Meat is deeply associated with masculine identity. As such, it is unsurprising that women are more likely than men are to become vegetarian. Given the gendered nature of vegetarianism, might men and women who become vegetarian express distinct identities around their diets? Through two highly powered preregistered studies (Ns = 890 and 1,775) of self-identified vegetarians, combining both ... [Show full abstract] frequentist and Bayesian approaches, I found that men and women differ along two dimensions of vegetarian identity: (1) dietary motivation and (2) dietary adherence. Compared to vegetarian men, vegetarian women reported that they are more prosocially motivated to follow their diet and adhere to their diet more strictly (i.e., are less likely to cheat and eat meat). By considering differences in how men and women construe vegetarian dieting, investigators can generate deeper insights into the gendered nature of eating behavior.