Article

Are vegans the same as vegetarians? The effect of meatless diets on perceptions of masculinity

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Vegetarianism is becoming increasingly mainstream in several nations, such as the United States and the United Kingdom. Results from national surveys between 1997 and 2016 indicate that vegetarians represent a rapidly growing demographic in the U.S. (The Vegetarian Resource Group, 1997, 2016. Furthermore, according to recent surveys in the U.K., an increasing proportion of the public reducing its meat consumption accompanies an expanding market for vegetarian food products (Vegetarian Society, 2013). ...
... Time period is also a critical component of historical embeddedness, particularly given that the prevalence of vegetarianism has varied over time (The Vegetarian Resource Group, 1997, 2016. Research on intergroup relations suggests that the prevalence of vegetarians in a society may affect an individual's experiences as a vegetarian, such that a lower prevalence may lead the individual to be stereotyped more severely, for example (Tajfel, 1982). ...
... Given that associations of meat with masculinity are prevalent in a range of cultures, the disproportionately high ratio of vegetarian women to vegetarian men in Western cultures is unsurprising (Ruby, 2012). As such, perceptions of male vegetarians and female vegetarians may vary (Thomas, 2016). Gender stereotypes and disproportionate demographics may lead men and women to have different experiences as vegetarians. ...
Article
By departing from social norms regarding food behaviors, vegetarians acquire membership in a distinct social group and can develop a salient vegetarian identity. However, vegetarian identities are diverse, multidimensional, and unique to each individual. Much research has identified fundamental psychological aspects of vegetarianism, and an identity framework that unifies these findings into common constructs and conceptually defines variables is needed. Integrating psychological theories of identity with research on food choices and vegetarianism, this paper proposes a conceptual model for studying vegetarianism: The Unified Model of Vegetarian Identity (UMVI). The UMVI encompasses ten dimensions—organized into three levels (contextual, internalized, and externalized)—that capture the role of vegetarianism in an individual's self-concept. Contextual dimensions situate vegetarianism within contexts; internalized dimensions outline self-evaluations; and externalized dimensions describe enactments of identity through behavior. Together, these dimensions form a coherent vegetarian identity, characterizing one's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding being vegetarian. By unifying dimensions that capture psychological constructs universally, the UMVI can prevent discrepancies in operationalization, capture the inherent diversity of vegetarian identities, and enable future research to generate greater insight into how people understand themselves and their food choices.
... Besides, the targets evaluated by the participants were not clearly defined as vegetarians-their dietary preferences were only implied in the description of the dish they would prepare for others. In a recent replication of this study on masculinity and vegetarianism [42], account was taken of these limitations. The author made sure that the subjects evaluated a person who was clearly defined as a vegetarian. ...
... Nevertheless, the gender effect is observed when a distinction between vegetarian and vegan is taken account of in the experiment. In the second of his series of studies, Thomas [42] gave his participants a description of a person, taking into account the fact that the person was a vegan and cooked vegan dishes or was a vegetarian and cooked vegetarian dishes. Although there were no differences in the overall ratings of masculinity when comparing vegan and vegetarian targets of the same sex, male and female participants differed in their gendered perceptions of vegetarian targets. ...
... Although there were no differences in the overall ratings of masculinity when comparing vegan and vegetarian targets of the same sex, male and female participants differed in their gendered perceptions of vegetarian targets. Moreover, a subsequent study [42] confirmed that targets following a vegan diet were perceived as less masculine than targets following an omnivorous diet. The effect of following a vegan diet is stronger for men than for women. ...
Article
Full-text available
Limiting meat consumption has recently become one of the key issues linked to public health and environmental sustainability. This is reflected in the strong emphasis on increasing promotion of plant-based nutritional styles, such as vegan and vegetarian diets. Vegan/vegetarian diets appeal to certain demographic groups more than to others. The most striking difference, however, is found between the sexes. Men and women differ in their preferences for plant products and in their attitudes to meat consumption. There are also differences between their motivations to start and/or follow a vegan/vegetarian diet. Major differences have also been observed in men's and women's attitudes towards people following plant-based diets. Vegetarian diets are generally considered to be less masculine than meat-based diets, and omnivores exhibit more prejudice against vegetarian men than women. This study follows the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) systematic literature review model. The Web of Science and PubMed databases were searched (up to January 2020) to identify studies, which analysed variables directly or indirectly related to inter-sex differences with regard to the vegan/vegetarian diet. After the screening process based on the relevance and quality criteria, 29 articles were included in the study. The purpose of this review is to raise awareness of these gender differences, not only as regards social perceptions, but also in terms of individual attitudes to vegetarian/vegan diets. Ignoring those differences hinders the promotion of plant-based diets and may explain the relatively meager success of previous efforts to promote sustainable nutritional styles.
... For many men, a meal without meat is not a proper meal (Sobal, 2005). In general, both men and women strongly associate meat with masculinity (Rozin, Hormes, Faith, & Wansink, 2012), while not eating meat (being vegetarian and especially vegan) is associated with being less masculine (Ruby & Heine, 2011;Thomas, 2016). ...
... Not eating meat, and especially avoiding all animal products (i.e. being vegan) is associated with appearing less masculine (Ruby & Heine, 2011;Thomas, 2016). As compared to female vegetarians and vegans, male vegetarians and vegans are evaluated more negatively (MacInnis & Hodson, 2017). ...
... On the contrary, not eating meat can be seen as a critique of patriarchal society. Both women and men can avoid meat for that reason, and her theory predicts that the more masculine identities shift away from the hegemonic one, the more likely men will be open to the idea of avoiding meat and also to embracing vegetarianism, perceived as being less masculine (Ruby & Heine, 2011;Thomas, 2016). The few studies that have further explored this idea were either theoretical (Sobal, 2005) or based on qualitative interviews (DeLessio-Parson, 2017; Greenebaum & Dexter, 2018;Roos et al., 2001), and the question still remains if and how different norms of masculinity can predict individual men's attitudes towards and consumption of meat. ...
Article
"Real men eat meat." While this idea is on the one hand widespread throughout time and cultures, it has also been criticized as being too stereotypical, not applicable to all men alike, and being dependent on group level cultural beliefs about gender norms. Increasingly some men question male norms and male privileges, and value authenticity, domesticity and holistic self-awareness. They identify themselves with 'new' forms of masculinity. This study investigates on an individual level if attachment to these newer forms of masculinity can predict differences in meat consumption, willingness to reduce meat, and attitudes towards vegetarians among men. A total of N = 309 male meat-eating participants were surveyed about their self-identification with new forms of masculinity, their attachment to meat, willingness to reduce their meat intake, and attitudes towards vegetarians. Results show that, as was predicted, men who identify more strongly with new forms of masculinity consume less meat, have a weaker attachment to meat, have a greater tendency to reduce their meat intake, and have more positive attitudes towards vegetarians. In sum this study carefully suggests to not only take biological sex differences, but socially and culturally determined gender differences into account when studying or promoting the (non-)consumption of meat.
... However, this perception may be shifting. A recent study by Thomas (2016) examined the effects that diet has on perceptions of a individual's masculinity and found that omnivorous participants did not rate fictional male or female vegetarian characters as less masculine than omnivorous ones, but did rate vegan characters as less masculine than omnivorous ones. Furthermore, vegan characters were rated less masculine if they were vegan for personal beliefs, than if they were vegan for health reasons (Thomas, 2016). ...
... A recent study by Thomas (2016) examined the effects that diet has on perceptions of a individual's masculinity and found that omnivorous participants did not rate fictional male or female vegetarian characters as less masculine than omnivorous ones, but did rate vegan characters as less masculine than omnivorous ones. Furthermore, vegan characters were rated less masculine if they were vegan for personal beliefs, than if they were vegan for health reasons (Thomas, 2016). This suggests that choosing to be vegan for an external cause is considered to be more in opposition to traditional values of masculinity than adopting a vegan diet out of concern for one's personal health. ...
... This suggests that choosing to be vegan for an external cause is considered to be more in opposition to traditional values of masculinity than adopting a vegan diet out of concern for one's personal health. Furthermore, the finding that vegetarian characters were not considered less masculine but the vegan characters were suggests that vegetarian diets (those without meat that do include other animal products) are becoming less gender defiant for men in North America, while veganism (a diet that contains no animal products, such as meat, fish, dairy, or eggs) remains less well known and further removed from the hegemonic ideal of omnivorous diets for men (Thomas, 2016). ...
Article
p>This study explores the relationship between gender and veganism through a critical analysis of food-based discourse on three vegan blogs. As many researchers note, there is a strong association between meat and masculinity in North American society (Nath, 2011; Rothgerber, 2013; Rozin, Hormes, Faith & Wansink, 2012; Ruby & Heine, 2011; Sumpter, 2015). While some researchers argue that the practice of veganism inherently challenges traditional gender norms (Adams, 2015; Potts and Parry, 2010), in these blog posts there is little room for alternative gender performativity. Drawing upon critical feminist and vegan studies literature, and previous discourse analysis of food blogs, this research examines the intersections of gender and food through the practice of veganism. Furthermore, it analyses how the association between meat and masculinity is applied in the gendering of vegan food. I argue that the gendered discourse of vegan food on these blogs reinforces, rather than challenges, traditional gender norms through the use of tropes describing “carnivorous men” and “manly meals” with hopes of satiating male appetites.</p
... In addition to the main effects and interaction effects of consumers' current eating habit (meat eater versus non-meat eater) and vegan celebrity endorsers' motivations (egoistic versus altruistic) for becoming vegan on our dependent measures, the present research also examines the effects of relevant moderators. The food a person consumes, such as following a vegan diet, may lead to assumptions about the diet follower's personality, traits, or associated beliefs (Thomas 2016). For example, people depicted as consuming healthy foods are rated more positively on a variety of traits, including morality, fitness, attractiveness, and likeability (Steim and Nemeroff 1995). ...
... Third, following a particular diet plays a role in gendered perceptions of the eater since foods themselves are associated with genders (Thomas 2016). For instance, a traditional viewpoint of maleness leads to a stronger association between meat consumption and masculinity (Vartanian 2015), whereas fruits, vegetables, salads and sweets are associated with femininity (Schösler et al. 2015;Thomas 2016). ...
... Third, following a particular diet plays a role in gendered perceptions of the eater since foods themselves are associated with genders (Thomas 2016). For instance, a traditional viewpoint of maleness leads to a stronger association between meat consumption and masculinity (Vartanian 2015), whereas fruits, vegetables, salads and sweets are associated with femininity (Schösler et al. 2015;Thomas 2016). However, over the past decade, an increasing number of male celebrities and public figures, such as Joaquin Phoenix, Liam Hemsworth, Woody Harrelson, Casey Affleck, Al Gore, and James Cameron, have officially endorsed veganism and adopted a vegan diet (Bustle 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Celebrities endorsing veganism may exert social influence on con-sumers' attitude toward veganism and behavioral intention to become vegan. A between-subjects online experiment (N = 303) examined the effects of consumers' eating habits (meat eater versus non-meat eater) and celebrities' vegan identity (altruistic motivation versus egoistic motivation) on various outcomes of health communication about veganism. Results of statistical analyses revealed a significant multivariate main effect of consumers' eating habits on health consciousness, intention to spread electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) about veganism, and behavioral intention to become vegan. The results also reveal interaction effects between vegan celebrity endorsers' motivation and consumers' eating habits on health consciousness , intention to spread eWoM about veganism, and beha-vioral intention to become vegan. Additionally, moderating effects of source credibility, subjective norms, and identification with the vegan celebrity endorser were found. This study sheds some light on celebrity endorsements of veganism and effects of message framing on consumers' veganism-related attitude and behavioral intention. ARTICLE HISTORY
... In reviewing the social-scientific literature on veg*nism, Ruby (2012) noted that a limited, but promising, body of evidence had found significant differences between vegetarians and vegans, particularly concerning their attitudes toward animals and the environment. Since Ruby's (2012) review, additional research has furthered this line of inquiry by not only integrating work on social neuroscience (Filippi et al., 2013), social identity (Rothgerber, 2014b(Rothgerber, , 2014c(Rothgerber, , 2015b, and personality (Kessler et al., 2016), but also comparing people's attitudes toward vegetarians with those toward vegans (MacInnis & Hodson, 2017;Thomas, 2016). ...
... As one omnivore put it, "death sounds more promising than vegan" (Judge & Wilson, 2015, p. 63). Omnivores also hold more negative attitudes toward vegans than toward vegetarians (Judge & Wilson, 2018;MacInnis & Hodson, 2017) and view vegans, but not vegetarians, as less masculine than they view other omnivores (Thomas, 2016). Thus, compared to vegetarians, vegans may encounter greater backlash against their diets and internalize these more negative attitudes. ...
Article
Vegetarianism and veganism are often grouped together in nutritional and psychological investigations. Yet an emerging body of literature has highlighted that vegetarians and vegans differ along a number of neurological, attitudinal, and behavioral variables. In this research, I found that vegetarians and vegans exhibit different dietarian identity profiles. Compared to vegetarians, vegans saw their dietary patterns as more intertwined with their identity (higher centrality), had more positive feelings toward their dietary in-group (higher private regard), felt as if other people judge them more negatively for following their dietary patterns (lower public regard), evaluated out-group dieters more negatively (lower out-group regard), and had stronger motivations for following their dietary patterns (higher prosocial, personal, and moral motivations). By distinguishing between vegetarians and vegans more concretely, investigators can capture meaningful within-group heterogeneity in how people think, feel, and behave when it comes to eschewing animal products.
... Men who follow plant-based diets may be perceived as less masculine. 17,18 This perception has the potential to alter how men interpret and adopt diets in comparison to women. The mainstream portrayal of men, meatless diets, and masculinity appears to be changing as plant-based diets gain popularity, 19 but few studies have examined AA men's perspectives on adopting plant-based diets with respect to the concept of masculinity. ...
... There appears to be an increasingly positive portrayal of male vegans and meatless diets in mainstream media. 18,19 While AA men in this study did not explicitly raise this issue, it is possible that such media portrayals may have eased concerns about the perception of plant-based diets as ultra-feminine. In general, men are less likely to participate in studies, health promotion, or prevention programs, 46,47 and this pattern was observed in our study in spite of the extensive recruitment of both men and women in and around Columbia, South Carolina. ...
Article
Adopting a plant-rich or plant-based diet is one of the major recommendations for addressing obesity, overweight, and related health conditions in the United States. Currently, research on African Americans’ food choices in the context of plant-based diets is limited. The primary aim of this study was to understand food-related experiences and perceptions of African Americans who were participating in the Nutritious Eating with Soul (NEW Soul) study, a culturally tailored dietary intervention focused on increasing the consumption of plant-based foods. The roles of gender and ethnicity were also examined to identify how eating patterns were chosen or maintained. Twenty-one African American adults in South Carolina, who were randomly assigned to either a vegan diet (n = 11) or a low-fat omnivorous diet (n = 10) in the NEW Soul study, completed one-on-one, qualitative interviews. Emerging themes included awareness, being in control, and identity. The study revealed that access to social support and coping strategies for addressing negative comments about plant-based food choices may be important components to include in future nutrition interventions focused on African Americans.
... Whereas the aforementioned studies highlight an evident meatmasculinity connection-namely, such that men value meat consumption more strongly than do women-recent research has raised questions as to whether forgoing meat makes one appear less masculine than does consuming meat. Contradicting prior findings (e.g., , Thomas (2016) found neither a significant difference in the extents to which omnivores viewed vegetarian and omnivorous targets as masculine nor a significant interaction between target gender and target diet. However, Thomas (2016) did find that vegans were seen as less masculine than were omnivores. ...
... Contradicting prior findings (e.g., , Thomas (2016) found neither a significant difference in the extents to which omnivores viewed vegetarian and omnivorous targets as masculine nor a significant interaction between target gender and target diet. However, Thomas (2016) did find that vegans were seen as less masculine than were omnivores. ...
Article
Whereas vegetarianism has long garnered attention from nutritional science and philosophy, psychological research exploring this eating behavior has emerged only in the past few decades. Six years ago, Ruby (2012) reviewed the extant literature on the psychology of vegetarianism, showcasing its promise as "a blossoming field of study." In the time since, this line of research truly has blossomed, as subsequent work has addressed prior knowledge gaps and initiated new lines of inquiry. While evidence on previously studied topics of dietary motivation, moral values, gender, differences between vegetarians and vegans, barriers to dietary change, and disordered eating has continued to expand, new lines of research on identity, social experiences, flexitarianism, culture, and prospective vegetarianism have emerged. Recent psychometric advancements, moreover, have constructed useful measures to assess relevant constructs. The current review synthesizes this amalgam of research, identifying emergent themes and highlighting promising directions for future inquiry.
... Moreover, more than women, men believe that a meal without meat is not a proper meal [57], that meat eating is 'natural' for humans to do [58], and that it makes them strong and 'manly' [59]. In general, people associate meat with masculinity [60], and vegetarianism with being less masculine [61,62]. In his work on meat eaters' feelings and attitudes towards vegetarians, Rothgerber [6] did not mention any gender differences. ...
... This should be further explored, both in terms of empirical research and practical implications, since setting vegetarian/vegan food as the baseline in offices and schools could not only benefit the health of those who consume too much meat, it could also further challenge the idea that meat should be considered the norm. It could also overcome a range of food-related barriers among workers and children who may abstain from eating meat because of individual or cultural (religious) reasons [62]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article highlights the importance of the dietary pattern of significant others in one’s social network to explain both individual meat consumption and vegaphobia, the negative and stigmatizing attitude toward vegetarianism and non-meat-eaters. Using survey data (N = 996), this study first contrasted convinced meat-eaters with non-meat eaters, or people who actively reduce or limit their meat consumption, in terms of different socio-demographic characteristics. Results showed that convinced meat eaters are more often male. A negligible effect on meat consumption was found for education, and age differences were not significant. Next, attention was paid to the social context of meat consumption. Specifically, results of a logistic regression analysis showed that a person’s meat consumption is considerably lower when one of their household members is vegetarian. This was also the case, but to a lesser extent, if people’s social circle included a vegetarian friend or family member. Similar results were found when looking at the linear correlates of vegaphobia using ordinary least squares regression (OLS). Vegaphobes were more often male and lower-educated. In addition, vegaphobia was more common among older persons and convinced meat eaters. Moreover, vegaphobia was less common among people who had a vegetarian in their household or groups of friends. The article ends with a discussion on the importance of studying the social environment in meat consumption and attitudes toward vegetarianism. Policy implications and directions for future research are discussed.
... Despite the growing recognition of these concerns in the USA, meat consumption there is at three times the global average [5] and also rose 5% in 2015 -a jump larger than any that had been seen since the 1970s [1]. Moreover, we often see that meat consumption is equated with masculinity; indeed vegetarian men may be perceived as less masculine than omnivorous men, with vegans being seen consistently as less masculine [6,7]. a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 the general opinion towards GM across the world remains negative [24,25]. ...
... Men were found to be more willing to engage with IVM as a product, and had more positive views of the product, with the exception of two questions. This might be reflective of the aforementioned current attitudes towards meat consumption, such that eating meat is identified as a masculine practice [6,7]. This would indicate that the perceptions of IVM are not unique compared to farmed meat, in this context. ...
Article
Full-text available
Positivity towards meat consumption remains strong, despite evidence of negative environmental and ethical outcomes. Although awareness of these repercussions is rising, there is still public resistance to removing meat from our diets. One potential method to alleviate these effects is to produce in vitro meat: meat grown in a laboratory that does not carry the same environmental or ethical concerns. However, there is limited research examining public attitudes towards in vitro meat, thus we know little about the capacity for it be accepted by consumers. This study aimed to examine perceptions of in vitro meat and identify potential barriers that might prevent engagement. Through conducting an online survey with US participants, we identified that although most respondents were willing to try in vitro meat, only one third were definitely or probably willing to eat in vitro meat regularly or as a replacement for farmed meat. Men were more receptive to it than women, as were politically liberal respondents compared with conservative ones. Vegetarians and vegans were more likely to perceive benefits compared to farmed meat, but they were less likely to want to try it than meat eaters. The main concerns were an anticipated high price, limited taste and appeal and a concern that the product was unnatural. It is concluded that people in the USA are likely to try in vitro meat, but few believed that it would replace farmed meat in their diet.
... In research on meat consumption and identity, the focus has primarily been on a specific identity, or at most a couple of specific identities, failing to study the relative influence of and possible conflicts between several identities that a person may have. Especially, more general identities may also account for substantial variation in meat eating, such as religious (Bonne et al., 2008), gender (Rozin et al., 2012;Thomas, 2016), proenvironmental (van der Werff & Steg, 2015), health (Fox & Ward, 2008), and national or even regional identity (Blue, 2008;Sanderson, 1992;Schösler et al., 2015). ...
... He therefore regarded himself as a person who can cook when motivated, but in his daily life, when he only cooked for himself, motivation was low. It is often mentioned that red meat is linked to masculinity (Schösler et al., 2015;Thomas, 2016), and besides the identity as a good provider, Dan's masculine identity was also situationally enacted. For example, he showed the interviewer a recipe named "bachelor's stew" containing plenty of meat, which he had made for his ex-wife, when she visited him recently. ...
Article
Global meat consumption poses a threat to environmental sustainability and human health. Therefore, moral and health‐related norms connected to eating meat are changing and consumers experience conflicts when choosing between meat and nonmeat options in various situations. To achieve a better understanding of the nature of these conflicts and how consumers cope with them, we study identities related to meat consumption and how they are organized. Identity theories are used as the lens to address the self‐relevance of meat to consumers. Thirteen Danish consumers shared how and why they ate, reduced, or avoided meat in a food‐based photo‐diary and in‐depth interviews, supported by a visualization approach, developed from self‐brand connection methods. Three higher‐order identities (pragmatic idealist, ethical foodie, and healthy hedonist) emerged, governing the consumption, reduction, or avoidance of different meat categories. Identity conflicts between health, moral (e.g., animal welfare), and hedonic concerns were present, but also identity stigma. Coping mechanisms include change of salience and changing patterns of meat consumption. Campaigners promoting a reduction in meat consumption and developers of alternative protein foods can use these insights to target identities and facilitate conflict resolutions. However, more research is needed on how generalizable results are.
... While many people readily eat any animal product (i.e., red meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy) and thus follow an unrestricted dietary pattern, other people follow various types of restricted diets, which can generally be characterized along a spectrum of animal-product exclusion (Beardsworth & Keil, 1992;Gill, 2015;Ruby, 2012). Though this spectrum is often divided into binary vegetarian and vegan categories (Rothgerber, 2013(Rothgerber, , 2014bRuby, 2012;Thomas, 2016), it further encompasses even more nuanced dietary pattern distinctions, such as lacto vegetarian, ovo vegetarian, lacto-ovo vegetarian, pollotarian, and pescatarian (see Gill, 2015). One can accordingly designate specific terms, such as "vegan identity" or "pescatarian identity," to capture the identities people construct around particular patterns of food choice. ...
Article
In navigating decisions about what to eat, people both construct and rely on a food-choice identity. Yet food choice is multifaceted, as people apply different dietary schemas to different types of food, engaging various domains of food-choice identity. In this paper, we focus on dietarian identity: one's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors with respect to consuming or eschewing animal products (here, pertaining to red meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy). First, we draw upon Rosenfeld and Burrow's (2017a) Unified Model of Vegetarian Identity in order to develop a Dietarian Identity Questionnaire (DIQ). Second, we validate the DIQ's factor structure, construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and replicability. Lastly, we highlight directions for the use of the DIQ in future research.
... At present, most research investigating attitudes towards dietary groups has focused on the categories of "omnivore" or "vegetarian" (e.g., Chin et al., 2002;Minson & Monin, 2012;Ruby & Heine, 2011), while few studies have examined attitudes towards vegans specifically (for recent exceptions, see MacInnis & Hodson, 2017;and Thomas, 2016). If dietary behavior is conceptualized as existing on a continuum from omnivore to vegan, vegans may be viewed as more "extreme" than vegetarians and evaluated more negatively (as supported by recent research by MacInnis & Hodson, 2017). ...
Article
Vegetarians and vegans comprise a minority of most western populations. However, relatively little research has investigated the psychological foundations of attitudes towards this minority group. The following study employs a dual process model of intergroup attitudes to explore the motivational basis of non‐vegetarians’ attitudes towards vegetarians and vegans. Participants were 1326 individuals recruited through advertisements in a national newspaper in New Zealand. Non‐vegetarian participants first completed measures of ideological attitudes and social worldviews, and then were randomly assigned to complete a measure of outgroup attitudes towards either vegetarians or vegans. Although non‐vegetarians’ attitudes towards both vegetarians and vegans were generally positive, attitudes towards vegans were significantly less positive than attitudes towards vegetarians, and male participants expressed significantly less positive attitudes towards both outgroups than female participants. The structural equation model predicting attitudes towards vegetarians and vegans fit the data well and explained a significant amount of the variance in attitudes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Thankfully, more research on veganism is emerging. In the past three years, there have been journal articles covering topics such as transitioning (Andreatta 2015;Twine 2016;Twine 2017), lifestyle (Cherry 2015;Radnitz et al. 2015), practice (Twine 2017), motives (Radnitz et al. 2015;Janssen et al. 2016), identity (Stephens Griffin 2017), athletes (Rogerson 2017), law (Rowley 2016), consumption (Doyle 2016), gender (Thomas 2016), and celebrity (Doyle 2016). There are also books (Wright 2015;Castricano and Simonsen 2016; Stephens Griffin 2017) that critically discuss a wide range of issues relating to veganism. ...
Article
Full-text available
Article based on my 20 minute presentation for the Granite Symposium (Between Using and Abusing Our Planet: How Climate Change Affects Our Fields of Research) in November 2017.
... In these countries, vegetarianism has been firmly established for centuries, being associated with tradition, power and status, and has inspired both religious and secularist perspectives. In Western countries, the decision to convert from a meat-eating diet is made for a range of reasons, including concerns about animal welfare, rights and martyrdom, environmental sustainability, personal health, values, gender roles, and other cultural factors (Farragher et al., 2016;Thomas, 2016;Ruby, 2012), which are intertwined with Oriental symbolisms. This complexity confirms that vegetarianism is not just a matter of taste but rather implies the most profound dimensions, assigning significance to the existence of both individuals and the entire planet (Lindeman & Sirelius, 2001). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper focuses on the motives for vegetarian choices in contemporary Italian food culture, with specific reference to the role of the representations of death. The study adopts a qualitative research design aimed at an in-depth exploration of the reasons for avoiding meat, following an ethnographic method. Twenty-two participants (55% women, 45% men) aged 19-74, all vegetarians or vegans, mainly from Northern and Central Italy, were involved. Data from the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis were examined according to the qualitative thematic analysis: the results show the role of death in the construction of disgust towards meat, running parallel with an emphasis on spirituality, ethical treatment of animals and the environment as reasons for avoiding meat, in particular, the concern-generating disgust and its relationship with the representation of death as a contaminating essence. The basis of disgust lies in this connection, from which the idea that oral consumption of contaminants characterized by corruptive properties, passing through the flesh of dead animals to humans, derives. The role of anti-speciesism is considered as a latent perspective, which may influence the vegetarian and vegan choices.
... In Australia, the United States, and most other red meat eating cultures, there is a strong link between the barbeque, nationalism, and masculine identity, which is promoted and reinforced in popular culture (Nath, 2011;Avieli, 2013;Cook et al., 2014). Traditional stereotypes about meat and masculinity appear to be diminishing, however (Schösler et al., 2015;Thomas, 2016). In practical terms, men still consume significantly less vegetables than women [Australian Bureau of Statistics] (ABS, 2013). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The central position of meat in the contemporary Western diet may be under threat. Meat, especially mammalian meat, appears to have an image problem, losing some of its prior associations with health and vitality. Although overall global meat consumption is steadily increasing, it has peaked in some industrialized countries and is in decline. Endless expansion of meat production on current trajectories is widely considered unsustainable and undesirable and raises environmental, ethical, social, and ecological issues, to which governments, the general public and the meat consumer is increasingly attuned. While it has traditionally been the intrinsic properties (texture, flavor, freshness, visual appearance, nutritional content, and satiety) that maintain our appetite for meat, complex external cues (perceived healthfulness, animal welfare, environmental impact, and sustainability) are increasingly taken into account in consumer decisions. In this context we attempt to identify some emerging trends in attitudes toward meat from a sensory and flavor perspective.
... Проучване в Индиана, САЩ, установи, че мъжете, които се въздържат от месо поради ли- чен избор, физически, здравословни проблеми или любов към животните, се приемат за по-мал- ко мъжествени [71]. На противоположно мнение са обаче изследванията на Харвардския универ- ситет, които показват, че мъжете, консумиращи по-големи количества преработено месо, са с 30 % по-малко мъжествени, базирано на броя про- изведени сперматозоиди [72]. ...
... Indeed, both men and women associate meat with masculinity, and men face pressure to eat meat by gendered media representations (Nath 2011;Rogers 2008;Rothgerber 2012;Rozin et al. 2012). And as might be expected, men who opt not to eat meat or who forgo animal products entirely are seen as less masculine than other men (Ruby and Heine 2011;Thomas 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Men in the United States have higher rates of life-threatening diseases than do women, in part due to behavioral differences in health practices. We argue that men’s enactment of masculinity in their daily lives contributes to health behavior differences. We focus on meat consumption, a masculine-stereotyped dietary practice that epidemiological studies have linked to negative health outcomes. In study 1, nationally representative survey data indicate men report less healthy lifestyle preferences than do women, including less willingness to reduce meat consumption. In study 2, an internet-based experiment shows that experiencing a masculinity threat leads men to express more attachment to meat consumption. In study 3, lab experiment data with a different experimental manipulation and study population again indicate that threats to masculinity influence men’s meat preferences. These results support the claim that men’s masculinity maintenance may be one factor contributing to gender differences in meat consumption and health disparities related to overconsumption of meat.
... En sus des travaux présentés ci-dessus, de nombreuses études ont exploré d'autres dimensions psychologiques associées à la consommation de viande : la perception de la masculinité (Thomas (2016)), les caractéristiques des individus qui optent pour une alimentation végétale (Cramer et al. (2017) (2016)). ...
... Although men are becoming more conscious about their own health and the environment, there is still a long way to go before fully restraining the deeply-rooted social masculinity traits and start accepting as normal, natural, necessary and nice (Piazza et al, 2015) vegetarian or vegan food. An Indiana Earlham College study in USA found that men abstaining from meat because of personal choice, physical, health problems or love for animals are alleged to be less masculine (Thomas, 2015). However, research by the University of Harvard shows men who consume higher quantities of processed meat to be 30% less manly based on sperm count (Mendes, 2017). ...
Chapter
The unnecessary question what a man is without his masculinity, is deeply ingrained into the socially established norms of strength, power, virility and machoism. Although the traditional male masculinity stereotype and its association with meat consumption are still undisputable for many "real" men, there is indication about a shift toward a new modern evolutionary masculinity which reflects more sustainability values. The chapter explores this based on a survey of Sydney men. It reveals the influence of new factors, such as environmental, health and animal welfare concerns, which shape the concept of the masculine. Meat-eating men will experience increasing pressure to defend their traditional masculinity. The Sydney study also explores the factors likely to influence Australian men to replace a meat-centred diet with more plant-based alternatives.
... Eating meat continues to be culturally coded as a masculine practice, with meat-eating men perceived as more masculine than vegetarian men (Ruby & Heine, 2011) and vegan men (Thomas, 2016). In most societies, meat is still seen as appropriate and necessary nourishment particularly for men (Szabo, 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
In the age of the Anthropocene, questions of ecological sustainability, animal ethics, and human health are intimately entangled. From a gender perspective, compared to women, men’s diets tend to be less healthy and sustainable. This is linked to worse health outcomes for men. Therefore, alternative, more ethical ways of eating that have the potential to improve men’s health and well-being and simultaneously contribute to better public health and sustainability outcomes should be encouraged. Veganism addresses issues of food, health, climate change, and animal justice simultaneously. This article explores vegan men’s food practices in relation to health and well-being, drawing on qualitative interviews with 61 vegan men. The interview material was analyzed using the method of thematic analysis. Our findings suggest that becoming vegan encourages positive changes in men’s health behavior. This includes paying more attention to nutrition and taking better care of one’s health. Vegan men report experiencing better physical and mental well-being upon going vegan. Based on these findings, we argue that vegan men’s food and health practices contribute to the emergence of healthier masculinities, as vegan men help to challenge links between risky health behavior and masculinity.
... Further, individuals who consume more natural foods have been found to be perceived by others as being more virtuous (Taylor & Stevenson, 2018). Conversely, vegans and vegetarians are perceived more negatively by omnivorous eaters, and, more specifically, as possessing fewer masculine characteristics (MacInnis & Hodson, 2017;Ruby & Heine, 2011;Thomas, 2016). ...
Article
Here, we examine the impact of one's willingness to try new foods on others' perceptions of sexual unrestrictedness and desirability as a sexual and romantic partner. Guided by insights from past research, we hypothesized that targets who are willing to try new foods would be perceived as being more desirable sexual and romantic partners (Study 1) and as being less sexually restricted (Studies 2–4) than targets who are unwilling to try new foods. Results supported this hypothesis and further indicated that this pattern is specific to willingness to try new foods, not general willingness to try new things (Study 3). Additionally, results revealed that the relationship between willingness to try new food and inferences of sexual unrestrictedness is driven by perceptions of target's relatively lower levels of sexual disgust sensitivity and not by the belief that the target is in better health or has superior immune function (Study 4). Together, these results suggest that people's willingness to try new foods may impact how they are perceived by prospective dates and mates.
... This behaviour, however, was modulated by health consciousness. Along the same lines, some recent work [77] explored the gendered perceptions of vegetarians and vegans, to conclude that choosing veganism is associated with lower levels of masculinity. This apparent direct association between men = meat, and non-meat = feminine can be easily explained if we remember that, in some societies, there is a symbolism between men and meat [22 ,23 ]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Important scientific works have demonstrated that our sex and our gender affect the way we approach objects and situations. Although this is a long-established discussion in the field of social sciences, it seems that discussion about the relationship between sex, gender and food is still sometimes neglected in our daily lives, including empirical work involving food and consumer perceptions. Thus, the main objective of the present review is to provide a recent overview of the advances of sex and gender-related stereotypes in food studies, and to provide an indication of what the direction research might go in the future.
... and endorsed a broader range of diets (e.g., Weight Watchers, Jenny Craig, SlimFast, etc.) than men. There were no gender differences observed for low-carb/ high protein diets, which might be perceived as less stereotypically "feminine" dieting approaches (e.g., Atkins [56][57][58]) or for dietician/physician supervised weight loss. ...
Article
Background Existing research has primarily focused on weight as the outcome of interest for bariatric surgery; however, patients frequently report other lifestyle and interpersonal surgery motivations and goals. Understanding the spectrum of bariatric surgery goals and motivations has important implications for enhancing patient-centered care and surgery outcomes. Objectives The current study characterized the nature of bariatric patient motivations and goals for surgery, described the extent to which motivations matched goals, and examined whether men and women differed in the specific motivations/goals described. Setting Teaching hospital, United States Methods Data were obtained via retrospective chart review of bariatric patient responses to the clinic’s standard open-ended questions about motivations and goals for bariatric surgery. A mixed method approach was used, including content analysis to identify themes and chi-square/t-test analyses to test gender differences. Results Surgery motivations and outcome goals were reflected by eight overarching and overlapping themes. The most common motivations were related to general health and quality of life. The most common goals were to improve health/longevity and mobility. Over a quarter of patients showed no overlap between motivations and goals. Few gender differences were observed. Conclusions Findings underscore the importance of goals beyond weight loss, as well as the utility of helping patients shape their goals in accordance with goal-setting theories.
... Further, both our rationales for the Vegetarian and Reducetarian conditions only mentioned animal welfare arguments, without making mention of environmental impact. Our design also did not include a 'vegan' condition, which is a meat elimination strategy that is growing in popularity but is relatively understudied (e.g., Thomas, 2016). We also did not include a control condition for comparison. ...
Article
Many people agree that reducing the consumption of meat has good ends (e.g., for animal welfare, the environment, and human health). However, the question of which advocacy strategies are most effective in enabling wide-spread meat reduction remains open. We explored this by prescribing four different meat reduction diets to omnivorous participants for a seven-day adherence period, and studied their meat consumption over time. The diets included a Vegetarian diet, and three flexitarian diets (Climatarian – limit beef and lamb consumption; One Step for Animals – eliminate chicken consumption; Reducetarian – reduce all meat consumption). Results showed pronounced differences between groups in meat consumption during the adherence period, where the Vegetarian group ate significantly less meat than the flexitarian groups. All groups decreased their meat intake in the weeks following the adherence period compared to baseline, however, there were no significant group differences in the level of decrease over time. Participants also changed their attitudes toward meat and animals from pre-to post-intervention, and decreases in commitment toward and rationalization of meat-eating partially mediated change in meat intake. These findings reveal that the diet assignments had some impact on participants’ meat consumption and attitudes even after the prescribed adherence period had ended. However, the sustained decrease in consumption did not vary depending on what meat reduction strategy was originally used.
... It is not surprising, therefore, that psychological research on everyday eating habits and changing behaviours, lifestyle aspects and their consequences is growing [11]. A recent study found a possible relationship between perceived masculinity and diet preferences with some (weak) evidence that veganism (slightly stronger for males) leads to perceptions of decreasing masculinity when compared to omnivores [12]. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Vegetarians and vegans are more preoccupied with their health and conscious of their food habits than omnivores and often have pronounced views on killing animals for food. They are generally aware of a healthy lifestyle. Their mental attitudes, strengths and vulnerabilities may differ from meat eaters. Nowadays, health considerations would seem to play a role in the decision to become vegetarian/vegan. This chapter presents an overview of the most recent scientific literature with some emphasis on aspects of the relation between psychiatric disorders and personality characteristics in subjects with a vegetarian or vegan lifestyle compared to subjects who do not follow this lifestyle.
... Indeed, beyond the physiological needs for survival, the choice of daily food consumption depends on various intrinsic motivations related to culture, time period, social context (Cramer et al., 2017;Monteiro et al., 2017;Thomas, 2016), but also on a wide variety of individual psychological motives (Keller & Siegrist, 2015;Mathieu & Dorard, 2016;Ruby et al., 2016). Some of these have been included in a model composed of nine dimensions assessed by the Food Choice Questionnaire (Steptoe et al., 1995). ...
Article
Vegetarianism, which is increasingly widespread in Western societies, is underpinned by various motivations (ethical, environmental, health concerns …) and the question of its association with eating disorders continues to divide the literature. This cross-sectional study aimed to explore and compare eating motives/attitudes and bodily preoccupations of vegetarian and omnivorous participants from the general population. Forty-nine vegetarians and 52 omnivores, aged between 18 and 70 years, completed a battery of questionnaires including sociodemographic characteristics, Body Mass Indexes (BMI - current, ideal, lifetime lowest, and lifetime highest), the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ). Compared to omnivores, vegetarians reported lower current (p = .017), ideal (p = .009), and lifetime lowest (p = .005) BMIs, more motivations related to health (p = .001) and natural content (p < .0001), but less weight control motivations (p = .015). While no differences were observed in EAT-26 scores, vegetarians had lower BSQ total scores (p = .043), and lower scores on the Body Dissatisfaction related to Lower body parts (p = .025) and Unsuited Cognitions and Behaviors (p = .015) subscales compared to omnivores. Separate gender comparisons revealed that these differences existed only among women. Hierarchical regressions revealed that the natural content motivation was the strongest positive statistical predictor of the vegetarian group (Expβ = 1.18, p = .002), while the weight control motivation was a negative statistical predictor (Expβ = .710, p = .023). Results demonstrated that vegetarians expressed motivation for a healthy and natural diet, and were less concerned about controlling their weight than the omnivores. Vegetarian women had lower BMIs but expressed fewer psychological concerns associated with eating disorders than omnivorous women. Vegetarian diets appeared to be associated with health benefits and less body and weight concerns, particularly among women in the general population.
... Those who are non-vegan seem to strongly believe that vegans are less masculine than non-vegans, while this belief is less evident in the vegan community. Masculinity related to veganism is a common bias, and this may be an additional reason why non-vegans are not interested in becoming vegan (Thomas, 2016). This trend seemed to be supported on Instagram as well, as about sixty-two percent of the posts containing people were exclusively female. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
This project examined perceptions of the vegan lifestyle using surveys and social media to explore barriers to choosing veganism. A survey of 510 individuals indicated that non-vegans did not believe veganism was as healthy or difficult as vegans. In a second analysis, Instagram posts using #vegan suggest content is aimed primarily at the female vegan community. Finally, sentiment analysis of roughly 5 million Twitter posts mentioning 'vegan' found veganism to be portrayed in a more positive light compared to other topics. Results suggest non-vegans' lack of interest in veganism is driven by non-belief in the health benefits of the diet.
... Such a correlative link between personality and restrictive eating, although missing in the current data, would thus also apply to restricting animal-based products and may explain higher depressive symptoms in vegetarians or vegans [16]. Moreover, sociological studies show that animal-restricted dieters are often stereotyped with a multitude of biases: detrimental health effects, restrictive lifestyle, sentimentalism, extremism, lower perceived masculinity [61][62][63]. Aversion to plant-based dieters could lead to higher social exclusion and depressive symptoms as a result. However, more longitudinal studies tracking newly transformed dieters are needed to clarify if avoiding animal-derived products affects mental health. ...
Article
Full-text available
Restricting animal-based products from diet may exert beneficial effects on weight status; however, less is known about such a diet and emotional health. Moreover, personality traits, for example high neuroticism, may contribute to restrictive eating habits and potentially confound diet-health associations. We aim to systematically assess if restrictive dietary intake of animal-based products relates to lower weight and higher depressive symptoms, and if differences in personality traits play a significant role. Cross-sectional data from the baseline LIFE-Adult study were collected from 2011-2014 in Leipzig, Germany (n = 8943). Main outcomes of interest were dietary frequency of animal-derived products in the last year measured using a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), body-mass-index (BMI) (kg/m 2), and the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Personality traits were assessed in a subsample of n = 7906 using the Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Higher restriction of animal-based product intake was associated with a lower BMI, but not with depression scores. Personality, i.e., lower extraversion, was related to higher frequency of animal product intake. Moreover, personality traits were significantly associated with depressive symptoms, i.e., higher neuroticism, lower extraversion, lower agreeableness, lower conscientiousness, and with higher BMI. These findings encourage future longitudinal studies to test the efficacy of restricting animal-based products as a preventive and therapeutic strategy for overweight and obesity.
... Hegemonic masculinity also seems to be at play when non-vegetarians evaluate men who choose not to eat meat. For instance, studies suggest that men who are vegetarian (Ruby and Heine 2011) or vegan (Thomas 2016) are perceived as less masculine than their omnivore counterparts. In one of few studies to actually interview vegetarian men, Nath (2011) finds that male vegetarians frequently report having their heterosexuality and physical strength questioned, especially in the "masculine," meat-centered context of the barbecue. ...
Article
Numerous studies demonstrate a link between meat and masculinity, with men being more likely to eat or express a preference for meat. Other studies provide theoretical explanations of linkages between meat and masculinity. However, few studies investigate which groups in society are most likely to perceive meat and meat consumption as “masculine.” Scholars have argued that men will be especially prone to perceive consumption of meat as a key component of masculinity. Likewise, others suggest that “working men” (i.e., manual laborers and other working class members) rely on meat for its purported strength-producing properties. This study presents a measure of perceived masculinity of meat and assesses this perception by gender and social class (along with manual labor occupations). Using an online survey and convenience sample (n = 584), the study finds that men score higher on a measure of perceived masculinity of meat. Results for social class are less definitive.
... Experimental research about perceptions of vegetarians often focuses on gender-specific differences. The overall consensus is that people who eat meat are very often seen as more masculine (Ruby and Heine, 2011;Thomas, 2016). This relationship may originate from historical development in Europe where symbolic strength was required from men and was attributed to meat consumption (Ruby and Heine, 2011). ...
Article
Food consumption has a large environmental impact, which could be substantially reduced by decreasing meat consumption. Obstacles to this reduction are the stereotypes connected to a vegetarian diet. The aim of this study was to identify how persons are evaluated with regard to certain characteristics based on the meals they offer friends for a dinner. In an online-experiment with 223 participants, the influence of a menu’s meat component (meat vs. vegetarian menu) and price (low vs. high) on 10 personality attributes ascribed to hosts was investigated. Results show that persons who offer a vegetarian menu are assessed as significantly (p < .005) more trend conscious, alternative, health conscious, and more concerned about animal welfare. For menus of a higher price category, the hosts are seen as stingier. Persons serving a vegetarian menu are perceived as worse hosts only if they offer an inexpensive menu. To reduce meat consumption in social and individual contexts, a positive communication strategy focusing on the positive characteristics and on the role model value of persons who offer vegetarian meals is recommended.
... Accordingly, gender has played a central role in psychological investigations of vegetarianism (Rosenfeld, 2018;Ruby, 2012). Recent studies, for example, have documented how men and women have different attitudes toward meat and vegetarianism (Graça, Calheiros, & Oliveira, 2015;Judge & Wilson, 2018), how vegetarian men and women are perceived differently by others (MacInnis & Hodson, 2017;Thomas, 2016), and how omnivorous men and women reason differently about the morality of eating meat (Dowsett, Semmler, Bray, Ankeny, & Chur-Hansen, 2018). What remains less known, however, is whether men and women who go vegetarian construe their diets differently. ...
Article
Meat is deeply associated with masculine identity. As such, it is unsurprising that women are more likely than men are to become vegetarian. Given the gendered nature of vegetarianism, might men and women who become vegetarian express distinct identities around their diets? Through two highly powered preregistered studies (Ns = 890 and 1,775) of self-identified vegetarians, combining both frequentist and Bayesian approaches, I found that men and women differ along two dimensions of vegetarian identity: (1) dietary motivation and (2) dietary adherence. Compared to vegetarian men, vegetarian women reported that they are more prosocially motivated to follow their diet and adhere to their diet more strictly (i.e., are less likely to cheat and eat meat). By considering differences in how men and women construe vegetarian dieting, investigators can generate deeper insights into the gendered nature of eating behavior.
... Ainsi, le modèle de Jabs et al. distingue deux catégories de motivations : orientées santé d'une part, fondées sur des préoccupations éthiques d'autre part, (Jabs et al., 1998 ;Ruby, 2012;Dyett et al., 2013 ;Hoffman et al., 2013). Des études plus récentes distinguent des orientations personnelles, sociétales et morales incluant notamment la question de l'écologie et la préoccupation pour le bien-être animal (Rosenfeld et Burrow, 2017 ;de Boer et al., 2017;Hamilton, 2006 ;Thomas, 2016). Mais peu de travaux se sont intéressés aux étapes conduisant à un tel changement d'habitudes et de comportement et à la nature même du processus d'adoption en termes de déclenchement, de rapidité et de progressivité. ...
Conference Paper
Si le végétarisme devient une tendance forte, il reste un régime alimentaire contraignant en rupture d'habitudes fortement ancrées dans la société, ce qui peut générer des tensions psychologiques et relationnelles pour les personnes qui l'adoptent. Au-delà des motivations déjà connues, l'objet de cette recherche est d'identifier les faisceaux d'influences conduisant à l'adoption et au maintien de ce régime et de mieux comprendre les relations à l'entourage et à la communauté d'adoption. Une étude exploratoire par entretiens individuels a été menée auprès de 25 jeunes adultes végétariens. Elle montre que les relations avec la communauté pourraient avoir davantage d'effets dans le maintien du comportement que dans son processus d'adoption. Par ailleurs, en fonction de l'opposition perçue entre la société et la communauté végétarienne et du degré d'identification à cette communauté, différents profils de relations à la communauté et d'attentes peuvent être distingués. Des implications pourraient en découler notamment en matière d'accompagnement, d'offre et de communication relatifs à ces pratiques. Abstract : Although vegetarianism is becoming a strong trend, it remains a restrictive diet breaking away from habits which are deeply anchored in society. This can generate psychological and relational tensions for the people who adopt vegetarianism. Beyond the previously discovered motivations, the purpose of this research is to identify the numerous influences leading to the adoption and retention of this practice and to a better understanding of the relationships between vegetarians and the environment and the adoption community. An exploratory study using individual interviews was conducted with 25 young vegetarian adults. It shows that relationships with the community may be more effective in maintaining behavior than in the adoption process. In addition, depending on the perceived opposition between society and the vegetarian community, and the degree of identification with this community, different patterns of community relations and expectations can be distinguished. Implications could arise in particular regarding support, supply and communication related to these practices.
... A study found that, of the articles published in the British press in 2007 that mentioned veganism, 22 were coded as positive and 295 were coded as negative, with veganism being a subject of ridicule, characterized as impossible to sustain, overly ascetic, or faddish, and vegans portrayed as hostile extremists or as emotionally oversensitive (Cole and Morgan 2011). Likewise, vegans are often perceived as effeminate (Ruby and Heine 2011;Thomas 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
I claim that there is pro tanto moral reason for parents to not raise their child on a vegan diet because a vegan diet bears a risk of harm to both the physical and the social well-being of children. After giving the empirical evidence from nutrition science and sociology that supports this claim, I turn to the question of how vegan parents should take this moral reason into account. Since many different moral frameworks have been used to argue for veganism, this is a complex question. I suggest that, on some of these moral frameworks, the moral reason that some parents have for not raising their child on a vegan diet on account of this risk is plausibly as strong as the reason they have for raising their child on a vegan diet. In other words, the moral reason I outline is weighty enough to justify some vegan parents in plausibly finding it permissible to not raise their child on a vegan diet.
Thesis
L’alimentation est un acte naturel qui permet à chacun de se nourrir et d’apporter à l’organisme les composantes essentielles dont il a besoin. Toutes les habitudes alimentaires ne s’équivalent cependant pas, et lorsqu’elle n’est pas équilibrée, l’alimentation peut même se révéler nocive. Tandis que les maladies infectieuses sont en constante diminution dans les pays occidentaux, de nouvelles maladies, non transmissibles, sont-elles en augmentation, comme c’est le cas pour le surpoids ou l’obésité qui touchent respectivement 2 milliards et 650 millions de personnes dans le monde. Les régimes alimentaires dérivent d’habitudes culturelles qui sont parfois historiques, et il est alors intéressant d’étudier les régimes en vogue au paléolithique, à l’Antiquité, et de comment ils ont évolué au fur et à mesure des siècles pour arriver aujourd’hui à une alimentation qui fait place à l’industrialisation et à la mondialisation. Plusieurs modes alimentaires se sont ancrés dans les habitudes culturelles parmi lesquels le régime méditerranéen, véritable patrimoine immatériel de l’UNESCO, et le régime d’Okinawa au Japon, qui sont présents dans des régions possédant un taux élevé de centenaires, mais c’est également le cas d’autres moins sains tel que le régime typique américain. Parallèlement à ces régimes culturels qui définissent certaines populations, d’autres émergent, dérivant d’une extrapolation de recommandations médicales, comme c’est le cas du régime végétarien ou sans gluten. Chacun de ces régimes présente alors un impact significatif sur l’apparition des maladies chroniques non transmissibles que sont les maladies cardiovasculaires et métaboliques. Enfin, il est également possible de noter le lien très étroit entre alimentation et génétique, de nouvelles disciplines apparaissent. C’est le cas de la nutrigénétique qui définit la façon dont les variations génétiques affectent la réponse aux aliments, alors que le terme nutrigénomique est utilisé lorsque l’on parle de l’interaction entre les aliments et les gènes et comment ces derniers sont affectés.
Article
This paper explores the effects of environmental predisposition on purchasing intentions. The proposed model considers religiosity as a determinant of consumer environmental predisposition, adopting a multidimensional view entailing both intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity. Further, the effects of materialism are investigated, as it has been recognized as one of the most relevant hampering factors in determining consumer environmental predispositions and behaviors. Such factors appear intimately related, as materialism has been indicated as largely antithetical with respect to religion. Literature has suggested religiosity to be a key determinant of consumer environmental predispositions and behaviors. This might be even more important for specific, environmentally relevant consumer lifestyles. This work is hence set within vegan consumption. Veganism has been mostly related to specific religious beliefs (like Buddhism), according to which it represents a core component of larger worldviews. A structural equation model is proposed, based on a sample of 842 Italian consumers. Results show that religiosity exerts some effect on consumer environmental predisposition, and that, in turn, such predisposition determines vegan purchasing intentions. A split model is then proposed considering Christian and Buddhist consumers. Results of multigroup analysis show that religious influxes on consumer environmental predispositions might vary according to different religious faiths. Given the lack of previous empirical research, results of this study require further validation; still, they might provide some insights for managers, as markets related to environmentally relevant products and services are exhibiting a sustained growth.
Conference Paper
If the socio-demographic profiles and motivations of vegetarians are well known (e. g. Rosenfeld and Burrow, 2017), few studies have looked at the evolution of the behavior of vegetarians according to their life trajectories and external influences (Cherry, 2015). The present article redresses this deficiency by examining how social influences can play a role in the ability to maintain a vegetarian diet.
Article
Lapses from vegetarian and vegan (i.e., veg*n) food choices to meat consumption are very common, suggesting that sustaining veg*nism is challenging. But little is known about why people return to eating animals after initially deciding to avoid meat consumption. Several potential explanatory factors include personal inconvenience, meat cravings, awkwardness in social settings, or health/nutrition concerns. Here we test the degree to which political ideology predicts lapsing to meat consumption. Past research demonstrates that political ideology predicts present levels of meat consumption, whereby those higher in right-wing ideologies eat more animals, even after controlling for their hedonistic liking of meat (e.g., Dhont & Hodson, 2014). To what extent might political ideology predict whether one has lapsed from veg*n foods back to meat consumption? In a largely representative US community sample (N = 1313) of current and former veg*ns, those higher (vs. lower) in conservatism exhibited significantly greater odds of being a former than current veg*n, even after controlling for age, education, and gender. This ideology-lapsing relation was mediated (i.e., explained) by those higher (vs. lower) in conservatism: (a) adopting a veg*n diet for reasons less centered in justice concerns (animal rights, environment, feeding the poor); and (b) feeling socially unsupported in their endeavor. In contrast, factors such as differential meat craving or lifestyle inconvenience played little mediational role. These findings demonstrate that ideology and justice concerns are particularly relevant to understanding resilience in maintaining veg*n food choices. Implications for understanding why people eat meat, and how to develop intervention strategies, are discussed.
Article
Current levels of meat consumption pose a significant threat to human, animal, and planetary wellbeing, presenting an urgent need for widespread reduction in meat eating behaviour. Changing meat-rich diets is difficult. However, a growing number of individuals, termed Meat Reducers (MRs), are actively reducing their meat intake and offer a potential strategy to shift meat-rich diets using social influence. Social influence significantly affects eating behaviours, and is strongest when individuals or groups are perceived as aspirational or positive. Therefore, across two studies a free association task and vignettes were used to assess social representations, perceived personality traits, and perceived group membership about meat reducers, compared to vegetarians and habitual meat consumers. Results indicate that MRs are perceived positively and, for some traits, more positively than vegetarians and habitual meat consumers. These results confirm that MRs are an appropriate referent group for use in future social influence-based interventions aiming to reduce meat intake. This will become incrementally important as the mounting environmental and health crises add urgency to the need to reduce meat eating.
Article
Full-text available
If eating meat is equated with ‘masculine traits’ of emotional stoicism, strength and virility, do vegan men threaten the concept of a stoic and domineering view of hegemonic masculinity? This research explores how 20 vegan men explain veganism in relation to patriarchal, hegemonic masculinity. We argue that vegan men engage in hybrid masculinity by modifying values associated with veganism and femininity to align with traditional masculine standards. By doing so, vegan men contest the narrow definition of hegemonic masculinity but fall short of challenging gender inequalities.
Article
Full-text available
Metaphors are increasingly recognized as influencing cognition and consumption. While these linkages typically have been qualitatively generated, this article presents a framework of convergent quantitative methodologies that can further document the validity of a metaphor. To illustrate this multimethod framework, the authors explore whether there is a metaphoric link between meat and maleness in Western cultures. The authors address this in six quantifiable studies that involve (1) implicit associations, (2) free associations, (3) indirect-scenario-based inferences, (4) direct measurement profiling, (5) preference and choice, and (6) linguistic analysis and conclude that there is a metaphoric relationship between mammal muscle meat and maleness.
Article
Full-text available
Investigated whether the choice of healthy, nonfattening foods vs unhealthy, fattening ones gives rise to moral judgments about the eaters. 290 undergraduates were presented with 1 of 4 bogus profiles of a person, which differed only in gender and foods consumed. Ss rated the target on morality; potential mechanisms of effects were also explored. Results showed that moral judgments of others differ depending on the foods they eat, with good-food eaters rated more feminine, attractive, and likable. This result was not simply due to a halo effect but was explained by 2 mediational mechanisms: the Puritan ethic and the "you are what you eat" principle. However, the effect did not show predicted moderation by S or target gender, or restrained-eating status. Foods also seemed to influence Ss' perceptions of fitness and weight information about the target.
Article
Full-text available
Two studies document do-gooder derogation (the putting down of morally motivated others), by studying the reactions of meat eaters to vegetarians. In Study 1, 47% of participants freely associated negative terms with vegetarians and the valence of the words was negatively related to how much participants expected vegetarians to see themselves as morally superior to nonvegetarians. In Study 2, we manipulated the salience of anticipated moral reproach by varying whether participants reported these expectations before or after rating vegetarians. As predicted, participants rated vegetarians less positively after imagining their moral judgment of meat eaters. These studies empirically document the backlash reported by moral minorities and trace it back to resentment by the mainstream against feeling morally judged.
Article
Full-text available
We present the results of a survey that collected information about the demographics of participants on Amazon Mechanical Turk, together with information about their level of activity and motivation for working on Amazon Mechanical Turk. We find that approximately 50% of the workers come from the United States and 40% come from India. Country of origin tends to change the motivating reasons for workers to participate in the marketplace. Significantly more workers from India participate on Mechanical Turk because the online marketplace is a primary source of income, while in the US most workers consider Mechanical Turk a secondary source of income. While money is a primary motivating reason for workers to participate in the marketplace, workers also cite a variety of other motivating reasons, including entertainment and education.
Article
Full-text available
Although Mechanical Turk has recently become popular among social scientists as a source of experimental data, doubts may linger about the quality of data provided by subjects recruited from online labor markets. We address these potential concerns by presenting new demographic data about the Mechanical Turk subject population, reviewing the strengths of Mechanical Turk relative to other online and offline methods of recruiting subjects, and comparing the magnitude of effects obtained using Mechanical Turk and traditional subject pools. We further discuss some additional benefits such as the possibility of longitudinal, cross cultural and prescreening designs, and offer some advice on how to best manage a common subject pool.
Article
Full-text available
The authors report 5 studies that demonstrate that manhood, in contrast to womanhood, is seen as a precarious state requiring continual social proof and validation. Because of this precariousness, they argue that men feel especially threatened by challenges to their masculinity. Certain male-typed behaviors, such as physical aggression, may result from this anxiety. Studies 1-3 document a robust belief in (a) the precarious nature of manhood relative to womanhood and (b) the idea that manhood is defined more by social proof than by biological markers. Study 4 demonstrates that when the precarious nature of manhood is made salient through feedback indicating gender-atypical performance, men experience heightened feelings of threat, whereas similar negative gender feedback has no effect on women. Study 5 suggests that threatening manhood (but not womanhood) activates physically aggressive thoughts.
Article
Full-text available
In Experiment 1, male and female subjects were given an opportunity to snack as they participated in a "get-acquainted study" with a same-sex or opposite-sex partner (confederate) whose social desirability was manipulated. Consistent with the hypothesis that women may eat less when motivated to present themselves in a feminine light, female subjects ate significantly less with a desirable male partner than in the remaining three conditions. In contrast, male subjects did not eat more (or less) with a desirable woman, although they did show an overall tendency to eat less with female (vs. male) partners. In Experiment 2, female subjects snacked as they got acquainted with a desirable male partner (confederate). Before this interaction, subjects received feedback indicating that they had either very masculine or very feminine interests. In addition, subjects believed either that their male partner was aware of their gender feedback or that he was unaware. Consistent with predictions derived from Schlenker's (1982) analytic-identity theory of social conduct, subjects in the partner-aware conditions ate less when they had received masculine (vs. feminine) feedback, whereas subjects in the partner-unaware conditions ate less when they had received feminine (vs. masculine) feedback. Implications for understanding eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Four studies tested a model of stereotype-based shifts in judgment standards developed by M. Biernat, M. Manis, and T. E. Nelson (1991). The model suggests that subjective judgments of target persons from different social groups may fail to reveal the stereotyped expectations of judges, because they invite the use of different evaluative standards; more "objective" or common rule indicators reduce such standard shifts. The stereotypes that men are more competent than women, women are more verbally able than men, Whites are more verbally able than Blacks, and Blacks are more athletic than Whites were successfully used to demonstrate the shifting standards phenomenon. Several individual-difference measures were also effective in predicting differential susceptibility to standard shifts, and direct evidence was provided that differing comparison standards account for substantial differences in target ratings.
Article
Full-text available
A review of the sociological research regarding the gendered features of food consumption is presented. The focus is upon differences between women and men in regard to their preferences for particular foods and types of meals, seen in relation to the cultural function of foods as symbolic markers of femininity or masculinity, assessments of the quantities of food consumed by women and men respectively, and differences between women and men in regard to concerns with food safety, health, weight reduction and fitness. Some methodological limitations of this research are discussed with particular reference to the need for interdisciplinary cooperation between sociologists and nutritionists in the design and analysis of dietary surveys. Suggestions are made in regard to future directions for sociological research in this field, with particular reference to the issue that dietary recommendations appear to focus upon increasing the consumption of foods that are markers of femininity and decreasing the consumption of foods that are markers of masculinity in Western food culture.
Article
Full-text available
In attempting to make sense of other people, perceivers regularly construct and use categorical representations to simplify and streamline the person perception process. Noting the importance of categorical thinking in everyday life, our emphasis in this chapter is on the cognitive dynamics of categorical social perception. In reviewing current research on this topic, three specific issues are addressed: (a) When are social categories activated by perceivers, (b) what are the typical consequences of category activation, and (c) can perceivers control the influence and expression of categorical thinking? Throughout the chapter, we consider how integrative models of cognitive functioning may inform our understanding of categorical social perception.
Article
Full-text available
To compare the effectiveness of four commercial weight loss diets available to adults in the United Kingdom. Six month multicentre randomised unblinded controlled trial. Community based sample of otherwise healthy overweight and obese adults. Dr Atkins' new diet revolution, Slim-Fast plan, Weight Watchers pure points programme, and Rosemary Conley's eat yourself slim diet and fitness plan. Weight and body fat changes over six months. All diets resulted in significant loss of body fat and weight over six months. Groups did not differ significantly but loss of body fat and weight was greater in all groups compared with the control group. In an intention to treat analysis, average weight loss was 5.9 kg and average fat loss was 4.4 kg over six months. The Atkins diet resulted in significantly higher weight loss during the first four weeks, but by the end was no more or less effective than the other diets. Clinically useful weight loss and fat loss can be achieved in adults who are motivated to follow commercial diets for a substantial period. Given the limited resources for weight management in the NHS, healthcare practitioners should discuss with their patients programmes known to be effective. Clinical trials NCT00327821.
Article
The achievement of sustainability and health objectives in Western countries requires a transition to a less meat-based diet. This article investigates whether the alleged link between meat consumption and particular framings of masculinity, which emphasize that ‘real men’ eat meat, may stand in the way of achieving these objectives. From a theoretical perspective, it was assumed that the meat-masculinity link is not invariant but dependent on the cultural context, including ethnicity. In order to examine the link in different contexts, we analyzed whether meat-related gender differences varied across ethnic groups, using samples of young second generation Chinese Dutch, Turkish Dutch and native Dutch adults (aged 18-35) in the Netherlands. The Turkish group was the most traditional; it showed the largest gender differences and the strongest meat-masculinity link. In contrast, the native group showed the smallest gender differences and the weakest meat-masculinity link. The findings suggest that the combination of traditional framings of masculinity and the Western type of food environment where meat is abundant and cheap is bound to seriously hamper a transition to a less meat-based diet. In contrast, less traditional framings of masculinity seem to contribute to more healthy food preferences with respect to meat. It was concluded that cultural factors related to gender and ethnic diversity can play harmful and beneficial roles for achieving sustainability and health objectives.
Article
This article was submitted without an abstract, please refer to the full-text PDF file.
Article
Importance Many claims have been made regarding the superiority of one diet or another for inducing weight loss. Which diet is best remains unclear.Objective To determine weight loss outcomes for popular diets based on diet class (macronutrient composition) and named diet.Data Sources Search of 6 electronic databases: AMED, CDSR, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, and MEDLINE from inception of each database to April 2014.Study Selection Overweight or obese adults (body mass index ≥25) randomized to a popular self-administered named diet and reporting weight or body mass index data at 3-month follow-up or longer.Data Extraction and Synthesis Two reviewers independently extracted data on populations, interventions, outcomes, risk of bias, and quality of evidence. A Bayesian framework was used to perform a series of random-effects network meta-analyses with meta-regression to estimate the relative effectiveness of diet classes and programs for change in weight and body mass index from baseline. Our analyses adjusted for behavioral support and exercise.Main Outcomes and Measures Weight loss and body mass index at 6- and 12-month follow-up (±3 months for both periods).Results Among 59 eligible articles reporting 48 unique randomized trials (including 7286 individuals) and compared with no diet, the largest weight loss was associated with low-carbohydrate diets (8.73 kg [95% credible interval {CI}, 7.27 to 10.20 kg] at 6-month follow-up and 7.25 kg [95% CI, 5.33 to 9.25 kg] at 12-month follow-up) and low-fat diets (7.99 kg [95% CI, 6.01 to 9.92 kg] at 6-month follow-up and 7.27 kg [95% CI, 5.26 to 9.34 kg] at 12-month follow-up). Weight loss differences between individual diets were minimal. For example, the Atkins diet resulted in a 1.71 kg greater weight loss than the Zone diet at 6-month follow-up. Between 6- and 12-month follow-up, the influence of behavioral support (3.23 kg [95% CI, 2.23 to 4.23 kg] at 6-month follow-up vs 1.08 kg [95% CI, −1.82 to 3.96 kg] at 12-month follow-up) and exercise (0.64 kg [95% CI, −0.35 to 1.66 kg] vs 2.13 kg [95% CI, 0.43 to 3.85 kg], respectively) on weight loss differed.Conclusions and Relevance Significant weight loss was observed with any low-carbohydrate or low-fat diet. Weight loss differences between individual named diets were small. This supports the practice of recommending any diet that a patient will adhere to in order to lose weight.
Article
This paper reviews recent research on consumption stereotypes (judgments of others based on what they eat) and impression management (modifying one's eating behavior in order to create a particular impression). A major recent focus in the literature has been on masculinity and meat eating, with research showing that meat is strongly associated with masculinity, and that individuals who follow a meat-based diet are perceived as more masculine than are people who follow a vegetarian diet. Although direct evidence for impression management through food intake remains sparse, a number of methodological approaches (including priming techniques and ecological valid assessments) are described that could be used in future research to identify the motives underlying people's eating behavior. Consumption stereotypes and impression management may be important influences on people's eating behavior, but the complexities of how, when, and for whom these factors influence food intake are still not well understood.
Article
As arguments become more pronounced that meat consumption harms the environment, public health, and animals, meat eaters should experience increased pressure to justify their behavior. Results of a first study showed that male undergraduates used direct strategies to justify eating meat, including endorsing pro-meat attitudes, denying animal suffering, believing that animals are lower in a hierarchy than humans and that it is human fate to eat animals, and providing religious and health justifications for eating animals. Female undergraduates used the more indirect strategies of dissociating animals from food and avoiding thinking about the treatment of animals. A second study found that the use of these male strategies was related to masculinity. In the two studies, male justification strategies were correlated with greater meat consumption, whereas endorsement of female justification strategies was correlated with less meat and more vegetarian consumption. These findings are among the first to empirically verify Adams’s (1990) theory on the sexual politics of meat linking feminism and vegetarianism. They suggest that to simply make an informational appeal about the benefits of a vegetarian diet may ignore a primary reason why men eat meat: It makes them feel like real men. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Purpose – Are peaches, Caesar salad and chocolate masculine or feminine food? Literature suggests that there is a clear association between certain types of food, portion sizes and gendered identities. This research paper and short film aims to explore the theory in practice of food consumption for young consumers, particularly impression management required to create/maintain an attractive identity to the opposite sex. Design/methodology/approach – The authors adopt an interpretive approach to an in‐depth analysis of the food practices of an all male and an all female household. They use a theory in practice methodology to explore their food consumption. Findings – It is found that despite enlightenment in many areas, gendered identities are still strongly associated with food consumption. The experiment in which each household consumed a meal associated with the opposite gender offers insight into the association between food consumption and gendered identity. The social implications of the research demonstrate that masculine identity is supported and negotiated through what he is eating, whereas feminine identity is being constructed by what she is not eating. It is concerning that an attractive feminine identity is premised on omission rather than consumption and traps many females into a negative and potentially harmful relationship with food consumption. Originality/value – The use of videography allows insight into the negotiation of an underpinning cultural attitude where women eat less to be what consumer culture has defined as an attractive feminine identity which means being slimmer and smaller than males.
Article
The general public has acquired the belief that some foods promote healthfulness while others cause disease and death. Do these beliefs about foods influence our perceptions of those who routinely eat a “good” or a “bad” food? For the present study we attempted to expand our understanding of the impact of categorical thinking concerning the health value of foods. Respondents were given a description of a man (or woman) who typically eats pie (or oatmeal with fruit and nuts) for breakfast then asked to rate the target individual on 42 descriptors. Although considered more humorous and less boring, pie (compared to oatmeal) eaters were generally judged negatively. Further, women (compared to men) who eat pie were considered less likeable, healthy, and athletic. A specific food's reputation for healthfulness can apparently impact our judgments of the individuals who routinely eat the food.
Article
Research suggests that individuals learn to “do gender” and adhere to traditional gender norms from an early age. Those who do not do gender on a daily basis often experience adverse consequences (e.g., ridicule from others). The present study was designed to expand upon the literature regarding perceptions of a particular group of men who do not conform to gender norms – male vegetarians. Participants read one of four brief scenarios about a vegetarian or omnivore, male or female student who is vying for a student government position. After reading the scenario, participants 1) answered a series of questions about the scenario and 2) rated the fictitious individual about whom they read in the scenario using the Bem Sex Role Inventory. Because male vegetarians do not adhere to traditional gender norms, it was expected that the responses to both sets of questions would show that they are viewed more negatively than female vegetarians and omnivores of both genders. However, as male vegetarians were rated similarly to male omnivores and women in both categories, the hypothesis was not supported. The reasons behind the finding, as well as its implications, are discussed.
Article
Food and nutrition represents a new frontier of the sociological analyses of gender regimes and structures. This article draws from a qualitative study into the social, ethical and spiritual dimensions of vegetarianism. It explores the impact of hegemonic masculinity upon the adoption of meatless diets, in various social contexts where vegetarianism is characterized as effeminate, and lacking the essential ingredients for being a ‘real’ man. The data suggests that the belief that meat provides strength and vigour to men and the associated enforcement of meat-eating as a social norm is, according to a majority of the informants in the study, a key reason why vegetarianism is not an appealing choice for men. New knowledge about the role of gender norms in human food habits and practices will inform broader theories of gendered eating, and would also be highly useful in multidisciplinary efforts to improve public health.
Article
Everyday items are imbued with subtle yet pervasive gender associations. For instance, sour dairy products and products with rounded edges tend to be perceived as relatively feminine, whereas meat and products with sharp edges tend to be perceived as relatively masculine. In a series of studies, we find that men are more likely to choose gender-congruent options (masculine foods and angular-shaped items) when they have unconstrained time and attentional resources than when these resources are constrained. In contrast, women’s choices tend to not be affected by time or attentional resource availability. Our findings suggest that men experience a conflict between their relatively intrinsic preferences and gender norms and that they tend to forgo their intrinsic preferences to conform to a masculine gender identity (when they have sufficient resources to incorporate gender norm information in their choices). Women, on the other hand, appear to be less concerned with making gender-congruent choices.
Article
Male and female subjects read a food diary attributed to a male or female target who was portrayed as eating either a small breakfast and lunch or a large breakfast and lunch. Consistent with the hypothesis that amount eaten would more strongly affect subjects' inferences about the female target, ratings of the male target were not differentially influenced by the meal size manipulation. In contrast, subjects considered the female target who ate smaller meals to be significantly more feminine, less masculine, more concerned about her appearance, better looking, and more likely to possess stereotypically feminine personality traits. Implications for understanding female eating behavior and the etiology of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia are discussed.
Article
In this essay I explore the importance of beef consumption in performing a traditional masculinity that defies the supposed effeminization embodied in the image of the metrosexual. Research on perceptions of men and women eating demonstrates cultural visions of eating as a masculine activity. Furthermore, cultural analysis bears out the link between meat consumption and masculine identity. The recent popularization of metrosexual masculinity has challenged the harsh dichotomies between masculine and feminine gender performances. Against such a trend, burger franchise advertising portrays burger consumption as men's symbolic return to their supposed essence, namely, personal and relational independence, nonfemininity, and virile heterosexuality. In all, I demonstrate the relationship between men and food as productive of a masculinity that perpetuates a male-dominant ideology in juxtaposition to women and metrosexual masculinity.
Article
This article examines alternative measures of perceived variability of a group. The pattern of correlations among the measures suggests that variability can be thought of in 2 ways: the perceived dispersion of group members from the group central tendency and the extent to which the group is seen as fitting the group stereotype. Evidence of out-group homogeneity was present for both types of variability judgments, using men and women as the target groups. Judgments of group variability were not predicted by the variance of a retrieved set of group members around their own mean. In the case of the in-group, judgments of variability were predicted by the discrepancy of the retrieved set of group members from the group mean. Likewise, in-group, but not out-group, variability was also predicted by discrepancy of self from the group mean. A 2nd study using talk-aloud protocols revealed that the self and subgroups were more likely to be discussed when one was making variability judgments about the in-group than about the out-group. Instances of the group were almost never discussed for the in-group and were discussed for the out-group. Implications of the results for models of group variability judgments are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
GALLAGHER P., BUCKMASTER A., O'CARROLL S., KIERNAN G. & GERAGHTY J. (2009) European Journal of Cancer Care Experiences in the provision, fitting and supply of external breast prostheses: findings from a national survey A good-quality external breast prosthesis and prosthesis-fitting service is integral to recovery post-mastectomy. However, this area of care has minimal information or research available. The aim of this study was to investigate women's experience of the provision, fitting, supply and use of breast prostheses in Ireland. Three national surveys were undertaken with women (n = 527), breast care nurses (BCNs) (n = 32) and retail prosthesis fitters (n = 12). The findings identified the importance of the prosthesis for shape, appearance to self, appearance to others, sense of well-being, self-confidence and femininity. Dissatisfaction with weight, comfort and movement of the prosthesis was identified. Cost and travel distance were found to influence the replacement of the prosthesis. Dissatisfaction emerged with the display and choice of products, and brochure availability at the prosthesis fitting. Women preferred to be fitted for the first silicone prosthesis by a BCN in a hospital setting whereas for the replacement prosthesis they preferred a trained fitter at a specialized prosthesis supplier. BCNs and retail fitters identified the need for service guidelines and increased availability of professional development opportunities in prosthesis-fitting. These findings contributed to the development of standards of care for breast prosthesis-fitting services to benefit women and to provide guidelines for those providing the service.
Article
The present study examined adolescents' peer evaluations when information about body size (normal vs. overweight) and eating style (healthy vs. unhealthy) was provided. A study was conducted with a sample of 90 adolescents. Adolescents judged their peers on information about body size, but also about their eating style. The effect of body size was qualified by gender: Male adolescents were more positive about normal body weight peers, whereas females did not distinguish between normal weight and overweight peers. The results imply that not only are the consequences of unhealthy eating important; the behavior itself is also important. This holds promise for addressing adolescents' eating behavior.
Article
Although skeptics continue to doubt that most people are “ideological,” evidence suggests that meaningful left-right differences do exist and that they may be rooted in basic personality dispositions, that is, relatively stable individual differences in psychological needs, motives, and orientations toward the world. Seventy-five years of theory and research on personality and political orientation has produced a long list of dispositions, traits, and behaviors. Applying a theory of ideology as motivated social cognition and a “Big Five” framework, we find that two traits, Openness to New Experiences and Conscientiousness, parsimoniously capture many of the ways in which individual differences underlying political orientation have been conceptualized. In three studies we investigate the relationship between personality and political orientation using multiple domains and measurement techniques, including: self-reported personality assessment; nonverbal behavior in the context of social interaction; and personal possessions and the characteristics of living and working spaces. We obtained consistent and converging evidence that personality differences between liberals and conservatives are robust, replicable, and behaviorally significant, especially with respect to social (vs. economic) dimensions of ideology. In general, liberals are more open-minded, creative, curious, and novelty seeking, whereas conservatives are more orderly, conventional, and better organized.
Article
The aim of the studies was to assess the effefcs of social categorization on intergroup behaviour when, in the intergroup situation, neither calculations of individual interest nor previously existing attitudes of hostility could have been said to have determined discriminative behaviour against an outgroup. These conditions were satisfied in the experimental design. In the first series of experiments, it was found that the subjects favoured their own group in the distribution of real rewards and penalities in a situation in which nothing but the variable of fairly irrelevant classification distinguished between the ingroup and the outgroup. In the second series of experiments it was found that: 1) maximum joint profit independent of group membership did not affect significantly the manner in which the subjects divided real pecuniary rewards; 2) maximum profit for own group did affect the distribution of rewards; 3) the clearest effect on the distribution of rewards was due to the subjects' attempt to achieve a maximum difference between the ingroup and the outgroup even at the price of sacrificing other ‘objective’ advantages.The design and the results of the study are theoretically discussed within the framework of social norms and expectations and particularly in relation to a ‘generic’ norm of outgroup behaviour prevalent in some societies.
Article
This study investigated the effect of reported eating behavior on person perception. Subjects (87% white, 4% African-American, 9% Asian; 60% female) were presented with brief descriptions of a fictitious male or female target subject that included a food diary describing either a small, medium, or large breakfast and lunch. One-half the food diaries of male targets were calorically adjusted to compensate for the male target's larger physical size. Subjects recorded their impressions of the target on a number of physical and attitudinal characteristics. Targets were perceived as being less feminine and more masculine as meal size increased. Attractiveness ratings showed an interaction between meal size and gender. Female targets were judged to be more concerned with appearance and more attractive as meal size decreased. However, ratings of male targets on attractiveness variables were less affected by reported meal size in the standard diet condition, suggesting the existence of a double-standard for eating behaviors between men and women. However, male targets whose diets had been size-adjusted were rated in a pattern similar to ratings of female targets. These results expand on prior work demonstrating that meal size affects social judgements of both men and women. Further, these results suggest the presence of a cognitive schema in which the relative size of males and females is taken into account when making social judgements based on eating behavior. Work that does not take this schema into account is more likely to produce results suggesting a double-standard for eating behavior based on gender.
Article
Male and female subjects provided ratings of personal traits, femininity and masculinity, and total caloric consumption for a female or a male target based on the type of diet she or he had allegedly consumed. The gender associated with the foods presented for each dietary profile was manipulated. Results showed that Target Gender and Dietary Profile significantly affected impression ratings and calorie estimates. Both male and female subjects perceived male eaters and those who ate a feminine diet more favorably. Results are discussed in terms of the different underlying expectations held for males and females when food consumption is involved during the impression formation process.
Article
How does what a woman eats affect others' impressions of her? One hundred and thirteen male and female college students, mainly White and middle class, watched a videotape of a female student eating one of four meals that varied in size and gender connotations. Results showed that meal size significantly affected ratings of the woman's social appeal. Thus, eating lightly appears to be socially advantageous for a woman, a phenomenon that may contribute to women's high rates of eating disorders.
Article
Male and female subjects (predominately white) provided impression ratings of body shape, personality traits, and total caloric consumption for a female target based on her preference for a low fat or high fat diet. Results showed that meal type significantly affected impression ratings: the target who preferred low fat foods was viewed more favorably than the one who preferred high fat fare. Compared with male subjects, female subjects perceived the target who preferred a high fat diet to be significantly less conscientious. Males were significantly more accurate than females in their caloric estimations of targets' total daily consumption. The results will be discussed in terms of the social pressure on women to restrict not only their weight to acceptable levels, but their food consumption as well.
Article
Climate change mitigation policies tend to focus on the energy sector, while the livestock sector receives surprisingly little attention, despite the fact that it accounts for 18% of the greenhouse gas emissions and for 80% of total anthropogenic land use. From a dietary perspective, new insights in the adverse health effects of beef and pork have lead to a revision of meat consumption recommendations. Here, we explored the potential impact of dietary changes on achieving ambitious climate stabilization levels. By using an integrated assessment model, we found a global food transition to less meat, or even a complete switch to plant-based protein food to have a dramatic effect on land use. Up to 2,700Mha of pasture and 100Mha of cropland could be abandoned, resulting in a large carbon uptake from regrowing vegetation. Additionally, methane and nitrous oxide emission would be reduced substantially. A global transition to a low meat-diet as recommended for health reasons would reduce the mitigation costs to achieve a 450ppm CO2-eq. stabilisation target by about 50% in 2050 compared to the reference case. Dietary changes could therefore not only create substantial benefits for human health and global land use, but can also play an important role in future climate change mitigation policies.
Article
The general public has acquired the belief that some foods promote healthfulness while others cause disease and death. Do these beliefs about foods influence our perceptions of those who routinely eat a "good" or a "bad" food? For the present study we attempted to expand our understanding of the impact of categorical thinking concerning the health value of foods. Respondents were given a description of a man (or woman) who typically eats pie (or oatmeal with fruit and nuts) for breakfast then asked to rate the target individual on 42 descriptors. Although considered more humorous and less boring, pie (compared to oatmeal) eaters were generally judged negatively. Further, women (compared to men) who eat pie were considered less likeable, healthy, and athletic. A specific food's reputation for healthfulness can apparently impact our judgments of the individuals who routinely eat the food.
Article
Two studies were conducted to explore the notion that eating behavior can serve a role in impression management. In Experiment 1, male and female subjects ate a meal in the presence of an attractive male or female confederate. Both male and female subjects ate less in the presence of a partner of the opposite (vs. same) sex. Experiment 2 was a questionnaire study designed to clarify the results of Experiment 1 by learning what social motives are relevant in an interpersonal situation involving eating and how amount eaten serves each of these social motives. The results indicated that behaving in a socially desirable manner could account for the eating behavior of males while for females both being socially desirable and appearing feminine could have affected amount eaten. It was suggested that the conceptual approach of impression management theory can be useful in interpreting the results of these studies as well as understanding the “drive for thinness” found in females in our culture.
Article
Because of early detection and advanced treatment options, more women with breast cancer survive after mastectomy and thus have to face the choice of living with or without a reconstructed breast for many years to come. This article investigates these women's narratives about the impact of mastectomy on their lives, as well as their reflections on breast reconstruction. Fifteen women were strategically chosen from a previous population-based study on mastectomy. They were contacted for further exploration in thematic narrative-inspired interviews 4.5 years after mastectomy. Three types of storylines were identified. In the first storyline, the mastectomy was described as "no big deal"; losing a breast did not disturb the women's view of themselves as women, and breast reconstruction was not even worth consideration. In the second storyline, the women described the mastectomy as shattering their identity. Losing a breast implied losing oneself as a sexual being, a woman, and a person. The third storyline fell in between the other two; the sense of femininity was wounded, but not to the extent that they felt lost as women. Our findings suggest that the experience of mastectomy due to breast cancer is very much individual and contextual. Losing a breast may be of minor or major importance. Healthcare practitioners should be attentive to how the women themselves experience the personal meaning of losing a breast and guard against vague preconceptions based on the breast-sexuality-femininity discourse and its connection to what the patient needs.
Article
Much research has demonstrated that people perceive consumers of "good," low-fat foods as more moral, intelligent, and attractive, and perceive consumers of "bad," high-fat foods as less intelligent, less moral, and less attractive. Little research has contrasted perceptions of omnivores and vegetarians, particularly with respect to morality and gender characteristics. In two between-subject studies, we investigated people's perceptions of others who follow omnivorous and vegetarian diets, controlling for the perceived healthiness of the diets in question. In both studies, omnivorous and vegetarian participants rated vegetarian targets as more virtuous and less masculine than omnivorous targets.
Article
In a naturalistic study, we investigated the influence of gender, group size and gender composition of groups of eaters on food selected for lunch and dinner (converted to total calories per meal) of 469 individuals (198 groups) in three large university cafeterias. In dyads, women observed eating with a male companion chose foods of significantly lower caloric value than those observed eating with another woman. Overall, group size was not a significant predictor of calories, but women's calories were negatively predicted by numbers of men in the group, while the numbers of women in the group had a marginally significant positive impact on calorie estimates. Men's calorie totals were not affected by total numbers of men or women. This study supports previous investigations, but is unique in making naturalistic observations.
Article
A good-quality external breast prosthesis and prosthesis-fitting service is integral to recovery post-mastectomy. However, this area of care has minimal information or research available. The aim of this study was to investigate women's experience of the provision, fitting, supply and use of breast prostheses in Ireland. Three national surveys were undertaken with women (n = 527), breast care nurses (BCNs) (n = 32) and retail prosthesis fitters (n = 12). The findings identified the importance of the prosthesis for shape, appearance to self, appearance to others, sense of well-being, self-confidence and femininity. Dissatisfaction with weight, comfort and movement of the prosthesis was identified. Cost and travel distance were found to influence the replacement of the prosthesis. Dissatisfaction emerged with the display and choice of products, and brochure availability at the prosthesis fitting. Women preferred to be fitted for the first silicone prosthesis by a BCN in a hospital setting whereas for the replacement prosthesis they preferred a trained fitter at a specialized prosthesis supplier. BCNs and retail fitters identified the need for service guidelines and increased availability of professional development opportunities in prosthesis-fitting. These findings contributed to the development of standards of care for breast prosthesis-fitting services to benefit women and to provide guidelines for those providing the service.
Article
To examine women's food choices after exposure to a threatening upward social comparison in an achievement situation. Female university students performed three tasks in the presence of a confederate; for some, the situation was competitive and they were made to feel the confederate was likely to outperform them, whereas the remainder performed under noncompetitive circumstances. After completing the tasks, all participants chose a food to eat in a supposedly unrelated taste test. It was expected and found that participants in the high threat condition, in comparison with those in a low threat condition, would be highly motivated to restore their sense of self-worth by successfully competing in an area unrelated to the original inferiority and would, therefore, choose a lower calorie/more nutritious food. A secondary analysis revealed that it was primarily dieters whose food choices were affected by the threat. For dieters, competition by means of food choice can provide a means of restoring self-regard when self-esteem has been threatened in some other domain.
Article
Dietary social stereotypes may hinder dietary change. The aim of this study was to measure stereotypes attributed to consumers of low-fat and high-fat diets, and to investigate if stereotype attribution differed with subjects' fat intake. A sample of 100 subjects completed a 24-h dietary recall for the estimation of macronutrient intake, and then completed a questionnaire which assessed the stereotypes associated with a low-fat and a high-fat diet. The low-fat diet was associated with a "healthy", "slim", "fit" and "sporty" person, who was "intelligent", "middle class" and "female". Conversely, the high-fat diet was associated with an "unhealthy", "overweight", "unfit" and "inactive" person, who was "unintelligent", "working class", "smoking" and "male". Followers of the low-fat diet were seen as "serious" and "highly strung", while followers of the high-fat diet were seen as "fun-loving" and "happy". However, positive stereotypes were the predominant descriptors of consumers of the low-fat diet, while negative stereotypes were the predominant descriptors of consumers of the high-fat diet by both men and women. Older people were more likely to choose negative descriptors for a follower of the low-fat diet. Subjects were grouped according to their own fat intake. A high-fat (>33% fat energy) group selected more positive and negative stereotypes to describe high- and low-fat diet consumers, respectively, than did their low-fat counterparts (<33% fat energy). Choice of "happy" to describe a follower of a high-fat diet had four-fold higher odds for the high-fat group. The social meaning and values associated with food choices require further investigation. Health education may need to redress some of these stereotypes.
Article
Worldwide, an estimated 2 billion people live primarily on a meat-based diet, while an estimated 4 billion live primarily on a plant-based diet. The US food production system uses about 50% of the total US land area, 80% of the fresh water, and 17% of the fossil energy used in the country. The heavy dependence on fossil energy suggests that the US food system, whether meat-based or plant-based, is not sustainable. The use of land and energy resources devoted to an average meat-based diet compared with a lactoovovegetarian (plant-based) diet is analyzed in this report. In both diets, the daily quantity of calories consumed are kept constant at about 3533 kcal per person. The meat-based food system requires more energy, land, and water resources than the lactoovovegetarian diet. In this limited sense, the lactoovovegetarian diet is more sustainable than the average American meat-based diet.
Article
Male and female participants provided impression ratings for either a normal-weight or overweight male or female target, who was portrayed as eating either small or large meals. Males rated normal-weight targets as more physically attractive than overweight targets, whereas ratings of physical attractiveness were unaffected by the body size manipulation among female participants. In addition, among male targets, the overweight large eater was rated the least socially attractive. For female targets, males rated the normal-weight large eater as the most socially attractive, whereas females rated the normal-weight small eater as the most socially attractive. Results are discussed in terms of how body and meal sizes interact to affect impressions of others.
Article
Consumption stereotypes refer to judgments about others based on their food intake. We review the empirical research on stereotypes based on what and how much people eat. The characteristics stereotypically associated with food intake pertain to domains ranging from gender roles and social appeal to health and weight. For example, people who eat "healthy" foods and smaller meals are seen as more feminine; conversely, those who eat "unhealthy" foods and larger meals are seen as more masculine. We further discuss how these stereotypes can be exploited by the eater to convey a particular impression (e.g., femininity, social appeal). Finally, we discuss the ways in which using food intake as an impression-management tactic can lead to chronic food restriction and unhealthy eating habits.
We tried the meatless burgers and nuggets coming to a restaurant near you
  • H Peterson
Peterson, H. (2014, October 30). We tried the meatless burgers and nuggets coming to a restaurant near you. [Blog post]. Last accessed 01.05.15. Retrieved from http:// www.businessinsider.com/gardein-coming-to-restaurants-near-you-2014-10.
Do-gooder derogation: disparaging morally motivated minorities to defuse anticipated reproach
  • J A Minson
  • B Monin
Minson, J. A., & Monin, B. (2012). Do-gooder derogation: disparaging morally motivated minorities to defuse anticipated reproach. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3, 200e207.
Food and gender: Perceptions and actuality. Unpublished raw data
  • M A Thomas
Thomas, M. A. (2015). Food and gender: Perceptions and actuality. Unpublished raw data.
The (n.d.) History. Last accessed 01.05.15
  • Monday Campaigns
  • Inc
Monday Campaigns, Inc., The (n.d.) History. Last accessed 01.05.15. Retrieved from http://www.meatlessmonday.com/about-us/history/.
Sustainability of meat-based and plant-based diets and the environment
  • D Pimental
  • M Pimental
Pimental, D., & Pimental, M. (2003). Sustainability of meat-based and plant-based diets and the environment. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 78(suppl.), 660Se663S.