Article
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Although body temperature elevation resulting from exercise has been implicated as one mechanism underlying anxiety reduction, no published evidence exists which establishes the relationship between body temperature and anxiety with respect to exercise. To examine this relationship, 20 males ran for 30 min at 75% VO2max in three temperature-manipulated conditions: (a) Normal—normal temperature change associated with exercise; (b) Cooler—attenuation of normal rise in temperature; and (c) Warmer—accentuation of normal rise in temperature. Significant temperature differences resulted from the three conditions. Although anxiety was reduced following exercise in all conditions and relationships between changes in temperature and anxiety were strong (rs>.75), manipulations of temperature accounted for only a small percentage of the variance in anxiety. It appears that elevated body temperature may not be necessary for exercise-related anxiety reduction to occur. Other variables which might have a greater effect...

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... However, the observed effects were mixed and there was little support for this as a valid mechanism. On the contrary, findings from some studies suggested that increased brain/body temperature was associated with increased anxiety postexercise (e.g., Petruzzello, Landers, & Salazar, 1993;Smith, Petruzzello, Kramer, & Misner, 1997). In the study by Smith et al. (1997), several psychophysiological responses (including anxiety and tympanic temperature) were recorded in firefighters during a 16-min-long training session in either a neutral (148C) or hot (908C) environment. ...
... Tympanic temperature increased by 3.18C for participants who exercised in the hot environment (whereas it remained statistically unaltered in firefighters who trained in the thermoneutral environment), and their level of anxiety increased by a greater amount compared with participants in the thermoneutral condition. In the study by Petruzzello et al. (1993), 20 male participants ran on a treadmill for 30 min at 75% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2 max) in a control condition (shorts, T-shirt), warm condition (clothes that accentuated the normal rise in temperature), and cool condition (shorts and T-shirt dampened with cold water). Increases in rectal temperature were higher in the warmer condition (þ 1.98C) compared with the cooler and control conditions (þ 1.48C). ...
... Esophageal temperature measurement, albeit very accurate, is considered to be an uncomfortable and painful procedure for assessing body temperature in nonanesthetized individuals (Kimberger, 2013), which of course may have repercussions on affective ratings. Given these difficulties and because of the well-established involvement of brain structures (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, ventromedial prefrontal cortex) in affective processes (Carlson, 2008), it has been proposed that studies attempting to explain changes in anxiety (or more generally, in affect) during an exercise bout may be better done by linking such changes with brain (rather than body) temperature (e.g., Petruzzello et al., 1993). As a result, tympanic temperature has become the preferred site of temperature measurement in the past 20 years, as it has been 2 F. D. LEGRAND ET AL. ...
Article
Full-text available
Increased core (brain or body) temperature that accompanies exercise has been posited to play an influential role in affective responses to exercise. However, findings in support of this hypothesis have been equivocal, and most of the performed studies have been done in relation to anxiety. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of tympanic temperature on basic affect (i.e., pleasure-displeasure) in the course of a high-intensity exercise session. One hundred seventy students performed a 10-min cycling exercise at an intensity of 80% to 85% of maximal heart rate. Heart rate, tympanic temperature, and self-reported pleasure (using the Feeling Scale [FS]) were measured twice during exercise at the end of the first minute (Min 1:00) and beginning of the last minute (Min 9:00). Small increases in tympanic temperature were noted from Min 1:00 to Min 9:00 (mean change value = +0.2°C). Meanwhile, the FS scores changed in the opposite direction (mean change value = - 0.2 units). However, changes in temperature only poorly predicted changes in pleasure-displeasure (R(2) = .05 for the linear regression, R(2) = .08 for the curvilinear regression). Slight elevated tympanic temperature occurred during the 10-min cycling exercise, but it had a negligible effect on changes in pleasure ratings. The possibility that tympanic temperature is not a valid indicator of core temperature during exercise is discussed.
... This hypothesis has been largely unsupported in empirical work [90]. For example, several studies have found a positive rather than an inverse relationship between body temperature and anxiety ratings when experimentally manipulating body temperature changes during exercise [90][91][92]. Petruzzello et al. found that self-reported anxiety immediately following exercise was higher among those randomized to a warm running condition that induced higher body temperatures than those who exercised in neutral or cool conditions [91]. No condition differences in anxiety were found throughout a 30-min recovery phase, and the temperature manipulation explained only little variance in anxiety ratings, such that the authors concluded that the thermogenic hypothesis was unsupported [91]. ...
... For example, several studies have found a positive rather than an inverse relationship between body temperature and anxiety ratings when experimentally manipulating body temperature changes during exercise [90][91][92]. Petruzzello et al. found that self-reported anxiety immediately following exercise was higher among those randomized to a warm running condition that induced higher body temperatures than those who exercised in neutral or cool conditions [91]. No condition differences in anxiety were found throughout a 30-min recovery phase, and the temperature manipulation explained only little variance in anxiety ratings, such that the authors concluded that the thermogenic hypothesis was unsupported [91]. ...
... Petruzzello et al. found that self-reported anxiety immediately following exercise was higher among those randomized to a warm running condition that induced higher body temperatures than those who exercised in neutral or cool conditions [91]. No condition differences in anxiety were found throughout a 30-min recovery phase, and the temperature manipulation explained only little variance in anxiety ratings, such that the authors concluded that the thermogenic hypothesis was unsupported [91]. Another study found that reductions in anxiety occurred when body temperature was prevented from rising during exercise [86]. ...
Article
Anxiety disorders constitute a significant public health problem. Current gold standard treatments are limited in their effectiveness, prompting the consideration of alternative approaches. In this review, we examine the evidence for exercise as an intervention for anxiety disorders. This evidence comes from population studies, studies of nonclinical anxiety reduction, as well as a limited number of studies of clinically anxious individuals. All of these studies provide converging evidence for consistent beneficial effects of exercise on anxiety, and are consistent with a variety of accounts of the mechanism of anxiety reduction with exercise. Further study of clinical populations is encouraged, as are studies of the mechanism of change of exercise interventions, which have the potential to help refine exercise intervention strategies. Likewise, studies that identify moderators of treatment efficacy will assist clinicians in deciding how and for whom to prescribe exercise.
... Various hypotheses also exist for exercise-induced anxiolytic effects. The thermogenic hypothesis postulates that mood enhancement after exercise is subjective and happens due to rise in body temperature [45], as rise in temperature was directly related to increase in anxiety and anxiolytic effects were apparent after body temperature dropped down [45,46]. Petruzzello et al. [46], on the other hand, mentioned that reduction in anxiety after exercise could be due to variation in brain activity rather than core body temperature. ...
... The thermogenic hypothesis postulates that mood enhancement after exercise is subjective and happens due to rise in body temperature [45], as rise in temperature was directly related to increase in anxiety and anxiolytic effects were apparent after body temperature dropped down [45,46]. Petruzzello et al. [46], on the other hand, mentioned that reduction in anxiety after exercise could be due to variation in brain activity rather than core body temperature. Another hypothesis depends upon distraction and proposes that reduction of anxiety is not due to some specific activity or action, rather it is due to time-out or break from daily activities or stressors, distracting the thoughts and freeing the individual from disturbing thoughts or worries [45,47]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aim The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of different anaerobic training regimes on state anxiety, trait anxiety, and sleep quality among collegiate athletes. Methods Thirty-six collegiate soccer players fulfilling the eligibility criteria were randomly divided into three groups: complex training (n = 12; BMI 22.95 ± 1.76 kg/m²), contrast training (n = 12; BMI 22.05 ± 2.03 kg/m²), and control (n = 12; BMI 22.27 ± 1.44 kg/m²). Athletes from the complex or contrast group were trained for 6 weeks (3 days/week). The complex group performed four different exercises, each comprised of strength [80% of one repetition maximum (1RM)] and power components alternately. The contrast group performed the same strengthening exercises alternately at two different intensities (40% and 80% of 1RM). No supervised training was given to control group. All athletes were tested for their state anxiety, trait anxiety, and sleep quality before and after 6 weeks of training. Results 3 × 2 mixed ANOVA revealed significant difference in time effect (p ≤ 0.001) and time × group interaction (p ≤ 0.001) for state anxiety while non-significant difference was found in the group effect. There was no significant difference found between the groups for sleep quality and trait anxiety. Conclusions The results of the present study demonstrated that anaerobic exercises have a positive impact to reduce state anxiety. Therefore, coaches should utilize these findings and implement anaerobic exercises to the training regime for reduction of anxiety among athletes.
... It appears that the benefits of exercise come about by numerous physiological or psychological changes. Physiological effects of exercise can include an increase in endorphin levels [17][18][19][20], body temperature [21][22][23][24], mitochondrial function and mitochondriogenesis [25][26][27], an increase in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTor) signalling [28][29][30], neurotransmitter production [31][32][33][34] and attenuation of the hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress [15,27,31]. Whilst psychological effects may include a distraction from feelings of depression and anxiety [35][36][37] and positive feelings associated with mastery and selfefficacy [8,[38][39][40]. ...
... Three temperatures; normal, cooler than normal and warmer than normal were compared. It was noted that although all 3 temperatures resulted in reduced anxiety of the participants there was not enough variance between the 3 temperatures to account for this reduction [22]. Furthermore, the thermogenic hypothesis was studied in acute exercise declaring increased body temperature may lead to decreased self-reported anxiety, however, no correlation to support this hypothesis was noted [24]. ...
... A thermogenic hypothesis has also been suggested as a mechanism for improved mood states associated with physical activity [46]. This question was addressed and found that elevated body temperature may not be necessary for exercise-related anxiety reduction to occur [47]. Again, the differences in time of exercise would ...
... Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Effect sizes (Cohen's d = X Exp −(X Con /SD Con )) 22 were also calculated for all measured variables. Effect size results were interpreted as described by Christensen and Christensen, 23 with effect sizes of <0.2 classified as small, 0.4-0.6 as medium, and >0.8 as large. ...
Article
Full-text available
To examine the effect of cooling the skin with an ice jacket before and between exercise bouts (to simulate quarter and half time breaks) on prolonged repeat sprint exercise performance in warm/humid conditions. After an initial familiarisation session, seven trained male hockey players performed two testing sessions (seven days apart), comprising an 80 minute intermittent, repeat sprint cycling exercise protocol inside a climate chamber set at 30 degrees C and 60% relative humidity. On one occasion a skin cooling procedure was implemented (in random counterbalanced order), with subjects wearing an ice cooling jacket both before (for five minutes) and in the recovery periods (2 x 5 min and 1 x 10 min) during the test. Measures of performance (work done and power output on each sprint), heart rates, blood lactate concentrations, core (rectal) and skin temperatures, sweat loss, perceived exertion, and ratings of thirst, thermal discomfort, and fatigue were obtained in both trials. In the cooling condition, chest (torso) skin temperature, thermal discomfort, and rating of thirst were all significantly lower (p<0.05), but no significant difference (p>0.05) was observed between conditions for measures of work done, power output, heart rate, blood lactate concentration, core or mean skin temperature, perceived exertion, sweat loss, or ratings of fatigue. However, high effect sizes indicated trends to lowered lactate concentrations, sweat loss, and mean skin temperatures in the cooling condition. The intermittent use of an ice cooling jacket, both before and during a repeat sprint cycling protocol in warm/humid conditions, did not improve physical performance, although the perception of thermal load was reduced. Longer periods of cooling both before and during exercise (to lower mean skin temperature by a greater degree than observed here) may be necessary to produce such a change.
... Body temperature in the experimental group rose significantly, which was accompanied by a significant increase in anxiety. Similarly, Petruzzello et al. [34] compared subjects running on a treadmill in Warmer, Cooler, and Normal temperature conditions, finding that increases in temperature were highly correlated with increases in anxiety; the anxiolytic effects of exercise became apparent only when body temperature cooled. While these certainly seem to refute the thermogenic hypothesis, Petruzzello et al. caution that post-exercise anxiety reduction could possibly be linked to brain, rather than core body, temperature. ...
Article
This paper documents the recent (1976-1995) literature on the acute mood effects associated with participation in single sessions of exercise. Issues regarding experimental design, "ecological validity' and the operational definition of mood are addressed. Results from these studies suggest that both clinical and nonclinical subjects may benefit acutely from even a single bout of exercise. Finally, possible mechanisms and recommendations for future research are discussed.
... Physiological responses related to body temperature, catecholamine response, and lactate production may be influential in acute affect changes after exercise and exercise behavior itself. For example, increased body temperature is associated with increases in negative affect (e.g., Petruzzello, Landers, & Salazar, 1993) and higher lactate concentration is associated with greater perceived exertion and fatigue during exercise (Lagally et al., 2002). Thus, we hypothesize that individuals who experience better temperature regulation, lower levels of lactate production, and have better catecholamine regulation will be more likely to maintain a moderate intensity physical activity regimen. ...
Article
The goal of this research is to utilize a transdisciplinary framework to guide the selection of putative moderators of the effectiveness of an intervention to promote physical activity behavior adoption and maintenance in the context of a randomized controlled intervention trial. Effective interventions to increase physical activity are sorely needed, and one barrier to the identification and development of such interventions is the lack of research targeted at understanding both the mechanisms of intervention efficacy and for whom particular interventions are effective. The purpose of this paper is to outline our transdisciplinary approach to understanding individual differences in the effectiveness of a previously successful exercise promotion intervention. We explain the rationale for and operationalization of our framework, characteristics of the study to which we apply the framework, and planned analyses. By embracing a transdisciplinary orientation for individual differences important in the prediction of physical activity (spanning molecular approaches, animal models, human laboratory models, and social psychological models), we hope to have a better understanding of characteristics of individuals that are important in the adoption and maintenance of physical activity.
... The finding that women benefit from greater improved mood than men might be explained by gender differences in response to any of the prior mechanisms. Alternatively, this finding can be accounted for by another proposed mechanism of the exercise–mood relationship, which suggests that differences in thermoregulation during exercise are associated with changes in mood (e.g., Petruzzello et al., 1993). Several exercise physiology studies have demonstrated gender differences in temperature regulation during exercise (e.g., Yousef et al., 1984; Kaciuba-Uscilko and Grucza, 2001), due to women's larger ratio of body surface to body mass and tendency to sweat less than men. ...
Article
Although the role of exercise in improving mood is well established, less is known about moderators of this effect, particularly outside of the laboratory. The current study examined the effect of gender, type of exercise, level of exertion, and duration of workout on the exercise–mood relationship in a naturalistic setting. One hundred and thirty five participants (64 females) either engaged in weight training (n = 52) or cardiovascular (n = 83) exercise. Pre- and post-exercise assessments of mood were collected and changes in two types of mood, negative mood and exhaustion, were examined. Overall, participants reported improved mood after exercise in both domains. Workout duration and level of exertion significantly moderated the relationship of exercise to mood improvement (i.e., an increase in either corresponded to greater improved mood, ps<0.05). Overall, women showed more improved mood than men in the domain of exhaustion (p = 0.001).
... Possible psychosocial mechanisms include expectancy, social interaction, an opportunity to commune with nature, meditating while exercising, feelings of competence and the ability to "take charge" of one's life, and distraction or "time out" from daily activities (Bahrke & Morgan, 1978;Berger, 1984a;Dunn & Dishman, 1991;Long & Haney, 1988b). Hypothesized physiological mechanisms include physiological/mental toughening, thermogenic benefits, more efficient catecholamine responses, and increasedendorphins (CJaytor, 1991: Dienstbier, 1991Morgan & ElJickson, 1989;Petruzzello et al., 1993). Various combinations of these mechanisms may interact to affect the stress-reduction characteristics of different types of physical activities performed at various intensity levels by members of specific populations. ...
Article
Full-text available
Examines conceptual issues related to using exercise as a stress-management technique. The paper considers stress a complex process that involves the body and the mind. Coping strategies other than exercise include cognitive, somatic, and behavioral techniques. Research indicates exercise is as effective as other stress-management techniques. (SM)
... Also, the one study supporting the thermogenic hypothesis was a cooling condition vs. normal, not a warming condition as would be more typically encountered by the general population during work and physical activity. Petruzzello, Landers, and Salazar (1993) had 20 men run on a treadmill for 30 minutes at 75% of VO 2 max in regular running clothing, dampened clothing, and a nylon suit. They found significant differences in post exercise body temperature among the groups (regular = 38.58C/101.44F, ...
Article
Full-text available
The anxiolytic effect of exercise is well-established although the associated mechanism(s) are still debated. One proposed explanation is the thermogenic hypothesis. Existing studies have tested this hypothesis via manipulation of body temperature through clothing or exercise in water of varying temperatures. The purpose of this study was to test the thermogenic hypothesis via different environmental temperatures. Participants cycled for 60 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold with trials counterbalanced in thermo-neutral (18C/65F) vs. hot conditions (33C/91F). Anxiety was measured pre, post, and 30 minutes post exercise. Results revealed that anxiety was significantly higher after exercising in the hot condition vs. the thermo-neutral condition where anxiety decreased after exercise. Discussion of the thermogenic hypothesis, suggestions for future research and applied implications are provided.
... However, results have been inconsistent (Fox, 1999). This thermogenic model suggests that the body temperature elevations reduce tonic muscle activity, which in turn reduces somatic anxiety (deVries, Wiswell, Bulbulian, and Moritani, 1981;Petruzzello, Landers, and Salazar, 1993). This reduction in somatic anxiety is hypothesized to cause the mood improvements after exercise. ...
... For example, running offers positive social interaction, to help individuals form and maintain social relationships and promote social identity (Shipway et al., 2012;Robinson et al., 2014;Hindley, 2020;Xie et al., 2020). Engagement in physical activity, such as running, has also long been shown to be an effective treatment for social isolation, social anxiety, and depression (Petruzzello et al., 1993;Paluska and Schwenk, 2000;Barber et al., 2005;Blumenthal et al., 2012;Anderson and Shivakumar, 2013;Liu et al., 2015). Furthermore, environmental factors like access to facilities and safe running environments have impacted activity behavior, with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention previously reporting a significant positive association between perceived neighborhood safety and physical activity (From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1999). ...
Article
Full-text available
The primary purpose of this study was to examine how the type and magnitude of changes in running behavior, as a consequence of COVID-19 pandemic restrictions, influence running-related injuries. Secondarily, we aimed to examine how lifestyle and psychosocial well-being measures may influence running behavior change. An online survey was advertised to individuals over the age of 18 that currently run or have previously participated in running for exercise. The survey questions examined injury history and new injuries sustained during COVID-19 restrictions, as well as changes related to training behavior changes, training environment changes, social behaviors, and psychosocial well-being. Changes reflected differences in running behaviors prior to COVID-19 restrictions (1 month prior to COVID-19 restrictions being imposed) and during COVID-19 restrictions (May 5 to June 10, 2020). A total of 1,035 runners were included in the analysis. Current injuries sustained during COVID-19 occurred in 9.5% of the runners. Injured runners made a greater number of total changes ( p = 0.031) as well as training-related ( p = 0.042) and environment-related ( p = 0.017) changes compared with uninjured runners. A significant relationship was found between injury and those that reported less time to exercise to changes in work environment ( p = 0017). This study highlights the multi-dimensional nature of running-related injuries and the need to consider the interaction of multiple changes in running behavior, rather than isolating single factors. Greater understanding of the underlying causes of running-related injuries can help reduce the risk of future injury.
... The secretion of endorphins (Hoffman, 1997) and neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, epinephrine, etc.) as the biological correlate of value for wellbeing (Chaouloff, 1997;Dishman, 1997) has been suggested as the reason for the emotional benefits associated with physical exercise. The affective benefits of exercise may also be influenced by increased body temperature (Thermogenic Hypothesis; Petruzzello, Landers, & Salazar, 1993), by being regularly influenced by the stress of physical activity (Physiological Toughness Model; Dienstbier, 1989), the fact that being physically active is inherent in our genetic makeup (living a sedentary life therefore creates negative mental health; Anthropological Hypothesis, Martinsen, 2002), and by socially interacting with other people. All the suggestions mentioned may provide for affective responses in the context of Qigong (except perhaps the Thermogenic Hypothesis and the Physiological Toughness Model), and social interaction may not be solely responsible, as solitaire exercise has led to improved affective states (Szabo, 2003). ...
... ηε ζπλέρεηα ν εγθέθαινο αλαηξνθνδνηείηαη κε ηελ πιεξνθνξία φηη ν νξγαληζκφο βξίζθεηαη ζε θαηάζηαζε ραιάξσζεο ηελ νπνία εξκελεχεη σο κείσζε ηνπ άγρνπο. Μέρξη ζήκεξα, νη έξεπλεο δείρλνπλ φηη ε απμεκέλε ζεξκνθξαζία ηνπ ζψκαηνο πηζαλφλ λα κελ είλαη άκεζα ππεχζπλε γηα ηηο ςπρνινγηθέο αιιαγέο ηεο δηάζεζεο (Koltyn, Shake & Morgan, 1993 Petruzzello, Landers & Salazar, 1993 Youngstedt, Dishman, Cureton & Peacock, 1993. Η ππφζεζε ηεο ζεξκνγέλεζεο παξακέλεη αλνηρηή, σζηφζν ζα κπνξνχζε θάιιηζηα ε αχμεζε ηεο ζεξκνθξαζίαο ηνπ εγθεθάινπ θαη φρη ηνπ ζψκαηνο λα νδεγεί ζε αιιαγέο ζηε δηάζεζε θαη κείσζε ηνπ άγρνπο. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
In this study the exact p-values of the non-parametric Wilcoxon and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests are compared with those obtained by the asymptotic approach and those calculated based on Monte Carlo method. The analyzed data were obtained by calculating the scores on questionnaires (POMS-SF) which assess the mood and were distributed to 124 students of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (A.U.TH). Based on the previous exact p-values, it was investigated by gender the mood changes of students who participated in a one-hour exercise session at University Gym (Exercise Group) and the mood changes in an hour of those who studied in University Libraries (Library Group). In addition, the two groups were compared by gender for each mood state. In conclusion, as far as the physical exercise, the findings indicated that after one-hour exercise in A.U.TH programs the levels of Depression and the feeling of Confusion were reduced in both sexes, as well as the Anger of female students. Noteworthy the fact that for both sexes the Energy after exercise remained high despite increasing in Fatigue. Therefore, it would be beneficial for mental health and physical well-being of male and female students of A.U.TH the participation in organized university sport activities along with the necessary academic study in libraries.
... Also, the one study supporting the thermogenic hypothesis was a cooling condition vs. normal, not a warming condition as would be more typically encountered by the general population during work and physical activity. Petruzzello, Landers, and Salazar (1993) had 20 men run on a treadmill for 30 minutes at 75% of VO 2 max in regular running clothing, dampened clothing, and a nylon suit. They found significant differences in post exercise body temperature among the groups (regular = 38.58C/101.44F, ...
Article
Full-text available
The anxiolytic effect of exercise is well-established although the associated mechanism(s) are still debated. One proposed explanation is the thermogenic hypothesis. Existing studies have tested this hypothesis via manipulation of body temperature through clothing or exercise in water of varying temperatures. The purpose of this study was to test the thermogenic hypothesis via different environmental temperatures. Participants cycled for 60 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold with trials counterbalanced in thermo-neutral (18C/65F) vs. hot conditions (33C/91F). Anxiety was measured pre, post, and 30 minutes post exercise. Results revealed that anxiety was significantly higher after exercising in the hot condition vs. the thermo-neutral condition where anxiety decreased after exercise. Discussion of the thermogenic hypothesis, suggestions for future research and applied implications are provided.
... According to our results, both functions appear to be aberrant in FMS patients. Furthermore, state anxiety was positively associated with body temperature in healthy participants, indicating that the increase in activation and metabolism associated with greater anxiety increases body temperature [43]. However, this association was absent in FMS patients, suggesting lower physiological activation in response to anxiety or a dissociation between subjective and objective indicators of state anxiety. ...
Article
Full-text available
Alterations in autonomic activity are well established in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Previous studies found reduced parasympathetic activity and sympathetic reactivity to physical and stress manipulations. However, sympathetic activity at rest has not been well studied in FMS. Sweating is exclusively controlled by sympathetic mechanisms. In this study, skin conductance (SC), as an indirect measure of sweating, was analyzed in 45 women with FMS and 38 healthy women. Tonic SC levels were recorded during a 4-minute rest period, and a breathing maneuver consisting of deep breathing with posterior breath holding was used to evoke SC responses. Associations of tonic SC with state anxiety and body temperature , measured in the hand, were explored to determine sweat functionality. The results showed reduced tonic SC levels, with a less marked decrease in SC during the recording period, and blunted SC reactivity to the breathing manipulation in FMS patients relative to healthy participants. Positive associations of SC with state anxiety and body temperature were observed in healthy participants, but these associations were absent in FMS patients. These results indicate alterations of sweating in FMS, suggesting reduced tonic and reactivity sympathetic influences. Furthermore, the absence of associations between SC levels and state anxiety and body temperature in the patient sample suggested a loss of functional-ity of the autonomic nervous system in FMS. Diminished autonomic regulation in FMS would reduce the ability to cope with environmental demands, thus favoring increases in stress and pain levels. Finally, the observed reduction in sweating is in accordance with evidence of small nerve fiber neuropathy in FMS.
... However, results have been inconsistent (Fox, 1999). This thermogenic model suggests that the body temperature elevations reduce tonic muscle activity, which in turn reduces somatic anxiety (deVries, Wiswell, Bulbulian, and Moritani, 1981;Petruzzello, Landers, and Salazar, 1993). This reduction in somatic anxiety is hypothesized to cause the mood improvements after exercise. ...
Chapter
This chapter will focus on the psychological health benefits of exercise and physical activity. Throughout this chapter, the terms exercise and physical activity will be used interchangeably. The majority of previous literature has focused on the relationship between exercise and its effect on mood disorders and anxiety. These relationships will be reviewed. However, exercise and physical activity have stress management, wellbeing, and flow experience implications to the general population, as well. The proper "dosing" of exercise can be an important key to maximizing the mental health benefits of exercise and therefore the literature on type, duration, intensity and frequency of exercise will also be discussed. At the conclusion of this chapter potential mechanisms that may explain the relationship between exercise and psychological health are discussed within two broad and overlapping categories: psychological and physiological mechanisms.
Article
Full-text available
Two studies were conducted to examine the internal consistency and validity of the state anxiety subscale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (SAI) in the context of acute exercise. SAI responses typically found in the exercise literature were replicated. Analysis at the item level revealed divergent response patterns, confounding the total SAI score. During moderate and immediately after vigorous exercise, scores on items referring to cognitive antecedents of anxiety decreased, whereas scores on items assessing perceived activation increased. Indices of internal showed exercise-associated decreases. A principal-components analysis of responses immediately postexercise revealed a multidimensional structure, distinguishing "cognitive" and "activation" items. By failing to discern exercise-induced and anxiety-related increases in activation from anxiety-antecedent appraisals, the SAI exhibits compromised internal consistency and validity in the context of acute exercise.
Article
This article reviews the studies on the effects of physical activity on the emotional states--anxiety, depression and mood. The meta-analyses of correlational and experimental studies reveal positive effects of exercise, in healthy people and in clinical populations (also in patients with emotional disorders) regardless of gender and age. The benefits are significant especially in subjects with an elevated level of anxiety and depression because of more room for possible change. The most improvements are caused by rhythmic, aerobic exercises, using of large muscle groups (jogging, swimming, cycling, walking), of moderate and low intensity. They should be conducted for 15 to 30 minutes and performed a minimum of three times a week in programs of 10-weeks or longer. The results confirm the acute effect of exercise i.e. the reductions in anxiety and depression after single sessions of exercise. The changes in anxiety, depression and mood states after exercise are explained most frequently by the endorphin and monoamine hypotheses. Exercise may also increase body temperature, blood circulation in the brain and impact on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and physiological reactivity to stress. The possible psychological mechanisms include improvement of self-efficacy, distraction and cognitive dissonance.
Article
To investigate, based on biopsychological arousal theory, the influence of physical activity intensity on biopsychological, affective and cognitive function. Repeated measures experiment involving one control and three treatment conditions. Controlled laboratory environment. Twenty-one (of 27 volunteers) non-contraindicated females (55-65 years) recruited from general community and university populations completed the study. Data collection proceeded in four counterbalanced test-sessions including control (zero resistance), light (45%VO2max), moderate (60%VO2max), and high intensity (75%VO2max) cycle ergometer interventions. In all test sessions participants cycled at 25 W for 2 min (warm-up), followed by 10 min at the allocated intensity, and then 2 min at 25 W (cool-down). Blood pressure, heart rate and RPE were determined during test sessions. Energetic arousal (EA), tense arousal (TA), single dimension affect, and cognitive (reaction time-RT) responses were compared following physical activity. There was no significant difference in EA, TA, affect, or RT following zero resistance and light and moderate intensity physical activity or between light and moderate intensity physical activity. High intensity physical activity resulted in significantly lower levels of EA than light intensity physical activity, significantly higher levels of TA than zero resistance and light intensity physical activity, and significantly more negative levels of affect than either light or moderate intensity physical activity. There were no significant differences in reaction time between high intensity physical activity and any of the other intensities. There was partial support for the efficacy of biopsychological arousal theory in explaining the biopsychological and affective outcomes of physical activity, but no support for the influence of physical activity on cognitive function.
Article
Based on Solomon's Opponent-Process theory (1980), it was predicted that individuals involved in a regimen of regular aerobic exercise (active; n = 18) would respond to an acute bout of exercise with reduced negative and/or increased positive affect compared to nonactive counterparts (nonactive; n = 12). State Anxiety (SA), positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), and self-reported fatigue were assessed immediately prior to, every 6 min during, and every 6 min following a 24 min bout of bicycle exercise performed at an RPE of 13 (+/- 1). As expected, no significant group differences occurred for RPE (M = 13.5 for nonactive, 13.2 for active). The active group did, however, exercise at a greater absolute workload than the nonactive group (261.0 +/- 22.4 W vs 200.0 +/- 19.98 W, respectively). Analyses indicated similar changes in SA and fatigue for both groups, with significant reductions in SA occurring at 6 min post-exercise and remaining below pre-exercise levels throughout the post-exercise period, while fatigue was reduced at 12, 18, and 24 min post-exercise. A significant Group x Time interaction occurred for affective valence (PA - NA; p < .01). Post hoc analyses indicated that for the active group, affect increased modestly (i.e., more PA, less NA) during exercise; this increase was sustained post-exercise. The nonactive group evidenced a sharp drop in affect (i.e., less PA, more NA) during exercise followed by a small post-exercise rise which did not return to pre-exercise levels. The results of the present study partially support the Opponent-Process model as an explanation for exercise-related affect. Although there was no differential anxiety response as a function of activity level as the model would predict, there was a differential response for affective valence in accordance with predictions.
Article
Little is known about the impact of thermoregulatory demands on cardiovascular and psychological responses of firefighters during firefighting activities. This study examined selected responses to a training drill in different thermal environments. Male firefighters (n = 16) were randomly assigned to perform a simulated ceiling overhaul task for 16 min in either a neutral (13.7 degrees C) or hot (89.6 degrees C) condition while wearing standard firefighting turnout gear. Physiological and psychological measures were assessed before, after 8 min and 16 min of firefighting activity, and following a 10-min recovery period. The variables assessed included heart rate (HR), tympanic temperature (Ttymp), lactate level (LAC), blood glucose level, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), perceptions of respiration, thermal sensations (TS) and state anxiety (SA). Significant increases were seen for HR, Ttymp, LAC, RPE and SA, with the increases being much greater following the hot condition. Recovery was significantly slower following work in the hot condition. These findings suggest that the addition of a live fire (a common situation for firefighters) contributes to increased cardiovascular and psychological strain at a standardized workload.
Article
Full-text available
1 Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Udayana 2 Divisi Geriatri, SMF Ilmu Penyakit Dalam, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Udayana/RSUP Sanglah Denpasar ABSTRAK Insomnia merupakan gangguan tidur yang paling sering dialami oleh lansia. Insomnia berpengaruh langsung terhadap penurunan kualitas hidup dan memiliki kecenderungan terhadap peningkatan angka morbiditas dan mortalitas pada lansia. Selama ini berbagai terapi pengobatan telah dikembangkan untuk membantu mengatasi keluhan, namun belum ditemukan suatu terapi pengobatan yang ideal bagi lansia penderita insomnia. Melihat fenomena di atas, maka diperlukan metode dalam penatalaksanaan insomnia pada lansia melalui pendekatan terapi nonfarmakologis dan hanya menggunakan obat-obatan pada saat yang mendesak. Terapi nonfarmakologis yang paling efektif adalah terapi perilaku, yaitu sleep hygiene. Sleep hygiene merupakan identifikasi dan modifikasi perilaku dan lingkungan yang mempengaruhi tidur. Sehubungan hal diatas, penulis tertarik untuk mengetahui hubungan antara sikap sleep hygiene dengan derajat insomnia pada lansia di Poliklinik Geriatri RSUP Sanglah. Penelitian ini merupakan studi analitik cross-sectional dengan sampel sebanyak 43 lansia yang berkunjung ke Poliklinik Geriatri RSUP Sanglah pada bulan Februari 2014. Data diperoleh dengan wawancara melalui kuisioner yang terstruktur meliputi identitas, sikap sleep hygiene, dan derajat insomnia menggunakan kuesioner Insomnia Severity Index. Penelitian ini memperoleh rerata jenis kelamin, pendidikan, dan pekerjaan pada masing-masing derajat insomnia adalah homogen. Berdasarkan uji korelasi diperoleh bahwa terdapat hubungan antara sikap sleep hygiene dengan derajat insomnia pada lansia di Poliklinik Geriatri RSUP Sanglah pada dua komponen, yaitu faktor diet (p=0,006) dan olahraga (p=0,010), sedangkan tidak terdapat hubungan antara sikap sleep hygiene dengan derajat insomnia pada lansia di Poliklinik Geriatri RSUP Sanglah pada dua komponen lainnya, yaitu faktor perilaku (p=0,374) dan lingkungan (p=0,222).
Article
The effects of a 10-week aerobic exercise and progressive relaxation training program on somatic, emotional, and behavioral responses to acute stress, as determined by quality of motor performance and affect, were examined. The participants consisted of 60 unfit male university undergraduate students with no previous training in stress management who were randomly and evenly assigned to engage in one of four treatments over 10 weeks: (a) moderate aerobic exercise, (b) progressive relaxation, (c) a placebo group that engaged in group discussion but did experience acute stress, and (d) a nonintervention control group that did not experience stress while performing the motor task. Acute stress consisted of "losing" against a competitor of the opposite sex on the criterion motor task while receiving unpleasant information about their performance over 30 preintervention and 30 postintervention trials. Analyses indicated that aerobic exercisers, in comparisons with the other groups, responded to acute stress with more positive affect, lower stressor task heart rate, reduced systolic (but not diastolic) blood pressure, and superior motor performance. Progressive relaxation markedly reduced systolic blood pressure but did not favorably influence performance or affect in response to acute stress. Placebo and control groups were statistically similar on all measures. The findings indicated support for the use of chronic aerobic exercise as a strategy for improved coping with acute stress.
Article
Although proposed as an explanation for increases in positive and decreases in negative affect, little evidence supports the notion of a stronger efficacy-affect relationship as acute aerobic exercise intensity increases. Relationships between self-efficacy (SE), positive affect (PA), and negative affect (NA) were examined with respect to 3 randomly assigned conditions: (a) no exercise (control), (b) cycling at 55% VO2max, and (c) cycling at 70% VO2max. Twenty subjects (age = 22.6 years; M VO2max= 47.8 ml · kg−1· min−1) participated in each. Preexercise SE predicted in-task NA and postexercise PA in the 55% condition and postexercise PA in the 70% condition (ps < .05). Although SE significantly increased from pre- to postexercise, in-task affect failed to predict these increases in SE. These data suggest that in a fit college-aged population, a stronger reciprocal relationship between preexercise SE, in-task affect, and postexercise SE does not exist with increasing levels of exercise intensity. Contrary to self-efficacy theory, no evidence was found for a reciprocal relationship. However, the relationship between efficacy and affect was such that when collapsed across conditions and time, subjects with higher SE scores reported lower NA (p < .05).
Article
Examines the effects of physical activity on depression and anxiety, discussing the scientific strength of studies on physical activity, depression, and anxiety against the standards of science accepted in epidemiology with a focus on the independence, consistency, dose-response gradient, and biological plausibility of the evidence. (Author/SM)
Article
Reviews articles on stress and exercise. After defining stress, the paper analyzes competition as either eustress or distress, provides evidence for Berger's taxonomy of stress and exercise, examines Type A behavior, discusses multidimensional anxiety and stress management, describes the inverted-U hypothesis and task characteristics, and explains exercise and psychological health. (SM)
Article
Full-text available
心生理學是運動心理學的一個研究取向,其中,以腦波心生理學的研究較受到注意。過去腦波心生理學在運動心理學的研究包含了競技運動與健身運動二大課題。競技運動的課題集中在探討與運動表現有關的最佳心理狀態問題,研究發現與表現有關的腦波活動主要顯現在大腦的效率化,透過大腦效率化來減少非關鍵大腦活動對運動表現執行的干擾,是最佳表現心理狀態的特徵,而這個大腦活動干擾的控制可以藉由腦波的神經回饋訓練來協助。而在健身運動課題部分主要集中在運動與大腦認知與情緒功能的議題,過去研究發現運動有助於延緩老化所伴隨之認知功能退化,運動也有促進影響情緒之大腦活動。這些研究成果顯示腦波心生理學對於運動心理學研究有其特定之貢獻與應用之潛力。
Article
Not all senior citizens stop being active after society considers them past their prime. Though mental strategies are frequently construed as the treatment of choice for reducing anxiety, a body of literature has shown that somatic interventions such as acute exercises have relaxing effects on young adults and could be effective particularly for seniors as well. This study examined the effects of a brisk walk on somatic state anxiety with older physically fit women. Forty volunteers (age M = 68, SD = 5.3) were randomly assigned to two groups. The experimental group walked for 20 minutes while a control group sat near an indoor running track. Peripheral digital temperature, heart rate, state cognitive and somatic anxiety were measured. A significant somatic change occurred in peripheral digital temperature between groups and between times. The experimental group was less somatically anxious after the walk than after a restful sitting period. Twenty minutes after the walk, the experimental group showed higher levels of peripheral digital temperature. No significant differences were noticed in state anxiety. As healthy elderly women, state anxiety was not manifested prior to the walk likely because the brisk walk was not perceived as a competitive event. This study suggests that a brisk walk will have positive lasting effects on somatic anxiety. Future research should examine the effects of a brisk walk on senior athletes in a competitive environment as it relates to a somatic stress- reducing strategy.
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated relationships between trait emotional intelligence, pre-race emotions, and post-race emotions among a sample of 93 competitive 10-mile runners. Participants completed emotional intelligence and pre-race emotion scales approximately one hour before starting a 10-mile race, repeating completion of the emotion scales within one hour of finishing. Results indicated emotional intelligence correlated significantly with higher pleasant emotion and lower unpleasant emotion before and after racing. Path analysis results revealed emotional intelligence predicted both pre and post-race emotion. Results lend support to the notion that emotional intelligence is associated with emotional well-being. Future research should investigate emotional intelligence and its relationship with strategies used by athletes to regulate emotion before, during, and after competition.
Article
Assessment of a potentially contaminated patient in the "Hot Zone" of a hazardous materials incident can be performed with basic skills and knowledge. Advanced assessment and treatment is impractical and adds few advantages. Entry-team personnel with basic CPR and first-aid training should be able to determine whether their operation will be one of rescue or recovery. Safety of response personnel is paramount. Personal protective equipment limits entry-team members by restricting mobility, sight, hearing, touch, and in-zone time. The goal of personnel is not to perform a detailed examination, but to determine the presence of a patent airway and spontaneous cardiorespiratory function. Patients may be assessed by the following methods: 1) verbal (if patient is conscious); 2) visual (looking for chest move-ment, using a mirror or chemical indicator for respirations); 3) tactile (palpating chest for respirations). Patient care in the Hot Zone is restricted to limited immobilization, packaging, supplemental oxygen, and evacuation to decontamination. Every effort should be made to minimize energy expense by entry-team members and to limit their (and the patient's) time in the Hot Zone. Simple triage techniques may be used for multiple patients. Accurate understandable communications are essential for a smooth chain of patient management and personnel safety among industrial response teams, public-safety personnel (EMS, fire, police), and hospital staff. Medical personnel at the scene must ensure proper medical monitoring and decontamination is performed on response personnel as well as patients.
Article
One of the most popular research topics in exercise psychology has been the effect of exercise on anxiety. Exercise has been examined as a potential tool for preventing and treating anxiety and anxiety disorders for several decades. Indeed, an extensive literature examining the relationship between exercise and anxiety has accumulated over the last 40 years. The topic was important enough for a National Institute of Mental Health "stateof- the-art workshop" in 1984, out of which came the understanding that the anxiety-reducing effect of exercise was an important topic requiring further investigation. While much has been accomplished since the publication of the Morgan and Goldston (1987) text which resulted from the NIMH workshop, much remains unknown regarding the relationship between exercise and anxiety. This chapter summarizes what is known, what isn't yet known, and what remains to be done to make good on the "potential efficacy of exercise" (Morgan & Goldston, 1987, p. 5).
Article
Drive for thinness is one of the major predictors of disordered eating behaviours. A wealth of research has identified various aspects of the culture of sport as risk factors for the development of drive for thinness. However, despite the consistency of these findings, drive for thinness in sport remains relatively under-researched. The purpose of this study was to examine the development of drive for thinness among females in sport. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 37 competitive female athletes, aged 18 - 25, representing a variety of sports. Data were analyzed inductively using open, axial, and selective coding procedures. A model of the process by which females develop drive for thinness in sport is proposed, including six sequential stages of augmentation. Implications of these findings are discussed relative to prevention and best practice in sport.
Article
Physical inactivity contributes to as many as 250,000 premature deaths per year (R. R. Pate et al., 1995). The authors' objective was to test a transdisciplinary model of the ways in which genetic variants, physiological factors, and psychological factors are thought to influence exercise with 64 healthy, regular exercisers. In a within-subjects design, psychological and physiological responses to exercise were compared with responses to a sedentary activity. The authors measured affective state, perceived exertion, heart rate, and temperature change in response to moderate exercise versus sedentary activity. They also quantified genotypes on a single nucleotide polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene. The data show a relation between increases in positive affective states and acute exercise behavior, as opposed to a sedentary control. The BDNF gene moderated the effect of exercise on mood, heart rate, and perceived exertion. Physiological factors were, in turn, related to mood response, and mood response was a significant correlate of motivation to exercise in the future and of current exercise behavior. The model has potential as a framework for the basic study of the genetic, physiological, and psychological processes involved with voluntary exercise and as a tool for the applied examination of tailored exercise interventions and their efficacy for different subsets of individuals.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.