenues for future research in theory development, context, characteristics, and methodology (TCCM) in eight research clusters identified as national culture, external uncertainty avoidance, knowledge transfer & collaboration, HRM & management practices, international diversification research, en-trepreneurial mindset, interaction, and firm performance. The clusters were grouped into independent factors and internationalization outcome factors. This framework provided deeper insights into the theoretical implications which will lead to further advancement in these research areas.
... With occasional exceptions (e.g., Leung & Morris, 2015), CCOP primarily uses societal IC to explain how organizations operate rather than how individuals cognize. Although societal IC affects explicit organization structures, policies, and programs, its stronger influence is on how organizations actually operate (Ellemers & Haslam, 2011;Hofstede, 2001). ...
Article
Social Identity Theory ( SIT) as used in cross-cultural organizational psychology (CCOP) shows individualistic biases by envisioning an autonomous person whose culture supports temporary, largely independent, and readily interchangeable relationships with multiple categorical groups, organizations, and other collectives. We seek to reduce these biases in CCOP by drawing from recent social psychological analyses, notably Motivated Identity Construction Theory, that have refined identity theory’s original principles. To make a broad range of organizational applications, we rely heavily on our cross-cultural psychology audience’s familiarity with basic SIT topics and controversies by discussing them quite briefly. We apply such refinements to theories about correlates of organizational identification (OI) measures, interpretive OI theorizing, and an intrapersonal network approach to OI. We conclude by extending these refinements to other constructs linking individuals to organizations: organizational commitment, attachments to organization groups and components, and roles and norms.
... Each of these momentary identifications are likely to influence the individual's perceptions and actions, thus creating and recreating various types of cultural influence, some of them dependent on relevant values, others more dependent on relevant norms applicable to the role they are instantiating (McAuley et al., 2002) or other features of the situation they are encountering (Reis, 2008). Recent studies have illustrated the way in which these momentary identifications can be manipulated experimentally (Hong et al., 2000;Leung and Morris, 2015;Morris et al., 2015b). Our focus here is on the way in which everyday life can prime one's identifications in a similar manner. ...
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Measures of personality have been shown to predict employee satisfaction at work and in life, but these findings arise mostly from research conducted in national cultures of Anglo heritage. To broaden the generality of such findings, we explore the relationships between Big Five dimensions of personality and satisfaction with life across representative samples of 13,265 employed persons in 18 nations. We argue that the strength of relationships between these personality dimensions and life satisfaction will be moderated by a national economic culture characterized by wealth and by competitiveness, since employees derive their satisfaction with life from the personality qualities especially valued in such economic systems. Using data from the World Values Survey and its Wave 6 short-form measure of the Big Five, we find that the dimensions of agreeableness, conscientiousness, and emotional stability predict higher life satisfaction pan-nationally for employed persons. Cross-level moderation effects were found: national wealth enhances the linkage of conscientiousness and emotional stability to life satisfaction; agreeableness links to life satisfaction in wealthier but not in poorer nations; extroversion predicts life satisfaction in more competitive nations but not in less competitive nations. To explain this variability in the relationships of Big Five personality dimensions with the life satisfaction of employed persons, we reason that the national cultures of wealth and of competitiveness surrounding working life establish an incentive context within which enactments of these personality dispositions will generate greater social and personal rewards from the experience of work, yielding higher levels of life satisfaction among employed persons.
... R. Deshpande and F. Webster (1989) define organizational culture as a pattern of shared basic assumptions, values and beliefs, company climate that were learned in group's external adaption and internal integration, as behavioral norms in the organization and behaviors that differentiate one organization from another. Moreover the way in which people behave is influenced by the ideologies, symbols and core values shared throughout the company (Leung and Morris, 2015;Aladwan, Bhanugopan and Fish, 2016;Lages et al., 2018). ...
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Aim: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the moderating effects of organizational culture and organizational culture dimensions on the relationship between job satisfaction and work-life balance. The research also analyses the differences in the perception of organizational culture and its dimensions between managers and nonmanagement employees in the wood product manufacturing industry. Methodology: The research was administered to 200 employees from five wood product manufacturing companies. Data was collected on the organizational culture, organizational culture dimensions, job satisfaction, work-life balance using Organizational Culture Instrument (OCI), VOX Organizationis and single-item measures of job satisfaction and work-life balance. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, reliability analyses, Person correlation, hierarchical multiple regressions analyses and Poisson regression analyses. Results: The findings of the research indicate perceptions of organizational culture differ between managers and non-managers. Employees that are exposed to participatory management style are less likely to report negative work-life balance. Conclusion: This research investigates an underresearch topic of organizational culture and dimensions in the wood manufacturing industry, and its relationship with employee job satisfaction and work-life balance. Managers in this industry will benefits from applying the findings in everyday practice.
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In this article on cross-cultural management research, I share personal reflections on relevance, reflexivity, and challenges in advancing our epistemological and ontological thinking in cross-cultural management. I argue that we should maintain and preserve our status as subjective thinkers, with time to think. I propose an end to static nation-state thinking, and suggest that we move on with a different, multidisciplinary, and more dynamic set of assumptions, approaches, and research questions.
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Are emerging market banks necessarily prone to localize HRM when entering developed markets? According to this comparative case study of two Chinese banks in Canada, we instead found a trend toward the integration of HRM with the parent companies’ practices, with varying levels of integration based on factors such as international experience and investment method. Importantly, the current practice, which may appear to be suboptimal in light of the localization imperative, has not prevented the banks from attaining steady financial performance, partly enabled by the carrying-over of home grown customers and the presence of a distinct co-ethnic community. However, such practice may have adverse effects on their long-term success, especially given their claimed aim to become global competitors. A conceptual model is built upon these findings, which also offers important practical implications.
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International relations between China and Russia have a long-lasting history. At the same time interpersonal contacts between these two ethnic groups face difficulties associated with language, cultural distance, prejudices and other factors. This article presents a review of studies on the problem of Russian-Chinese intercultural interaction. Due to its interdisciplinary nature the studies are scattered both methodologically and with respect to its theoretical foundations. In this regard, we conditionally divide the considered works into four main areas: studying the perception of the image of Russia and China among Russians and Chinese, classification of Sino-Russian communication barriers, cross-cultural analysis of communication components, and indigenous concepts of Chinese psychology related to the process of intercultural interaction. A brief review of the modern research results gained by Russian and Chinese authors on effective communication and building trustful relationships is given. The results of studies revealing important differences at the level of verbal and non-verbal communication are presented. Particular attention is paid to cross-cultural research aimed at identifying etic and emic attributes of the situation of intercultural interaction. The most common approaches to understanding the concept of trust and its operationalization in Chinese studies are described. The importance of further studying mechanisms of building trustful relationships between representatives of the two countries is noted. In conclusion, unresolved problems and current trends in the study of intercultural communication are identified.
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In this article I generalize the notion of multiple self-aspects to create a descriptive framework in which lives are partitioned into containers of activities called strands. Strands are nearly decomposable life modules, structured, stable, and concurrent longitudinal streams of extended duration whose momentary cross-sections constitute self-aspects. They are differentiated by five features: the person’s role, the cast, the setting, norms and values, and habits and routines. Strands contain projects and episodes and are replete with narrative. Each strand is continuous (i.e., strands persist when a person moves between them), and for the most part strands are mutually asynchronous. From a first-person perspective, the strands are continuous and concurrent, but only one strand is in the foreground at a given time (i.e., transitions between strands are akin to a figure-ground reversal). Furthermore, a life is different from the sum of its strands: It is a nonlinear system that can take on configurations not predictable from a comprehensive description of the individual strands. Two such examples are the achievement of greatness despite severe handicaps and instances of extreme self-sacrifice. I also discuss the research potential of a proposed smartphone app called LifeMaps.
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Norms have emerged as a central concept across various fields of psychology. In social psychology, norms have been important to predict intentions and behavior in social psychology, but cultural variability has not been examined. In cultural psychology, norms have also played a central role in explained cultural differences. In contrast, to date, variability in norm-intention and norm-behavior relationships has not been systematically investigated. Any systematic variability may be challenging to both social and cultural psychology. We reanalyzed effect sizes taken from five previously published meta-analyses and demonstrate that the relative strength of norm-intention and norm-behavior correlations are systematically higher in contexts in which individuals are more flexible and pay more attention to situational variables as well as in less economically developed societies. We also found significant, but weaker, effects for individualism and tightness–looseness. Meanwhile, behavior domain effects also emerged, which suggests that norms are behavior specific. Norms effects systematically vary across modern societies, but more attention is needed to investigate culturally conditioned domain and behavior effects thoroughly.
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Using an applied mathematics approach, this chapter embeds algorithmic measures into cultural theory in research on international business. The specialized area is concerned with adaptation of multinational enterprise (MNE) cross-borders in which how dynamic functions can strengthen the argument by producing robust models. The chapter contributes to the extant literature by offering a set of mechanisms that can be used by MNEs in adapting to a new or complex environment where culture can be diverse and policy choice is challenging. The mechanism by driving an adaptive approach, in particular, addresses a research issue that is persistent in cultural transition studies. The issue is distinguished from the standard economic model in that individual or rational actors have a fixed set of independent preferences (i.e., decision choice based on price, benefit, or rules of the game), uninfluenced by the behavior of others or the social settings within which they operate. The current study addresses the issue by demonstrating that a range of socio-cultural factors can influence behavior.
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Early research on cultural competence laid the groundwork for the development of the cultural intelligence construct. First, the early sojourner research began with a search for an overseas type, but ultimately shifted the focus to the identification of a dynamic set of skills and abilities. Next, models of cross-cultural effectiveness provided the identification of important elements that have influenced the conceptualization of cultural intelligence. Components models identified numerous factors potentially related to intercultural effectiveness, including some that anticipated the higher order cognitive skills associated with cultural intelligence. Coping and adjustment models presented cross-cultural skills in terms of broad skills dimensions, while also considering the effect of contextual factors. Developmental and learning models highlighted the importance of intercultural experience in the development of intercultural competence, which is reflected in the development of cultural intelligence. Despite the production of numerous instruments designed to tap into the construct of cross-cultural competence or related ideas, no truly satisfactory measure gained widespread acceptance. In this chapter, we review the theoretical development of cross-cultural competence and summarize seven of the most popular measures of this construct.
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Complex project work often is carried out by groups spanning national and cultural boundaries. This work is vulnerable to poorly understood coordination breakdowns that can lead to project delay and failure. We conceptualize coordination breakdowns to be driven by differences in cognitive and behavioral scripts for coordination of the task. We propose that script differences emerge from cultural and institutional influences on role structures, temporal structures, and cues. This conceptualization integrates theory concerning cultural differences and institutions to understand coordination breakdowns. We also propose that coordination scripts draw on overarching sociocultural templates for coordination, and we provide examples from four cultures. The concepts of coordination scripts and cultural coordination templates open new avenues of research and benefit global project coordination and mitigation of risk.
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Purpose Performance feedback theory (PFT) has informed analyses in numerous national contexts and has been used to explain various business and management activities of firms. Stemming from behavioral theory and grounded in a cognitive perspective, which views organizational actions as being the results of decisions produced by groups of individual decision-makers, PFT research has mostly assumed the universal nature of cognition and decision-making processes. However, PFT also presumes that individual decision-makers bring with them different backgrounds and experiences. Hence, this paper offers propositions on how cultural differences in individualism-collectivism influence the major components of PFT, including the formation and revision of performance goals (aspiration levels), and search behaviors and risk preferences in response to gaps between goals and actual performance. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. Design/methodology/approach This paper offers theoretical propositions for the above purpose. Findings This is not an empirical analysis. Originality/value By integrating the individualism-collectivism differences framework into the PFT model, the authors answer previous calls to integrate concepts and frameworks from other theories into PFT while considering the role of cultural differences in aspiration-consequence relationships. Additionally, much of PFT research has focused on outcomes, while actual internal processes have remained unobserved. By focusing on how cultural differences influence various PFT processes, this conceptual analysis sheds light on the unobserved bounds of decision-makers' cognitions.
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In the quest for a sustainable society, green management has taken the forefront. Nevertheless, manufacturing small–medium enterprises (SMEs) have on the whole fallen behind in attempts to reduce environmental impact and have been noted to face particular challenges in undertaking and implementing environmental improvements in their operations. Furthermore, the global burden of sustainable green practices had begun to tilt sharply toward the developing countries such as Malaysia, and this will be a significant challenge to meet the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals. For this reason, the aim of this study encompasses owners’/managers’ environmental attitude and personal values toward sustainable green practices in Malaysian manufacturing SMEs. Furthermore, to fulfill this gap, this study was conducted to examine the interrelationship between owners’/managers’ environmental attitude and personal values on sustainable green practices and to understand what motivates SMEs owners/managers to improve their environmental performance and explore the challenges faced in the SMEs. Administrative questionnaires were used to collect data from 260 manufacturing SMEs. Results indicated that environmental attitude has a significant positive effect on the firm’s sustainable green practices, but such effects were not shown by environmental values. It offers a generalized sustainable green practices implementation linking SMEs owners/managers with the integration of Sustainable Development Goals 9 and 12.
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This paper proposes a novel measure of civic norm compliance. We combine the literature on norm compliance from institutional economics and social philosophy. Institutional economics draws on survey data to measure civic norms, whereas social philosophy offers a theoretical framework that proves fruitful when used to operationalize civic norms. This paper shows that significantly different results emerge when the operationalization of civic norms in institutional economics draws on the theoretical framework that social philosophy offers. Furthermore, this study is relevant for social philosophy too, as it shows the potential of survey data as a test-bed for philosophical theories of norm compliance.
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This study aimed to examine (1) whether people would accept stereotypical descriptions of the Japanese, which were typically observed among literature written by so-called Japanologists, at the “the Japanese (in general) ”level, but not at“an individual”level, and (2) whether such differences are greatest on descriptions of collectivistic tendencies. A Japanese Characteristics Scale, consisting of 45 five-point-rating scales, was constructed based on descriptions of the Japanese characteristics in 14 previous articles. A total of 226 college students of both genders were asked to respond to the scale on two distinct levels: “the Japanese” and the “an individual” level (operating as to “Myself”). As expected, the participants clearly discriminated between the two levels, i. e., they reported significantly higher scores at “the Japanese” than at “Myself”, especially in the sub-scale of the collectivistic tendencies. In addition, 20 students were interviewed to elucidate how these two levels were discriminated. Implications of these results were discussed.
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"This work provides ways to characterize cultures, and gives researchers a set of lenses for looking at cultures. When researchers know what people value and how they use the axioms, they can predict what people will do in their cultural niche - how they are likely to interact with each other, how they are likely to relate to outsiders, how they are going to react to their jobs, what emotions they are likely to feel in different circumstances, and how are they going to deal with conflict." -- Harry C. Triandis, Professor Emeritus of Psychology, University of Illinois, U.S.A. Positive and negative beliefs about human nature and the social world, the role of fate in life events, and the belief in the existence of a supreme being: social axioms as general beliefs exist both explicitly and implicitly in cultural values and traditions the world over. In Psychological Aspects of Social Axioms, an international team of researchers brings new depth to the study of these culture-bound belief systems as they inform interpersonal and organizational behavior, are passed from parents to children and sustained by social institutions, and contribute to both national character and individual personality. The editors offer an insightful introduction to the social axiom framework and its basic issues, introducing studies from a variety of countries that explore the influence of these widespread beliefs as humans solve problems, pursue goals, and make sense of their lives. A sampling of the topics: • Transmission of social axioms during times of social change (Germany, Spain). • Social axioms and behavior of college students (India, Indonesia). • Relationships between axioms and locus of control (Italy, Greece). • Proactive coping in Christians and Muslims. • Cynicism in romantic and political relationships. • Social axioms in the U.S.: ethnic and geographic studies. With its groundbreaking constructs for intercultural understanding, Psychological Aspects of Social Axioms will find a wide and interested audience in cultural and clinical psychologists, cross-cultural trainers and educators. The book will also provide upper-level students in psychology and cultural studies with new directions for future research.
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In previous research, the 2nd author and colleagues (see record 1980-30335-001) observed that individuals working together put out less effort than when they work alone; this phenomenon was termed social loafing (SL). Subsequent research by these authors (see record 1981-32831-001) suggested that SL arises, at least in part, because when participants work with others on tasks their individual outputs are lost in the crowd, and, thus, they can receive neither credit nor blame for their performance. The possibility that personal involvement in a task could moderate the SL effect was tested in the present experiment, which used a 2 (high/low involvement) × 2 (high/low identifiability) factorial design across 3 replications with 224 undergraduates. The task involved thoughts generated in response to a counterattitudinal proposal. Replicating previous SL research, present results show that under conditions of low involvement, Ss whose outputs were identifiable worked harder than those whose outputs were pooled. However, when the task was personally involving, the SL effect was eliminated: Ss whose outputs were pooled worked as hard as those whose individual outputs could be identified. (23 ref)
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Much of our cross-cultural training and research occurs within the framework of bipolar cultural dimensions. While this sophisticated stereotyping is helpful to a certain degree, it does not convey the complexity found within cultures. People working across cultures are frequently surprised by cultural paradoxes that do not seem to fit the descriptions they have learned. The authors identify the sources of cultural paradoxes and introduce the idea of value trumping: In a specific context, certain cultural values take precedence over others. Thus, culture is embedded in the context and cannot be understood fully without taking context into consideration. To decipher cultural paradoxes, the authors propose a model of cultural sense making, linking schemas to contexts. They spell out the implications of this model for those who teach culture, for people working across cultures, and for multinational corporations.
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A survey of Chinese values was constructed and administered to university students in 22 countries around the world. An ecological factor analysis was run on the culture means for the 40 scale items and revealed four dimensions of cultural valuing. In a search for validities, country scores on these four factors were correlated with those derived from a Western survey of work-related values by Hofstede (1980). Three of the factors from the Chinese Value Survey (CVS) correlated at high levels with three of Hofstede's four, strongly suggesting the robust value dimensions of collectivism and compassion. The second CVS factor, Confucian work dynamism, was unrelated to any of Hofstede's, but correlated .70 with economic growth from 1965 to 1984. This validational evidence confirms the potential of instruments developed outside a Western cultural tradition for opening up new theoretical vistas to the attention of behavioral scientists.
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This study examined the relation of cognitive factors (implicit theories, self-schemas, and perceived similarity) to liking and leader-member exchange (LMX) in a field setting. Perceived similarity significantly predicted LMX quality, with liking mediating this relationship. Supervisor-subordinate match on implicit performance theories, the normativeness of both subordinates' and supervisors' self-schemas, and subordinates' negative affectivity also predicted liking and LMX ratings. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
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We review recent theoretical and empirical developments in the intercultural competencies literature, highlighting contemporary models and empirical research in organizational contexts. We survey the current conceptualizations of intercultural competencies and propose that intercultural competencies can be classified based on traits, attitudes and worldviews, capabilities, or a combination of these dimensions. We identify key psychological, behavioral, and performance outcomes associated with these models. We review empirical studies of intercultural competencies at the group level and discuss emerging models of dyad-level, firm-level, and multilevel intercultural competencies. We evaluate the current measurement of intercultural competencies and suggest alternative approaches. Finally, we examine research on selection, training, and development of intercultural competencies. We end each section by identifying future research foci, and we offer an integration of the literature at the end of the review.
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Contrasting with extant research centred on the organizational challenges of sourcing services in culturally distant countries, we show that cultural differences between home and host countries do not prevent firms from achieving their cost savings targets. Instead, the effect is positive, both for the captive and outsourcing governance models. Using insight from social psychology research and the theory of organizations, we build the argument that the positive effect is due to cultural differences providing an attention stimulus for decision-makers to thoroughly gather and process information on the costs and benefits of global sourcing, thereby reducing the risk of cost estimation errors. The empirical validation uses a data set of 624 global services sourcing initiatives obtained from the Offshoring Research Network, complemented with multiple external sources of cross-country data on cultural differences, languages, geographic distance and education levels. The main contribution of the article is to add much needed nuance to the otherwise monotonic negative view of cultural differences in extant global sourcing literature. Moreover, the original theoretical framework and resulting attention stimulus argument we develop open new avenues for research on the consequences of cultural differences in international business operations more broadly.
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Past research has shown that exposure to cultural symbols can influence personal preferences. The present research extends this finding by showing that cultural symbols acquire their cultural significance in part through their associations with intersubjectively important values-values that are perceived to be prevalent in the culture. In addition, cultural symbols can influence personal preferences through the activation of perceived normative preferences. In Study 1, perceived liking of Bush among Americans was linked to the perceived popularity of intersubjectively important values in the USA. In Study 2, both priming Bush and personal endorsement of intersubjectively important values increased Americans' liking of iconic brands (brands that symbolize American culture). Furthermore, perceived normative preferences for iconic brands fully mediated this effect.
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Culture influences action not by providing the ultimate values toward which action is oriented, but by shaping a repertoire or "tool kit" of habits, skills, and styles from which people construct "strategies of action." Two models of cultural influence are developed, for settled and unsettled cultural periods. In settled periods, culture independently influences action, but only by providing resources from which people can construct diverse lines of action. In unsettled cultural periods, explicit ideologies directly govern action, but structural opportunities for action determine which among competing ideologies survive in the long run. This alternative view of culture offers new opportunities for systematic, differentiated arguments about culture's causal role in shaping action.
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Research on the effect of cultural diversity on team performance remains inconclusive. We propose to resolve the competing predictions of the information/decision making versus the social categorization theories by integrating two task‐related theories, the situational strength theory and the circumplex model of group tasks. We propose that high task specificity enables similar interpretations and shared understanding among team members, which is needed for effective “execute” (convergent) tasks, is characterized by team cooperation and interdependence. Low task specificity, in contrast, is beneficial for “generate” (creative) tasks, because it does not place constraints on generating original ideas and does not require tight coordination among the team members. We tested the effects of situational strength and task type on the relationship between cultural diversity and team performance in two experiments with 86 and 96 dyads in the first and second experiments, respectively. In both experiments, heterogeneous (Israeli–Singaporean) and homogeneous dyads (Israeli–Israeli and Singaporean–Singaporean) worked under low or high task specificity. In Study 1, dyads performed convergent execution tasks, and in Study 2, they performed creative idea‐generation tasks. The impediment of multiculturalism was reduced in execute (convergent) tasks under high task specificity and in generate (divergent) tasks under low task specificity. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Culture has become a critical concept for social psychology over the past quarter of a century. Yet, cultural dynamics, the process and mechanism of formation, maintenance, and transformation of culture, has begun to be investigated only recently. This article reports the current state of play of a research program that takes cultural dynamics as its central question. In this approach, humans are construed as meaning making animals that create, recreate, and exchange information, and turn it into a meaningful basis for action. The locus of meaning making and remaking is an everyday joint activity. The grounding model of cultural transmission describes how cultural information is deliberately or inadvertently transmitted in a joint activity. As we go about our business of living our daily lives, we ground information to our common ground, and construct a social reality that is mutually meaningful and yet only local. If locally grounded information is further generalized to a large collective and disseminated through social networks, repeated and iterative activations of the grounding process maintain the social reality of the collective that we take for granted. Implications of the grounding model of cultural transmission and future research directions are discussed.
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A behavioral signature of cross-cultural competence is discriminative use of culturally appropriate behavioral strategies in different cultural contexts. Given the central role communication plays in cross-cultural adjustment and adaptation, the present investigation examines how meta-knowledge of culture—defined as knowledge of what members of a certain culture know—affects culturally competent cross-cultural communication. We reported two studies that examined display of discriminative, culturally sensitive use of cross-cultural communication strategies by bicultural Hong Kong Chinese (Study 1), Chinese students in the United States and European Americans (Study 2). Results showed that individuals formulating a communicative message for a member of a certain culture would discriminatively apply meta-knowledge of the culture. These results suggest that unsuccessful cross-cultural communications may arise not only from the lack of motivation to take the perspective of individuals in a foreign culture, but also from inaccurate meta-knowledge of the foreign culture.
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Modeling after Vandello and Cohen’s American Collectivism Index, the researcher developed a scale to measure collectivism in prefectures (similar to U.S. states) in Japan. The new scale was evaluated against results from the Japanese General Social Survey, a national survey of individuals conducted annually, and was tested for association with common correlates of cultural syndromes. As expected, the Japanese Collectivism Scale (JCS) was reliable and was significantly associated with results of the individual-level attitudinal survey and the correlates of collectivism. The JCS also showed within-culture variations of collectivism in Japan—variations that are important to consider when interpreting cross-cultural differences in attitudes and behavior.
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The investigations described in this series are concerned with the conditions of independence and lack of independence in the face of group pressure. The abstract temper of present-day theory and investigation in this region rests to a considerable degree on a neglect of the cognitive and emotional experiences that are part of the individual's psychological field. The understanding of social influences will require the study of a wide range of conditions and of the interrelated operations of different psychological functions. A group of seven to nine individuals was gathered in a classroom to take part in what appeared to be a simple experiment in visual discrimination. The subjects were all male, white college students, ranging in age from 17 to 25; the mean age was 20. For certain purposes a large number of critical subjects was required for the present experiment. The present report is based on a total of 123 subjects. The task consisted of the comparison of a standard line with three other lines, one of which was equal in length to the standard. We investigated some of the conditions responsible for independence and lack of independence in the face of arbitrary group pressure. To this end we produced a disagreement between a group and one individual member about a clear and simple issue of fact. The interview, which followed the experimental session, provided qualitative evidence concerning the effects produced by the majority, The particular properties of the experimental situation and their relation to more usual social contradictions were described.
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Cultural differences and similarities can be documented not only at the level of the psyche (people’s motivations, beliefs, emotions, or cognitions) but also via shared, tangible representations of culture (such as advertising, texts, architecture, and so on). In this report, the authors present the results of some exploratory meta-analyses of cultural products. Data were sufficient to analyze a variety of cultural traits: positivity, modernity, high (vs. low) context, uncertainty avoidance, and power distance, as well as other dimensions. Thus, this article documents cultural products that measured traits other than individualism-collectivism, the trait the authors analyzed in an earlier article. The data reinforce the value of studying cultural products and fit with recent calls to branch out from the familiar, individualism-collectivism construct into new axes of cultural difference.
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Organizational culture encompasses both individual and group-level phenomena. However, to date, the individual-level dynamics of organizational culture have remained relatively neglected. This paper addresses this neglect by focusing on culture's manifestation in individuals' sensemaking structures and processes. Building off the social cognition literature, I propose that organizational culture's influence on individual sensemaking is revealed in the operation of a patterned system of organization-specific schemas. Schemas refer to the cognitive structures in which an individual's knowledge is retained and organized. In addition to being knowledge repositories, schemas also direct information acquisition and processing. They guide answering the questions central to sensemaking efforts: ''What or who is it?,'' ''What are its implications; what does it mean?,'' and ''How should I respond?'' After a brief review of schema theory, the categories of schema knowledge relevant to understanding sensemaking in organizations and the cultural influences on their emergence are examined. The conscious and unconscious operation of these schemas in the actual process of making sense of organizational stimuli is framed within a schema-directed, intrapsychic, mental dialogue perspective on social cognition. Specifically, I propose that in the social setting of organizations, individuals make sense out of their experiences based in large part on the outcomes of contrived mental dialogues between themselves (e.g., ''I think it means this and I would be inclined toward this response'') and other contextually-relevant (past or present; real or imagined) individuals or groups (e.g., ''What would my boss and peers think about this? What would they want me to do?''). The content of the argument provided for others is guided by the individual's schemas for those others. I dose the paper by discussing the ways in which this schema-based perspective enhances our understanding of the individual experiences of cultural sharing, subcultural boundaries, and psychological attachment.
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Recent social cognition research showed that the individual often recalls stereotype-inconsistent (SI) information better than stereotype-consistent (SC) information. By contrast, classical studies in social psychology suggest that SC information is retained well in the collective remembering where a number of individuals are involved in the reproduction of stories. In the present experiment, individual and collective remembering were examined. A story about a man and a woman who exhibited gender-stereotype-relevant behaviors was transmitted through five-person communication chains. Although participants in earlier positions of the chains reproduced SI information more than SC information under some circumstances, SC information was retained better than SI information toward the end of the chains regardless. The stability of cultural stereotypes was discussed in terms of the tendency for collective information processing to favor the retention of information shared among individuals.