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Destination Image and Tourism Satisfaction: The Case of a Mediterranean Destination

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In tourism industry the competitiveness among tourism destinations has become increasingly demanding. A large number of existing and new destinations are competing to attract tourists in order to enhance their results as well as to gain better position on international tourism market. Creating and managing destination image is becoming one of the key sources of competitive advantage and one of the important elements in the process of selection of destination. On the other side image is considered as one of the relevant factors in a process of evaluation of services by tourists since it moulds the expectations tourists have before visiting destination. Numerous authors have pointed out that destination image influences tourism satisfaction since destinations with positive image experience more visits and greater satisfaction of tourists. The aim of this paper is to determine the factors that influence destination image and to explore the relationship between destination image and tourism satisfaction. The research was carried out in Dubrovnik, Croatia on a sample of 705 tourists. The SEM results indicate: (1) that natural resources and natural environment, economical factors and social environment as well as tourist leisure and recreation and atmosphere of the place have positive influence on a destination image, (2), that destination image has positive effect on tourism satisfaction. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n13p0538
ISSN 2039-2117 (online)
ISSN 2039-9340 (print)
Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences
MCSER Publishing, Rome-Italy
Vol 5 No 13
June 2014
̱ͷ͵ͺ̱
Destination Image and Tourism Satisfaction: The Case of a Mediterranean Destination
Barbara Puh, Ph. D.
University of Dubrovnik, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Croatia
Email: barbara.puh@unidu.hr
Doi:10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n13p0538
Abstract
In tourism industry the competitiveness among tourism destinations has become increasingly demanding. A large number of
existing and new destinations are competing to attract tourists in order to enhance their results as well as to gain better position
on international tourism market. Creating and managing destination image is becoming one of the key sources of competitive
advantage and one of the important elements in the process of selection of destination. On the other side image is considered
as one of the relevant factors in a process of evaluation of services by tourists since it moulds the expectations tourists have
before visiting destination. Numerous authors have pointed out that destination image influences tourism satisfaction since
destinations with positive image experience more visits and greater satisfaction of tourists. The aim of this paper is to
determine the factors that influence destination image and to explore the relationship between destination image and tourism
satisfaction. The research was carried out in Dubrovnik, Croatia on a sample of 705 tourists. The SEM results indicate: (1) that
natural resources and natural environment, economical factors and social environment as well as tourist leisure and recreation
and atmosphere of the place have positive influence on a destination image, (2), that destination image has positive effect on
tourism satisfaction.
Keywords: destination image, tourism satisfaction, structural equation modelling (SEM)
1. Introduction
Tourism sector changes, growing competition among existing and new destinations, as well as changes in tourism
expectations and habits, force destinations to find new ways of attracting tourists in order to stay competitive. Researches
are showing that image is becoming one of the key factors in destination choice (Schneider and Somnez, 1999; Bigne et
al., 2001; Gallarza et al. 2002; Beerli and Martin, 2004; Castro et al., 2007; Chen and Tsai, 2007; Chi and Qu, 2008; Lee,
2009; Wang and Hsu, 2010) and that destination with strong and positive image has higher probability of being chosen by
the tourists (Hunt, 1975; Gartner and Shen, 1992; Echtner and Ritchie, 1993; Beerli and Martin, 2004; Lee, 2009). Taking
into consideration the intangibility of tourism product, image is becoming the only mean that potential tourist has in
comparation and selection of destination (O'Leary and Deegan, 2005.) because what motivates consumer/tourist to act or
not to act are perceptions rather than reality (Gallarza et al., 2002, p. 57). Nevertheless destination image, perceived post
visit, influences tourism satisfaction depending on the destination capacity to provide experiences that correspond with
their needs, and as well as with the image that tourists had before visiting (Chon, 1990; Bigne et al., 2001). So, image
plays a fundamental role in the success of tourism destinations since it strongly influences the choice of a destination and
tourism satisfaction (Chon, 1990; Bigne et al., 2001; Bigne Alcaniz et al.,2005; Castro et al., 2007; Hernandez –Lobato et
al., 2006; Chi and Qu 2008; Prayag, 2009; Xia et al., 2009; Wang and Hsu, 2010; Prayag and Ryan, 2011). Therefore,
destination image and especially factors influencing it are becoming extremely important for good positioning of
destinations on international tourism market and, if it is/are positive, can increase competitive advantages of a
destination.
Although destination image has received considerable academic interest in the past forty years, and scholars
agree that it is a complex, multidimensional concept (Gallarza et al. 2002; Prayag, 2009), there is no consensus about its
dimensions (Leisen, 2001; Beerli and Martin, 2004; Bigne Alcaniz et al., 2008) leaving space for further researches.
For the purpose of this research, adjusted attributes /dimensions presented in Beerli and Martin (2004) are used to
define factors influencing destination image of the city of Dubrovnik, one of the leading destinations on the Adriatic coast.
SEM model is used to define relations between factors and destination image as well as between destination image and
tourism satisfaction.
2. Literature Review
Interest of scholars in number of disciplines regarding the concept of image started with early works of Boulding and
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Martineau in the late 1950es proposing that human behaviour depends upon perceived image rather than objective reality
(Baloglu and McCleary,1999a; Wang and Hsu, 2010). Hunt's statement that pictures that potential tourists have of
destination are very important in a process of destination selection and can influence it's sustainability became an axiom
for scholars in tourism field (Pike, 2007) creating general consensus about importance of image for destination
sustainability and effective positioning (Tasci and Gartner, 2007).
Destination image is usually defined as set of beliefs, ideas and impressions that people have about some place or
destination (Crompton, 1979). A great number of scholars focus their attention on holistic nature of image, defining
destination image as the expression of all knowledge, impressions, prejudices and emotional thoughts that individual or
group of people has about particular object or place (Hunt, 1975; Fakeye and Crompton, 1991). Recent studies view
destination as a multidimensional construct consisting of rational (cognitive image) and emotional (affective image)
interpretations (Baloglu and McCleary, 1999a; Beerli and Martin, 2004) . The cognitive image refers to the beliefs or
knowledge that a person has of the characteristics or attributes of tourism destinations (Pike and Ryan, 2004). The
attributes are the elements of destination that attract tourist to visit a destination (Beerli and Martin, 2004). Affective
image refers to the tourist's feelings towards destination (Baloglu and Brinberg, 1997; Baloglu and McCleary 1999b).
Although many authors agree that image is formed by two interconnected components -cognitive and affective-(Baloglu
and Brinberg, 1997.; Baloglu and McCleary, 1999a.; 1999b.; Beerli and Martin, 2004.; Hernandez Lobato et al., 2006.;
Chung – Hsien et al,. 2007.; Hosany et al., 2007.; Okumus and Yasin, 2008.) a lot of conducted studies are neglecting
the affective component (Pike, 2002) defining image only on the cognitive component which is considered inappropriate
due to the fact that image does not depend only on physical characteristics of destination. The combination of cognitive
and affective image gives rise to an overall image that is greater than the sum of the parts (Fakeye and Crompton, 1991;
Wang and Hsu, 2010). Overall image can be similar to or different from cognitive or affective perceptions of the
destination (Baloglu and McCleary 1999a; Wang and Hsu, 2010). So in order to measure the image of a destination
Ahmed (1991) suggests that the evaluation of overall image as well as its two components is necessary to understand
the positioning of destination.
Tourism satisfaction is considered to be a central concept in tourism (Chen and Tsai, 2007; Prayag, 2009) since it
influences the choice of a destination, the consumption of products and services and the decision to return (Kozak and
Rimmington, 2000; Armario, 2008). It is an important indicator of the tourism sector activity giving crucial feedback of how
good the services are delivered (Prebežac and Mikuliü, 2008). Although there is general agreement about the importance
of customer satisfaction at the destination level in improving destination competitive position the definition of the concept
remains varied. One of the most cited definitions is given by Oliver who said that satisfaction is defined as pleasurable
fulfilment (Giese and Cote, 2000, p.1). That means that the consumer senses that consumption fulfils some need or
desire and that this fulfilment is pleasurable. This view on satisfaction reflects its cognitive nature (exercise in
comparation of expectations and performance) on one side, and its affective nature (associated feeling) on the other side
(Hernandez-Lobato et al., 2008). In the case of tourism destination, tourists value the degree of pleasurable fulfilment of
their needs and wishes on a full range of services offered in a destination so satisfaction depends on the experience they
have with using those services. Baker and Crompton (2000) defined satisfaction as emotional condition of tourist after the
experience of travelling high lightening only affective nature of satisfaction while Chon (1989) concluded that tourism
satisfaction is based on the coincidence of the expectations tourist have before visiting destination and the results of
experiences achieved in the destination which represents a comparation between previous image tourist had about
destination and those he really sees, feels and remembers about destination.
In the terms of satisfaction measurement most authors agree it is important to differentiate overall destination
satisfaction and attribute satisfaction on the destination level (Chi and Qu, 2008.; Bigne et al., 2001.; Castro et al., 2007.;
Faullant et al., 2008). The reason lies in a fact that overall satisfaction with a destination is much broader term than the
sum of attribute satisfaction (Bigne et al., 2001), so tourism satisfaction measurement must be based on the overall
satisfaction dimension (Truong and Foster, 2006).
Researching the relations between destination image and tourism satisfaction became popular in the last fifteen
years. The increased life standard resulted in increased tourist demand giving tourist the opportunity to travel to
numerous destinations. In such surrounding the perceptions tourist have about particular destination are becoming more
and more important. In order to stay competitive destination must be perceived as safe (Troung and King, 2009) products
and services must be attractive and better than the ones from competitive destinations. It is becoming very important to
understand how tourists perceive destination, its products and services and how these components influence tourism
satisfaction. Previous studies show that the image of a destination has positive influence on tourism satisfaction (Chon,
1990.; Bigne et al., 2001.; Bigne Alcaniz et al., 2005.; Castro et al., 2007.; Hernandez –Lobato et al., 2006.; Chi and Qu
2008.; Prayag, 2009.; Xia et al., 2009.; Wang and Hsu, 2010.; Prayag and Ryan, 2011) and that image is a critical factor
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in influencing tourism satisfaction (O’Leary and Deegan, 2005; Cai, Wu and Bai, 2003.; Castro et al., 2007.).
3. Methodology
A questionnaire composed of four parts was used in this research: Section 1 enquired about the basic background data
of the tourist vacation in a destination, that is questions about number of visits to the destination, the purpose of travelling,
duration of the stay and companionship; Section 2 included forty two attributes of the destination in a form of statements
defined on a 5 point Likert scale (1- strongly disagree, 5 –strongly agree) in order to define factors influencing destination
image; Section 3 involved question to define overall image on a 5 point Likert scale (1- very negative, 5 – very positive)
and question to define tourism satisfaction (1- very unsatisfied, 5- very satisfied); Section 4 included demographic
information of the respondent: gender, age, country of residence, marital status, education and annual household income.
The questionnaire was carried out in Dubrovnik, Croatia, on a purposive sample of 705 tourists visiting hotels and
private accommodation in a period May- September 2010, with a response rate of 68 %.
To ensure the reliability of measurement scales Cronbach Alfa coefficient together with Alpha if item deleted and
CR (Composite Reliability) were used. Convergent and discriminant validity of measurement scales are tested using
exploratory factor analysis (with Varimax raw rotation) and confirmatory factor analysis (RMSEA index, CMIN/DF
indicator and AVE).Structural equation model (SEM) was used to test relationship between factors and destination image
as well as between destination image and tourism satisfaction. Statistical software SPSS, Smart PLS and AMOS are
used for data processing.
4. Results and Discussion
The sample profile shows that 53.5% respondents were females and 2/3 of the participants were between 18 and 49
years old (67.2%). Most of respondents have college of faculty degree (73.4%), are married (56.2%), and 62.2% have
annual household income between 30 and 75 thousand euros. 80.9% visited Dubrovnik for the first time, for the vacation
purposes (87.5%), with family (60%) with an average stay of 6-7 days (34.6)%.
Table 1: The results of Cronbach Alfa and Composite reliability for measurement scales
Measurement scale Cronbach alfa coefficient Composite reliability (CR)
Elements of natural resources and natural environment 0.601 0.636
Elements of general and touristic infrastructure 0.772 0.747
Elements of tourist leisure and recreation 0.697 0.775
Elements of culture, history and art 0.786 0.744
Economic factors and social environment 0.662 0.789
A
tmosphere of the place 0.702 0.731
Source: Results of the research
Results of Cronbach alfa coefficient as well as composite reliability (CR) show that all measurement scales have
satisfactory level of reliability as follows: elements of natural resources and natural environment (Cronbach alfa =0.601,
CR=0.636), elements of general and touristic infrastructure (Cronbach alfa=0.772, CR=0.747), elements of tourist leisure
and recreation (Cronbach alfa =0.697, CR=0.775), elements of culture, history and art (Cronbach alfa =0.786,
CR=0.744), economic factors and social environment (Cronbach alfa =0.662, CR=0.789), atmosphere of the place
(Cronbach alfa =0.702, CR=0.731). Alpha if item deleted is measured for each of forty two statements and those that
lower reliability of each measurement scale are excluded from further research (three statements).
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Table 2: Factor structure (with Varimax rotation)
Factors
Elements of tourist leisure and
recreation
Economic factors and social
environment
Elements of general and
touristic infrastructure
Atmosphere of the place
Elements of natural resources
and natural environment
Elements of culture, history and
art
Dubrovnik is a town with pleasant climate .607
Dubrovnik is a town with atractive beaches .632
The coast of dubrovnik has many beautiful islands .747
Dubrovnik has attractive natural attractions and scenary .644
The quality of public transport is good .693
The quality of taxi service is good .726
Local infrastructure is good .772
Commertial infrastructure is good .711
Dubrovnik has many quality restaurants .617
Dubrovnik has many quality bars and discoteques .784
Dubrovnik offers good sport and recreational activities .770
Dubrovnik is a town with good nigthlife and entertainment .832
Dubrovnik offers good shopping possibilities .637
Dubrovnik is a town rich on cultural heritage .784
Dubrovnik is a town of historical monuments, galleries and museums .859
Dubrovnik is a town with good festivals, concerts and folclore .579
Dubrovnik is a town of hospitality .778
Residents of Dubrovnik are frendly .803
Quality of life in Dubrovnik is good .629
Residents of Dubrovnik speak foreign languages well .629
Dubrovnik offers good value for money .547
The atmosphere in Dubrovnik is relaxing .617
The atmosphere in Dubrovnik is amusing/fun .533
Dubrovnik is a safe destination to visit .742
Visiting Dubrovnik is a pleasant experience .755
Source: Results of the research
Results of exploratory factor analysis extracted 6 factors showing that measurement scales have necessary
characteristics of convergent (related statements have high loadings on associated factors) and discriminant validity
(related statements have low loading on other factors). Statements that are not loading significally on any factor are
excluded from further research (fourteen statements).
Table 3: RMSEA Index and CMIN/DF indicator
Index The value of the Index
RMSEA 0,063
CMIN/DF 3,827
Source: Results of the research
Confirmatory factor analysis shows that RMSEA index is 0,063 which is significantly below the level of 0.08, taken as a
limit that model is adjusted with the data (Hair, Black, Babin and Anderson, 2010). CMIN/DF indicator of the quality of
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model is 3.827 showing satisfactory level.
Table 4: Results of comparation between AVE and squared correlation between latent variables
Natural resources Infrastructure Leisure and recreation Culture Social environment Atmosphere
Natural resources 0.305
Infrastructure 0.070756 0.314
Leisure and recreation 0.080089 0.130321 0.381
Culture 0.257049 0.072361 0.045369 0.497
Social environment 0.075625 0.2304 0.020449 0.157609 0.500
Atmosphere 0.287296 0.203401 0.106929 0.251001 0.070756 0.353
Source: Results of the research
Results of comparation between AVE and squared correlation between latent variables show that absolute values of the
correlation coefficients do not exceed limiting value of 0.85, are in a range from 0.02 to 0.28 and are smaller than AVE
(0.305 for natural resources and natural environment, 0.314 for infrastructure, 0.381 for leisure and recreation, 0.497 for
culture, 0.5 for economic factors and social environment and 0.353 for the atmosphere of the place) confirming that
analysed measurement scales have characteristic of discriminant validity.
The results of SEM testing (Scheme 1) show that (1) elements of natural resources and natural environment
(ȕ=0.180; p=0.003), elements of tourist leisure and recreation (ȕ=0.305; p=0.000), economic factors and social
environment (ȕ=0.186; p=0.001) and atmosphere of the place (ȕ=0.205; p=0.004) have positive influence on destination
image. So, for the perception of image of Dubrovnik very important elements are: climate, cleanliness of the sea,
coastline; quality of the restaurants, availability of sport and entertainment facilities, nightlife and shopping; good value for
money, quality life of local people together with hospitality and friendliness of the local people and safe, interesting and
relaxing atmosphere.
Elements of general and touristic infrastructure do not have statistically significant influence on destination image
(ȕ=-0.093; p=0.051) as well as elements of culture, history and art (ȕ=0.062; p=0.215). The above mentioned can be
explained by the fact that today more or less all tourism destinations have similar general and touristic infrastructure. So,
infrastructure is one of the basic elements for tourism destination development and not the element of differentiation
among destinations. Therefore it does not influence the image of a tourism destination. On the other hand results show
that elements of culture, history and art do not influence image of Dubrovnik. The cause can be found in a fact that
tourists visit Dubrovnik mainly for its outstanding cultural, historical and art accomplishment. Due to the fact that they
have great expectation ex ante, by coming to Dubrovnik these expectations are fulfilled but not exceeded so they don’t
have influence on the image of Dubrovnik.
(2) destination image has positive influence on tourism satisfaction (ȕ=0.678, p=0.000).
Scheme 1: Structural model based on empirical results
*p-values**<.01; *** < .001
Source: Author
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5. Conclusion
On a turbulent tourism market, with a growing number of international tourists on one side and destinations on the other
side, competition is greater than ever. In order to stay competitive destinations are forced to find new ways of attracting
tourists. In such conditions, image of destination is becoming more and more important and understanding the
dimensions that influence image is becoming crucial for the destination marketing.
The aim of this paper was to define dimensions/factors that influence destination image as well as to explore
relation between destination image and tourism satisfaction. The research was carried out in Dubrovnik, Croatia. The
SEM results indicated that elements of natural resources and natural environment, tourist leisure and recreation, as well
as economic factor and social environment and atmosphere of the place have positive influence on destination image.
Also, the results indicate that destination image positively influences tourism satisfaction. These results will greatly benefit
to the destination marketing of Dubrovnik as guidance for improving destination image of the city. Future studies should
take into consideration the limitations of conducted research (convenience sampling, time of conducting - high season-
measurement of tourism satisfaction on one item scale) and include other concept s that can influence tourism
satisfaction (perceived quality, tourism motivation).
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The purpose of this study is to examine the challenges and deficits faced by people with disabilities and the implications for the development of accessible tourism in the case of North Cyprus. Although this destination market represents a significant portion of tourism in the Mediterranean, it is still poorly understood. In this study, 250 questionnaires were distributed to people with disabilities. Linear regressions, ANOVA, and t-tests were used for data analysis. The results show that despite the destination’s great potential in terms of attractions and recreational facilities, there are measurable deficits in accessible tourism. If tourism operators want to take advantage of the rising tide of accessible tourism to attract more tourists and have a competitive advantage in this growing niche market, they should improve infrastructure facilities to meet the needs of disabled tourists. In particular, this includes providing information for disabled tourists, improving the existing inadequate access to various venues, equipping transportation modes and refreshment facilities for the disabled population, and ensuring adequate access to public places. Last but not least, a cultural orientation approach that educates residents to respect and accept the rights of the disabled population must be adopted. This study provides insights into the needs of people with disabilities and formulates guidelines for adapting and developing this market for destinations that depend on tourism.
... Hubungan antara Citra destinasi dengan Kepuasan wisatawanMenurutPrasiasa (2013)[4] produk pariwisata yang besifat tangible dan intangible menjadi dasar komponen pelayanan di destinasi pariwisata, salah satunya adalah citra destinasi. Semakin baik komponen pelayanan suatu produk wisata maka akan semakin baik pula tingkat kepuasan pengunjungnya.Setiawan (2013)[13] danPuh (2014)[29] menyatakan bahwa ada pengaruh positif signifikan antara citra destinasi dengan kepuasan. Hasil penelitian yang dilakukan olehChi dan Qu ANALISIS PENGARUH ELECTRONIC WORD OF MOUTH (e-WOM) TERHADAP CITRA DESTINASI, KEPUASAN WISATAWAN, DAN LOYALITAS DESTINASI PERKAMPUNGAN BUDAYA BETAWI (PBB) SETU BABAKAN JAKARTA SELATAN SALMAN PALUDI-TESIS MM IBN-2016 (2008)[15] menyatakan bahwa citra destinasi langsung mempengaruhi atribut kepuasan. ...
... Hubungan antara Citra destinasi dengan Kepuasan wisatawanMenurutPrasiasa (2013)[4] produk pariwisata yang besifat tangible dan intangible menjadi dasar komponen pelayanan di destinasi pariwisata, salah satunya adalah citra destinasi. Semakin baik komponen pelayanan suatu produk wisata maka akan semakin baik pula tingkat kepuasan pengunjungnya.Setiawan (2013)[13] danPuh (2014)[29] menyatakan bahwa ada pengaruh positif signifikan antara citra destinasi dengan kepuasan. Hasil penelitian yang dilakukan olehChi dan Qu ANALISIS PENGARUH ELECTRONIC WORD OF MOUTH (e-WOM) TERHADAP CITRA DESTINASI, KEPUASAN WISATAWAN, DAN LOYALITAS DESTINASI PERKAMPUNGAN BUDAYA BETAWI (PBB) SETU BABAKAN JAKARTA SELATAN SALMAN PALUDI-TESIS MM IBN-2016 (2008)[15] menyatakan bahwa citra destinasi langsung mempengaruhi atribut kepuasan. ...
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Perkembangan pengguna internet di Indonesia akhir-akhir ini meningkat pesat sehingga mengakibatkan dampak perubahan yang besar bagi seseorang menyampaikan pesan atau informasi kepada orang lain. Maraknya penggunaan situssitus jejaring sosial membuat penyebaran suatu informasi atau berita dari mulut ke mulut via internet (e-WOM) menyebar luas, termasuk informasi mengenai suatu informasi objek wisata, seperti PBB Setu Babakan di Jakarta Selatan. Dari penelitian-penelitian terdahulu,seperti Putu Yudi Setiawan (2014), Christina Geng-Qing Chia, Hailin Qu (2008) dan Zarrad H dan Debabi M. (2015) diketahu bahwa ada pengarun dari-variabel variabel seperti e-WOM, Citra destinasi, Kepuasan wisatawan, serta Loyalitas destinasi. Dengan 280 data sampel dan menggunakan metode SEM Model 2 ndCFA sebagai alat analisisnya dapat diketahui bahwa di objek wisata PBB Setu Babakan ada pengaruh yang positif signifikan antara e-WOM dengan Citra destinasi, Citra destinasi berpengaruh positif terhadap Kepuasan wisatawan, dan Citra destinasi juga berpengaruh posistif terhadap Loyalitas destinasi. Sementara itu antara variabel eWOM dengan Kepuasan wisatawan, dan Kepuasan wisatawan terhadap Loyalitas destinasi tidak ada pengaruhnya. e-WOM secara langsung mempengaruhi Citra destinasi, dan e-WOM secara tidak langsung mempengaruhi Loyalitas destinasi melalui Citra destinasi sebagai variabel interveningnya. e-WOM secara langsung tidak mempengaruhi Kepuasan wisatawan namun e-WOM secara tidak langsung mempengaruhi Kepuasan wisatawan melalui Citra destinasi. Dengan demikian e-WOM secara tidak langsung mempengaruhi Loyalitas destinasi melaui Citra destinasinya dan bukan melalui Kepuasan wisatawannya. Kata kunci : e-WOM, Citra Destinasi, Kepuasan Wisatawan, Loyalitas destinasi, SEM 2ndCFA
... When hosting an international sporting event, organizers should prioritize ESQ to satisfy sponsors and local residents [56]. In the view of Pantouvakis and Lymperopoulos [57], SAT depends on perceived ESQ. Lee and Su [58] also found that ESQ influenced SAT, suggesting that SAT is an indicator of ESQ [59]. Shonk and Chelladurai [29] found that sport ESQ directly contributed to SAT. ...
... Koo [63] found that DI positively influences SAT. Furthermore, Puh [59] investigated 705 tourists in Dubrovnik, Croatia, and found that DI influenced SAT. Based on these findings, the following hypothesis was proposed: Hypothesis 3 (H3). ...
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... interpreted as "mostly satisfied". Tourist satisfaction is satisfied tourists as repeat customers who provide a good salary without incurring any costs; and satisfied tourists have goals of taking the good word of mouth advertisement, positively influenced by tourist perception, destination image, and developing a comprehensive tourist experience in addition to cultural and heritage visits, should be assessed (Steen, 2016;Ti, Huy, et al., 2020;Puh, 2014;Rajesh, 2013). Price was perceived interpreted as "mostly satisfied" in the composite mean (WM=4.26). ...
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... al. (2018) also found out that destination infrastructure affects destination image which is consistent with Masarrat (2012) who argued that infrastructure augments tourist satisfaction. Furthermore, Puh (2014) found out that atmosphere of the place influences destination image which, in turn, affects tourist satisfaction. ...
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