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Indian Food: A Historical Companion.

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... India's food culture has a lengthy history that the commercialized and globalized idea of curry neglects. In ancient times, the usage of spices such as pepper, cardamom, turmeric, fenugreek, ginger, and garlic was common (Achaya 1994). The more contemporary international usage of curry is also oblivious about certain assumptions that constituted this ancient food culture. ...
... The idea of food in India was closely tied to social hierarchies with moral and medical implications (Appadurai 1988). Several Hindu texts and specifically Vedas provide directions on consumption of food (Achaya 1994). For example, Rigveda, the earliest Vedic text dating back to around 1500-1200 BCE provides a strong connection between consumption of spices and maintenance of good health. ...
... The proponents of this system of medicine emphasized that the right food was necessary to keep a human body in equilibrium with its environment (Collingham 2006). Charaka Samhita and Sushrutha Samhita, 900-400 BCE texts on Ayurveda contain recipes of different vegetarian and meat preparations to help in healing processes (Achaya 1994). ...
Article
Marketplace icons are often markers of transnational transactions engendered by commercialization and dominance of the West. Curry as a marketplace icon helps to identify these constituents of iconicity. This article briefly examines the historical roots of curry or spicy Indian food and its implication in the project of colonialism. Curry as a signifier of Indian food was invented in British colonial narratives and shaped by commercial interests and racial prejudices. Because of the way forces of colonization and commercialization create international circulation of goods and ideas through globalization, curry as a marketplace icon signifies hegemony and global hierarchies that shape ideas of consumption and markets.
... Since 800 BC, cow was reported to be an inherent part of Vedic culture and they referred cow as vara or blessing in their literature. Since ancient time irrespective of a different region in every Indian household, cow had become very common domestic animal due to its different beneficial characteristics [3]. Different milk and milk-derived products have always been the attention seeker due to their excellent nutritional profile and taste. ...
... Dairy derived products are mainly consisting of different types of sweets, cheese, ghee, yogurt, dahi, butter and paneer. In the Vedic literature Ghee from cow milk was referred to as manda and there was a mention of a special dish called saga which was prepared from buttermilk [3]. In Buddhism and Jainism culture also the use of milk was reported. ...
... In Buddhism and Jainism culture also the use of milk was reported. Jains have dipped a cloth into milk and dried the cloth and later they prepared a reconstitute product called Kholas by using water and that dried cloth [3]. It is considered from different literature that there are six types of foodstuff according to their way of consumption. ...
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West Bengal and Odisha, two distinguished provinces of India, are consecrated with prosperous animal resources. Both territories have substantially affluent traditional dairy-based products. Rasgulla is one of such kind of traditional Indian dessert made from milk casein with attractive white colour having a spongy, porous structure and spherical shape, popular all over the world for its taste, flavour and unique texture. It is mainly originated in the West Bengal and Odisha, through a cascade of ethnic gastronomic phenomena. Both the traditional and cutting-edge practice of rasgulla preparation has its own impact on the sensory attributes of the product. Researchers' approach to improve textural, colour and sensory qualities of this astonishing dairy product has an appulse on overall acceptability of the product. Different types of milk and coagulant have a tremendous effect on the final quality of the product in terms of nutritional, textural and palatability characteristics of rasgulla. To make this traditional sweetmeat more nutritious, fortification and enrichment of functional features have been studied. Anti-diabetic rasgulla has been prepared to conquer the diabetes mellitus through re-modulation in the extent of sugar used to process this sweetmeat. Shelf-life of casein based products is one of the main concerns for researchers, due to abundance of ample amount of nutrients for optimum growth of microorganisms, along with the warm and humid condition of Indian subcontinent which accelerates the microbial propagation. Though the product has immense nutritional and sensory idiosyncrasy as well as folk medicinal importance, it is yet to be explored in coetaneous medical sciences.
... chillies or Mirchi as they are called in Hindi, were originally grown in Mexico and reached Spain and Portugal long before they were ever tasted in India (Achaya, 1994; Dasgupta and Fowler, 1997). ...
... Mexico as early as 5000 B.C (Tannahill, 1973) and 'chilli' is a Mexican word (Achaya, 1994). They were also grown in Peru around 2000 BC. ...
... Ain-hAkbari (a book from the Mughal period), refers only to black pepper to impart pungency to the many recipes mentioned in it (Achaya, 1994). Piper nigrum (Linn) and Piper Longum (Linn) were both used medicinally in India and the latter looks a lot like chilli pepper. ...
Thesis
Capsaicin is the pungent extract of red-hot chilli peppers. Chillies were grown as early as 5000 BC in Mexico and have been used medicinally, for a variety of seemingly unrelated disorders, for thousands of years. Animal experiments have demonstrated that capsaicin blocks a C-fibre mediated micturition reflex in spinal cats. The aim of this study was to investigate its role in the treatment of detrusor hyperreflexia due to spinal cord disease. Intravesical instillations of 1-2 mmol/l of capsaicin, dissolved as a powder in 30% alcohol in saline, were effective in 70% of patients with refractory detrusor hyperreflexia. After initial deterioration in voiding symptoms capsaicin caused an increase in the functional bladder capacity and decrease in the amplitude of hyperreflexic detrusor contractions. The beneficial effect of a single instillation lasted for 3-6 months. Even after repeated instillations over 5 years there was no evidence of pre-malignant or malignant changes in biopsies from bladders thus treated. Suprapubic discomfort during instillations was reduced by the prior use of intravesical lignocaine (40ml of 2% for 20 mins) or by anaesthetising the bladder with iontophoresis of intravesical lignocaine (electromotive drug administration) before capsaicin. Cryostat sections of flexible cystoscopic biopsies before and 6 weeks after capsaicin treatment were stained with the neuronal markers S 100 and PGP 9.5. By using computerized image analysis of lamina propria nerve densities ('MiniMOP' for S 100 and 'Seescan' imaging for PGP 9.5) it was found that intravesical capsaicin caused a reduction in densities of the presumptive sensory suburothelial nerves. Early data using electron microscopy seemed to show a reduction in the densities of clear and dense cored vesicles after capsaicin treatment. These findings indicate that capsaicin causes a sensory denervation the bladder in these patients. Intravesical capsaicin is a significant advance in Uro-Neurology and is likely to lead to the application of other vanilloids, such as resiniferatoxin, in the treatment of detrusor hyperreflexia.
... The food ethos in India is obviously a diverse one. However, most beliefs about food tend to find their origins in Aryan food practices (Achaya, 1994). The belief was that all food had some inherent qualities, beyond nutritional value. ...
... These taboos are best understood in the context of the Indian caste system. Traditionally, members of the upper caste did not deem it acceptable to receive cooked food from members of lower castes (Achaya, 1994). So ingrained are ideas of purity and pollution within this system that there were also restrictions on sharing of utensils among members of different castes. ...
... As early treatises on ancient India, such texts, as Achaya states in the case of the Keladi Kingdom's King Basavaraja's Shivatattvaratnakara, as a work that includes food as one of the 64 arts are looked to as a historical source for ecological and food histories of ancient India. (Achaya, 1994). ...
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Food studies includes ideas on the environment, constructions of regional identity and culinary history. Pierre Bourdieu said "taste is the basis of all that one has-people and things-and all that one is for others, whereby one classifies oneself and is classified by others." In the Indian context, his words find relevance in the way food and taste are hierarchized through the caste system. The Indian caste system was born out of the need to segregate beef and meat-eaters from vegetarians, leading to the classification of people as impure and pure based on their tastes. The caste system has, over the years, acted simultaneously as a creator and reinforcer of such taste hierarchies and culinary history evidences such dominant inscription. With time, however, social mobility has increased and, as Appadurai says in the landmark essay "How to Make a National Cuisine," the moral implications of food have shifted. Today, food tradition in India is being documented more than ever, with food blogs being as prolifically abundant as comments, reviews and recommendations of food destinations. These recipes and food experiences, situated in the digital space, have begun defining our interactions around food, opening new windows for Indian food studies as a whole. In exploring these shifts in understandings of taste from social systems to digital ones, we will explore changing trends in the documentation of food culture and its implications for community in India.
... Traditional Indian cuisine was determined by regional and caste factors (33), however, with liberalization and urbanization, global elements are now reflected in the Indian diet. A preference for animal products, temperate zone fruits, processed convenience foods and drinks is seen (34). ...
... Indians have until recently, been rather rigid about their food choices with caste and region playing a determining role in their diet (33). However, the winds of economic change have gradually changed their outlook toward food (12). ...
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One of the leading risk factors for an escalating obesity burden in India is non-nutritious choices. Underpinned by the nutrition transition theory, this qualitative inquiry was designed to understand the urban middle-class Indian consumers’ views about processed foods and rapidly changing food choices. The study consisted of two phases, the first phase consisted of focus group discussions pertaining to the definition and conception of processed foods and the second phase consisted of interviews regarding the changing food environment. A convenience sample of Indian consumers aged 40–65 years were recruited from Mumbai and Kochi to participate in focus group discussions (FGD1 – nine participants and FGD2 – seven participants) and semi-structured face-to-face interviews (N = 22). Both discussions and interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the transcribed data. Features of processed foods mentioned were chemical and physical processing, prolonged shelf life and poor nutritional quality. Factors influencing food choices and consumption of processed foods reported by participants could be categorized into changes in the socio-cultural environment and changes in the food environment. Changes in the socio-cultural environment included globalization and urbanization, long work days and sedentary living, rise in income levels and decrease in household cooking. Changes in the food environment included increased availability and accessibility of processed foods, replacement of traditional Indian diet with Western food, food as indicators of status, food advertisements and convenience. These results are consistent with nutrition transition theory and provide useful direction for public health policies aimed at promoting healthy diets.
... Traditional foods are generally categorized into fermented foods and non-fermented food. Fermented foods are prepared by the action of microorganism(s), either naturally or adding starter culture (s), which modify the substrates biochemically and organoleptically into edible product, and are thus, generally palatable, safe and nutritious (Pederson, 1960;Tamang and Holzapfel, 1999;Hansen, 2002;Campbell-Platt, 1987;Achaya, 1998;Joshi, 2016;Molinos et al. 2016). These inexpensive culturally acceptable traditional foods provide basic diet as staple, pickle, confectionery, condiment and alcoholic beverages, which supplement enhanced nutrition, palatability, wholesomeness of the product with acceptable flavor and texture (Steinkraus, 1967;Joshi, 2012). ...
... First reference to dosa occurs in Tamil Sangam literature from around 6 th century AD and Chalukya king Somaesvara III describe the dosa in 1051. Eminent food scientist K.T. Achaya said that dosa have a history of two thousand years in Dravidian region (Achaya, 1998). ...
... Some studies showed that amongst all beliefs, Aryan beliefs and practices drastically progressed in terms of various indigenous systems. However, since that time, foods are always believed as a source of physical cum mental power, self-satisfaction, and hence considered the best gift from God (11,12,13 Needed for the production of primary energy to perform all essential activities. These are available in staple meals in our daily lunch and dinner usually. ...
... Basic Poultices, Decoctions, Skin Cream, Boluses & Suppositories, Cough Syrups, Cold Oil Infusions, Herbal Infusions, Hot Oil Infusions, Herb Macerations, Herbal Pills, Herbal Teas, various Ointments, Powdered Herbs, Salves, Steamed Poultices, Tinctures, Tonic Wines(11,12). ...
Article
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Indian traditional knowledge systems evolved over centuries through the cultures of various communities. They are also called indigenous systems made upon by versatile people by their diversified habits on foods, dresses, languages, living styles, and therapeutic methods in health care. India's traditional cultures have already been validated and well-accepted by various science communities and research organizations worldwide. The systems and their protocols are gradually becoming more popular because of distinguished ancient and current knowledge, innovations, benefits, and traditional beliefs. More importantly, India is the motherland of conventional therapies such as Ayurveda, Naturopathy, Yoga, and Nutrition. These are the alternatives therapeutic approaches by the India and Indian therapists who are growing with not only natural treatment protocols but also some significant research. India is one of the best countries to produce a variety of vegetables and fruits seasonally. They are the natural and reliable sources of multivitamins, minerals in addition to other nutrients that are helpful to protect and boost the immune system. Hence, India's indigenous knowledge and culture in perspective of Ayurveda, Nutrition, and Yoga have been playing significant roles in various healing processes and human values.
... Traditional foods are generally categorized into fermented foods and non-fermented food. Fermented foods are prepared by the action of microorganism(s), either naturally or adding starter culture (s), which modify the substrates biochemically and organoleptically into edible product, and are thus, generally palatable, safe and nutritious (Pederson, 1960;Tamang and Holzapfel, 1999;Hansen, 2002;Campbell-Platt, 1987;Achaya, 1998;Joshi, 2016;Molinos et al. 2016). These inexpensive culturally acceptable traditional foods provide basic diet as staple, pickle, confectionery, condiment and alcoholic beverages, which supplement enhanced nutrition, palatability, wholesomeness of the product with acceptable flavor and texture (Steinkraus, 1967;Joshi, 2012). ...
... First reference to dosa occurs in Tamil Sangam literature from around 6 th century AD and Chalukya king Somaesvara III describe the dosa in 1051. Eminent food scientist K.T. Achaya said that dosa have a history of two thousand years in Dravidian region (Achaya, 1998). ...
... Depending upon the condition of the body or the nature of the disease, Chinese people choose foods opposite to the state of the body, either hot or cold food (Liu et al., 2012;Ni et al., 2007). The food and health beliefs of Indians are based on the old Ayurveda, a traditional Indian medicinal literature which was written thousands of years ago (Achaya, 1997). Food is considered a source of strength and God in India. ...
... The Indian food culture is based on the "Vedas" which are fundamental religious textbooks in India. There are four Vedas Rigveda, Samaveda, Yajurveda, Atharvaveda which describe different kinds of cereal foods and their usage in one's daily life (Achaya, 1997). Barley, wheat, lentils, millets and sugarcane are some popular items mentioned in the Vedas. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between consumers’ cultural values and their functional food perception. Design/methodology/approach The research is qualitative in nature and uses the grounded theory method. The data were collected through in-depth interviews with three ethnic groups, Anglo-Australian, Chinese and Indian ethnic groups in Australia. The constant comparative data analysis approach was used to analyse the interview text. Findings The results indicate that there is a relationship between consumers’ cultural values and their functional food perception. Functional food perception depends upon the consumers’ predisposition towards their culture, their motives for functional food consumption and the level of perseverance towards functional foods. Research limitations/implications The study includes only three ethnic groups and is qualitative in nature, which may limit its generalisability to the universe. The inclusion of more ethnic groups and additional sources of data could form directions for future research. Practical implications Functional food marketers can assess the kind of cultural values the ethnic groups in Australia uphold and capture those values in their marketing strategies. The cultural values in the framework could be used for the segmentation of functional food consumers. In a multicultural setting like Australia, segmentation of consumers based on the standard values would be more feasible and effective to target consumers spread across different ethnic groups but who uphold similar values. Originality/value The research has attempted to fill the gap in the existing literature about the relationship between culture and functional food perception. The latent variables in the theoretical framework proposed by the qualitative enquiry can be a good starting point for understanding the influence of cultural values on functional food perception and the development of a more comprehensive theoretical framework for functional food behaviour.
... 3 Gujarat, the state over which Modi had presided as chief minister for the previous decade, was still a major player, slaughtering more than 1,000 buffaloes a day ( Singh et al, nd: 79) 4 despite action to control it. Throw into the mix the statistic that around 70-75 per cent of Indians are non-vegetarians ( Mehta et al, 2002;Achaya, 1994:57) and that beef is apparently the most highly consumed meat product by quantity after fish ( Chigateri, 2008:17;Ghosh, 2013), and the stereotypical image of India as a nation squeamish about cattle slaughter starts to unravel. The picture that emerges in its place is not a straightforward one, and despite the cow's status as what Yang calls a 'fundamental symbol' (1980:585), one so embedded in the common pool of human experience in India that its reception, to paraphrase Mary Douglas (1966:114), should be fairly uniform, the symbolic value of its flesh is highly contested. ...
Chapter
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In some contexts in India beef consumption is held up as a marker of cosmopolitan sophistication. In others it is decried as an unclean, defiling practice that threatens the cultural sensibilities (and perhaps bodily integrity) of the Hindu majority. Opposition to beef eating is described by Dalit activists as 'cultural fascism', at the same time as those same beef-eaters are accused of violence towards the cultural values of the non-beef eating castes. Beef consumption is presented as a historically validated Hindu practice, referenced, for example, in the Rig Veda6 as suitable for everyday consumption and for sacrifices, and also variously as a colonial imposition, a hangover from Mughal rule, and a symptom of more recent Western cultural imperialism. This chapter tries to make sense of these apparent contradictions in how beef is understood and responded to in India, drawing on long-term fieldwork in India, much of it with beef-eating Christians and Dalits in coastal Andhra Pradesh and in Hyderabad.
... The cuisine of India is as diverse and rich as its history, art and culture. Every state, district, village of this country has its uniqueness in food (Achaya, 1994). Tourism and hospitality sector must realise this and take steps to promote destination via its cuisine. ...
Article
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Culinary tourism has the potential for being an essential source for destination promotion in India. One of the primary assumptions of this concept is the acceptability of local cuisine by tourists.The current paper explores this issue by trying to find the acceptability of new and local cuisine by travellers. The acceptability of local cuisine is tested via a modified Food Neophobia Scale (FNS) that scores the psychological behaviour of rejecting new or unknown food. The second part of the paper explores the 'Food image' of Delhi. The food image is ascertained by an empirical study on tourists using a self-administered survey. The results are analysed using descriptive statistics.
... In ancient India, finger millet cooked in milk was served with honey to poets (Achaya, 1992). The pinkish flour from red finger millet was eaten as a ball or gruel, either sweetened or salted. ...
Thesis
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Traditional weaning foods for infant-feeding practised in countries like India, are usually cereal based. Cereals including finger millet (Eleusine Coracana) in combination with milk solids are generally used for the preparation of porridge. This review attempts to explore the utilization of finger millet for the preparation of different cereal foods mainly porridges using different processing methods and simultaneously it focuses on the nutritional features and plausible health benefits of ragi. With the changes in scenario of utilization pattern of processed products and awareness of the consumers about the health benefits, finger millet has gained importance because of its functional components. Hence to enjoy the benefits of the functional constituents of ragi and milk, it is imperative to identify the judicial combination of both of these components through appropriate research.
... andmasoor (Lens culinaris) these three grain legumes were most commonly used. Wheat is also first mentioned in Yajurveda [10]. Though different grains are used through millennia, so here the purpose of this paper is to review the name and use of traditional and ayurvedic grain-based foods of Indian origin. ...
Research
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Ayurveda (the science of life), a branch of Vedas, considered as a store of knowledge related to health sciences. In Ayurvedatraditional foodsand their dietary guideline are prescribed. Food is also used for therapeutic purpose as well as inappropriate knowledge about consumption may become the root cause of many diseases. Grains are recommended to be consumed with every meal not only as a main source of energy but also vital source of carbohydrate, protein, iron, calcium, potassium and B vitamins. In Charaka Samhita, sixty-eight aharakalpanas are described for maintenance of health and for treatment of diseases. Most of these are preparations of ShookaDhanya (grains) as the principal food item. This review article puts forward the concept of ayurvedic grain-based healthy foods of India and also details of several grain based ethnic healthy foods across different regions of India.
... kṛsara = kṛśara ("A dish made of milk, sesamum and rice"), Achaya 1998: 270b, using the wrong spelling krasāra: "rice-milk-sesame seed dish", and, without the milk, pw ("ein Gericht aus Reis und Sesamkörnern"). 47 Cf., ad kṛsara, Apte ("Rice and peas boiled together with a few spices (Mar{āṭhī} khicaḍī)"), MW ("a dish consisting of sesamum and grain ( mixture of rice and peas with a few spices)" and Achaya (Achaya 1998: 33b: "Rice […] cooked with […] sesame seed and milk (krsāra{sic}), perhaps a forerunner of the later khichdī made from rice and dhāl."). The name of the latter dish is usually derived from Sanskrit khiccā (MW: "a kind of dish [made of rice and pease &c], N{ighaṇṭu}pr{akāśa}."). ...
Article
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In the pursuit of a better understanding of how theatrical performances relate to ritual ones in Bharata's Nāṭyaśāstra, the whole work has been scrutinized for relevant data. This data can be assigned to three major categories: (1) prescriptive information on rituals to be performed prior to a theatrical spectacle; (2) prescriptions regarding the theatrical representation of rituals within a play; and (3) miscellaneous references that, often incidentally, afford additional insights into individual aspects of ritual performances. In view of the large extent of the compiled information, the latter is at first systematically presented in separate articles covering individual aspects of ritual performances, before being considered as a whole in the theoretical reflections and conclusions of the final article. Whereas the first article of the series dealt with a wide range of ritual items, the present one specifically looks at ritual food offerings.
... The cultural landscape of India is littered with food [31], having a deep Epicurean interest, and symbolic that links between kith and kin, man and beast and god [32]. The different historical phase has shown regional food diversity from ancient to contemporary times [33]. Every region has particular flavours and techniques of food preparation where religion, custom and tradition influence and determine the food habits. ...
Article
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Food is a necessity for physical and spiritual well-being. It is sacred, identity, medicines, arts, religion, politics, social and legal. The different social system is recognised by the type of food that people consumed demarcating self and others. For some, certain foods are delicacies but taboo for others. Nevertheless, taste and smell determine the delicacy of the food. Against this background, the paper examines the traditional concept of food, food practices, and different types of food that the Zeme consumes in brief. The paper explores the delicacies of dry season food such as nkampi chutney, fermentation of bamboo shoots, namely kechui-hia and kechui-nnang , and mustard leaf paste-taste making, njetim , and the local beverages called zou . The paper locates the different local beverages in the context of legal, social, religion and gender implications. The study observed that the Zeme’s food practices have gone through radical changes with the appropriation of the other food practices engrossed into the realm of market enterprises. It is of the view that proper value addition to the food practices can enhance their livelihood opportunities. The paper concluded that it serves as a foundation for the scientific investigation on the Zeme’s food practice in general and fermented food making in particular, and contributions to the food literature.
... For percentage of vegetarian population by state seeAchaya (1994). For more recent data see https://www.huffingtonpost.in/2016/06/14/how-india-eats_n_10434374.html ...
Thesis
The food practices of Hindus in north India have historically been viewed through the prisms of caste and region - high-caste Hindus are vegetarians and while the lowers castes eat meat vegetarianism remains desirable. In recent years these practices, especially a growing consumption of meat, have been explained by reference to increased economic prosperity and the emergence of a 'modern' middle class. Several recent surveys of food practices have unequivocally reported that the relationship between caste and meat consumption and avoidance is not as straightforward as generally believed and that some of the most prosperous parts of India have the highest proportions of vegetarian population. Drawing on fieldwork conducted among Hindus in a north Indian town this research suggests that while caste and economic wellbeing remain important determinants of food practices, these practices, especially the practices of meat consumption and avoidance, are far too complex and nuanced to be adequately explained by these two factors alone. A detailed documentation of everyday food practices of north Indian Hindus, in particular the avoidance and consumption of meat, suggests that while the everyday practice remains overwhelmingly vegetarian there is increased discretion in food choices and greater reflected consumption. Food has moved outside the household and into the public domain, the boundaries of 'vegetarian' and 'non-vegetarian' have been stretched, there is regular movement between the two categories, and today it is possible to consume meat while being a member of a vegetarian household. The changes in food practices - motivated by diverse considerations - are not in any one direction but in multiple directions including vegetarians taking to meat consumption and those who eat meat turning vegetarian. Moving beyond the dual explanations of caste and economic wellbeing the food practices of north Indian Hindus can be better understood against the backdrop of socio-economic changes that have swept India post-1990 as Hindus create and re-create their social identities in a rapidly changing world.
... Food culture arises out of the place of a people's origin, and so traditional local foods hold the potential to bind and stabilise communities and enable a cultural continuity through conserving their histories. Indian cuisine is represented as a wide spectrum of food cultures with distinctive regional differences and preferences (Achaya, 1998). ...
Chapter
Introduction Food is a culture, emotion, hospitality and prestige and is closely knitted with tradition. Traditional knowledge is a community based functional knowledge system which is developed, preserved and refined by generations through continuous interaction, observation and experimentation with their surrounding environment. It includes beliefs, values, and practices gathered from the practical experience of older generation, and its whole function is survival and development of culture of people. Traditional foods, originated from ancestral kitchens are developed through ages, invented, modified, utilised and evolved to improve nutritional and social wellbeing of the people around the world. Most of them are culture specific, region specific, environment specific, community specific and season specific. These foods are socially, culturally and economically important and provide food security, enhance livelihood and improve nutritional and social wellbeing of people. Food culture arises out of the place of a people's origin, and so traditional local foods hold the potential to bind and stabilise communities and enable a cultural continuity through conserving their histories. Indian cuisine is represented as a wide spectrum of food cultures with distinctive regional differences and preferences (Achaya, 1998).
... Chutney is essentially an Indian preparation that complements as a side dish to the main course. Chutney can be prepared with spices, vegetables, fruits and herbs (Achaya, 1994). ...
Article
Hibiscus cannabinus. L. is popular for its edible leaves and are used in various foods. Roselle is also famous for its high nutritional and medicinal values. It is a source of antioxidants. Roselle commonly known as Cranberry, Gongura and Pulichakeerai. The leaves are rich in calcium, iron and phosphorus. Plant also exhibits chemo preventive and hepatopreventive properties. The current research work was taken to standardize chutney and to study the storage stability, the prepared chutney were analyzed for its moisture, ascorbic acid content, calcium, iron and phosphorus. The samples were stored in three batches (i.e.,) control, preserved with oil, with vinegar and with preservative were stored in glass bottles, polyethylene bag and pet bottle was stored at room and refrigeration temperature. Sensory qualities were evaluated. Among the chutney Gongura stored in glass bottle with oil was found to have higher acceptability.
Article
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Ahara is one of the important pillars of life and as per ayurveda it contributes significantly towards the health and happiness of an individual. Ayurveda emphasizes on consumption of proper diet to maintain normal health status and to remain free from disease conditions. The balance dietary pattern not only makes help to restore health status but it also offers various nutrients to combat against different diseases. However it is believes that diet consumed as per internal constitution (Prakriti) of an individual offers more beneficial effects therefore one should consume diet as per his/her internal constitution. The food offers different beneficial effects such as; growth promotion, initiation of repair mechanism, development of natural immunity and physiological functionality. The nutritional value of various dietary materials enhances importance of food diversity. Present article describe nutritional and health benefits of various dietary materials.
Chapter
Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) commonly known as green gram or golden gram is an important pulse crop. Being a crop of tropical and subtropical region, mungbean is able to tolerate warm temperature as high as 40oC. It is considered as a “poor men’s protein (Mian, 1976). Apart from 26 % protein, it also contains 51 % carbohydrate , 10% moisture, 4% minerals and 3% vitamins (Khan 1981).It is widely cultivated throughout Asia including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Combodia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia and South China (Yadav et al., 2014). It is also grown in parts of East and Central Africa, Australia, United State of America and West Indies. In India it is grown in almost all parts of the country during summer and rainy season. India is the largest producer of mungbean where it is third most important pulse crop with an area of approximately 3.43 million hectares (about 15% of the national pulse crop area ), production 1.71 million tonnes of grain with productivity of 498 kg/ha(Anonymous, 2012). To meet global demand, it is imperative to improve the current average global productivity (400kg ha-1 as well as to expand the crop into new regions (Nair et al., 2012). The yield of mungbean is affected by several biotic and abiotic factors (Grewal, 1988). Among the biotic factors, Mungbean yellow mosaic virus(MYMV) , Leaf crinkle virus(ULCV), Mungbean leaf curl virus(MLCV) and Mosaic mottle virus (BCMV)are of prime importance in reducing crop yield. The account of diseases and their management practices are discussed.
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Anthropologists have long recognized that rules and practices concerning food and caste in India are closely intertwined. The ritually highest ranking Hindu castes are characterized as protecting their purity by accepting cooked (or kacca) food from no one of lower caste status and those at the bottom as accepting food from anyone (see, e.g., Mayer 1960;Marriott 1968;Dumont 1970;Béteille 1996: 56–60;Deliége 1999). Caste identity is also reflected in what people eat: castes within the Brahmin and Vaisya varnas are usually vegetarian; castes from the other two varnas might eat meat; and Dalits, Muslims and Christians — located outside the classic four varna model altogether — might also eat beef (Deliége 1999: 38; Staples 2008). Variations in preparation and tastes are also frequently attributed to caste as well as to strong regional affiliations. For example, some Brahmins, older women in particular, avoid garlic, onions and other ‘heating’ ingredients deemed inappropriate for their bodily substance (Lamb 2000: 193; Daniel 1987), while others claim to adopt a more complex or refined meal structure than their regional peers from other castes.
Article
Indian food systems are famously intricate, but the southern state of Tamil Nadu has a single foundation for its cuisine: rice. A few generations ago, other grains collectively called “millets” were the daily staple for many Tamil people. Then, they almost totally eschewed millets in favor of polished, white rice, as the latter became more accessible. Yet in the past few years, public health and development professionals have launched efforts to re-popularize millets as neglected and underutilized species that have the potential to positively affect consumer nutrition, use of environmental resources, and livelihood stability. Drawing on ethnographic evidence collected through field research in and around the city of Madurai, Tamil Nadu, this paper explores how the particularities of Tamil history and cultural values shape the current confused status of millets there. By emphasizing the interplay of structure and change over time, the paper considers how a denigrated food from the past can be made “good” and “right” in the present. It brings to the foreground unresolved challenges that could impede the goals of millet promotion efforts. These challenges will likely need to be addressed if millets are to have a place in future Tamil food culture.
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In this chapter, attempt has been made in providing an account about the fermented foods and alcoholic beverages of Kerala. Kerala, the southernmost state in India, is a region with rich cultural diversity and ethnic groups. Each ethnic group has its own method of fermenting food materials for the purpose of preservation, taste, and nutritional enhancement and has been carrying this tradition from time immemorial. Because of its rich trading heritage, over time various cuisines have blended with indigenous Kerala dishes with foreign dishes adapted to local tastes. Some of the most popular traditional fermented preparations were described here.
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“भारत” (Bharat) has one of the oldest civilizations in the world with vast history, food culture, bio-resources, ethnicity, and customs. Ethnic food has a cultural connotation in India and is linked to diverse ethnicity which represents the traits of wisdom and knowledge of ancient Indian people on culinary and also on the right choice of “bioactively enriched balance diets” since Rig Vedic period. Diversity of Indian fermented foods and beverages is related to diversity of ethnicity with unparalleled food culture of each community. More than 350 types of major and region-specific ethnic fermented foods and alcoholic beverages are produced either naturally or by adding mixed starter cultures using indigenous knowledge of food fermentation in India. Diversity of microorganisms ranges from mycelia fungi to enzyme-producing to alcohol-producing yeasts and Gram-positive and few Gram-negative bacteria with several functional properties. Functional microorganisms play important roles in the traditional fermentation processes by their functional properties enhancing several health-promoting benefits to the consumers such as bio-preservation of perishable foods, bio-enrichment of nutritional value, protective properties, bioavailability of minerals, production of antioxidants, antimicrobial activities, non-production of biogenic amines, and probiotics properties. Microbial diversity in ethnic fermented foods contributes significant genetic resources due to diverse food cultures of the multiethnic groups of people in India. It has been noticed that consumption of few uncommon ethnic foods is declining in many states of India due to change in life style, shifting from cultural food habit to commercial foods and fast foods affecting drastically the traditional culinary practices, and also due to climate change in some places.
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Carry forward a research project on the socio-political identity of regional cuisine. How cultural assimilation shapes food, how it can be a spokesperson to a high supraregional authoritarian aristocracy, how it is being used as a medium of the political embargo; as we perceive in the temple cuisine of Jagannatha, Puri, Odisha, India.
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