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Values, schemas, and norms in the culture-behavior nexus: A situated dynamics framework

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Abstract

International business (IB) research has predominantly relied on value constructs to account for the influence of societal culture, notably Hofstede's cultural dimensions. While parsimonious, the value approach's assumptions about the consensus of values within nations, and the generality and stability of cultural patterns of behavior are increasingly challenged. We review two promising alternatives-the constructivist approach centering on schemas and the intersubjectivist approach centering on norms-and the evidence that demonstrates their usefulness in accounting for international differences in the behavior of managers, employees, and consumers. We propose a situated dynamics framework, specifying the role of values, schemas, and norms in accounting for cultural differences, and delineating conditions under which each causal mechanism is operative. Values play a more important role in accounting for cultural differences in weak situations where fewer constraints are perceived; schemas play a more important role when situational cues increase their accessibility and relevance; and norms play a more important role when social evaluation is salient. Directions for future research based on this integrative framework and its implications for the measurement of culture and application in IB are discussed.

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... As noted by Peterson and Barreto (2018), the assumption underlying such research is that individuals in a particular society embrace the societal values (e.g., all individuals in a collectivist culture value societal collectivism), which has been empirically shown to be unfounded (e.g., Fischer & Schwartz, 2011). Research on values has also treated culture as an ingrained, general, or stable reaction to stimuli, which is inconsistent with the observed adaptation of individuals to context-specific cues, such as those exhibited by expatriates or bicultural individuals (Leung & Morris, 2015). With multicultural life experiences becoming common (Chao & Moon, 2005), a useful model of trust in organizations should elucidate the experience of, for example, a Turkish person who completes his education at a German high school in Istanbul and a university in the United States (US) and works for a Dutch multinational enterprise (MNE) back in Turkey. ...
... To develop this framework into a multilevel model, we integrate the research on comparative institutions, international business, and cultural psychology (e.g., Gelfand et al., 2008;Leung & Morris, 2015;Whitley, 1999) to offer four sets of propositions. First, regarding the influence of the societal level on organizations, we argue that every organization is embedded in a particular socio-institutional context, which shapes and binds its internal system components (e.g., leadership, climate) in predictable ways (P1a). ...
... In what follows, sometimes we specify which individual-level variable drives the proposition, but often we do not make such a differentiation because these variables are expected to interact. For instance, values as desirable goals may activate norms, or norms may render particular schemas, i.e., cognitive templates that guide individual interpretations, to be more salient (Leung & Morris, 2015). Nonetheless, we keep the constructs distinct because emergent research suggests that their influence on behavior varies depending on the characteristics of the situation, such as its ambiguity or privacy (Leung & Morris, 2015). ...
... However, even in intra-organisational contexts, multicultural individuals and their contributions have not been well researched (Fitzsimmons, 2013;Kane & Levina, 2017), and the notion of bicultural and multicultural individuals has been largely neglected in the literature on inter-organisational relationships. Furthermore, the cultural aspects of entrepreneurship in particular and international business in general have mostly been studied using the Hofstede (1980) model (Leung & Morris, 2015;Dabić et al., 2020). Adopting a social constructivist perspective, we regard culture as "a flexible network of specific and situational knowledge," with individuals possessing a repertoire of cultural schemas that constitute cultural knowledge, assist in the process of sensemaking and are reflected in their actions (Ivanova-Gongne, 2015, p. 610). ...
... Several researchers in international business have advocated for a more constructivist approach when looking at culture in the international business context (e.g. Leung & Morris, 2015). The constructivist approach regards culture as a "flexible network of specific and situational knowledge" (Ivanova-Gongne, 2015, p. 610). ...
... Thus, individuals are considered to possess a repertoire of cultural schemas that constitute their knowledge of, for example, national, professional, organisational and other cultures and assist in the process of sensemaking, consequently informing the individuals' actions (Ivanova-Gongne, 2015). The application of specific cultural schemas is highly situational and depends on whether an individual is primed with the culture in question (Leung & Morris, 2015) for example, when needing to interact with a partner from a specific culture. Individuals with backgrounds in several cultures may possess many cultural schemas and may thus be able to engage in cultural frame switching, which implies moving "between different cultural meaning systems in response to situational cues" (Benet-Martinez et al., 2002, p. 493). ...
... Negotiation beliefs develop based on cultures in which the negotiators grow up. Culture offers filter for information processing, attention paid, and behaviours across situations (Leung & Morris, 2015). Culture also shapes the goal pursuit in negotiations, the orientation toward the relationship with the counterpart, and the subjective evaluation of the negotiation outcomes (Gelfand & Brett, 2004). ...
... We developed the items measuring negotiation beliefs. We followed the recommendation of measuring implicit theories in an international business context by Leung and Morris (2015). According to them, we need to identify a comprehensive set of constructs via a literature review and/or informant interviews to summarize the constructs in describing or explaining the event or phenomenon in question. ...
... Their work can guide negotiators through an evolutionary process and help them move back and forth between competition and cooperation during negotiations. Accounting for the influences of culture in international business, Leung and Morris (2015) elucidated how the effects of societal culture occur through values, schemas and norms, all of which are more proximal to human behaviour. ...
Article
We address the micro foundations of international business research by examining negotiation beliefs as a parsimonious guide for international business negotiators. We conceptualise the construct of ‘negotiation beliefs’ as a negotiator’s cognition about the nature of negotiation and effective negotiation strategies. We integrate the negotiation literature and empirically investigate the differences and similarities in the negotiation beliefs of Americans and the Chinese. Across two studies, we conduct a conceptual analysis of negotiation beliefs and develop measures for the culturally similar and culturally different factors of the negotiation beliefs of Chinese and American negotiators. We find that negotiation beliefs can predict negotiation outcomes. Our findings indicate that Americans and the Chinese share negotiation beliefs about cooperation and competition. They also understand negotiation using culturally different factors, namely hierarchy and relationship for the Chinese and economic interest and confrontation for the Americans. We further discuss the theoretical and practical implications for international negotiations, particularly regarding disputes between the US and China.
... Two approaches to the description of national culture prevail in the international management and international business literature: Values versus descriptive norms (Leung & Morris, 2015; see also Hofstede, 2001;House et al., 2004). The cultural values approach may be labeled ''subjective culture'' in that it presumes that individuals internalize the values of their culture through socialization processes, and that these culture-specific values in turn drive the behavior of individuals in the culture. ...
... The framework has stimulated a wealth of research on cross-cultural differences in organizational behavior (Taras et al., 2010), including transformational and transactional leadership behavior (Jackson et al., 2013;Watts et al., 2020). Yet, as Leung and Morris (2015) pointed out, many scholars have identified empirical findings that do not fit the assumptions of the cultural value approach and have called for alternative approaches to studying cultural influences (see also Kirkman, Lowe, & Gibson, 2006). ...
... Second, one theoretical contribution by Morris and colleagues (Leung & Morris, 2015;Morris, Hong, Chiu, & Liu, 2015) towards integrating value-and norms-based approaches to culture lies in specifying situational conditions that may favor one approach or the other. According to Leung and Morris (2015), values tend to shape behavior more in situations that lack strong social pressures. ...
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Prior research is equivocal about whether leadership is more effective when it matches typical cultural practices (the cultural congruence argument) or compensates for "ineffective" cultural practices (the cultural compensation argument). We propose that a more nuanced answer to the congruence-versus-compensation debate requires the joint consideration of leadership, culture, and task contexts. A meta-analysis of 460 field samples of transformational leadership (N = 124,646) and 139 field samples of transactional leadership (N = 38,327) across 53 cultures revealed three key results: First, both transformational and transactional leadership universally relate positively to follower performance outcomes. The strength of these relationships ranges between 0.25 and 0.39 for transformational leadership and between 0.12 and 0.24 for transactional leadership. Second, the positive effects of transformational leadership on convergent performance outcomes are more pronounced in cultures characterized by norms of vertical differentiation (including high power distance) and harmony (including collectivism), consistent with the cultural congruence perspective. Third, the positive effects of transactional leadership on divergent performance outcomes are more pronounced in cultures characterized by norms of low performance-focus (including low uncertainty avoidance), consistent with the cultural compensation perspective. We discuss the implications of these findings for transformational and transactional leadership research and practice.
... In sum, culture and sensemaking are tightly interrelated in their impact upon human action. However, more research is needed to shed light on the dynamics underpinning the application of cultural schemas to sensemaking in international management contexts (see Leung & Morris, 2015). This is particularly true for dimensions of cross-cultural business activities that are crucial yet potentially contested, such as corporate social responsibility (CSR). ...
... What is more, how individuals make sense of business relationships (Hannibal, 2017;Ivanova & Torkkeli, 2013) and specific business concepts (Ivanova-Gongne & Torkkeli, 2018) such as CSR, is also shaped by their cultural background. The cultural schemas perspective emphasizes cognitive structures that comprise cultural knowledge and guide our cross-cultural sensemaking (Ivanova-Gongne, 2015;Leung & Morris, 2015), thus accounting for cultural dynamics, as well as the situationspecific application of certain cultural knowledge (Leung & Morris, 2015). The latter depends on the accessibility of individual cultural schemas (that is, if a schema is used frequently and automatically or has been used recently); its applicability (its fit to a certain situation); and finally, the ownership (the extent to which the schema is ingrained in the individual's psyche; Ivanova-Gongne, 2015;Leung & Morris, 2015). ...
... What is more, how individuals make sense of business relationships (Hannibal, 2017;Ivanova & Torkkeli, 2013) and specific business concepts (Ivanova-Gongne & Torkkeli, 2018) such as CSR, is also shaped by their cultural background. The cultural schemas perspective emphasizes cognitive structures that comprise cultural knowledge and guide our cross-cultural sensemaking (Ivanova-Gongne, 2015;Leung & Morris, 2015), thus accounting for cultural dynamics, as well as the situationspecific application of certain cultural knowledge (Leung & Morris, 2015). The latter depends on the accessibility of individual cultural schemas (that is, if a schema is used frequently and automatically or has been used recently); its applicability (its fit to a certain situation); and finally, the ownership (the extent to which the schema is ingrained in the individual's psyche; Ivanova-Gongne, 2015;Leung & Morris, 2015). ...
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International Management (IM) needs a better understanding of how managers of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) make sense of cultural differences in international business relationships, especially regarding corporate social responsibility (CSR) in relationships between firms from emerging and developed countries. We address this lacuna by uncovering how dyads of Russian and Finnish SME managers, engaged in mutual international business relationships, construct their understanding of CSR. The findings indicate that conceptuali-zations of CSR are embedded both in SME managers' cultural backgrounds and in the contextual environment. This extends previous research on the role of CSR in IM and respond to calls to study the microfoundations of CSR and internationalization, adding to the sparse knowledge of CSR in cross-cultural SME settings.
... Prior research, mainly in management and international business and more recently in accounting and experimental economics, document that cultural differences negatively impact individuals' and firms' attitudes, behaviors, and outcomes (Kanagaretnam, Lim, & Lobo, 2014;Brochet, Miller, Naranjo, & Yu, 2019;Caprar et al., 2015;Cettolin & Suetens, 2019;Chua et al., 2015). Yet, less is known about the interactions between cultural differences and employees' interpretation of employers' contract choices as well as the impact of cultural differences and consequent perceptions of trust on contractual outcomes (Leung & Morris, 2015). Furthermore, research on factors that may mitigate or counteract the effect of cultural differences is limited (Stahl & Tung, 2015). ...
... Second, we study interactions between three constructs: contract choices, cultural differences, and employees' attributions, which are emphasized to be critical areas of interest in accounting, international business, and management. Researchers have advocated utilizing social psychology theories when studying the contractual outcomes in the agency relationship and have called for a better understanding of the influences and effects of cultural differences (e.g., Kunz & Pfaff, 2002;Wiseman, Cuevas-Rodríguez, & Gomez-Mejia, 2012;Kanagaretnam et al., 2014;Hoenen & Kostova, 2015;Leung & Morris, 2015;Stahl & Tung, 2015;Brochet et al., 2019;Stevens, 2019). To the best of our knowledge, however, neither analytical nor empirical studies across these literatures have investigated a combination of these factors. ...
... While researchers have accounted for various different influences on the contractual relationship (Davidson & Stevens, 2012;Choi, 2014;Danilov & Sliwka, 2016), our knowledge of how cultural differences impact the social context of contractual relationships remains scarce (Malmi et al., 2020). Individuals do not act in a vacuum, but rather within a particular culture (Mischel, 1973;Leung & Morris, 2015). A society's culture, which can be defined as the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one category of people from those of another, affects its members' behavior, values, and expectations (Hofstede, 1993). ...
Article
Global practices such as offshoring and expatriation of employees increase cross-cultural interactions within and across firms. In this paper, we use three experiments to investigate the effects of cultural differences on employees' interpretations of employers' contract choices. Applying insights from attribution theory, we predict that cultural differences will reduce the likelihood for employees to attribute employers' choice of a more-trusting contract to trust. This in turn will reduce the ability of such contracts to motivate higher employee effort. However, we also suggest that three interventions will mitigate the negative effect of cultural differences: employees' prior and primed exposure to employers' culture and employees' interactional cultural intelligence. In our labor market setting, employers chose a hiring contract for employees who, in return, indicated their effort levels. In all experiments, dyads interacted in real-time either in the same country or across two countries with high cultural difference. Consistent with our predictions, we find that the effectiveness of a bonus contract in increasing employees' effort is reduced by high cultural difference (in experiment 1). We also find that employees' exposure to employers' culture, either due to prior exposure (in experiment 2) or by priming exposure through culture-specific training (in experiment 3) has a mitigating effect. Finally, we find partial support that employees’ interactional cultural intelligence (CQ) has a mitigating effect. Implications to theory and practice are discussed.
... Celle-ci apparaît comme une explication pertinente mais insuffisante pour appréhender la complexité de la relation entre culture et entrepreneuriat. Des auteurs proposent d'enrichir l'approche par les valeurs, qui s'intéresse à la manière dont une société devrait se comporter, par une analyse de la manière dont les valeurs de cette société sont transcrites dans les pratiques culturelles (Autio et al., 2013 ;Leung & Morris, 2015 ;Wennberg et al., 2013) et dans les schémas de pensée (Leung & Morris, 2015). En entrepreneuriat, certains travaux ont commencé à explorer l'influence de la culture au travers de ses valeurs et de ses pratiques, en utilisant le cadre de référence de House et al. développé dans le cadre du programme GLOBE. ...
... Celle-ci apparaît comme une explication pertinente mais insuffisante pour appréhender la complexité de la relation entre culture et entrepreneuriat. Des auteurs proposent d'enrichir l'approche par les valeurs, qui s'intéresse à la manière dont une société devrait se comporter, par une analyse de la manière dont les valeurs de cette société sont transcrites dans les pratiques culturelles (Autio et al., 2013 ;Leung & Morris, 2015 ;Wennberg et al., 2013) et dans les schémas de pensée (Leung & Morris, 2015). En entrepreneuriat, certains travaux ont commencé à explorer l'influence de la culture au travers de ses valeurs et de ses pratiques, en utilisant le cadre de référence de House et al. développé dans le cadre du programme GLOBE. ...
Article
Cet article a pour objectif de comprendre comment l’activité entrepreneuriale des femmes au Maroc se construit, au regard des valeurs culturelles et de leur traduction dans les pratiques, et dans les relations avec les parties prenantes. Nous considérons le contexte culturel comme un triptyque composé de « valeurs », de « pratiques » et de « schémas de pensées ». Sur base de 60 entretiens avec des femmes entrepreneures marocaines aux profils diversifiés, nos résultats montrent que les activités entrepreneuriales observées sont tiraillées entre des valeurs, des pratiques et des schémas de pensées tantôt traditionnels, répartissant les rôles de manière sexuées, tantôt libérales, encourageant les femmes à investir la sphère sociale et économique pleinement et publiquement.
... Therefore, what remains to be investigated is how ethnocentrism influences intercultural willingness in collectivistic cultures such as China and Pakistan, where the extended network of family and friends is given much importance. This requires a careful examination of the questions that explain how ecological settings, such as demographic attributes among individuals, influence their interactions while communicating with others that draws from past studies (see for review 28 ) that suggest individuals uphold demographic attributes that may influence their patterns of actions based on their ecological environment. Nevertheless, both nations are culturally diverse in terms of their cultural dimensions and cultural orientations (see for review 29 ). ...
... These demographic attributes and other sociocultural factors, such as norms or beliefs, provide an ecological environment to an individual in a given culture 56 . In turn, individuals learn and groom themselves within this ecological environment 28,43 . For example, people learn acceptable behaviors (i.e., norms), which are regulated by the social institutions available to them in such ecological settings. ...
Article
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There is a prevalent notion regarding divergence in the extent of ethnocentrism and the intercultural willingness to communicate across cultures. Given this cultural divergence, research is replete with comparative studies of ethnocentrism and the intercultural willingness to communicate between individualistic and collectivistic cultures. However, to our knowledge, a comparison of these crucial cultural tendencies within and their consequences for collectivistic cultures has been overlooked. Thus, this study provides a cross-cultural comparison of ethnocentrism and the intercultural willingness to communicate among university students from two collectivist cultures, i.e., Pakistan and China. The researchers employed a cross-sectional design. A sample of 775 students was collected using a survey technique. The findings show that Pakistani students are more ethnocentric and have a lower intercultural willingness to communicate than Chinese students. Moreover, males were found to be more ethnocentric and less willing to communicate in intercultural settings than females in both countries. These findings validate the notion of ethnocentrism divergence across collectivistic countries and its influence on the intercultural willingness to communicate. Additionally, they demonstrate the role of demographic attributes in evolving ethnocentrism and the intercultural willingness to communicate. Accordingly, these findings also confirm the ecological assumption that contextual factors, such as demographic attributes (e.g., past interactions with foreigners), influence communication schemas. Therefore, concerning its management, these findings suggest that increased people-to-people interactions between the two focal countries can better foster their mutual understanding to reap an increased harvest of the fruits of the Belt and Road Initiative.
... According to the literature suggestions mentioned above (Chen & Davison, 2019;Karahanna et al., 1999;Kwon et al., 2017;Simonson & Nowlis, 2000;Tao & Xu, 2018;Whitley et al., 2018), perceiving products from a more personal perspective-specifically, related to the response to product offering-may decrease consumer preference for conventional options that comply with norms and consensuses. Accordingly, the situated dynamics framework (Leung & Morris, 2015) posits that people use norms more in the situational contexts of the presence of other people and the absence of personal preferences. One may assume that self-relevance of consumer response to a product represents a more personal (vs. ...
... Consequently, one may consider this reliance on trustworthiness cues as indicative of using norms. Following the same argument regarding the negative effect of taking personal perspective on using norms and conventions (Chen & Davison, 2019;Karahanna et al., 1999;Kwon et al., 2017;Leung & Morris, 2015;Simonson & Nowlis, 2000;Tao & Xu, 2018;Whitley et al., 2018), one may propose that a more self-relevance response to a product (representing more personal perspective, as discussed above) diminishes the influence of the trustworthiness cues on consumer perceived trustworthiness of the product message. For example, consumers who consider buying a smartphone (high self-relevance) may be less susceptible to suggesting that a smartphone description is trustworthy because it comes from independent experts. ...
Article
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The existing literature suggests that people rely less on norms and conventions when the context is more relevant to them. On that account, the paper proposes that the self-relevance of response to an online product offering diminishes the effectiveness of message-related cues regarding the importance of presented product attributes and the source trustworthiness. Three experiments (Study 1: N = 222, Study 2: N = 174, Study 3: N = 79) manipulated self-relevance by asking participants to imagine that they buy products for themselves (vs. the participants merely evaluated products) (Studies 1–2) and exposing participants to a product-related narrative (Study 3). Additionally, message-related cues were presented to the participants (attribute-importance cues in Studies 1–2, source-trustworthiness cues in Study 3). Product preferences (Studies 1–2) and perceived message trustworthiness (Study 3) were measured. The results indicate that in the high self-relevance condition, the effect of attribute = importance cues on consumer product preference is weaker (Studies 1–2), and the effect of source-trustworthiness cues on perceived trustworthiness (Study 3). The paper presents a novel perspective linking the concept of consumer self-relevance with the effectiveness of message-related cues in product offerings. The results suggest to online marketers when to communicate cues regarding attribute importance and source trustworthiness and provide valuable guidelines for policymakers and consumers about how to resist those cues.
... This points to an opportunity to expand the geographical boundaries of this research, while also integrating recent theoretical advancements within the cultural management literature. For example, by exploring cultural heterogeneity in terms of individual values, such as those presented by Schwartz (1992) or the GLOBE project (House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman, & Gupta, 2004), or cultural schemas and norms (Leung & Morris, 2015). Second, Indigenous knowledge has been studied primarily at the community level, while also relying on general notions of Indigeneity without acknowledging the importance of cultural diversity and contextual considerations. ...
Article
Indigenous Peoples and contexts have offered valuable insights to enrich management and organization theories and literature. Yet, despite their growing prevalence and impact, these insights have not been compiled and synthesized comprehensively. With this article, we provide a systematic and thorough analysis of Indigenous Management and Organization Studies research published over a 90-year period (1932 – 2021) and synthesize this body of work into a multi-dimensional framework, exploring the various features and methodological considerations of Indigenous research. Our analysis reveals that the literature in the field remains fragmented and dispersed across many different subfields and publication outlets, making it challenging for researchers to aggregate, synthesize, and build upon prior works. Our framework integrates insights into recurrent themes and provides a common language to further advance this vitally important field of research. Keywords: Indigenous; Management; Organization; Literature Review
... This differs from individualistic societies, where "belief-attitude-behavior" overcome the "social norms-behavior relationship" of collectivist societies (Cho and Lee, 2015). These results also align with those of Leung and Morris (2015), who explored tightness and looseness cultural differences and concluded that, in a tight culture, people may expect norms to be more prescriptive, and the penalties of deviating from those norms would be more harmful. Conversely, in loose culture, people have more options and personal choice is more salient. ...
Article
Purpose The authors study the role of collectivistic norms and beliefs on organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) in Mexico, including differences across gender and generations. Design/methodology/approach The authors researched the relationship between Mexican employees' collectivistic norms and beliefs and their OCBs, which the authors grouped into etic (universal), emic (regional) and unique (indigenous) categories, the latter referred to as Mexican OCBs (MOCBs). The authors also studied the role of gender and generations as moderators. Findings Collective norms had a positive relationship only on the etic OCBs of sportsmanship, while collective beliefs impacted altruism and civic virtue; the etic OCBs of personal development, protecting company resources, interpersonal harmony; and the MOCBs of dedication and camaraderie. Collective beliefs on the etic OCB of altruism, the emic OCB of protecting company resources and the unique MOCB of camaraderie were stronger for workers from Xers than for Millennials. Moderation tests also showed that collective belief had stronger effects on the emic OCB of protecting company resources and the unique MOCBs of dedication and camaraderie for men than for women. Research limitations/implications Gender roles in emerging economies where society is characterized by collectivistic attributes, especially in a sample drawn from professional employees, may have changed. This could explain the reason why most of the interactions were stronger for men. Future studies involving gender roles should look beyond a demographic variable and design an instrument measuring self-perceptions of role identity, such as the Bem Sex Role Inventory (Bem, 1974). This study's findings could be generalized, particularly, to other Latin American nations, but scholars should acknowledge differences in economic development and gender roles, as well as unique cultural elements (Arriagada, 2014; Hofstede, 1980). Practical implications The results of this study yield three practical implications for international managers, including (1) distinguishing between the impact of changing cultural norms or beliefs on OCBs, (2) understanding how demographic factors such as gender or generation may influence the degree of OCBs exhibited in the workplace by specific employee groups, and (3) identifying cultural contexts which promote OCBs. First, workers from a younger generation in a collectivistic society, such as Millennials, respond less positively than workers from older generations to cultural beliefs concerning OCBs, such that they are less willing to engage in a particular category of OCBs including protecting company resources. Social implications Global managers should be aware that employees engage in distinct OCBs for different reasons. Emphasizing cultural rules and norms behind helping one another may backfire in Mexico, particularly among men and younger generations of workers. This is understandable for these OCBs. For example, engaging in personal development for the organization's sake due to collective norms may be less effective that pursuing personal development opportunities that employees are passionate about or recognize as beneficial for their careers. Dedication and sportsmanship behaviors that stem from rules are likely less strong or effective as OCBs employees engage in due to strong beliefs or altruistic spontaneity. Originality/value The authors filled a gap in scholar's understanding of cultural norms and beliefs on behavior. Specifically, the authors found that cultural beliefs shape etic, emic and unique MOCBs, particularly for men and older generations, and that cultural norms have a negligible and sometimes negative role, being positively related only to the etic OCB of sportsmanship.
... Indian youths who are more collectivistic feel strong social pressure as well as have direct influence on their attitude toward sustainable apparel purchase. The findings of study contradict the findings of Leung and Morris (2014) which states progressing individualistic and materialistic nature of human being in collectivistic environment. Prior research finding states collectivist cultural people are more inclined towards sustainable products as compared to individualist (Cho et al. 2013 andWang 2014). ...
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Increasing pollution, climate change and concern over the energy consumption in conventional apparel production methods has made the textile industry as a major pollution source. Empirical advancement in the field of sustainable apparel and customer behavioural intention are not sufficient enough to be presumed applicable in Indian market settings. This study intends to examine the application of the extended TPB model by additional constructs like collectivism cultural orientation, environmental concern and price sensitivity for anticipating green apparel purchase intension of educated millennial in India. Quantitative research followed with cross-sectional survey design was used to ascertain millennial behavioral intention towards eco-friendly apparels. Variance-based estimator, Partial Least Square (PLS) structural equation modelling was used to confirm the proposed structural relationship and Multi Group Analysis (MGA) was employed to test the moderating effect of price sensitivity. Study disseminates valuable insights to policymakers and marketers to formulate strategies and policies to attain sustainability in fashion. India being a collectivist nation the study suggests marketers to manage collectivistic national values in order to promote environment friendly apparel so as to educate customers about environmental issues and the benefit of using ecological friendly product.
... Despite historical prevalence in studies of cultures' impact on behavior, value-based theories of culture have received increased criticism for their limited ability to reconcile cultural effects with individual variations in preferences and behavior (e.g., Bearden, Money & Nevins, 2006). Thus, recent research has focused on the effect culture has on behavior through mechanisms beyond value preferences to include cognitive effects (e.g., Leung & Morris, 2015;Peterson & Barreto, 2014). Rather than being shaped solely by consciously held values, behavior is impacted by psychological processes emerging from continuously and subconsciously reinforced cultural practices and institutions (Kitayama, 2002). ...
... According to the UTAUT model theory, social influence explains the degree of importance an individual senses that he or she should assign to the technology based on others' opinions [9]. It has long been known that individuals adjust their thoughts to the group norm because they can acquire influential information from peers' reactions [16]. Venkatesh and Davis differentiated between voluntary and mandatory contexts, in which social influence functions differently (Venkatesh and Davis, 2000) [17]. ...
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During the COVID-19 pandemic, the percentage of Chinese people wearing masks was very high, as was the acceptance and initiative toward mask wearing. This national action merits our exploration of the psychological reasons as well as the general social and environmental factors behind this behavior. In this article, we integrated the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology 2 (UTAUT 2) as well as Health Belief Model and set up a mask acceptance model. We used a questionnaire survey and received 337 valid questionnaires. The results indicate that social influence, perceived susceptibility to COVID-19, perceived hedonic benefit (appearance enhancement), and a perceived barrier (hindrance to communication) exert significant influences on the willingness to wear masks. Meanwhile, social influence plays an intermediary role between interdependent self-construal and intention to wear a mask. We hope to reveal the micro psychological reasons for the national action and reflect on the cultural characteristics of Chinese people in the special context of the COVID-19 pandemic.
... Culture is a pattern of meanings [26] concerning ideas and values [41] that are shared across its members. It affects our way of thinking, our judgment, and our behavior by enforcing values, schemas, and norms [30,43,70]. Studies suggest that culture is a multi-dimensional concept [28]. ...
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This paper addresses inconsistencies that exist in the measurement instruments HCI researchers use in cross-cultural studies. We study some commonly used measurement instruments that capture cultural dimensions at an individual level and conduct "measurement invariance tests," which test whether the questions comprising a construct have similar characteristics across different groups (e.g., countries). We find that these cultural dimensions are, to some extent, non-invariant, making statistical comparisons between countries problematic. Furthermore, we study the (non)invariance of the causal relationship between these cultural dimensions and privacy-related constructs, e.g., privacy concern and the amount of information users share on social media. Our results suggest that in several instances, these cultural dimensions have a different effect on privacy-related constructs per country. This severely reduces their usefulness for developing cross-cultural arguments in cross-country studies. We discuss the value of conducting measurement and causal non-invariance tests and urge scholars to develop more robust means of measuring culture.
... There is a need for future research to contextualize culture. Culture does not exist in isolation and may interact with prevailing formal institutions (e.g., the rule of law or regulation; Estrin et al. 2013, Williamson 2000 or with other informal institutions (e.g., diversity and cultural schemas; Leung & Morris 2014, Nisbett 2004 to influence innovation/entrepreneurship. Combining theories of culture with insights into formal institutions from economics and insights into informal institutions from cognitive approaches, political science, and sociology thus opens up opportunities for new theoretical contributions and practical implications. ...
Article
How can culture help explain persistent cross-country differences in innovation and entrepreneurship? This overview of cross-cultural innovation/entrepreneurship research draws on the most prominent cultural frameworks (by Hofstede, Schwartz, GLOBE, and Gelfand and colleagues). After outlining similarities and differences between these frameworks, I discuss theoretical perspectives of how culture shapes innovation/entrepreneurship (culture fit, culture misfit, cultural social support, and culture as a boundary condition) and give an overview of empirical research on culture and innovation/entrepreneurship. I conclude by outlining opportunities and best practices for future research and practical implications.
... Accordingly, in conflicting contexts immigrants' subjective norms may impede engagement with DC-originated eWOM due to pressure to avoid such behavior. In a cross-national study, Leung et al. [54] proposed that subjective norms influence people's behaviors by providing information on what behaviors are socially approved, and further demonstrated that minority individuals' subjective norms mediate the effect of culture on minorities' behavior. ...
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Social network sites (SNS) facilitate eWOM communication among consumers of different cultures. Building on contact theory and the theory of planned behavior, we propose a conceptual framework that integrates intercultural factors as predictors of minority consumers’ engagement with eWOM communicated by and to individuals of the dominant culture on social media. A partial least squares (PLS) analysis on data collected from the Israeli-Arab minority shows that intercultural factors (i.e., acculturation, social interaction, and language proficiency) are antecedents of minority consumer engagement with eWOM. However, this relationship is mediated by consumer beliefs (attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control) concerning this behavior, and moderated by the cultural distance between minority and dominant culture consumers. The findings help marketers plan marketing communications that engage audiences meaningfully and generate positive eWOM when targeting ethnic-cultural minorities. The current study contributes to our understanding of minority consumers’ engagement with eWOM communicated by and to members of the hegemonic culture. It further contributes to consumer engagement theory and acculturation research by supporting the post-assimilationist view. The proposed model is highly valuable in light of the importance of the concept of consumer engagement in marketing research.
... This work suggests that culture is in fact quite fluid and that much nuance may be lost if culture is conceptualized merely in terms of values. Cultural psychologists have thus shifted to a more contextdependent view of culture, whereby they see culture as carried by norms rather than fixed values [6e9, 34,37,41]. Cultural norms are shared rules among members of a group that guide behavior in any given situation [6e10]. We argue that cultural norms not only guide our own behaviors but also color our perceptions of others. ...
Article
People from different cultures may perceive the same behavior in contrasting ways, thereby reaching very different conclusions. We argue that cultural norms not only guide our own behaviors but also color the way we perceive others. Here, we overview research on the different cultural norms people may use when judging others. Specifically, we discuss work on norms pertaining to how people describe, evaluate, and support others. Additionally, we also highlight some important implications of the reviewed research and underscore some key environmental factors that motivate stronger adherence to cultural norms. We conclude that the study of interpersonal perception is incomplete without taking into account the influence cultural norms have on the way we perceive others.
... In other words, we suggest a repositioning of the discussion around standardization versus localization by adopting conceptualizations of culture that allow for recognition of its complex nature, especially in the current globalized context. Examples include the ambiguity paradigm (Martin, 2002), which proposes a more fragmented, individualized view on culture; the situated dynamic framework (Leung & Morris, 2015), delineating important distinction between different aspects of culture (i.e., values, schemas, and norms) and the role they play in IB/IM; the Glocalized Community Culture Model proposed by Gould and Grein (2009), in which culture is situated and produced within dynamic communities of practice; and the friction, contact-based framework (Shenkar et al., in press) in addressing dynamics of cross-cultural interactions. Each of these approaches suggests a far more nuanced view of the role of culture, a view which would offer a better understanding of the relationship between the most appropriate business practices for a given context. ...
Article
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There has long been a dominant logic in the international business literature that multinational corporations should adapt business practices to “fit” host cultures. Business practices that are congruent with local cultural norms have been advocated as effective and desirable, while practices that are incongruent have been deemed problematic. We examine and challenge this persistent assumption by reviewing the literature showing evidence for both benefits and acceptance of countercultural practices (i.e., practices that are seemingly incongruent with local cultural norms or values), and disadvantages and rejection of local practices. Drawing on the literature reviewed, we offer four types of theoretical (ontological, epistemological, causal, and functional) explanations as to why and when countercultural business practices might be preferred. Finally, we provide a springboard for a future research agenda on countercultural practices, centered around understanding the circumstances under which businesses and local stakeholders might benefit from the use of countercultural practices based on such factors as strategic intent, local preferences, institutional drivers, and social responsibility.
... Another methodological concern revealed by this literature review is over-reliance on crosssectional data. Meyer et al. (2017), in a JIBS editorial, argued for an increased use of experimental designs, making it possible to test for causality between variables of interest in a systematic manner (Leung and Morris, 2015;Tung and Stahl, 2018). According to Meyer et al. (2017, p. 541), empirical study designs would be useful in affinity research because they "offer interesting opportunities to advance international business knowledge that have yet to be fully exploited in the field". ...
Article
Purpose - Consumer affinity may be a key factor in overcoming ethnocentric barriers and promoting a favourable attitude towards specific foreign countries and their products. However, progress in knowledge of this concept in international marketing literature has suffered from a lack of integration and analysis. The purpose of this study was to shed new light on the concept of consumer affinity based on a comprehensive systematic review of the literature, provide a critical analysis of previous research in terms of conceptual, methodological and substantive issues and problems, and offer avenues for future research. Design/methodology/approach – This structured systematic review of consumer affinity included articles published in international peer-reviewed journals from 2008 to 2021, examining key conceptual, operational and substantive aspects. Findings - This systematic review of articles on consumer affinity published over the past 14 years revealed that this line of research is a growing vibrant domain in the context of international marketing. It also showed that current knowledge of consumer affinity is characterized by theoretical inconsistencies, contradictory empirical results and scant international marketing research in the affinity domain. Originality – This article provides an overview of extant literature on consumer affinity and yields a consolidated image of its current status, as well as a research agenda that raises new questions for the academic community.
... Such differences in norm levels might modulate effects of individual-level variables. In line with the situated dynamics framework (Leung & Morris, 2015; M. W. Morris et al., 2015), we propose that subjective norm effects on behavior should be strengthened if there is higher subjective norm endorsement at the community level. Higher levels of perceived social approval of behaviors are likely to reinforce the effect of subjective norms held by individuals. ...
Article
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We examined the effectiveness of attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) of the theory of planned behavior on COVID-19 relevant behavioral intentions and behaviors. We conducted a meta-analysis of 335 effect sizes from 83 samples across 31 countries ( N = 68,592). We found strongest effects for PBC, but contrary to previous research also moderately strong effects of subjective norms. Focusing on systematic context effects: (a) norm–behavior associations at individual level were strengthened if population norms were stronger; (b) collectivism strengthened norm effects in line with cultural theories, but also attitude and PBC associations, suggesting that COVID-relevant behaviors show collective action properties; (c) in line with cultural theory, tightness–looseness strengthened normative effects on behaviors; and (d) contrary to post-modernization theory, national wealth weakened attitude and PBC associations. These analyses provide new theoretical and practical insights into behavioral dynamics during an acute public health crisis.
... Although traditional gender roles surely manifest in private behaviors, the impact of intersubjective norms may be greater when manifesting in public (Crandall et al., 2002;LaCosse et al., 2016;Mallett et al., 2019;Woodzicka & LaFrance, 2005). Indeed, research on intersubjective norms and even social referencing suggests that the impact of perceived norms is particularly impactful when people feel accountable to an ingroup audience (Chiu et al., 2010;Gelfand & Realo, 1999;Leung & Morris, 2015;Repacholi & Meltzoff, 2007), such as when anticipating evaluation by the ingroup (e.g., girls of the same age). We hypothesized that when girls anticipate evaluation by peers, their nonverbal and verbal expressions are likely to reflect intersubjective norms of femininity, which themselves reflect cultural patterns of nonverbal bias. ...
Article
One tacit assumption in social psychology is that people learn gender stereotypes from their environments. Yet, little research has examined how such learning might occur: What are the features of social environments that shape people's gender stereotypes? We propose that nonverbal patterns communicate intersubjective gender norms (i.e., what behaviors people value in women and girls vs. men and boys). Furthermore, we propose that children develop intersubjective gender norms in part because they are commonly and consistently exposed to these nonverbal patterns. Across three studies, we tested the hypotheses that (a) children are frequently exposed to a nonverbal pattern of gender-role bias in which people respond more positively to gender-stereotypical than counterstereotypical girls and boys and (b) emotionally perceptive girls extract meaning from this pattern about what behaviors others value in girls (traditionally feminine behavior) and boys (traditionally masculine behavior). Study 1 indicated that characters across 12 popular U.S. children's TV programs exhibited a small, but consistent nonverbal bias favoring gender-stereotypical TV characters. In Study 2, girls (N = 68; 6-10 years) felt more pressure to be feminine after viewing TV clips that included traditional nonverbal bias than after viewing clips that reversed this bias. As predicted, these results held only to the extent that children could accurately decode nonverbal emotion (i.e., were emotionally perceptive). Study 3 replicated these results (N = 91; 6-11 years). (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... Since managers from EEs have a mindset for using BRELs to conduct business, they tend to build these while operating in AEs as well. Culture impacts behavior through values, norms and schemas (Leung and Morris, 2015), as well as cognition and sensemaking (Maitland and Sammartino, 2015). Yet, a growing body of research also shows that "Western" and "Eastern" cultural archetypes share many similarities (Venaik and Brewer, 2019). ...
Article
Purpose Contrary to the widely held belief in the linear positive effects of business relationships (BRELs) on performance outcomes, the authors posit that the quality of a manager's BRELs with a foreign business partner has an inverted curvilinear effect on managing challenges arising out of institutional differences between two countries, which the authors define as institutional success. The authors further propose that managers' global role complexity (GRC) negatively impacts institutional success and dampens the inverted curvilinear effects of BRELs on institutional success. Design/methodology/approach The proposed model is tested using questionnaire survey data from 186 senior Indian managers doing business with New Zealand. Findings The authors find significant support for the inverted curvilinear effects of BRELs and the negative effects of GRC on institutional success. They did not find significant results for the moderating role of GRC on the inverted curvilinear relationship between BRELs and institutional success. However, significant linear interactive effects of GRC and BREL are evident. Practical implications The key managerial implication is that managers should focus on building BRELs of appropriate quality with their overseas counterparts to keep producing relational rents. They should, however, also be sensitive to when such relational rents start to be eroded by internal and external factors and treat them as a dynamic equilibrium rather than a static one. Originality/value The study findings challenge the assumption of linear positive effects of BRELs within the relational view. They highlight the significance of BRELs, even for emerging economy managers doing business in advanced economies.
... Therefore, it is important to understand the process of moderation of variation of the cultural values by having an empirical study based on the framework of the GLOBE cultural dimensions to explain its effects on the individual's cultural preferences of towards the behavioral outcome as it is notable that limited attention paid to this issue in the literature and remains minimal to explain the link of advertising with the said process [13]. However, not many studies are found in the literature to determine the influence of the cultural norms with the framework of GLOBE dimensions in explaining the vibrant relationship of advertising and consumer behavior in the culture variation perspectives [14]. Thus, it also helps to explicitly the complexity of cultural norms as a factor of influence on the process of consumer behavior formulation stimulated by the advertising within the framework of the GLOBE. ...
Conference Paper
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Past advertising and marketing research has employed two distinct approaches to understanding consumer behavior. Some studies have used the informational social influence approach by operationalizing the consumer behavior outcome domain as a psychological phenomenon wherein individuals are intended to adopt the actions of others to replicate the accurate behavior in a specified condition. This is contrasted with the cultural approach that advocates normative influence where an individual conforms to be adored or accepted by others. This study is inclined to shed light on the cultural approach wherein conformity is an influence involving a change in consumer behavior to align with normative standards. It is also a common and pervasive approach to define the domains of cross-cultural advertising studies wherein norm-congruence is used in defining the influences on consumption patterns. For a better description, in the case of cultural values incongruence, an individual is persuaded to do somewhat that they might not intend to do but which they distinguish as "necessary" to retain a positive relationship with his/her associated members of a particular group or culture. Thus, the conformity approach generally consequences from identification with the group associates or from compliance of some associates to appease others. The study offered a direction for future international advertising research to tap the cultural influences by using GLOBE dimensions.
... In addition, a recent study of Jiang et al. (2015) finds that involvement work systems and operational effectiveness are significantly affected by cultural values. Moreover, regarding the framework of Leung and Morris (2015), values as the mediator of culture are anticipated to affect judgement and behaviour of people. Altogether, these considerations lead to the second hypothesis: ...
Article
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Purpose This study focuses on variations of the importance of core values through motivational domains of individuals by their cultural background. The effect of motivational domains on operational performance has also been investigated. Design/methodology/approach The study used survey as the main data collection method to elicit data from managerial workers in spa businesses in four regions of Thailand. An unpublished database of spa businesses was provided to the study by the Thai Chamber of Commerce. Findings Significant variations of the importance of motivational domains of managerial workers can be found according to the subculture of each of the four regions of Thailand. In addition, the motivational domains have found their significant impact on worker operational performance. Research limitations/implications One of the limitations of this study may be the distribution of samples because the study focuses on spa businesses, most of which in each region are located in big tourism provinces that may not be wholly representative of the characteristics of each region. Practical implications This study will be of practical value for practitioners or managers of any firms since it is important to consider value variations when assessing the operational performance; workers, especially managerial workers, in each subculture may have different priorities in the motivational domains of their lives. This could affect their operational performance. Originality/value This is an original attempt to ascertain variations of core values through motivational domains by subculture. It fills a knowledge gap in under-researched area in the literature since so far a few studies have examined this issue in the ASEAN countries.
... In addition to emphasizing the social and institutional aspects of situations while mostly ignoring the physical environment, comparative investigations often ignore the dynamic nature of behavior embedded within multi-layered social systems, suggesting the potential value of alternative approaches (e.g., Leung & Morris, 2015;Tung & Stahl, 2018). For example, the culture-as-context approach emphasizes the embedded nature of situations such that the salience of cultural values can magnify or lessen cultural influences (Husted & Allen, 2008;Oyserman & Lee, 2008). ...
Chapter
This is the concluding chapter in a volume that focuses on environmental sustainability and human resource management (HRM) research and describes how the effective use of so-called green HRM practices can contribute to the improved environmental performance of organizations. Together, the chapters in this volume provide evidence to support the assertion that green HRM practices are associated with many positive outcomes, including employees’ pro-environment work behavior, commitment and engagement, as well as the environmental and economic performance of firms. Yet there are many gaps in our knowledge base that future research should address, including studying green HRM in a much broader range of countries and industries, examining a broader array of specific and/or bundled HRM practices, improving our understanding of the role context plays in shaping green HRM phenomena, and providing evidence accumulated from a more diverse and robust set of methodologies. All of these gaps are worthy of attention and many are understood sufficiently well to generate new types of research. This chapter provides more detailed discussions of just a few research gaps in need of greater scholarly attention and fresh insights, namely: • Improved understanding of Individual green HRM practices, clusters, and bundles • Temporal sequencing of green HRM practices • Green HRM processes to create organization change • Understanding green HRM in context • Conclusion: What’s Next for Green HRM?
... To begin with, the expanded model suggests we need to measure, values, social norms and self-efficacy if we wish to be able to predict behaviour, as the individual elements might not have a relationship with behaviour, but a combination of all three would. For example, Leung and Morris (2015) state that we are more likely to follow our values in situations where there are no strong normative indicators, such as when our behaviour is anonymous or private or part of a collective effort and so hard to attribute to any one individual. This viewpoint is supported by the results of a study by Aguilar-Luzón et al. (2012) who found that while social norms did not predict environmental behaviours, behavioural intentions which combined social norms with attitudes and self-efficacy, did predict them. ...
... One alternative to the comparative approach to studying culture is the culture-as-context approach. Whereas the comparative approach to studying culture ignores the dynamic and embedded nature of behavior that occurs within multi-layered social systems, (e.g., Leung & Morris, 2015;Smith et al., 2008;Tung & Stahl, 2018), the culture-as-context approach recognizes that specific situations can alter the salience of cultural cues and thus magnify or lessen a broader culture's influence on behavior in specific situations (Husted & Allen, 2008;Oyserman & Lee, 2008). To better account for the complex social context from which patterns of thought and behavior arise, Morris and colleagues (2015) advocated a norm-based model of culture, which views it as comprising patterns of behaviors and expectations that vary across multi-layered and complex social environments. ...
Article
To understand the conditions that support employee green behavior across cultures, we develop and test a conceptual model that describes how normative cues from work team leaders and peers in combination with country cultural norms shape discretionary green workplace behavior. Data from 1,605 employees in five countries indicate that power distance moderates the positive relationships observed between the discretionary green workplace behavior of leaders and their subordinates. In addition, an observed positive relationship between team green advocacy and individual discretionary green workplace behavior held across both collectivistic and individualistic cultures, contrary to our predictions. By taking macro-level cultural context into account and examining its interplay with lower-level work team norms, the study makes a significant contribution to understanding and intervening employees’ discretionary green behavior at work.
... The process of othering is more complex for such individuals because they identify with more than one country (Vora, Martin, Fitzsimmons, Pekerti, Lakshman, & Raheem, 2019). For them, the meaning of 'here' and 'there' is often not as unidirectional as for those born and raised and still living in a single country (Leung & Morris, 2015), which has important implications for international human resource management (Tung, 2016). This observation not only applies to bicultural and multicultural individuals but also to expatriates. ...
Article
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The field of international business (IB) has been successful in developing a unique body of knowledge on the multinational corporation and on country-level contexts. A recurring debate concerns its claim to uniqueness, and to associated scholarly characteristics that distinguish IB from other fields of research. I discuss what makes IB research unique by looking at what IB theory can explain and predict. To that end, I leverage key theoretical arguments and empirical insights to advance an understanding of IB centered around a firm’s ability to create added value in more than one location. I introduce a stylized model of the multi-locational firm embedded in multiple business systems characterized by equifinality. As a result of the qualitative disjunctures that separate one place from another, multi-locational firms are confronted with additional managerial and organizational challenges. These challenges are rooted in the process of “othering”. Theorizing on the critical constructs of place, space, and organization, I argue that IB offers the most generalizable approach to understanding firms doing business in more than one location. IB’s ultimate uniqueness lies in the potential of advancing a general theory of the firm in space.
... While a variety of approaches have been pursued to map cultural contexts, focusing on values (Hofstede, 2001;House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman, & Gupta, 2004), value archetypes (Venaik & Midgley, 2015), norms (Gelfand,Nishii,1 Instead of concentrating solely on formal structures between A and B as nodes, we may think of networks as resembling a painting by Pollock that is unstructured, a little chaotic, and differently accentuated. & Raver, 2006), and schema (Leung & Morris, 2015), to mention only a few, the informal network perspective is less established in international business studies as yet. The way in which informal ties and networks are concluded, maintained, strengthened, and governed is often embedded in the respective cultural context in which interpersonal transactions in business take place. ...
... With this table, we highlight a range of other cultural dimensions that could potentially explain variances in team functioning and could be measured in future team research in different team settings. Finally, even though researchers have recognized that cultures differ in terms of their values and preferences for behavior, communication, and cognition, there is a lack of research on how these variables should be considered-alone or together when studying teams (Kirkman et al., 2017;Leung & Morris, 2015;Straub et al., 2002). Because of this, the vast majority of researchers have examined cultural effects independently (e.g., Vatrapu & Suthers, 2007). ...
... Organizational culture viewed as the mechanism to reduces the diversity of employee's behavior, attitude, and values [14]. Organization culture represents the core values, ideologies, and symbols of an organization, which influence the employee's behavior [15], [16]. Organizational culture stated as a "multi-level concept which can be analyzed with eight different components such as openness, confrontation, trust, authenticity, pro-action, autonomy, collaboration, and experimentation" [17]. ...
Article
The primary objective of the present study is measuring the consequences of perceived organizational culture on job satisfaction experienced by employees of the hotel industry. The employee owns a set of behavior and attitudes in the organization, termed as organizational culture, influences an employee's job satisfaction. Furthermore, the perception of employees towards the organization's working environment represents a job satisfaction, maybe reflected as positive or negative responses. Thus, these two different concepts have a significant effect on employees. The present study has been conducted on employees working as middle-level managers and managers in five-star hotels of northern India. To assess the relationship between organizational culture and job satisfaction, multiple correlation and stepwise multiple regression analysis has been implemented. Job satisfaction of the employees found positively correlated with all variables of organization culture among employees. The results suggested that openness, authenticity, and experimentation have an insignificant effect on job satisfaction. Further, pro-action, confrontation, and autonomy identified as the most dominant predictors for the job satisfaction of the hotel employees.
... One core challenge of any scientific debate on culture is that it uses a large variety of terms and of underlying theoretical concepts. These range from values, attitudes, and preferences, social roles, norms, and expectations to everyday knowledge, understandings, representations, schemas, conceptions, frames, scripts, and habits (for more detailed overviews of a few of these concepts, see e.g., Lamont and Small 2008;Leung and Morris 2015). In part, the empirical phenomena the concepts aim to describe are roughly the same. ...
Article
Interpersonal interactions of global employees are critical for Socio-Cultural Adaptation (SCA) and effective human resources management in the international environment. To date, research examining the impact of interpersonal process of conflict in effective socio-cultural adaptation in the global environment is limited. In this study, we argue that conflict is pervasive in interpersonal interactions and is likely to impact the success of global employees’ SCA. We propose that employees’ communication and cultural intelligence play important mediating and moderating roles in the link between conflict and SCA. Findings from 241 global organizational employees from over 30 countries suggest that conflict and communication are directly related to SCA. Additionally, aspects of employees’ communication behaviors mediated the link between conflict and SCA, while aspects of cultural intelligence moderated the link between conflict communication behaviors and SCA. These findings extend the literature on SCA and contribute to the further development of the concept of cultural intelligence in relation to human resource management. The implications of our findings for international human resource management are discussed.
Article
Hofstede’s cultural dimensions are one of the most commonly referenced cultural models in the literature, but it has also been criticized for its inflexibility in terms of allowing for cultural changes over time. In this study, we focus on one salient dimension of national culture, long-term orientation (LTO), to investigate cultural change over time. Using the LTO scale developed by Bearden et al. ((2006) A measure of long-term orientation: development and validation. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 34(3): 456–67), we conducted a survey in Brazil, China, Colombia, India, Portugal, Romania, Spain, and Turkey, and collected 1,452 valid responses. Our study provided new evidence on LTO national ranking and cultural change. We found the countries surveyed no longer appear to be in the same relative positions as when Hofstede first published his results in the 1980s, or his more recent results based on data from the World Value Survey (WVS). Implications for practitioners, academics, and students in the cross-cultural management field are discussed.
Article
Purpose The authors advance a model theorizing how new ventures elicit citizenship behaviors to cultivate dynamic capabilities that help bolster survival in their nascent years of operations—a characteristically resource-scarce and turbulent context. Design/methodology/approach Drawing on and integrating research on citizenship behaviors with dynamic capabilities, the authors develop a theory that new ventures that are better able to evoke a combination of affiliative and challenging citizenship behaviors from their wider entrepreneurial team (i.e. internal, and external stakeholders) are more adept at mitigating the liabilities of smallness and newness. As these behaviors are spontaneous and not explicitly remunerated, new ventures become stronger at utilizing their limited resource base for remaining lean and agile. Further, key boundary conditions are theorized that the sociocultural norms the venture is embedded within serve to heighten/attenuate the degree to which entrepreneurs can effectively cultivate dynamic capabilities from their team's “extra mile” behaviors. Findings The propositions extend a rich body of research on citizenship behaviors into the new venture domain. As all new ventures face the challenge of overcoming liabilities of newness, models that help understand why some are more adept at overcoming this and why others fail, hold substantive practical utility. Originality/value This research is the first to unpack how citizenship behaviors manifest among an extended range of stakeholders traditionally overlooked in new venture teams research and the mechanism for how this links to venture survival.
Article
This study investigates the relationship between societal temporal orientation and level of innovation. Previous studies linking culture to innovation have predominantly focused on individualism, uncertainty avoidance, power distance, and masculinity as determinants of innovation – overlooking temporal orientation. Utilizing theory from sociology and psychology, we elucidate temporal orientation as an important aspect of culture that can promote innovation. We hypothesize and find evidence for the effect of temporal orientation on three different stages of the innovation process. Results suggest temporal orientation dimensions of culture have important implications for innovation at the country level. Additionally, we find differences in effect between the temporal orientation conceptualizations of Hofstede and the GLOBE project. Our results provide evidence to strengthen theory regarding temporal orientation phenomena. Such implications are discussed along with future research directions.
Article
The national context in which family firms operate influences their behavior and firm-related outcomes. Especially how and why family businesses differ across contexts has therefore received growing interest. Yet, the insights on family businesses across countries remain fragmented and lack integration, especially regarding how the cross-country context is operationalized. Building on comparative cross-national research, this review aims to bridge the disciplines of international business and family business. I analyze the current field of cross-country family business research building on a systematic literature review of 105 peer-reviewed studies in the period 2000–2020 with the goal to collect and structure the current body of knowledge and build a future research agenda. The findings highlight different approaches that family business research utilizes to operationalize “cross-country” elements, outlining how research applies direct comparisons between countries and comparisons based upon theoretical perspectives. Building upon this conceptualization of cross-country operationalizations, the study provides several new avenues for future research.
Article
In today’s global world, it has become increasingly important for individuals moving to a different country for work, study, or permanent relocation to successfully adapt to this new culture. Responding to recent calls in the literature for more ecological approaches to the study of cultural adaptation, we examine the effect of host country historical heterogeneity—or, the extent to which a country’s current inhabitants descended from a diverse pool of ancestors—on newcomers’ cultural adaptation to that country. Across two studies, we find that higher levels of host country historical heterogeneity predict higher rates of cultural adaptation among newcomers. This relationship persists even when accounting for individual characteristics of the newcomers and sociocultural/economic characteristics of the home and host countries. These results suggest that a country’s historical levels of diversity may contribute to the successful adaptation of newcomers above and beyond their personal characteristics, their home country environment, or current conditions in the host country, including current levels of diversity. These results have practical implications for facilitating newcomers’ successful cultural adaptation.
Article
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Purpose Traditionally, international luxury marketing highlights possible disparities of cultural and value perception. The context-specific nature of traditional international luxury marketing, which ranges from educational and cultural to financial and offering-based variations, delivers little guidance to managers in the field regarding how to cater best to their highest target segment. The study aims to exemplify the relevance of global consumer culture (GCC) theory for the ultra-high-net-worth-individual (UHNWI) context. The authors' research on UHNWIs maps the DNA, so to speak, of the UHNWI customer experience (CX) by determining what drives UHNWI purchasing behavior independent of background – in other words, what matters most to this exclusive consumer segment. Design/methodology/approach Interviewing 15 UHNWIs using a means-end approach and incorporating the emerging consensus technique (ECT), the authors explored the CX of UHNWIs leading to their purchasing decisions. Findings The authors' analysis reveals the three main constituents of the UHNWI CX: the value of time, expectation mismanagement and the utilitarian nature of luxury. The findings highlight that UHNWIs see traditional luxury as a necessity rather than a luxury and value different factors, such as time, much more highly. The findings highlight the UHNWI homogenous nature, connecting GCC to purchasing behavior. Practical implications The authors' study delivers empirical evidence of what matters most to the UHNWI segment and drives their purchasing behavior. The authors are questioning existing luxury segmentation strategies and lay out a clear guidance on how to design and deliver effective and efficient marketing, sales and communications strategies for the elusive UHNWI segment. The research highlights that it is the experience and the three main dimensions, namely expectation mismanagement, luxury as a utility and the value of time. Following UHNWI CX DNA framework will allow luxury companies to build their marketing and client acquisition efforts on a solid understanding of what matters most to the UHNWI target segment. Originality/value The study highlights the commonalities of UHNWIs in terms of what matters most to them. Based on this, the authors develop a UHNWI CX DNA. The authors propose that traditional context-specific differences upheld by international marketing researchers might not apply to the UHNWI segment. The authors deliver evidence that UHNWI are an excellent example of the applicability of GCC theory. The only difference in perception the authors noticed was between CX evaluations of self-made UHNWIs and those who inherited their wealth in an otherwise homogenous segment.
Article
We take the multinational operational flexibility perspective to examine how human resource-based coordination allows multinational corporations to retain the flexibility value of multinationality in diverse cultures among host countries. We posit that home national expatriates, host country specialists, and cross-cultural training programs within the same company network promote cultural understanding, facilitate effective coordination, and consequently curb downside risks of multinationality. By employing the Tobit two-stage model on a large sample of Korean multinational corporations, we find that a broader existence of three human resource programs help curbing downside risks, and the downside risk reduction effect is stronger under high cultural diversification. These findings imply the positive roles of cross-cultural coordinative mechanisms in retaining the flexibility value of multinationality.
Article
A growing body of research in economics focuses on whether cultural differences in social norms affect economic outcomes. Here we examine how differences in the strength of social norms—or tightness-looseness (TL)—across countries can explain the financial performance of cross-border acquisitions (CBAs). We hypothesize that differences in TL hamper CBA performance, and further propose that the direction and absolute level of TL, industry relatedness, and membership in high-tech industries moderate the TL-CBA performance relationship in important ways. Using data for 4,717 CBAs in 30 countries between 1989 and 2013, we find that a one standard deviation increase in TL difference is associated with an average decrease in acquirer's return on assets equivalent to 245 million US dollars in its net income. We further find that this effect is particularly pronounced when the acquirer is tighter than the target, at greater levels of tightness, and in high-tech industries. Theoretical and practical implications of the strength of social norms for CBAs as well as the broader field of economics are discussed.
Article
Purpose Extant literature is ambiguous on the corporate social performance (CSP) of family firm. This paper aims to synthesize existing evidence of the relationship between family firm and corporate responsibility performance, and to examine the moderating effects of national culture. Design/methodology/approach The paper is based on a meta-analysis of the relationship between family firm and CSP, as well as the role of national culture on shaping this relationship. Findings The findings show evidence of greater CSP among family firms compared to nonfamily firms. The family firm–CSP relationship was moderated by cultural values such as ingroup collectivism, humane orientation and future orientation, and the moderating effects depended on cultural tightness. Originality/value The results help reconcile inconclusive prior findings, and elucidates family firms' corporate social responsibility in different cultures.
Article
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Building trusting, multicultural organizations require us to accentuate ‘sharedness’ rather than identifying differences. This study investigates how organizational members activate multiple sources of cultural values to develop trust with their colleagues from different cultural backgrounds. Through a series of surveys followed by semi-structured interviews, data were collected from members operating in five different multinational organizations based in Germany and South Africa. Analyzed abductively, our findings illustrate the multiple sources of cultural values that influence members' disposition to trust and their assessment of their colleague's trustworthiness. We further show how four levels of trust emerge as an outcome of the interplay between these various cultural dimensions. Through our multidimensional operationalization of culture, we show how variations, not only across, but within individuals can hinder or promote trusting relationships in the workplace. This study highlights the need for more nuanced approaches towards the examination of the influence of culture on trust.
Article
This study compares the usage of Social Networking Sites (SNS) in two non-Anglophone settings. A longitudinal mixed-method approach was designed to gather data face-to-face with Gen Y and Gen Z participants in Lyon (France) and St Petersburg (Russia) between 2011 and 2018, by means of survey, forum and focus groups. The initial differences observed in user behaviour were no longer apparent by 2018. Noticeably similar user behaviour reflected converging SNS consumption. From the findings, we identify socio-technical changes that influence SNS usage, in order to produce a typology of user behaviours for identifying user segments.
Article
From the perspective of the organizational learning theory, this study examines the effects of power distance diversification, government ownership, and foreign ownership on business group performance. To test the hypotheses, the study collects data from the top 100 Taiwanese business groups from 1999 to 2013. The results reveal an S-shaped relationship between power distance diversification and business group performance. It also reveals a decline, increase, and decline in performance in the low-, moderate-, and high levels of power distance diversification, respectively. The government and foreign ownership exert negative and positive moderating effects, respectively, on the S-shaped relationship. Finally, this study has important theoretical and managerial implications for strategic and international business management.
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"This work provides ways to characterize cultures, and gives researchers a set of lenses for looking at cultures. When researchers know what people value and how they use the axioms, they can predict what people will do in their cultural niche - how they are likely to interact with each other, how they are likely to relate to outsiders, how they are going to react to their jobs, what emotions they are likely to feel in different circumstances, and how are they going to deal with conflict." -- Harry C. Triandis, Professor Emeritus of Psychology, University of Illinois, U.S.A. Positive and negative beliefs about human nature and the social world, the role of fate in life events, and the belief in the existence of a supreme being: social axioms as general beliefs exist both explicitly and implicitly in cultural values and traditions the world over. In Psychological Aspects of Social Axioms, an international team of researchers brings new depth to the study of these culture-bound belief systems as they inform interpersonal and organizational behavior, are passed from parents to children and sustained by social institutions, and contribute to both national character and individual personality. The editors offer an insightful introduction to the social axiom framework and its basic issues, introducing studies from a variety of countries that explore the influence of these widespread beliefs as humans solve problems, pursue goals, and make sense of their lives. A sampling of the topics: • Transmission of social axioms during times of social change (Germany, Spain). • Social axioms and behavior of college students (India, Indonesia). • Relationships between axioms and locus of control (Italy, Greece). • Proactive coping in Christians and Muslims. • Cynicism in romantic and political relationships. • Social axioms in the U.S.: ethnic and geographic studies. With its groundbreaking constructs for intercultural understanding, Psychological Aspects of Social Axioms will find a wide and interested audience in cultural and clinical psychologists, cross-cultural trainers and educators. The book will also provide upper-level students in psychology and cultural studies with new directions for future research.
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Much of our cross-cultural training and research occurs within the framework of bipolar cultural dimensions. While this sophisticated stereotyping is helpful to a certain degree, it does not convey the complexity found within cultures. People working across cultures are frequently surprised by cultural paradoxes that do not seem to fit the descriptions they have learned. The authors identify the sources of cultural paradoxes and introduce the idea of value trumping: In a specific context, certain cultural values take precedence over others. Thus, culture is embedded in the context and cannot be understood fully without taking context into consideration. To decipher cultural paradoxes, the authors propose a model of cultural sense making, linking schemas to contexts. They spell out the implications of this model for those who teach culture, for people working across cultures, and for multinational corporations.
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A survey of Chinese values was constructed and administered to university students in 22 countries around the world. An ecological factor analysis was run on the culture means for the 40 scale items and revealed four dimensions of cultural valuing. In a search for validities, country scores on these four factors were correlated with those derived from a Western survey of work-related values by Hofstede (1980). Three of the factors from the Chinese Value Survey (CVS) correlated at high levels with three of Hofstede's four, strongly suggesting the robust value dimensions of collectivism and compassion. The second CVS factor, Confucian work dynamism, was unrelated to any of Hofstede's, but correlated .70 with economic growth from 1965 to 1984. This validational evidence confirms the potential of instruments developed outside a Western cultural tradition for opening up new theoretical vistas to the attention of behavioral scientists.
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This study examined the relation of cognitive factors (implicit theories, self-schemas, and perceived similarity) to liking and leader-member exchange (LMX) in a field setting. Perceived similarity significantly predicted LMX quality, with liking mediating this relationship. Supervisor-subordinate match on implicit performance theories, the normativeness of both subordinates' and supervisors' self-schemas, and subordinates' negative affectivity also predicted liking and LMX ratings. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
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We review recent theoretical and empirical developments in the intercultural competencies literature, highlighting contemporary models and empirical research in organizational contexts. We survey the current conceptualizations of intercultural competencies and propose that intercultural competencies can be classified based on traits, attitudes and worldviews, capabilities, or a combination of these dimensions. We identify key psychological, behavioral, and performance outcomes associated with these models. We review empirical studies of intercultural competencies at the group level and discuss emerging models of dyad-level, firm-level, and multilevel intercultural competencies. We evaluate the current measurement of intercultural competencies and suggest alternative approaches. Finally, we examine research on selection, training, and development of intercultural competencies. We end each section by identifying future research foci, and we offer an integration of the literature at the end of the review.
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Contrasting with extant research centred on the organizational challenges of sourcing services in culturally distant countries, we show that cultural differences between home and host countries do not prevent firms from achieving their cost savings targets. Instead, the effect is positive, both for the captive and outsourcing governance models. Using insight from social psychology research and the theory of organizations, we build the argument that the positive effect is due to cultural differences providing an attention stimulus for decision-makers to thoroughly gather and process information on the costs and benefits of global sourcing, thereby reducing the risk of cost estimation errors. The empirical validation uses a data set of 624 global services sourcing initiatives obtained from the Offshoring Research Network, complemented with multiple external sources of cross-country data on cultural differences, languages, geographic distance and education levels. The main contribution of the article is to add much needed nuance to the otherwise monotonic negative view of cultural differences in extant global sourcing literature. Moreover, the original theoretical framework and resulting attention stimulus argument we develop open new avenues for research on the consequences of cultural differences in international business operations more broadly.
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Past research has shown that exposure to cultural symbols can influence personal preferences. The present research extends this finding by showing that cultural symbols acquire their cultural significance in part through their associations with intersubjectively important values-values that are perceived to be prevalent in the culture. In addition, cultural symbols can influence personal preferences through the activation of perceived normative preferences. In Study 1, perceived liking of Bush among Americans was linked to the perceived popularity of intersubjectively important values in the USA. In Study 2, both priming Bush and personal endorsement of intersubjectively important values increased Americans' liking of iconic brands (brands that symbolize American culture). Furthermore, perceived normative preferences for iconic brands fully mediated this effect.
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Culture influences action not by providing the ultimate values toward which action is oriented, but by shaping a repertoire or "tool kit" of habits, skills, and styles from which people construct "strategies of action." Two models of cultural influence are developed, for settled and unsettled cultural periods. In settled periods, culture independently influences action, but only by providing resources from which people can construct diverse lines of action. In unsettled cultural periods, explicit ideologies directly govern action, but structural opportunities for action determine which among competing ideologies survive in the long run. This alternative view of culture offers new opportunities for systematic, differentiated arguments about culture's causal role in shaping action.
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Research on the effect of cultural diversity on team performance remains inconclusive. We propose to resolve the competing predictions of the information/decision making versus the social categorization theories by integrating two task‐related theories, the situational strength theory and the circumplex model of group tasks. We propose that high task specificity enables similar interpretations and shared understanding among team members, which is needed for effective “execute” (convergent) tasks, is characterized by team cooperation and interdependence. Low task specificity, in contrast, is beneficial for “generate” (creative) tasks, because it does not place constraints on generating original ideas and does not require tight coordination among the team members. We tested the effects of situational strength and task type on the relationship between cultural diversity and team performance in two experiments with 86 and 96 dyads in the first and second experiments, respectively. In both experiments, heterogeneous (Israeli–Singaporean) and homogeneous dyads (Israeli–Israeli and Singaporean–Singaporean) worked under low or high task specificity. In Study 1, dyads performed convergent execution tasks, and in Study 2, they performed creative idea‐generation tasks. The impediment of multiculturalism was reduced in execute (convergent) tasks under high task specificity and in generate (divergent) tasks under low task specificity. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Culture has become a critical concept for social psychology over the past quarter of a century. Yet, cultural dynamics, the process and mechanism of formation, maintenance, and transformation of culture, has begun to be investigated only recently. This article reports the current state of play of a research program that takes cultural dynamics as its central question. In this approach, humans are construed as meaning making animals that create, recreate, and exchange information, and turn it into a meaningful basis for action. The locus of meaning making and remaking is an everyday joint activity. The grounding model of cultural transmission describes how cultural information is deliberately or inadvertently transmitted in a joint activity. As we go about our business of living our daily lives, we ground information to our common ground, and construct a social reality that is mutually meaningful and yet only local. If locally grounded information is further generalized to a large collective and disseminated through social networks, repeated and iterative activations of the grounding process maintain the social reality of the collective that we take for granted. Implications of the grounding model of cultural transmission and future research directions are discussed.