Article
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Study of EBN chemical composition is important for understanding its biological activity both as medicine and as functional food. Many studies on chemical composition of EBN, including physicochemical, proximate, amino acid, protein, hormone, sialic acids, and mineral content have been published (Marcone et al. 2005;Huda et al. 2008;Norhayati et al. 2010;Hamzah et al. 2013;Paydar et al. 2013;Saengkrajang et al. 2013;Helmi et al. 2018;Quek et al. 2018). Those studies found that the composition of EBN consists mainly of protein and carbohydrate, followed by moistures and ash. ...
... Nevertheless, studies on the properties and characteristics of EBN from Indonesia are still limited. So far, few studies on nutritional analysis of EBN have been reported, however, the samples were sporadically collected from one or two islands in Indonesia (Huda et al. 2008;Hamzah et al. 2013;Helmi et al. 2018). ...
... (Saengkrajang et al. 2013), EBNs from Malaysia (Perlis and Langkawi) and Indonesia (Java, Kalimantan and Balikpapan), which was 59.8-65.8% (Hamzah et al. 2013), but similar to those of EBNs from Malaysia (Pahang and Terengganu), which was 55.48-58.55% (Halimi et al. 2014), and higher than those EBNs from Malaysia (Penang), which was 24.36-49.30% ...
Article
Full-text available
Elfita L, Wientarsih I, Sajuthi D, Bachtiar I, Darusman HS. 2020. The diversity in nutritional profile of farmed edible bird’s nests from several regions in Indonesia. Biodiversitas 21: 2362-2368. Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is produced by certain swiftlet species mainly Aerodramus fuciphagus. This study aimed to compare the composition of proximate, nitrite, nitrate, amino acid and protein profiles of EBNs collected from different regions in Indonesia (West Sumatra, South Sumatra, West Java, West Kalimantan, Central Sulawesi, and Southeast Sulawesi). The results showed that the order of proximate composition was protein (53.09-56.25%) > carbohydrate (19.57-23.04%) > moisture (17.08-21.50%) > ash (5.44-6.25%) > fat (0.07-0.57%). Nitrite and nitrate contents were 3.11-18.28 ppm and 650.11-1051.06 ppm, respectively. Amino acid analysis found that EBNs contained 18 amino acids, composed of ten essential amino acids and eight non-essential amino acids. Aspartic acid content of EBNs from West Sumatra and West Kalimantan (4.21 and 3.27%, respectively) were much higher than the one found in other regions, which was on the range of 0.32-0.37%. SDS-PAGE analysis demonstrated that majority of EBNs possessed seven protein bands with molecular weight range of 19.6 to 82.7 kDa. However, EBNs from West Sumatra and West Kalimantan showed abundant of protein with molecular weight of approximately 34.0 kDa. Thus, EBNs collected from different regions in Indonesia showed different nutritional profiles.
... Komoditas ini memiliki harga yang tinggi karena sarang burung walet hanya dapat dipanen setiap tiga hingga enam bulan sekali (Mardiastuti et al., 1998). Selain itu, manfaat kesehatan dari burung walet yang berperan dalam mengatasi malnutrisi, meningkatkan sistem imun dan metabolisme tubuh (Hamzah et al., 2013). Namun, sarang burung walet memiliki kandungan senyawa nitrit yang diketahui sebagai senyawa beracun yang dalam konsentrasi tinggi menyebabkan keracunan. ...
... Kandungan nitrit dalam sarang burung walet tertinggi pada bagian kaki dan terendah pada bagian serabut. Hasil pengujian profil makronutrien dan kandungan nitrit dalam dilihat pada Tabel 2. Protein dalam sarang burung walet pada umumnya berkisar pada 59,8% -65,8%, namun tidak menutup kemungkinan kandungan protein dapat lebih ataupun kurang dari rerata tersebut (Hamzah et al., 2013). Faktor yang menyebabkan tingginya kadar protein, yaitu lingkungan tempat hidup dan jumlah makanan di tempat tinggal burung walet (Marcone, 2005). ...
... Menurut Chua et al. (2015), kandungan asam amino dalam sarang burung walet lebih lengkap dan lebih banyak dibanding makanan lainnya, sehingga sarang burung walet dikenal sebagai makanan yang lengkap asam amino. Oleh karena itu, sarang burung walet dikenal sebagai makanan yang bermanfaat sebagai penyembuh berbagai penyakit, karena manfaatnya dalam meningkatkan imunitas tubuh, metabolisme tubuh, dan memperbaiki bagian organ yang rusak (Marcone, 2005;Koon, 2000;Hamzah et al., 2013). Dalam tulisannya, Roh et al., (2012), menyebutkan bahwa terdapat jenis asam amino tertinggi, yaitu asam glutamat (51,78 mg/g), sistein (41,06 mg/g) dan asam aspartat (40,44 mg/g). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
ABSTRAK Sarang burung walet merupakan salah satu komoditas ekspor Indonesia yang memiliki nilai ekonomis yang tinggi, karena dikenal akan manfaatnya untuk kesehatan. Namun, sarang burung walet memiliki kandungan nitrit yang berbahaya bila dikonsumsi dalam jumlah yang melebihi ambang batas. Proses pengolahan sarang burung walet dapat menurunkan kadar nitritnya, tetapi akan merusak bentuk sarang dengan lepasnya bagian serabut ataupun kaki sarang. Kedua bagian yang lepas ini mempunyai harga jual yang lebih rendah, padahal kemungkinan kedua bagian tersebut mempunyai kandungan nutrisi yang tidak buruk. Berdasarkan pada kondisi tersebut, perlu dilakukan penelitian profil makronutrient dan kandungan nitrit setiap bagian sarang burung walet. Metode analisis yang dilakukan, yaitu analisis proksimat untuk menetukan kadar makronutrien dan kolorimetri untuk menentukan kadar nitrit dengan tiga kali pengulangan. Hasil analisis makronutrient kemudian diujikan secara statistik menggunakan metode one-way ANOVA. Berdasarkan pada hasil analisis diperoleh bahwa kandungan protein tertinggi dan kandungan nitrit terendah ada pada bagian serabut yaitu sebesar 75,07% ±0,05% dan 4,8 ppm serta memiliki nilai yang signifikan dibanding bagian badan dan kaki sarang burung. Secara keseluruhan kandungan makronutrien tertinggi yaitu karbohidrat terlarut ada di bagian serabut. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah bagian serabut merupakan bagian yang memiliki kandungan makronutrient terbaik dan kadar nitrit yang rendah dibandingkan dua bagian sarang burung walet lainnya yang bernilai jual lebih mahal sehingga memungkinkan untuk nantinya diolah menjadi produk pangan kesehatan. Kata Kunci : sanrang burung walet, profil, makronutrient, nitrit PENDAHULUAN Sarang burung walet merupakan sarang burung yang terbuat dari air liur burung walet (Aerodramus sp.). Tidak semua jenis burung walet dapat membuat sarang menggunakan air liurnya. Dari 24 spesies burung walet hanya 4 spesies yang dapat membentuk sarang dengan air liur dan dapat dimakan (Koon, 2000), salah satunya adalah Aerodamus fuciphagus. Sarang burung walet pada umumnya dibuat oleh walet jantan selama 35-90 hari dengan estimasi bobot 7-20 gram. Material utama pembuatan sarang sebagian besar terbuat dari cairan saliva yang disekresikan oleh dua kelenjar saliva sublingual (Marcone, 2005). Sarang burung walet banyak mengandung nutrisi seperti glikoprotein dengan asam amino, karbohidrat, kalsium, natrium, dan kalium (Norhayati et al., 2010). Sarang burung walet merupakan salah satu komoditas ekspor produk hewani yang memiliki nilai tertinggi. Indonesia menempatkan dirinya sebagai urutan ke-12 eksportir produk hewani di dunia dan urutan pertama sebagai eksportir dan produsen sarang burung walet (Kemendag, 2015). Komoditas ini memiliki harga yang tinggi karena sarang burung walet hanya dapat dipanen setiap tiga hingga enam bulan sekali (Mardiastuti et al., 1998). Selain itu, manfaat kesehatan dari burung walet yang berperan dalam mengatasi malnutrisi, meningkatkan sistem imun dan metabolisme tubuh (Hamzah et al., 2013). Namun, sarang burung walet memiliki kandungan senyawa nitrit yang diketahui sebagai senyawa beracun yang dalam konsentrasi tinggi menyebabkan keracunan. Nitrit sudah sejak lama digunakan sebagai bahan pengawet dan anti-botulinum dalam pangan olahan, dan penggunaannya sangat dibatasi untuk mencegah terjadinya keracunan. Nitrit dapat meningkatkan faktor resiko kanker, karena pembentukan senyawa N-nitroso yang merupakan senyawa karsinogenik (Paydar et al., 2013). Negara di Asia Timur terutama Tiongkok telah menetapkan batas kandungan nitrit yang aman yaitu dibawah 30 ppm (AQSIQ, 2014). Kandungan nitrit yang
... This is due to the consumers' perceptions that white-nests have higher nutritional values. Edible bird's nest contains high nutritional content such as protein, carbohydrates, mineral salts and amino acids [2][3][4]. It also possess high medicinal benefits in enhancing complexion, strengthening immune system, stimulating epidermal growth, depressing the production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, inhibiting influenza virus infection and improving respiratory and digestive problems [5][6][7][8][9]. ...
... These differences were reflected by the wide variability of edible bird's nests. These variations may be attributed to the swiftlet habitat environment such as humidity, temperature, and pH [3] and harvest time of edible bird's nests. ...
... The redder colour in the cave nests compared to house nests might be due to the oxidation of iron from caves minerals. It is infiltrated into the nest through cave drippings in the high humidity cave environment [3,16,20]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The high nitrite content in edible bird’s nests is a major concern to the local swiftlet industry. It lowers the price of the edible bird’s nests and it brings severe health hazards to consumers and farmers. This research investigated the nitrite and nitrate contents of eight types of local edible bird’s nests by using ion chromatography system and evaluating its colour using the CIE system in L∗a∗b∗ parameters. The nitrite content obtained ranged from 5.7 μg/g for the house nests to 843.8 μg/g for the cave nests. The nitrate content for the house and cave nests was 98.2 μg/g and 36999.4 μg/g, respectively. The cave nests with darker and redder colour had higher nitrite and nitrate contents than the brighter and more yellow house nests. This likely suggests that the nitrite and nitrate contents have correlations with edible bird’s nests colour. Correlations studies suggested that the nitrite content had high correlations with colour parameters, L∗a∗b∗ of edible bird’s nests at significant level of P < 0.10. These findings suggest that edible bird’s nests’ colour may be a useful indicator for measuring nitrite and nitrate contaminations.
... Pemerintah Tiongkok mensyaratkan kandungan nitrit pada sarang burung maksimal adalah 30 ppm. Nitrit pada sarang burung walet berasal dari liur walet dan kontaminasi dari lingkungan (Ramli dan Azmi, 2012;Hamzah et al., 2013). Kadar nitrit pada sarang burung walet berhubungan dengan warna sarang, semakin gelap warna sarang burung walet maka kadar nitritnya semakin tinggi (Paydar et al., 2013). ...
... Sebelum dikonsumsi, sarang burung walet membutuhkan beberapa tahapan proses produksi (Jong et al., 2013). Kadar nitrit sarang burung walet dapat turun setelah dilakukan proses pencucian (Ramli dan Azmi, 2012;Chan et al., 2013;Hamzah et al., 2013) dan perendaman (Ramli dan Azmi, 2012). Khusus untuk sarang burung walet yang akan diekspor ke Tiongkok, diperlukan metode pencucian yang mampu menurunkan kadar nitrit sampai di bawah 30 ppm. ...
... Kadar nitrit pada sarang burung walet dipengaruhi oleh kondisi lingkungan dan kondisi sarang itu sendiri yaitu warna, kebersihan, dan umur sarang. Menurut Hamzah et al. (2013) lingkungan yang memengaruhi terutama dari lantai, ketika terjadi pembusukan material organik. Kandungan nitrit awal sarang burung walet pada penelitian adalah 93,12±4,40 ppm dan mengalami penurunan selama proses pencucian (Tabel 1). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was aimed to determine the influence of the washing method under running water on nitrite levels of edible bird’s nest (EBN). Total of 40 samples of EBN were divided into four groups with different washing frequency, control group without washing treatmet (P0), once, twice, and three times washing treatment (P1, P2, and P3) respectively. Each washing was performed for 30 seconds under running water. Nitrite levels assessment was carried out by spectrophotometry at 540 nm of wavelength. The results showed that the average nitrite levels of EBN in P0, P1, P2, and P3 were 93.12±4.40 ppm, 65.24±3.38 ppm, 63.60±3.81 ppm, and 30.87±2.11 ppm, respectively. The nitrit level in edible bird’s nest decreased significantly (P<0.05) by using three times washing.
... Protein content of the swallow edible bird nest was between the white and the black one. Protein content of the white edible bird nestagreed with what Hamzah and Ibrahim (2013) reported that is about 60%. Mahardika and Dadit (2011) reported that protein content in the swallow edible bird nest was about 55%. ...
... The black edible bird nest from Saepudin research (2007) used edible bird nest from Bengkulu, while this research used edible bird nest from Aceh. Protein and glycoprotein content dissimilarity found in these three kinds edible bird nest was presumed due to the different feed type and metabolism which then affecting protein and glycoprotein content (Hamzah and Ibrahim, 2013). Protein characterization on the bird nests was conducted with SDS-PAGE technique using 10% separating gel. ...
... Meanwhile, Saengkrajang, Matan, and Matan (2013) attested that the contents are varied for protein (60.9% to 66.9%), carbohydrates (25.4% to 30.7%), moisture (17.81% to 24.3%), ash (5.9% to 7.4%), and lipid (0.4% to 1.3%). Further, Hamzah, Hulwani Ibrahim, Hussin, Hashim, and Lee (2013) and Norhayati, Azman, and Nazaimoon (2010) have recorded the contents found in Malaysia EBN as shown in Table 1. Previous study has revealed the nutritional contents of EBN, and this evidence provides support that EBN from Malaysia are of good quality to compete with EBN from other countries. ...
... Contamination can be defined as unwanted microbial in foods that can cause foodborne disease. Thereby, contaminated food appears to be growing concern which can cause serious inferiority to health (Adeola, 2000;Costa, Giordano, Tagliaferri, Caglieri, & Mutti, 2009;Magalhães, De, (Marcone, 2005) Thailand (Saengkrajang et al., 2013) Malaysia (Hamzah et al., 2013;Norhayati et al., 2010 Soares, & Azevedo, 2001;Reilly, 2002;Zhuang, Zou, Li, & Li, 2009). The most serious contamination in EBN was nitrate content found above permissible level of 34 ppm in 2011, causing the price to fall nearly 50% from its original price (Cheng, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
The focus of this study was to classify actual buying behavior of edible bird’s nest (EBN) products into relatively homogenous groups for the purpose of market segmentation. Determining the profile of actual customers could provide direct characterization of products that should be displayed on the shelf. The data were collected by quota sampling with 312 buyers participated in the survey. Three types of cluster models (K-means, Kohonen, and two-step cluster) were estimated and compared with in order to identify an optimum number of clusters and capture group with a similar pattern. Foremost, a two-step method was chosen for analysis as it provides better average silhouette and well-defined of group segments than the other two cluster methods. The results provide specific characterization of buyers that will be useful to build a target list of potential customers and develop new offerings to meet the new needs of customers for EBN products in Malaysia.
... Edible bird's nest (EBN) -a product of the salivary secretions of swiftlet species is recognized for its medicinal and nutritional benefits and demonstrated as a potential antioxidant (Ghassem et al. 2017;Marcone 2005). Several authors have reported that EBN possesses anti-aging, anti-cancer, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory properties (Hamzah et al. 2013;Hou et al. 2015;Yida et al. 2015). ...
... These results indicate that EBN supplementation did not yield better sperm motility in any of the extenders. These outcomes were not expected based on the positive effects of EBN reported in several animal models, which include potent antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties (Hamzah et al. 2013;Yida et al. 2015).The constituents of EBN such as sugar fractions, proteins, sialic acid are expected to interact positively to improve the quality of chilled semen during storage Yagi et al. 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Diluents and various biological products have been used in different animal species, with promising outcomes in post-thaw sperm quality. Nevertheless, only a few reports are available for the semen of Arabian horses. Edible bird’s nest (EBN) – a product of the salivary secretions of swiftlet species is widely known to have both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Presently, there is no data available on the role of EBN supplemented in different extenders and its effect on semen quality in stallion semen. Two in vitro experiments were conducted to examine the effects of edible bird’s nest (EBN) on the quality of chilled and post-thawed cryopreserved Arabian stallion spermatozoa. In experiment one, 10 ejaculates were collected, divided into two equal parts, diluted using EquiPlus® and INRA 96® and supplemented with 0 % (control), 0.12 %, 0.24 % EBN concentrations. The semen samples were stored at 5 ℃ and observed at 0, 24, and 48 h. Sperm kinetics variables (% total motility [TM] and progressive motility [PM], curvilinear velocity; VCL, straightness; VSL, average path velocity; VAP) were analyzed using computerized assisted sperm analysis. For chilled semen, there was no significant difference in any of the sperm quality parameters between control (0 %), 0.12 %, and 0.24 % EBN supplementation either in INRA96® or EquiPlus®. In experiment two, nine ejaculates were diluted and cryopreserved using EquiPlus Freeze® and INRA Freeze® containing 0 %, 2.4 %, and 4.8 % EBN, and evaluated after thawing. Sperm kinetics, DNA integrity and antioxidant capacity - Biological Anti-oxidant Potential (BAP) and Reactive Oxygen Metabolites (d-ROMs) test were evaluated. In chilled semen, there was no significant difference in any of the sperm quality parameters between control (0 %), 0.12 %, and 0.24 % EBN supplementation either in INRA96® or EquiPlus®. For frozen semen supplemented with 2.4 % and 4.8 % EBN had higher sperm motility parameters compared to control in INRA Freeze® and EquiPlus Freeze®, but the values were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Also, EBN supplementation had no significant effects on the DNA integrity, biological antioxidant potential, and reactive oxygen metabolites. EBN supplementation had no significant effects on sperm quality and antioxidant status in chilled and frozen Arabian Stallion semen. Future studies might consider different methods of EBN preparation and concentrations to elucidate the potential biological impact of EBN in Arabian stallion semen
... It is produced by swiftlet species, commonly found in Asian countries like Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia. Its consumption among Asians has a long history and it is thought to improve overall general health [1,2]. ...
... It is now known that EBN has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and bone strengthening properties among others [2][3][4]. EBN contains many bioactive compounds that are thought to be responsible for its health promoting effects including glucosamine, lactoferrin, sialic acid, amino acids, fatty acids, triacylglycerol, vitamins, minerals and other antioxidants [1,2,[5][6][7]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Edible birds' nest (EBN) is reported to be antioxidant-rich. However, the fate of its antioxidants after oral consumption is not yet reported. To explore this, we hypothesized that EBN antioxidants are released from their matrix when subjected to in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion. EBN samples were extracted using hot water (100[degree sign]C) with or without subsequent sequential enzymatic digestion using pepsin (10,000 units), pancreatin (36 mg) and bile extracts (112.5 mg). Additionally, pH changes (8.9 to 2 and back to 8.9) similar to the gut were applied, and a 10 KDa dialysis tubing was used to simulate gut absorption. The antioxidant capacities of the water extracts of EBN before and after digestion were then determined using ABTS and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays, while the protective effects of the EBN samples against hydrogen peroxide-induced toxicity in HEPG2 cells were determined using MTT assay and acridine orange (AO)/propidium iodide (PI) staining. Antioxidant assays (ABTS and ORAC) showed that the undigested EBN water extract had little antioxidant activity (1 and 1%, respectively at 1000 mug/mL) while at similar concentrations the digested samples had significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced antioxidant activities, for samples inside (38 and 50%, respectively at 1000 mug/mL) and outside (36 and 50%, respectively at 1000 mug/mL) the dialysis tubing, representing absorbed and unabsorbed samples, respectively. Cell viability and toxicity assays also suggested that the EBN extracts were non-toxic to HEPG2 cells (cell viabilities of over 80% at 1000 mug/mL), while AOPI showed that the extracts protected HEPG2 cells from hydrogen peroxide induced-toxicity. Based on the findings, it is likely that EBN bioactives are released from their matrix when digested in the gut and then absorbed through the gut by passive-mediated transport to exert their functional effects. However, there is need to confirm these findings using in vivo systems to determine their clinical significance.
... Nesting can be used as a shelter for canaries to breed and roost. There are more than 24 species of insectivorous, echolocation swiftlets all over the world (Hamzah et al., 2013). However, only two species of swiftlets are responsible for producing commercially valuable edible bird's nest (EBN) currently. ...
... According to Malaysia Standard MS2334:2011, raw cleaned edible bird's nests (RC EBN) which after undergone cleaning processes should not contain more than 30 ppm of nitrite. A proper cleaning process can reduce the nitrite and nitrate concentrations in EBNs Hamzah et al., 2013). There are only limited studies (Quek et al., 2018;Tan et al., 2020) comparing the levels of nitrite and nitrate in house/farmed EBNs from different regions. ...
Article
Full-text available
Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is recognized as a nourishing food among Chinese people. The efficacy of EBN was stated in the records of traditional Chinese medicine and its activities have been reported in many researches. Malaysia is the second largest exporter of EBNs in the world, after Indonesia. For many years, EBN trade to China was not regulated until August 2011, when a safety alert was triggered for the consumption of EBNs. China banned the import of EBNs from Malaysia and Indonesia due to high level of nitrite. Since then, the Malaysia government has formulated Malaysia Standards for swiftlet farming (MS 2273:2012), edible bird’s nest processing plant design and management (MS 2333:2010), and edible bird’s nest product quality (MS 2334:2011) to enable the industry to meet the specified standards for the export to China. On the other hand, Indonesia's EBN industry formulated a standard operating procedure (SOP) for exportation to China. Both countries can export EBNs to China by complying with the standards and SOPs. EBN contaminants may include but not limited to nitrite, heavy metals, excessive minerals, fungi, bacteria, and mites. The possible source of contaminants may come from the swiftlet farms and the swiftlets or introduced during processing, storage, and transportation of EBNs, or adulterants. Swiftlet house design and management, and EBN processing affect the bird’s nest color. Degradation of its optical quality has an impact on the selling price, and color changes are tied together with nitrite level. In this review, the current and future prospects of EBNs in Malaysia and Indonesia in terms of their quality, and the research on the contaminants and their effects on EBN color changes are discussed.
... Edible bird's nests antioxidant properties are attributed to the inclusion of several bioactive components, including amino acids, sialic acid, triacylglycerol, vitamins, lactoferrin, fatty acids, minerals, and glucosamine (70,72,73). Due to the inclusion of two key components, ovotransferrin and lactoferrin, EBN displayed antioxidative action (74). ...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive enhancement is defined as the augmentation of the mind's core capabilities through the improvement of internal or external information processing systems. Recently, the focus has shifted to the potential therapeutic effects of natural products in improving cognitive function. Edible bird's nest (EBN) is a natural food substance derived from the saliva of swiftlets. Until today, EBN is regarded as a high-priced nutritious food with therapeutic effects. The effectiveness of dietary EBN supplementation to enhance brain development in mammals has been documented. Although the neuroprotection of EBN has been previously reported, however, the impact of EBN on learning and memory control and its potential as a cognitive enhancer drug remains unknown. Thus, this article aims to address the neuroprotective benefits of EBN and its potential effect as a cognitive enhancer. Notably, the current challenges and the future study direction in EBN have been demonstrated.
... Some researches that have been done on swiftlet nest (edible bird's nest) have many health benefits such as having activity as hepatoprotector 9 , protective agent of chondrocytes in osteoarthritis 10 patients, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. 11 Based on the results of these researches protein is predicted holds the main role, because it is the main compound that plays a role in life activities. Besides, it is known that the main component of the swiftlet nest is protein, where the content is more than 50% . ...
Article
Full-text available
Hyperglycemia could increase the oxidative stress by catalyzes the formation of free radical as anion superoxide(O2-). Oxidative stress will effect in endothelial damaged. This study aimed to evaluated the influence of extract swiftlet nest (Collocalia fuciphago) to glucose level and CEC in rat (Rattus novergicus). Rats were classified into 4 groups, there were control group (K) and 3 treatments group (dose 1; 10 and 100 mg / kgBW) The seventh day after induced by Streptozotozin (i.p), the rats had increased glucose ± 102 – 108 mg/dL, then treated with the extract of Swiftlet nest for 28 days by oral. The CEC was measured by Hladovec method. The results showed the blood glucose level were significant differences ( p = 0.035). The number of CEC decrease significantly (p=0,002). In conclusion that extract of Swiftlet nest can effect to decrease glucose level and CEC number in plasma rat (Rattus novergicus) Keywords: Hyperglycemia, Circulating Endothelial Cells, Collocalia fuciphago
... Glikoprotein adalah komponen utama dalam fraksi tak larut dari sarang burung walet yang hampir 60% dari berat totalnya. Manfaat kesehatan ini burung walet berperan dalam mengatasi malnutrisi, meningkatkan sistem imun dan metabolism tubuh [3]. Efek kesehatan yang menguntungkan apabila mengkonsumsi sarang burung walet sebagai antivirus, anti-oxidant, anti-diabetes, anti-penuaan, neuro-protective dan chondroprotective [4]. ...
Article
Swallow's nest (Collocalia fuchiphaga) is one of the high export commodities. This is because the bird's nest is considered to be nutritious in terms of health. In this research, using swallow's nest obtained from several swallow buildings in Subur Indah Village, Katingan District, Kuala Central Kalimantan. The purpose of this study was to analyse the protein and calcium content of boiled white bird’s nest (Collacalia Fuchiphaga). Determination of protein content was carried out using the Kjeldahl method while for determination of calcium content using the permanganometric titration method. Based on the results with 3 repetitions each, the protein content was 21.8; 22.92 and 22.15% at 4 hours of boiling then 19.7; 18.1 and 19.05% at 8 hours of boiling. Meanwhile, the determination of the calcium content resulted in 201.5; 198.2 and 205.6 mg / 100 g calcium at 4 hours of boiling and 182.5; 178.8 and 175.6 mg / 100 g calcium. The conclusion in this study is that the longer it takes to boil a swallow's nest, the less protein and calcium content is obtained
... Edible bird's nest (EBN) is one of the mostexpensive animal products, its a saliva produced bytwo specific swiftlets, namely Aerodramusfuciphagus(white-nest) andAerodramusmaximus(black-nest) 1 . EBN is a functional foodcontaining high quality nutrients such as proteinx, carbohydrate, iron, inorganic salts and fiber 2,3,4 .EBN also serves medical function as antiaging, anticancer, immunity enhancing agent, inhibiting influenza virusinfection and improving respiratory and digestive problems 5,6 . EBN is a good economic value namely 20 million and 10 million rupiahs per kg for white nest and red nest, respectively depending on the quality 7 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Edible bird’s nest (EBN) as a kind of functional food has high economic value depending on the quality such as color and hygiene. The purpose of this research was to find optimum condition for application of keratinolytic enzymes Bacillus sp. MTS in cleaning EBN. Activating agents for both enzymes were cation divalents, EDTA, reducing agents, organic solutions, and antibacterial agents. Additives compound that able to increase keratinase activity were used to make cleaning solution and its tested on EBN and human hair. Alcoholic solutions (25% ethanol, 25% methanol, 25% glycerol), and some divalent metallic ions(Ca2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Zn2+)were able to increase keratinase while disulfide reductase was solely activated by 0.05 mM EDTA. The activity of both enzymes was inhibited by Na Cland Na-azide. The activity of keratinase of Bacillus sp. MTS in cleaning solution formulated in this research was 2-3 fold as much as control (crude extract) in human hair substrates. Gliserol and cations divalent increasing 2-3 fold keratinase activity in cleaning solution. The solution was successfully apllied to cleaning EBN with weight loss 2.3-2.5% approximately.
... The nitrites and nitrates in the cave, A. maximus and East Malaysia EBNs were greater than in the house, A. fuciphagus, and Peninsular Malaysia EBNs, and these results are consistent with the findings published by and Paydar et al. (2013). The habitat and environmental factors could affect the nitrite and nitrate levels in EBN (Hamzah et al., 2013). The uncontrolled environment in natural caves with scattering bird soil and guano contributes to the elevation of nitrite and nitrate levels in EBN through anaerobic bacteria fermentation (Quek et al., 2015). ...
... A study by Hamzah et al. (2013) reported that generally edible bird nests contain high protein content (59.8%-65.4%), followed by carbohydrates (8.5%-16.4%) ...
... Two types of EBN, the white-nest produced by Aerodramus fuciphagus and the black-nest by Aerodramus maximus . The EBNs contain high quality nutrients, protein, carbohydrate, iron, inorganic salts and fiber, and bilieve to function as antiaging, anticancer, immunity enhancing agent, inhibit influenza virus infection and improve respiratory and digestive problems (Marcone 2005;Hamzah et al. 2013;Huda et al. 2008;Wu et al. 2010;Ma & Liu 2012). The EBNs have is a good economic value namely 20 million and 10 million rupiahs per kg for white nest and red nest, respectively depending on the quality (Koon & Cranbrook 2002). ...
... The medical benefits and nutritional contents of EBNs have been reported recently. EBN is mainly composed of protein (60-65%), carbohydrate (8-31%), ash (2.1%) and lipid (0.14-1.28%) (Marcone, 2005;Saengkrajang et al., 2013;Hamzah et al., 2013). EBN also contains minerals, the top four are calcium, sodium, magnesium and potassium (Marcone, 2005;Saengkrajang et al.,2013;Chen et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Edible bird nests (EBNs) are highly demanded globally. The industry was recently affected by an import ban to China due to high nitrite levels.Subsequently, many concerns have been raised. In this study, the microbial composition of both raw and commercial EBNs was investigated. The raw EBNs were purchased from swiftlet farms: Kuala Sanglang (Perlis), Pantai Remis (Perak), Kluang (Johor), Kajang (Selangor) and Kota Bharu (Kelantan). The commercial nests were purchased from five different Chinese traditional medicinal shops (Companies A-E) in Malaysia and one from Indonesia (Medan). A total of 123 and 34 isolates were successfully identified from unboiled raw and commercial EBNs respectively. The highest average CFU (1.77 x 104) was associated with raw EBNs obtained from Kluang, while for the commercial EBNs, those obtained from Company M1 had the highest CFU (5.50 x 104). Bacillus sp. accounted for the highest isolated species from both unboiled raw and commercial EBNs. Bacillus sp. and Brevibacillus sp. were mainly isolated from the boiled EBNs. Bacillus spp. were the dominant bacterial groups in all the raw EBNs except for those obtained from Kajang. The average number of bacteria isolated from the raw EBNs (average = 7) was higher compared with those isolated from the commercial EBNs (average = 4). The highest average number of bacterial isolates was reported in the raw EBNs obtained from Kota Bharu. Among the commercial EBNs, one EBN sample each from Companies A and M1 showed the highest number of isolates (n = 10). In general, there was a significant reduction in the number of bacteria isolated after boiling the EBNs. Raw EBNs obtained from Kajang had a distinct pool of bacterial species where the majority of the isolated species belonged to Staphylococcus species. The associated health impacts of these microorganisms to the consumers and public need to be addressed
... Reported by Marcone (2005), the compositional properties of EBN mostly were protein (62.0%), carbohydrates (27.3%), moisture (7.5%), ash (2.1%) and lipid (0.1%). EBN collected from Malaysia has revealed the similar proportion of nutritional contents to other countries such as Thailand and Indonesia (Norhayati et al., 2010;Hamzah et al., 2013;Saengkrajang et al., 2013;Zainab et al., 2013). This verifies that the EBN from Malaysia revealed to have a good quality to stay competitive in the marketplace. ...
Article
Full-text available
Interests in the nutraceutical or food supplement are growing around Asia in response to health and beauty concerns. Nutraceutical supplements seem to dominate the Malaysian market as the awareness of health conscious arise. The consumptions of these nutraceutical products are to cover insufficient nutrient in their diet intakes. Edible bird nest (EBN) is made from saliva produced by the male's swiftlet and been consumed as a health supplement due to their high nutritional value. Despite an ever-growing number of EBN products and options available in the market, there are still fewer purchasers among Malaysian consumers as compared to other countries. This study aims to determine factors that influence consumers' intention in purchasing EBN products. The number of complete response from the survey were 1310 samples. The questionnaire includes nine variables that are determined from the theory of planned behavior and marketing mix. Exploratory factor analysis with promax rotation is conducted to remove items with factor loading less than 0.5 and confirmatory factor analysis is constructed to measure the fitness of the model so that it can be used in predictive models. The three popular classification algorithms from predictive models which are decision tree, logistic regression, and artificial neural network will be used to analyze the dataset and determined the best model building. These comparisons are highly evaluated based on the prediction performance and it does not conclude that one method will be superior to other predictive methods. Results showed logistic regression outer perform other classifiers to develop the purchase intention model. There are five variables identified which consist of age, gender, price, accessibility and halal authorize. This study provides an input of consumers' concern and interest that can be used as a strategic tool and give special attention to those elements to promote the EBN products.
... Benefits of EBN including helping to dissolve phlegm, improve the voice, relieve gastric problem, aid renal function, enhance complexion, alleviate asthma, suppress coughs, cure tuberculosis, strengthen the immune system, speed recovery from illness and surgery, increase energy and metabolism and improve concentration [9]. According to [7], EBN contain high protein content (59.8 % -65.4 %), carbohydrates (8.5 % -16.4 %) and fat (0.01 % -0.07 %). ...
Article
Full-text available
Majority of edible bird nest (EBN) swiftlet farming industry entrepreneurs suffered losses due to lack of information in suitable ranching practices in EBN swiftlet house. This is because EBN production is influenced by various ranching practices such as EBN swiftlet house types, ranching system, cleaning and maintenance program, guano disposal method, odour program and knowledge on signs of disease that are common in EBN swiftlet. This study compared ranching practices in EBN swiftlet houses in the coastal, rural and urban area in Terengganu to investigate factors that play a critical role in determining the success of a swiftlet ranching venture. This study was conducted from September 2015 until March 2018. Questionaires were distributed to 246 EBN industry operators; 82 in coastal, rural and urban area in Terengganu respectively. Results showed that for EBN swiftlet houses, single lot buildings were the most preferred (51.63 %), single farming was the most popular ranching system (73.17 %), with almost half (43.9 %) of the EBN entrepreneurs cleaned and maintained their swiftlet house once in three months, 39.84 % of the EBN entrepreneurs collected and composted the guano, majority (76.02 %) of the EBN entrepreneurs did not use odour application to attract EBN swiftlets and most owners (81.3 %) of EBN swiftlet house not familiar with EBN swiftlet disease. There is significant correlation among ranching practices in swiftlet house with location area. Suitable ranching practices were the success factors to ensure high swiftlet population which in term contributes to higher nest production. Index Terms: Edible bird nest production, suitable ranching practices, sustainable management, swiftlet ranching.
... For example, mites in the genus Cheyletus, such as Cheyletus malayensis Cunliffe, were found in nests of the chestnut munia, Lonchura atricapilla (=malacca) Vieillot (Fain and Bochkov 2001). Most of the work on mites of bird nests has centered around edible bird nests, considered beneficial in traditional Chinese medicine (Hobbs 2004, Hamzah et al. 2013, and nests of several swiftlet species are consumed both locally and abroad. Due to popularity and harvest limitations, Malaysian bird nests are exported occasionally as a commodity to other countries or regions. ...
Article
Mite biodiversity and distribution in Malaysia is currently understudied. Most previous works on Malaysian Acari have focused on pest organisms of medical, veterinary, and agricultural concern, with a few recent studies centered on mites in forensic contexts. Previous literatures have targeted collection sites in forest reserves and/or mountains in either Peninsular or Malaysian Borneo, though the state of Sarawak had the least publications related to mite species descriptions despite having the highest number of nature parks of any state in the country. Most publications focused on the three states Selangor, Pahang and Sabah. Most of the mite species reported were from mammals (66.3%), with fewer species from birds (21.7%), arthropods (11.2%), and reptiles (0.8%). We believe that further work on the systematic documentation of mite species throughout Malaysia is necessary as it could generate useful tools, such as the use of mites as biogeographical markers or as forensic indicators. Therefore, this review catalogs mite species that have been documented in or on animal hosts in Malaysia and serves as a foundation for future work.
... EBN has a high glycoprotein content, rich in amino acids, carbohydrates, calcium, sodium, and potassium (Norhayati et al., 2010). Based on research in several Southeast Asian countries, Swiftlet's nest contains high protein content above 50%, 59.8% -65.8% (Hamzah et al., 2013). The wallet bird nest in Indonesia contains amino acid histidine, leucine, threonine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, serine, aspartate, arginine, lysine, proline, glutamate acid, glycine, alanine, and tyrosine (Elfita L, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Hyperglycemia that occurs in diabetic Mellitus leads to glycation reactions in protein molecules and oxidative stress resulting in damage to cells and organs. Swiftlet’s nest believed society could lower blood glucose. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of Swiftlet’s nest (Collocalia fuciphago) extract on glucose level, Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity in blood serum. The study used Posttest-Only with Control Group Design, consisting of 1 control group (given aqua dest) and 3 treatment groups (dose 1; 10 and 100 mg/kg BW). Each group consisted of 6 Rattus norvegicius. Before being treated, Streptozotocin-induced rat at a dose of 68 mg/kg BW intraperitoneal. On the 7th day after induction, rats had elevated glucose ± 102 - 108 mg/dL. Then the rats were given water extract Swiftlet’s nest for 28 days orally. All data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by the Mann-Whitney test, with a 95% confidence level. The results of blood glucose levels in each group (K, P1, P2 and P3) were 111.0 vs 88.5 vs 86 vs 83 mg / dL (p = 0.035), MDA levels experienced an increase in the treatment group compared to controls namely 193.50 vs 193.83 vs. 198.50 nmol / mL, p = 0.001. While the SOD enzyme activity has increased, namely 0.0050 vs. 0.0075 vs. 0.0263%. In conclusion, Swiftlet’s nest water extract can reduce blood glucose levels and increase MDA levels and SOD enzyme activity in blood serum.
... Frequency analysis by SPSS 20.0 indicated that macro and micro elements accounted for approximately 99.65% and 0.35%, respectively. In EBNs, Na, Ca and Mg were the most abundant elements, consistent with a previous report [25], followed by K, P and Fe. However, among these 3 macro elements, the relative content of each other was no regular. ...
Article
Full-text available
Edible bird's nest (EBN) is a high-value health-promoting tonic from swiftlets. However, cheap House-EBN is usually masqueraded as expensive Cave-EBN for profiteering. Efficient scientific means are required to trace Cave-EBN. After microwave digestion of EBN lyophilizing powder, its mineral element compositions were examined by using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Influences of two key factors, production environment and country, on the distribution of 21 elements were analyzed. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) coupled with leave-one out cross validation was applied for modeling. Classifier generalization performance was assessed by the Confusion Matrix approach. ICP-MS identified the presence of 21 macro and micro elements with contributions of 99.65% and 0.35%, respectively. A two-way ANOVA established that B, Na, K, Ca, Mn, Cu, Sr, and Cd were the production-environment-specific elements. Among four different combinations based on three potential variables (Ca, Na, and Sr), Na/Ca was identified as the best among them having 100% specificity on tracing Cave-EBN. In conclusion, EBN was a good mineral element source. The methodology of integration of ICP-MS with chemo-metrics proved to be a powerful tool for tracing Cave-EBN.
Article
Full-text available
Edible bird nests (EBNs) are highly demanded globally and has long been used as a healthy food since ancient times. This study investigated the physicochemical properties of Myanmar EBN and preparation of EBN soup by double boiling technique. The protein content of Myanmar EBNs was found to be high value of 53.5%-59.3 % which showed the good source of nutritional food. The protein content in EBN samples may differ due to the harvesting season, habitat and the diet of swiftlets. The moisture content was about 15.6%. The mineral content (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and zinc) was analyzed by AAS. The mineral contents in EBNs were found in the increasing order of Zn<K<Mg<Na<Ca. The calcium (0.71%) and magnesium (361.3 ppm) contents were in a satisfactory level for consumers. After soaking the EBNs, the nitrate and nitrite contents in the soaking water were found to be 0.27 ppm and 4.0 ppm respectively and the values are low level. The nitrite level in Myanmar edible bird's nests may be safe for consumption. The EBN soup was prepared by double boiling method which was suitable to maintain its functional biological properties and the best cooking time was found within a period of two hour at 90 o C. The important factors are raw EBN quality, cooking time and cooking temperature to maintain the texture and nutritional values in soup. If the temperature may be too high or the time of cooking is too long protein content was destroyed because of the exceedingly high temperature. The investigation results in this study will be beneficial for the researchers, scientists, EBN manufactures and nutraceutical industries in Myanmar.
Article
Full-text available
Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is reported to have a positive in vitro proliferative effect and contain male reproductive hormones. Spermatogonia cells proliferate during spermatogenesis under male reproductive hormones stimulation that include testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). Characterization of EBN through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS) has found testosterone as a base peak. Six types of amino acids, estradiol and sialic acid were among the major peaks that have been characterized. Based on the presence of these reproductive components, this study evaluated different doses of EBN on sperm parameters and male reproductive hormones of Sprague Dawley rats. Sixteen Sprague Dawley rats at the age of eight weeks were randomly and equally divided into four groups, which are Control, 10 mg/kg BW/d 50 mg/kg BW/d, and 250 mg/kg BW/d EBN group. The rats were fed with EBN enriched pellet daily and water ad-libitum. Rats were sacrificed and the organ was weighed for organ coefficients after eight weeks of treatment. Sperm concentration, percentage of sperm motility, and sperm viability were evaluated. Meanwhile, ELISA method was used to measure testosterone, FSH, and LH. Findings showed that there were no significant differences in organ coefficient between groups. Supplementation of 250 mg/kg BW/d EBN demonstrated a significant increase in sperm concentration, percentage of sperm motility as well as FSH and LH level compared to 10 mg/kg BW/d group. There was a dose-dependent increase in testosterone level but was not significant between groups. Based on these findings, EBN is concluded to have crucial effects on male reproductive parameters.
Article
Full-text available
Edible bird's nest (Aedrodramus fuchipagus) contains EGF (Epidermal Growth Factor) and sialic acid which is useful in wound healing. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of edible bird's nest on the injured Alloxan-induced rats to form optimal ointment formulation of edible bird's nest (Aedrodramus fuchipagus) which can heal wounds. The method used in this research is experimental using 25 Sprague Dawley rats divided into 5 groups in which each group consists of 5 rats; Group I was the control group (Vaseline + Betadine®), Group II, III, and IV were the group of EBN + Betadine® with concentrations of 10%, 20%, and 30%; and Group V was of the Sanoskin Meladerm® (SM) + Betadine® group. The rats were modeled for diabetes by inducing Alloxan (150mg/kgBW/i.p) and exposed with DM when the blood sugar level was > 200 mg/dL. The back skins were sliced as long as 2 cm and 2 mm depth and were given treatment according to the group, 1 x daily for 10 days. Parameters that were noticed were length wound, length of the dry wound, and the number of days of scab formation. The results obtained in the control group were 10%, 20%, and 30% on the EBN group, and the SM group on the 9th day were 1.3±0.2449, 0.34±0.427, 0.56±0.4586, 0±0, 0±0. The results of the average length of the dry wound in the control group were 10%, 20%, and 30% on the EBN group, and the SM group were 1±0.5, 2±1.5, 4±0, 8, 1±0.8, and 2±0.63. While the result of the average day of scab formation on the control group was 10%, 20%, and 30% on the EBN groups, SM Groups were 1.3±0.47, 2.2±1.6, 3.8±0.8, 1±0, and 2±0.63. Based on Kruskal Wallis test, there were significant differences in the wound length among treatment groups (sig 0.013) and significant differences in dry wounds among treatment groups (sig 0.046), but there was no difference in the time of scab formation among treatment groups (sig 0.066). In conclusion, edible bird’s nest (Aedrodramus fuchipagus) ointment concentration of 30% is the most optimal ointment to wound healing in Alloxan-induced male rats when compared to Sanoskin Melladerm.
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Edible bird nest (EBN) is a natural food product produced from edible nest swiftlet's saliva which consists of glycoproteins as one of its main components; these glycoproteins contain an abundant of sialic acid. The dietary EBN supplementation has been reported to enhance brain functions in mammals and that the bioactivities and nutritional value of EBN are important during periods of rapid brain growth particularly for preterm infant. However, the effects of EBN in maternal on multigeneration learning and memory function still remain unclear. Thus, the present study aimed to determine the effects of maternal EBN supplementation on learning and memory function of their first (F1)- and second (F2)-generation mice. Methods: CJ57BL/6 breeder F0 mice were fed with EBN (10 mg/kg) from different sources. After 6 weeks of diet supplementations, the F0 animals were bred to produce F1 and F2 animals. At 6 weeks of age, the F1 and F2 animals were tested for spatial recognition memory using a Y-maze test. The sialic acid content from EBN and brain gene expression were analyzed using HPLC and PCR, respectively. Results: All EBN samples contained glycoprotein with high level of sialic acid. Dietary EBN supplementation also showed an upregulation of GNE, ST8SiaIV, SLC17A5, and BDNF mRNA associated with an improvement in Y-maze cognitive performance in both generations of animal. Qualitatively, the densities of synaptic vesicles in the presynaptic terminal were higher in the F1 and F2 animals which might derive from maternal EBN supplementation. Conclusion: This study provided a solid foundation toward the growing research on nutritional intervention from dietary EBN supplementation on cognitive and neurological development in the generation of mammals.
Article
Full-text available
The Oriental Pied Hornbill is one of the ten species of hornbills found in Malaysia, and known to be an adaptable species with regard to utilising available food resources, although there is not much information about its foraging behaviour where its habitat overlap with human activities. We observed an opportunistic behaviour of a pair of Oriental Pied Hornbills preying on farmed edible bird nest swiftlets, in the state of Sabah, Malaysia as captured by closed circuit television utilised by an edible bird nest entrepreneur. A more detailed study could better assist and determine the frequency of this particular predation-prey interaction which may be a new cause of human-wildlife conflict in Malaysia and illuminating the diet diversity and adaptive ability of this hornbill species to seeking their dietary range.
Article
Edible bird's nest (EBN) is built by seven species of Aerodramus and Collocalia (Apodidae), using salivary gland secretion mixed with feathers or grass during the breeding. Its rich nutritional values such as anti-aging activity, immunomodulatory and antioxidant activity make consumers flock to it. Consumers' pursuit, on the one hand, aroused the arrogance of counterfeiters, which eventually leads to food safety problems. On the other hand, it promotes the in-depth studies of EBN in all aspects, such as compositions, biological activities, authenticity identification, quality control, and so on. This paper presented the origins and classifications of EBN and the current situation of EBN industry in detail; reviewed the nutritional compositions, pharmacological actions, identification, inspection and content determination of EBN comprehensively; and prospected the future research directions to provide suggestions for the further study.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.