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Effectiveness of essential oils of medicinal plants against stored product mite, suidasia pontifica oudemans

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Acaricidal activity of essential oils obtained from 28 selected medicinal plants against stored product mite, Suidasia pontifica Oudemans, was investigated using the dry film method. The bioassay was conducted in a glass tube, 0.4 cm in diameter, 3 cm long covered with fine nylon mesh on both ends. In preliminary tests, 1.0% (53 μg cm-2) of various essential oils and 95% ethanol used as control were evaluated. Each glass tube was treated internally with 20 μl essential oils. Observations were made at 24 h after treatment and the number of dead mites was recorded. At the dose of 1.0%, essential oils of clove (Syzygium aromaticum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum bejolghota), myrtle grass (Acorus calamus), betel vine (Piper betle), and turmeric (Curcuma longa) were highly toxic to S. pontifica with more than 70% mite mortality observed at 24 h. Dry film effect of essential oils at various concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% equaling to 0, 2.65, 5.3, 26.5, 53 and 79.5 μg cm-2, respectively) resulting in mite mortality observed at 24 h was used to establish LD50 values. Based upon 24 h LD50 values, the essential oil of cinnamon (fresh leaf) was the most toxic to the mite with high activity at 24.05 μg cm-2, followed by essential oils of clove (dried bud), myrtle grass, cinnamon (dried bark), clove (fresh leaf), turmeric and betel vine at 24.28, 28.34, 30.89, 33.67, 38.09 and 41.76 μg cm-2, respectively.
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Effectiveness of Essential Oils of Medicinal Plants against Stored
Product Mite, Suidasia pontifica Oudemans
J. Pumnuan and A. Insung
Faculty of Agricultural Technology
King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang
Bangkok 10520
Thailand
Keywords: acaricide, clove, cinnamon, myrtle grass, betel vine, turmeric
Abstract
Acaricidal activity of essential oils obtained from 28 selected medicinal plants
against stored product mite, Suidasia pontifica Oudemans, was investigated using
the dry film method. The bioassay was conducted in a glass tube, 0.4 cm in diameter,
3 cm long covered with fine nylon mesh on both ends. In preliminary tests, 1.0%
(53 µg cm-2) of various essential oils and 95% ethanol used as control were
evaluated. Each glass tube was treated internally with 20 µl essential oils.
Observations were made at 24 h after treatment and the number of dead mites was
recorded. At the dose of 1.0%, essential oils of clove (Syzygium aromaticum),
cinnamon (Cinnamomum bejolghota), myrtle grass (Acorus calamus), betel vine
(Piper betle), and turmeric (Curcuma longa) were highly toxic to S. pontifica with
more than 70% mite mortality observed at 24 h. Dry film effect of essential oils at
various concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% equaling to 0, 2.65, 5.3, 26.5, 53
and 79.5 µg cm-2, respectively) resulting in mite mortality observed at 24 h was used
to establish LD50 values. Based upon 24 h LD50 values, the essential oil of cinnamon
(fresh leaf) was the most toxic to the mite with high activity at 24.05 µg cm-2,
followed by essential oils of clove (dried bud), myrtle grass, cinnamon (dried bark),
clove (fresh leaf), turmeric and betel vine at 24.28, 28.34, 30.89, 33.67, 38.09 and
41.76 µg cm-2, respectively.
INTRODUCTION
Mites of Suidasia genus (F. suidasiidae) belong to the type of pest found in stored
product. The mites are occurring mainly in countries within the tropical zone of Africa,
America, Australia and Asia. They are rarely found in European countries. They are a
pest which infests various imported goods including rice, coffee-beans, fish meal and
oilcakes. These mites are also found in house dust (Chmielewski et al., 2009). The life
cycle of Suidasia pontifica Oudemans was studied under laboratory conditions at 26C
and 86% RH. The eggs required an average of 12.6±0.6 days to develop into adults. Mean
longevity of mated females and males was similar, 48.6±13 and 49.1±20 days,
respectively (Mercado et al., 2001). In addition, the mite is responsible for allergic
diseases among farmers and food industry workers handing heavily infested stored
products and causes acute enteritis and systemic anaphylaxis when contaminated food is
ingested. The mite also acts as a carrier of bacteria in stored grain kept under warm and
moist conditions (Franzolin et al., 1999).
Use of chemical methods, such as fumigation, spraying with organophosphorus
compounds, or treatment with benzyl benzoate, dibutyl phthalate and N,N-diethy-m-
toluamide, to control S. pontifica or other mite pests is relatively prohibited because of
human health hazards associated with their consumption. Therefore, the search is on for
more selective, natural compounds non-toxic to humans and which do not affect the
organoleptic character of the treated product. Research into plant-derived acaricides is
now being intensified as it becomes evident that plant-derived acaricides have enormous
potential in this regard.
Plant extracts or their constituents may provide an alternative to currently used
mite-control agents (Kim et al., 2004). Since many extracts are largely free from adverse
Proc. 4th International Conference
Postharvest Unlimited 2011
Eds.: P.M.A. Toivonen et al.
Acta Hort. 945, ISHS 2012
80
effects and have excellent biological activity, they could lead to the development of new
classes of possibly safe stored-food mite control agents. The objective of our study was to
identify effective medicinal plant essential oils that could be used as an alternative
method against a stored mite, S. pontifica.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Mite Stock
The stored product mite, S. pontifica, was maintained in mite bottles kept in a mite
chamber at 25±1°C and 86±1% RH. Saturated KCl was used to control humidity. The
mite was fed a mixture of rice, rat food, wheat germ and yeast at the proportion of
6:4:4:1 g, respectively (applied from Insung and Boczek, 1995).
Plant Species and Essential Oils Extraction
The essential oils tested were extracted by water distillation from medicinal plants
(Table 1). The obtained essential oils were stored in a refrigerator at 10C.
Experimental Treatments
Contact toxicity bioassay: a glass tube, 0.4 cm in diameter and 3 cm long with fine
nylon mesh on both ends, was used to confine the mite samples. Each glass tube was
treated internally with 20 µl of essential oil at concentration of 1% (53 µg cm-2) in 95%
ethanol for a preliminary test. Extracts inducing high mite mortality in the preliminary
test were further studied at various concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% equal to
0, 2.65, 5.3, 26.5, 53.0 and 79.5 µg cm-2, respectively) oils with 95% ethanol used as the
control. The solution was then distributed evenly around the inner wall of the test tube
and allowed to air dry before 10-15 non-physogastric mites were introduced into each
glass tube. Observations were made at 24 h after treatment and the number of dead mites
was recorded.
Mites were considered as dead if their appendages did not move when probed with
a small hair brush. Abbot’s formula (Abbott, 1925) was used to calculate the actual death
rates. The experiment was designed in three completely randomized replicates. The data
obtained were statistically analyzed by applying analysis of variance (ANOVA) and
Duncan’s multiple range tests (DMRT). The LD50 was calculated by the probit method.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Results of the preliminary test showed essential oils of clove, cinnamon, myrtle
grass, betel vine and turmeric were highly toxic to the stored product mite (Fig. 1). These
oils induced more than 70% mite mortality, particularly cinnamon and clove essential oils
at 1% concentration showed 93.2 and 89.4% mite mortality.
As for evaluation of LD50 values, the essential oil of cinnamon (fresh leaf) was the
most toxic to the mite with an LD50 of 24.05 µg cm-2, followed by clove (dried bud),
myrtle grass, cinnamon (dried bark), clove (fresh leaf), turmeric and betel vine oils with
LD50 values of 24.28, 28.34, 30.58, 33.67, 38.09 and 41.76 µg cm-2, respectively
(Table 2).
These results and previous reports support the potential of medicinal plants
essential oils as an alternative control method for dust mite, mushroom mite and stored
product mite control products because many are pest selective, and have no or few
harmful effects on non-target organisms or the environment (Chang et al., 2001; Isman,
2000; Kim et al., 2003a; Rim and Jee, 2006).
Crude methanol, dichloromethane and hexane extracts obtained from clove,
Syzygium aromaticum and cinnamon, Cinnamomum bejolghota were tested against the
mushroom mites Luciaphorus perniciosus and Formicomotes heteromorphus by contact
method of 125 µg cm-2 caused 88.7-100% mortality of both mites (Pumnuan et al., 2008).
Dichloromethane extracts of clove and cinnamon showed the highest toxicity against
L. perniciosus and F. heteromorphus with LD50 values of 34.97 and 20.44 µg cm-2,
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respectively. Essential oil of clove contains eugenol and its derivatives, e.g.,
acethyleugenol, isoeugenol and methyl eugenol. Methyl eugenol was most effective
against the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus with an LD50 at 0.67 µg
cm-2 when applied by the contact and fumigation methods (Kim et al., 2003a). Methyl
eugenol was also most effective against mold mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae with an
LD50 value of 1.18 µg cm-2 (Kim et al., 2003b).
The main components of cinnamon fresh leaf oil were eugenol (76.74%), benzyl
benzoate (4.01%) and others (19.25%), and the main components of cinnamon fresh bark
oil were cinnamaldehyde (50.50%), (Z)-cinnamyl acetate (8.78%), β-caryophyllene
(8.00%), 1,8-cineole (4.60%), eugenol (4.15%) and linalool (3.79%) and others (20.18%)
(Paranagama et al., 2001). Whereas, the main components of cinnamon fresh leaf were
eugenol (74.3%), eucalyptol (5.8%) and others (19.9%), as in dried bud oil with the main
components being eugenol (49.7%), caryophyllene (18.9%) and others (31.40%)
(Bhuiyan et al., 2010).
The effect of water extracts of cinnamon and clove on rat mitochondrial
F0F1ATPase was investigated by Usta et al. (2002). Both cinnamon and clove extracts
stimulate ATPase significantly at concentrations equal or greater than 0.3 mM, reduce
mitochondrial membrane potential and inhibit NADH oxidase or complex I of the
respiratory chain but have no effect on succinate dehydrogenase activity. The study
proposes the mitochondria as a target for the action of the spices resulting in derangement
of mitochondrial functions, particularly at proton transferring sites.
CONCLUSIONS
The results of this study indicate that both clove and cinnamon essential oils could
reduce the number of stored product mites more than myrtle grass, betel vine and turmeric
essential oils. More information about the chemical constituents causing mite mortality
should be investigated to identify the quality of essential oils that could be used as
“botanical pesticides” and developed for controlling stored product mites.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This work was supported by TRF/BIOTEC Special Program for Biodiversity and
Training grant BRT R_652105.
Literature Cited
Bhuiyan, N.I., Begum, J., Nandi, N.C. and Akter, F. 2010. Constituents of the essential oil
from leaves and buds of clove (Syzigium caryophyllatum (L.) Alston). Afr. J. Plant
Sci. 4:451-454.
Chang, S.T., Chen, P.F., Wang, S.Y. and Wu, H.H. 2001. Antimite activity of essential
oils and their constituents from Taiwania cryptomerioides. J. Med. Entomol. 38:455-
457.
Chmielewski, W. 2009. Pollen pellets as a medium for culture of mites Suidasia pontifica
(Oud.) (Acarina, Suidasiidae). J. Apic. Sci. 53:37-42.
Franzolin, M.R., Gambale, W., Cuero, R.G. and Correa, B. 1999. Interaction between
toxigenic Aspergillus flavus Link and mites (Tyrophagus putrescentiae Schrank) on
maize grains: effects on fungal growth and aflatoxin production. J. Stored Products
Res. 35:215-224.
Insung, A. and Boczek, J. 1995. Effect of some extracts of medicinal and spicy plants on
Acarid mites. Proc. Symposium on Advances of Acarology. Siedlce, Poland. 26-27
September. p.211-223.
Isman, M.B. 2000. Plant essential oils for pest and disease management. Crop. Prot.
19:603-608.
Kim, E.H., Kim, H.K. and Ahn, Y.J. 2003a. Acaricidal activity of clove bud oil
compounds against Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus
(Acari: Pyroglyphidae). J. Agric. Food Chem. 51:885-889.
Kim, E.K., Kim, H.H., Choi, D.H. and Ahn, Y.J. 2003b. Acaricidal activity of clove bud
82
oil compounds against Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Acaridae). Appl. Entomol.
Zool. 38:261-266.
Kim, H.K., Kim, J.R. and Ahn, Y.J. 2004. Acaricidal activity of cinnamaldehyde and its
congeners against Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Acaridae). J. Stored Prod. Res.
40:55-63.
Mercado, D., Puerta, L. and Caraballo, L. 2001. Life-cycle of Suidasia medanensis
(=pontifica) (Acari: Suidasiidae) under laboratory conditions in a tropical
environment. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 25:751-755.
Paranagama, P.A., Wimalasena, S., Jayatilake, G.S., Jayawardena, A.L., Senanayake,
U.M. and Mubarak, A.M. 2001. A comparison of essential oil constituents of bark,
leaf, root and fruit of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blum) grown in Sri Lanka,
J. Nat. Sci. Foundation Sri Lanka 29:147-153.
Pumnuan, J., Insung, A. and Chandrapatya, A. 2008. Acaricidal effects of herb extracts on
the mushroom mites, Luciaphorus perniciosus Rack and Formicomotes
heteromorphus Magowski. System. Appl. Acarol. 13:33-38.
Rim, I.S. and Jee, C.H. 2006. Acaricidal effects of herb essential oils against
Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) and
qualitative analysis of a herb Mentha puleguim (pennyroyal). Korean J. Parasitol.
4:133-138.
Usta, J., Kreydiyyeh, S., Bajakiana, K. and Nakkash-Chmaisse, H. 2002. In vitro effect of
eugenol and cinnamaldehyde on membrane potential and respiratory chain complexes
in isolated rat liver mitochondria. Food and Chem. Toxicol. 40:935-940.
83
Tables
Table 1. Essential oils of medicinal plants evaluated for control of stored product mite
Suidasia pontifica Oudemans.
Family
/
scientific name Common name Plant par
t
M
yrtaceae
1. Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry Clove Fresh Leaf,
Dried flower bud
2.
E
ucalyptus globulus Labill. Blue gum Leaf
Lauraceae
3. Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J.S. Presl Camphor tree Bark
4. Cinnamomum bejolghota (Buch.-Ham.) Sweet Cinnamon Fresh leaf,
Dried bark
P
iperaceae
5. Pipe
r
nigrum Linn. Peppe
Seed coat,
Seed kernel
6. Piper betle Linn. Betel vine Leaf
Z
ingiberaceae
7.
Z
ingiber cassumunar Roxb Cassumunar ginge
r
Rhizome
8. Curcuma longa Linn. Turmeric Rhizome
9. Alpinia nigra (Gaertn.) Burt
t
Galanga Rhizome
10.
Z
ingiber officinale Roscoe Ginge
Rhizome
11. Kaempferia galanga Linn. Sand ginge
r
Rhizome
Gramineae
12. Cymbopogon nardus Rendle. Citronella grass Leaf
13. Cymbopogon citratus (Dc. ex. Nees) Lemon grass Leaf
14. Vertiver zizanioides Stapf. Vetive
r
Roo
t
R
utaceae
15. Citrus aurantifolia Swing. Lemon Peel
16. Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. Pummelo Peel
17. Citrus reticulate Blanco Tangerine Peel
18. Citrus hystrix DC. Kaffir lime Peel
Labiate
19. Ocimum basilicum L. Sweet basil Leaf
S
apindaceae
20. Sapindus emarginatus Wall. Soap nut tree Seed coat
Lamiaceae
21. Lavandula officinalis Chaix Lavende
r
Flowe
r
Leguminosae
22. Clitoria ternatea Linn. Butterfly pea Flowe
r
P
andanaceae
23. Pandunus odorus Ridi Screw pine Leaf
Oleaceae
24.
J
asminum sambac Ait. Jasmine Flowe
r
Umbelliferae
25.
F
oeniculum vulgare Mill. var. dulce Alef. Fennel Seed
Araceae
26. Acorus calamus Linn. Myrtle grass Rhizome
C
ombretaceae
27. Combretum acuminatum Roxb. Combretum Stem
C
ompositae
28.
E
upatorium odoratum Linn. Bitter bush Leaf
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Table 2. Percentage of mortality of Suidasia pontifica Oudemans after treatment with essential oils of medicinal plants at various
concentrations for 24 h using dry film method.
Essential oils of
medicinal plants
% mortality1 LD50
% concentration (µg/cm2)
0
(0.00)
0.05
(2.65)
0.10
(5.30)
0.50
(26.50)
1.000
(53.00)
1.500
(79.50)
LD50
(µg cm-2)slope SE
Clove (dried bud) 0.00.0 E 13.2
7.0 Dab 27.5
9.1 Cc 56.7
10.1 Bc 96.9
5.3 Aa 98.5
4.1 Aa 24.28 0.058 0.004
Clove (fresh leaf) 0.00.0 E 7.0
7.4 Dcd 24.6
8.8 Cc 50.8
13.5 Bcd 85.2
4.1 Ac 87.0
3.5 Ac 33.67 0.036 0.002
Cinnamon (dried bark) 0.00.0 F 15.1
10.0 Ea 25.3
9.2 Dc 65.3
7.2 Cb 83.6
6.6 Bcd 90.9
3.8 Abc 30.58 0.040 0.002
Cinnamon (fresh leaf) 0.00.0 D 4.6
5.7 Dd 35.3
11.6 Ca 77.6
11.4 Ba 92.1
8.1 Ab 96.3
7.1 Aa 24.05 0.053 0.003
Myrtle grass 0.00.0 F 10.5
4.8 Eabc 34.7
8.7 Dab 71.0
7.9 Cab 80.1
4.6 Bde 94.8
5.8 Aab 28.34 0.042 0.003
Betel vine 0.00.0 E 4.8
4.5 Ed 16.2
9.4 Dd 44.0
11.8 Cd 75.7
7.0 Bef 81.4
5.3 Ad 41.76 0.036 0.002
Turmeric 0.00.0 F 9.6
5.7 Ebcd 28.1
8.6 Dbc 44.0
9.0 Cd 71.5
8.5 Bf 88.3
10.4 Ac 38.09 0.035 0.002
1 Means in row followed by the same capital letter and means in column followed by the same common letter were not significantly different (P<0.05) according to
DMRT.
84
85
Figures
Fig. 1. Percentage mortality of Suidasia pontifica Oudemans after exposure to essential
oils of medicinal plants at a concentration of 1% (53 µg cm-2) for 24 h using dry
film method.
86
... In addition, Tak et al. (2006) studied the effect of chemical components from root of Paeonia suffruticosa against T. putrescentiae and reported that paeonol and benzoic acid extracted from the root resulted in the LD 50 at 5.29 and 4.80 µg/cm 2 , respectively. Moreover, essential oils form betel vine, myrtle grass and clove were also found effective in controlling stored product mite, Suidasia pontifica with the LD 50 at 41.79, 28.34 and 24.28 µg/cm 2 , respectively (Pumnuan and Insung, 2011). In addition, many studies reported that lemon grass essential oil showed the most toxicity effect against mushroom mites, Luciaphorus perniciosus (Pumnuan and Insung, 2012), and Dolichocybe indica (Pumnuan et al., 2014). ...
... µl/cm 2 ) ( Table 2). The results found in this study were generally in congruence with Pumnuan and Insung (2011) in which clove essential oil was reported presenting 98.5% mortality of S. pontifica at 0.080 µl/cm 2 with LC 50 at 0.024 µl/cm 2 , and essential oils of myrtle grass and betel vine showed LC 50 at 0.028 and 0.042 µl/cm 2 , respectively by dry film method. Saad et al. (2006) reported that clove essential oil was the more effective against house dust mites (D. pteronyssinus) (LC 50 = 29.78×10 ...
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Mites can occur in large numbers in storage units, causing serious economic damage to stored products, as well as health problems such as asthma, diarrhea, acute enteritis, and allergic reactions. In Brazil, spice and medicinal dehydrated plants are widely sold in bulk, but almost nothing is known about mite infestations. Thus, the objective of this research was to evaluate the diversity and relative abundance of mites in samples of Coriandrum sativum L., Pimpinella anisum L., Petroselinum sativum Hoffm., Matricaria chamomilla L., Baccharis trimera (Less) DC, Bixa orellana L., Senna alexandrina Mill., Origanum vulgare L., Ocimum basilicum L., Melissa officinalis L., Mentha piperita L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Peumus boldus Molina, Salvia officinalis L., Thymus vulgaris L., Laurus nobilis L., Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Myristica fragans Houtt., Capsicum annuum L., and Curcuma longa L., collected from food retailers in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, from October 2015 to March 2016. A total of 2584 mites, distributed into 13 families, were found in the samples of these dehydrated plants. The most abundant mite species (families) were: Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Acaridae) (84.6%), Cheyletus malaccensis Oudemans (Cheyletidae) (5.4%), Blattisocius tarsalis (Berlese) (Blattisociidae) (4.6%), Suidasia sp. (Astigmata: Suidasiidae) (3.2%), and Typhlodromus transvaalensis (Nesbitt) (Phytoseiidae) (1.4%). Other families (Glycyfagidae, Ameroseiidae, Bdellidae, Iolinidae, Raphignatidae, Stigmaeidae, Tydeidae) together represented less than 1.0% of the mites. T. transvaalensis is recorded for the first time in stored products in Brazil. Differences among the plant species in terms of diversity, frequency and abundance of mites were observed. Although there is a regulatory standard for good food production and service practices, the results of this study demonstrate that the bulk retail market for dehydrated plants has failed to control hygiene and quality, considering the relatively high mite infestations in most of the evaluated plant species.
... The percentage of eugenol in clove (97.100%) was found higher than in cinnamon (82.054%). Accordingly, it was highly possible that eugenol was the major chemical acting against the insects, since the results of this study and other studies (Pumnuan and Insung, 2006;Pumnuan et al., 2008;Ahmed and El-Salam 2010) showed that clove essential oil showed higher fumigant toxicity than of the essential oil of cinnamon. However, the results showed that standard eugenol alone presented lower fumigant toxicity against the insects than that of essential oils containing eugenol as the major component (as clove and cinnamon). ...
... The percentage of eugenol in clove (97.100%) was found higher than in cinnamon (82.054%). Accordingly, it was highly possible that eugenol was the major chemical acting against the insects, since the results of this study and other studies (Pumnuan and Insung, 2006; Pumnuan et al., 2008; Ahmed and El-Salam 2010) showed that clove essential oil showed higher fumigant toxicity than of the essential oil of cinnamon. However, the results showed that standard eugenol alone presented lower fumigant toxicity against the insects than that of essential oils containing eugenol as the major component (as clove and cinnamon). ...
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