Conference PaperPDF Available

Successful Cooperation Between the Industry and Education

Authors:
  • Visoka tehnička škola strukovnih studija, Serbia, Subotica
  • Subotica Tech - College of Applied Sciences Subotica

Abstract and Figures

In the past few decades, the development of the electronic industry resulted in the appearance of a large gap between education and industry, which is evident in the fact that today most of the practical innovation comes from the industrial centers and not from the universities. Because of the ever growing demands, electronic measuring equipment have become very expensive, which makes it impossible for numerous educational institutions to educate their students to work in today's modern industry. The consequences of this are felt by both the schools and the industry, because without new, young professionals the industry cannot continue to evolve. This work describes the collaboration between Subotica Tech and Rohde & Schwarz Company – driven by the aim of finding the common platforms for mutual benefit. The paper discusses the integration of the modern measuring equipment with the commonly used instruments in the laboratories with mutual comparison of performance.
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Successful Cooperation Between the Industry and
Education
Anita Sabo, Bojan Kuljić, Tibor Szakáll and Dr. Andor Sagi
Subotica Tech, Subotica, Serbia
saboanita@vts.su.ac.rs,
bojan.kuljic@gmail.com, szakall.tibor@gmail.com, peva@vts.su.ac.rs
Abstract—In the past few decades, the development of the
electronic industry resulted in the appearance of a large gap
between education and industry, which is evident in the fact
that today most of the practical innovation comes from the
industrial centers and not from the universities. Because of
the ever growing demands, electronic measuring equipment
have become very expensive, which makes it impossible for
numerous educational institutions to educate their students
to work in today’s modern industry. The consequences of
this are felt by both the schools and the industry, because
without new, young professionals the industry cannot
continue to evolve. This work describes the collaboration
between Subotica Tech and Rohde & Schwarz Company –
driven by the aim of finding the common platforms for
mutual benefit. The paper discusses the integration of the
modern measuring equipment with the commonly used
instruments in the laboratories with mutual comparison of
performance.
I. INTRODUCTION
The Subotica Tech measurement class encompasses a
variety of practical measurements. Its instruments are
spanning over many decades of the technology. Thanks to
Rohde & Schwarz the collection is now enriched with the
four cutting edge technology instruments. This paper
briefly presents these instruments, as well as a
comparative laboratory measurement - a measurement
class school task - done by both older and Rohde &
Schwarz equipment.
II. INTRODUCING ROHDE & SCHWARZ
Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co KG is an international
group working in the field of electronics. Their main focus
in the field of electronic is the test equipment, radio
emission, radio monitoring, radio locating and the
communication. The company has influence in the
wireless communication products, radio diffusion and
electronic industry, aviation and defense, state security
and other critical infrastructures [1][2].
The company is founded on November 17, 1993, in
Germany, having headquarters in Munich. The company
has two regional nodes – in the USA, Columbia-Maryland
and in Singapore, Asia. The company has about 9300
employees in 70 countries, from that almost 5500 working
in Germany, 2000 only in Munich headquarters. 90% of
its profit is coming from export, and around 16% net
income is invested in the research and development.
III. ROHDE & SCHWARZ AND SUBOTICA TECH
Part of the company’s development effort is its
educational program. Such a program is active in the
Subotica Tech. Rohde & Schwarz has lent its instruments
for a one year period. The only condition set by the
company was the active use of its equipment in the
educational process. The students that way could witness,
use and follow the modern trends of the electronic
technology and measuring instruments – being up-to-date
and ready for the practical implementation in the modern
industry. The Subotica Tech uses four such instruments:
HMO 724 oscilloscope
HM C8012 multimeter
HM 7042-5 power supply
HMF 2525 frequency generator
The HMO 724 oscilloscope:
The oscilloscope is the single most important
measuring instrument for the signal representation in
time. This instrument has a wide range of use in different
branches of the industry, craft, science, education and
service [3].
Modern electronic design usually contains a FPGA
type microprocessor; and a 12C, SPI or UART serial
interface. The HMO type oscilloscopes have built-in
decoding for various protocols and saving options, which
greatly saves the time in the error detection process
during the design phase. Modern semiconductors
generate signals in a few ns, which demands higher
capacity and sampling in order to decrease errors.
Increase in the sampling speed demands the bigger
instruments memory in order to meet the time limit. With
HMO series these three parameters are well balanced,
providing accurate results even in critical situations [4].
The HMO 724 model works up to 70 MHz and has 4
channels. Besides numerous options it has a DVI output
which allows connection to a projector for the students
(not just operator) use. These characteristics enable the
HMO series oscilloscopes be used in lectures for a large
groups of students, not only individually in the laboratory
which is its primary purpose [5][6][7][8].
Figure 1. The HMO724 oscilloscope
Figure 2. Passive RLC circuit scheme
Figure 3. Connecting measuring instruments and the RLC circuit
Figure 4. The laboratory exercise setup
IV. PRACTICAL LABORATORY EXERCISE
This chapter presents the exercise “Time and frequency
response of an electric passive second order RLC circuit”
in which the same measurements were performed by the
analogue and the digital instruments.
The aim of the exercise was to record the time and
frequency response of a passive second order RLC circuit.
The dynamic behavior of basic RLC circuit is described
by lineal differential equations, in which:
a homogenous result determines the time
response on unit step excitation,
a particular solution determines amplitude-
frequency and phase-frequent characteristics in
the case of a harmonic (sinusoid) entry signal.
The classification of the RLC circuits is done by using a
differential equation which describes the dynamic RLC
behavior, on the basis of the transfer function.
Testing of the RLC circuit in the time domain is carried
out by analyzing the response time of the output signal
which was generated through unit step excitation.
Based on the results the member is identified and hence
transfer function is determined.
Testing of the RLC circuit in the frequency domain is
done by recording the frequency response characteristics.
The harmonic input signal with the amplitude A and
circular frequency ω at the output of the RLC circuit can
cause the signal with the same circular frequency but with
different amplitude and phase. The formula of the input
signal is:
A = 20 * log (U2/U1), where U1 = 1V and U2 is the
absolute amplitude of the input signal.
By changing the circular frequency of the input signal ω
(with constant amplitude of the input signal A), the
output from the RLC circuit, for each new value of the
circular frequency increase, will result in the new values
of the amplitude B and phase displacement φ. The
amplitude B and phase shift φ of the output signal are
functions of the circular frequency ω:
B = B (ω), φ = φ (ω).
For every value of the circular frequency (ω), the B/A
ratio will have an exact numerical value and it is called the
amplification factor C(ω):
C(ω)=B/A.
Curve connecting points whose coordinates represents
the ratio between the output and input signal C(ω)
amplitudes and the phase shift φ(ω) for various circular
frequencies defines the frequency characteristic.
Figure 5. Oscilloscope performance comparison
Figure 6. The signals on the analog oscilloscope
Figure 7. The signals on the digital oscilloscope
Table 1. Measurement results
F [Hz] 50 100 600 1000 1500 1800
ω [s-1] 100π 200π 1200π 2000π 3000π 3600π
U1 (T912) [V] 1 1 1 1 1 1
U1 (HM 0724)
[V] 1,06 1,06 1,06 1,06 1,06 1,06
U2 (T912) [V] 1 1 1,16 0,35 0,16 0,1
U2 (HM 0724)
[V] 1,04 1,04 1,12 0,34 0,18 0,14
φ (T912) [º] 12 14 116 162 170 174
φ (HM 0724)
[º] 6 7,9 115 160 173 176
A(ω) (T912)
[dB] 0 0 1,29 -9,12 -15,92 -20
A(ω) (HM
0724) [dB] -0,165 -0,165 0,478 -9,88 -15,4 -17,58
V. COMPARISON
This section presents the comparative performance
review of the two oscilloscopes. Figure 6 presents the
view of the measured signal on an analog oscilloscope.
Figure 7 represents the view of the measured signal on
the modern digital oscilloscope. In the case of an analog
oscilloscope it is obvious that reading the results pose a
major problem. Tick marks are drawn on the screen
which are necessary to estimate the amplitude of the
signal and that automatically affects negatively on the
measurement, because the student has to guess the value
of the signal rather than simply read it. In addition to this
major problem is the fact that analog oscilloscope cannot
measure the phase difference between the signals
received on channel 1 and channel 2. The laboratory
exercise solves this problem with a signal generator that
has an auxiliary electronics that generates a signal whose
value is directly proportional to the phase difference of
the two signals. Without this approach it is impossible to
measure the phase difference between the two signals
with the analog oscilloscope. The disadvantage of this
approach is that the student must physically disconnect
the primary circuit in order to connect the auxiliary
output from the signal generator to the channel 1 of the
oscilloscope in order to measure the phase difference,
which negatively affects the measurement accuracy. The
biggest disadvantage that arises is of the psychological
nature. Due to the increased number of operations that
have to be undertaken in order to bridge the physical
limitations of the measuring equipment, as well as the
fact that the values read from the analog equipment is
prone to subjective mistakes, the students are often
confused and uncertain about the interpretation of the
measured results. From the above mentioned reasons the
students find this exercise difficult to understand and
often, after the exercise, they end up with more questions
than answers.
Figure 7 is not obtained by the camera; it is a digital
representation that is taken directly from the oscilloscope
to the USB flash memory. In addition to this the
oscilloscope has the ability to record the measured results
in the form of the text CSV (Coma Separated Values)
files which pose the ideal solution when it is necessary to
create documentation for the measured values on the
computer. In the image it can be clearly seen that there is
no need for a subjective evaluation of the measurement.
The digital oscilloscope has a built-in function that
enables it to directly measure and display on-screen
values such as the amplitude, frequency, phase difference
between the two signals, etc. Unlike the previous case,
here the measured values do not have to be assessed or
calculated because it is already calculated by the
oscilloscope. Since a digital oscilloscope can display the
phase difference between the two signals there is no need
for additional electronics which automatically increases
the measurement accuracy and is also much faster and
easier solution.
The above example clearly shows the advantage of
the modern instruments in terms of simplification of the
measurements and also for writing the documentation.
CONCLUSION
This article described the cooperation between the
Subotica Tech and company Rohde & Schwarz. An
example was given which described the benefits of the
modern equipment when implemented into existing
laboratory exercises.
The measurements proved the expected result:
accuracy, easy to read results prove the benefit of modern
instrument use. Also big advantage of the modern
instruments is built-in support for easy documenting the
results of the measurements.
REFERENCES
[1] http://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/waveforms/waveforms.html
[2] http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/waveform
[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Envelope_detector
[4] http://www.hameg.com/732.0.html?&L=0
[5] http://www.hameg.com/h011_hmf.0.html?&no_cache=1&L=0
[6] http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/t_and_m/generators/awg-
arbitrary-waveform-generator.php
[7] http://www.utwente.nl/tnw/slt/doc/apparatuur/functiegeneratoren/
hameg-man-d-e-hmf2525-2550.pdf
[8] http://www.hameg.com/manuals/
MAN_HO720_HO730_de_en_v002_RS_18-08-2014.pdf
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