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Participation strategies - the silver bullet for public acceptance?

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  • Institut für Zukunftsenergie- und StoffstromSysteme gGmbH
  • IZES gGmbH Saarbrücken
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... The active acceptance of certain projects is conditioned by public participation (Figure 1). Rau et al. (2012) defi ne acceptance with two dimensions, appraisal and action. Positive appraisal of nuclear energy is necessary for the acceptance of the same, which could be achieved -one could add -only through active public participation. ...
... Concerning nuclear issues, the public is rather active, as evidenced by a prevailing resistance to locating a nuclear object in the vicinity of the community, though also more passive rejection is frequently present. While Rau et al. (2012) diff erentiate three forms of acceptance on the renewable energy issue -general acceptance, acceptance of various technologies, and active acceptance -general resistance or passive rejection remain the most dominant tendencies concerning nuclear energy. If there is to be a future in nuclear energy, a transition to the upper part of the matrix in the public is necessary. ...
... While Rau et al. (2012) consider acceptance (in their case of renewable energies) as a complex matter with numerous interrelated aspects -tech- Action nological (nature of technology, its hazards, etc.), locational (changes in the environment due to the object), and procedural (planning and decisionmaking processes) -the situation is similar concerning the acceptance of nuclear objects, although nuclear objects possess a negative connotation connected with each of the three aforementioned aspects. Nuclear objects are perceived as dangerous and as causing changes in the environment; frequently decisions are taken out of people's hands. ...
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The aim of this publication is the promotion of Science-Technology-Society among young researchers and students of social sciences in Poland and the presentation of chapters devoted to selected areas of STS.
... With respect to the Energiewende, numerous participation formats are applied both during smaller projects, such as the construction of renewable energy plants, and also major projects, such as the expansion of the electrical grid or the search for deep geological repository sites, whereas the aims and expectation of these public participation processes are manifold (Ernst, 2017). Scholars such as Rowe and Frewer (2005), Hurlbert and Gupta (2015) and Rau et al. (2012) have defined categories to better conceptualize participation. Participation processes are often differentiated based on the levels of involvement (i.e., degree of co-decision or intensity of communication (dialogue or one-way communication)), and methods or instruments such as round tables, hearings etc. ...
... Increasingly, companies and project developers organize informal participation processes to inform and involve the public at an early stage (Hildebrand et al., 2018), which are often more dialogue-oriented than formal participation opportunities. Informal participation processes capture the wide spectrum of participation formats including information, consultation, cooperation, and citizen control (Rau et al., 2012). To investigate awareness of and active engagement in participation formats, questions were posed in the survey about various commonly applied participation instruments by applying the same two-step question procedure as with formal participation. ...
... The category "Cooperation and Solution-Finding Instruments" comprises instruments that are more dialogic and offer options for co-decision. However, we do not consider them as "citizen control" i.e., delegation of decision-making power to the citizen (Rau et al., 2012) because the actual impact of informal participation processes on decision-making is very uncertain. ...
Article
Public participation is often part of planning and decision-making processes relating to the German energy transformation (Energiewende). Factors influencing the active involvement of individuals have not been fully investigated, although these factors may impact the outcome of participatory decision making. However, a few concepts are discussed relating to what kind of people participate in governance processes: political efficacy, place attachment, value orientation, and sociodemographic characteristics. We further assumed that the aspects of attitudes toward renewable energy technologies, general knowledge about environment and energy, specific knowledge about electricity-generating technologies, personality strength, and living situation might influence people's participation in planning and decision making related to energy issues. In this study, we examine the relevance of these concepts based on a survey for which (n=) 2400 respondents were recruited from an access panel to build up a quota sample on the three crossed characteristics: gender, age, and school education. Many of the respondents are aware of participation options but very few become actively engaged in participation processes. The multivariate analyses conducted showed that attitudes towards renewable energy technologies, value orientation towards nature, political efficacy, personality strength, and individuals' specific knowledge have a strong influence on whether someone becomes actively involved or not.
... Recently, a few scholars have attempted to operationalize acceptance and/or support for renewable energy technologies (RET) and the associated RET infrastructure. Rau et al. (2012) examined the determinants of RET acceptance and the relationship of those determinants with public participation such as opinion polls and round tables. Rau and colleagues argue that acceptance can be conceptualized on a spectrum defined by two facets: appraisal (positive to negative) and action (passive to active). ...
... A positive appraisal is a necessary precondition to acceptance and a positive appraisal with active action results in support or commitment to a various RET projects, which is also described as active acceptance. Furthermore, Rau et al. (2012) differentiate between general acceptance of renewable energies, acceptance of various renewable energies, and active acceptance. General acceptance and acceptance of various renewable energies include a positive appraisal, absent of active action, whereas active acceptance includes positive appraisal and active action. ...
... General acceptance and acceptance of various renewable energies include a positive appraisal, absent of active action, whereas active acceptance includes positive appraisal and active action. Batel et al. (2013) offer a critical discussion on acceptance and support of RET, extending the work of Rau et al. (2012). They state that acceptance appears to ''involve a reaction to something-external-and one which is mainly characterised by passivity and non-decision'' whereas support ''seems more clearly to be action-oriented,. . . to imply agency for and engagement with something' ' (2013, p. 2). ...
Article
Understanding the acceptance of and support for transportation policies focused on the environment, such fuel economy standards, is important because of the positive impact policies can have on the environment and overall sustainability goals. This study investigates the acceptance of and support for fuel economy standards through an online survey of Maine residents. Specifically, we assess the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, which aim to increase fuel economy of vehicles, while decreasing greenhouses gas emissions and foreign fuel dependence in the United States. We assess how perceptions of the policy and economic views of the market affect acceptance and support. We differentiate acceptance and support on two dimensions, a temporal and attitudinal–behavioral dimension. In doing so, we improve upon traditional measures of these variables and provide evidence that acceptance and support are distinct constructs. We find that perceived fairness, perceived effectiveness, and a subscription to a free-market ideology play a role in acceptance and support. The implications of the findings are discussed in relation to survey methods, policy communications, and an interdisciplinary understanding of environmental policy.
... The active acceptance of certain projects is conditioned by public participation (Figure 1). Rau et al. (2012) defi ne acceptance with two dimensions, appraisal and action. Positive appraisal of nuclear energy is necessary for the acceptance of the same, which could be achieved -one could add -only through active public participation. ...
... Concerning nuclear issues, the public is rather active, as evidenced by a prevailing resistance to locating a nuclear object in the vicinity of the community, though also more passive rejection is frequently present. While Rau et al. (2012) diff erentiate three forms of acceptance on the renewable energy issue -general acceptance, acceptance of various technologies, and active acceptance -general resistance or passive rejection remain the most dominant tendencies concerning nuclear energy. If there is to be a future in nuclear energy, a transition to the upper part of the matrix in the public is necessary. ...
... While Rau et al. (2012) consider acceptance (in their case of renewable energies) as a complex matter with numerous interrelated aspects -tech- Action nological (nature of technology, its hazards, etc.), locational (changes in the environment due to the object), and procedural (planning and decisionmaking processes) -the situation is similar concerning the acceptance of nuclear objects, although nuclear objects possess a negative connotation connected with each of the three aforementioned aspects. Nuclear objects are perceived as dangerous and as causing changes in the environment; frequently decisions are taken out of people's hands. ...
Chapter
The article discusses the problem of "stakeholder involvement" (SI) in the context of controversial energy projects. It is assumed that in many cases social acceptance is not a question of accepting or rejecting a given technology, but the way this technology is implemented, and SI, with its many forms from ad-hoc actions of individual organisations to the practice of relationship building and development constituting an inherent part of the trans-sector multi-agency partnerships, may be a successful tool in developing social acceptance of nuclear energy. "The Polish Nuclear Energy Programme" arouses many conflicting emotions and expectations of the stakeholders. Assuming that the adoption of a specific SI model may be become a part of the rationalisation of the public discourse surrounding such an investment, it was simultaneously noticed that in Polish circumstances this may be unusually difficult and complicated. Further the paper presents a map of potential stakeholders in the Programme and communication factors which may affect the acceptance of controversial energy investments. Finally, the article presents results of research wherein the stakeholders identify communication mistakes made in the first stage of the Programme implementation.
... We find that both Arnstein's ladder and Rau et al.'s [20] further development of the ladder fail to distinguish between participation in terms of decision-making influence and the degree to which citizens engage with the policy once it is established. For example, top-down mandates may force high degrees of compliance. ...
... That is, citizens become actively involved in employing policy instruments, leading to not only a behavioral change but also (positively) impacting the environment Sticks are hierarchical in nature in which citizens have no active decision-making role but passively receive information through, for example, regulations. Hence, they could be related to low participation on Arnstein's ladder [19,20]. However, citizens may have a nominal role in the "notice and comment process", whereby regulations must be published and open for comment for a certain amount of time before a rule is finalized. ...
... However, sermons can involve a degree of co-decision-making, as the citizens can engage in round tables or dialogue forums with other actors that may lead to projects or influence policy decisions. As such, they would fall under "cooperation" [20]. We argue that sermons entail a moderate to high degree of participation. ...
Article
Full-text available
As in other industrialized countries, many urban water social-ecological systems in the United States are characterized by frequent discharges of contaminated runoff, catastrophic flooding, and near-complete severance of the hydrologic cycle. Recent advancements in stormwater best management practices aim to push urban water social-ecological systems into a more sustainable regime that reconnects the hydrologic cycle and utilizes ecosystem services, such as infiltration and evapotranspiration, to improve the quality of urban and suburban water bodies. Collectively, these approaches are termed green infrastructure. As a decentralized approach, green infrastructure requires implementation on, as well as access to, property throughout a watershed, which poses particular governance challenges for watersheds where most land is held privately. We argue that green infrastructure on private property has a strong potential for creating a more sustainable regime through Citizen Stormwater Management, a participatory form of governance with strong citizen influence and engagement. We develop a classification scheme to assess policy instruments’ degree of government intervention, citizen participation, and engagement. The paper explores how various policy instruments encourage Citizen Stormwater Management across the United States on both public and private property. We then conduct a textual analysis of ten years of publicly available data from Onondaga County, New York (USA) to assess the implementation of applicable policy instruments. Findings indicate that incentive-based (carrots) along with outreach (sermon) policies can play an important role when regulatory instruments (sticks) are lacking.
... The active acceptance of certain projects is conditioned by public participation (Figure 1). Rau et al. (2012) defi ne acceptance with two dimensions, appraisal and action. Positive appraisal of nuclear energy is necessary for the acceptance of the same, which could be achieved -one could add -only through active public participation. ...
... Concerning nuclear issues, the public is rather active, as evidenced by a prevailing resistance to locating a nuclear object in the vicinity of the community, though also more passive rejection is frequently present. While Rau et al. (2012) diff erentiate three forms of acceptance on the renewable energy issue -general acceptance, acceptance of various technologies, and active acceptance -general resistance or passive rejection remain the most dominant tendencies concerning nuclear energy. If there is to be a future in nuclear energy, a transition to the upper part of the matrix in the public is necessary. ...
... While Rau et al. (2012) consider acceptance (in their case of renewable energies) as a complex matter with numerous interrelated aspects -tech- Action nological (nature of technology, its hazards, etc.), locational (changes in the environment due to the object), and procedural (planning and decisionmaking processes) -the situation is similar concerning the acceptance of nuclear objects, although nuclear objects possess a negative connotation connected with each of the three aforementioned aspects. Nuclear objects are perceived as dangerous and as causing changes in the environment; frequently decisions are taken out of people's hands. ...
... The active acceptance of certain projects is conditioned by public participation (Figure 1). Rau et al. (2012) defi ne acceptance with two dimensions, appraisal and action. Positive appraisal of nuclear energy is necessary for the acceptance of the same, which could be achieved -one could add -only through active public participation. ...
... Concerning nuclear issues, the public is rather active, as evidenced by a prevailing resistance to locating a nuclear object in the vicinity of the community, though also more passive rejection is frequently present. While Rau et al. (2012) diff erentiate three forms of acceptance on the renewable energy issue -general acceptance, acceptance of various technologies, and active acceptance -general resistance or passive rejection remain the most dominant tendencies concerning nuclear energy. If there is to be a future in nuclear energy, a transition to the upper part of the matrix in the public is necessary. ...
... While Rau et al. (2012) consider acceptance (in their case of renewable energies) as a complex matter with numerous interrelated aspects -tech- Action nological (nature of technology, its hazards, etc.), locational (changes in the environment due to the object), and procedural (planning and decisionmaking processes) -the situation is similar concerning the acceptance of nuclear objects, although nuclear objects possess a negative connotation connected with each of the three aforementioned aspects. Nuclear objects are perceived as dangerous and as causing changes in the environment; frequently decisions are taken out of people's hands. ...
... A positive appraisal is a necessary precondition to acceptance and a positive appraisal with active action results in support or commitment to a various RET projects, which is also described as active acceptance. Furthermore, Rau et al. (2012) differentiate between general acceptance of renewable energies, acceptance of various renewable energies, and active acceptance. General acceptance and acceptance of various renewable energies include a positive appraisal, absent of active action, whereas active acceptance includes positive appraisal and active action. ...
... Dreyer and Walker (2013) make a similar argument, with the two phrases "willingness to pay" and "willingness to accept." Batel and colleagues extend the argument of Rau et al. (2012) and state that acceptance appears to "involve a reaction to something-external-and one which is mainly characterised by passivity and non-decision" whereas support "seems more clearly to be action-oriented,… to imply agency for and engagement with something" (2013, p. 2). Batel et al. (2013) further argue that if active engagement and public support are goals of RET, then it is important that we not only study acceptance but also support for RET. ...
... Participation, and/or procedural justice may be one of the additional variables that should be considered for policy support. Many domains have considered the role of participation, such as in the planning and decision making in RET (Rau et al., 2012), in the research process for sustainability science and community based participatory research (Silka, 2010), and in the implementation of European climate targets (Wolkinger et al., 2012). Furthermore, a sense of procedural justice is related to participation, as procedural justice refers to the processes used to inform the outcomes (Tyler, Boeckmann, Smith, & Huo, 1997;Thibaut & Walker, 1978). ...
Article
Full-text available
How does acceptance of an environmental policy differ from support for an environmental policy? In addition, how do perceptions of a policy and economic views of the market affect acceptance of and support for environmental policies? Under the umbrella of sustainability science, I draw my understanding of policy support and acceptance from psychology, economics, and environmental studies. I employ a mix of quantitative and theoretical approaches in three related projects focused on environmental policies. As a whole, this dissertation co-produces knowledge via collaboration, and links that knowledge-to-action through discussions of research implications. Throughout the dissertation, I outline and describe a two-dimensional differentiation of policy support and policy acceptance. Beginning in the Introduction, I highlight the problem of the interchangeable use of the terms acceptance and support. Chapter 2 explores differences between acceptance and support of the Australian carbon policy shortly after it was instituted in July 2012 and argues that policy acceptance and support are related, but distinct concepts. Chapter 2 outlines how environmental policy acceptance and support differ on two dimensions, an attitudinal-behavioral dimension and temporal dimension. Chapter 3 expands on this outline with a conceptual model of the two-dimensional differentiation, further adding empirical evidence from an investigation of the fuel economy standards in the United States through a Maine sample in November 2013. Chapter 4 provides additional refined empirical evidence from the Australian carbon policy before and after the Australian federal elections of 2013, while Chapter 5 summarizes and concludes. Each of the chapters also explores the determinants of policy acceptance and policy support, and the relationship amongst variables through two separate policy examples, the Australian carbon policy and the fuel economy standards in the United States. I argue that perceived fairness and perceived effectiveness of the policy, and a subscription to a free-market ideology, all play an important role in acceptance and support, although the role may differ depending upon the policy, or current timing. I find that fairness and effectiveness are positively and significantly related to both acceptance and support, whereas a free-market ideology is negatively and significantly related to acceptance and support.
... That means, it is not sufficient that an organization proclaims green policies, employees should have the perception that pro-environmental behaviors are encouraged by leaders and colleagues (Norton, Zacher & Ashkanasy, 2014). PI could be regarded as an umbrella term for various methods, such as opinion polls or round-tables (Rau, Schweizer-Ries & Hildebrand, 2012). In this study, we focus on one of these methods, namely workshops. ...
... In our opinion, the most severe limitations of our study are the lack of a follow-up, the absence of a control group, and the reliance on self-reports. Additionally, the workshop was conducted by students, thus posing the question of whether the required, professional facilitation skills and design were assured (Endrejat et al., 2015;Rau et al., 2012). ...
Article
This study supports the notion that participatory interventions (PIs) are effective means of enhancing organizational members' autonomous motivation to engage in energy-saving behaviors at their workplace. Relying on the Self-Determination Theory as the theoretical framework, we discuss why an autonomy-supportive environment (i.e., PIs based on workshops) is suitable for achieving energy-saving value internalization. We tested this assumption with a sample of 115 students who received a three-day PI training. On the third day, students conducted a three-hour workshop with the goal to elaborate on how they could contribute toward reducing the energy-consumption of their university. A pre-post design, measuring subjects external and introjected regulation (controlled motivation), as well as their identified and integrated regulation (autonomous motivation), revealed that subjects reported higher energy-saving value internalization after the PI. A closer examination of the factors causing this result showed that an increased internalization is due to a decrease of introjected regulation and an increase of identified motivation. Implications and limitations (i.e., the lack of a control group and electric meter data) are discussed, as well as the need for further research to increase the understanding of which psychological mechanisms underlie and enhance the effectiveness of PIs.
... Thus, acceptance itself includes a multiplicity of public responses. Research on social acceptance conceptualizes many behaviour patterns towards RET, such as support or opposition with different behavioural intensities ranging from passive to active (Batel & Devine-Wright, 2015a;Rau et al., 2012). ...
... Distributional justice, here, refers to all the outcomes of the project and procedural justice refers to all the processes of the project from decision-making to participation. Furthermore, participation is argued to be the 'silver bullet' for fair wind projects by some studies, also referring to the perception of fairness in transparent and participative processes (Rau et al., 2012). Several principles of distributive and procedural justice have been argued to play a role in the perceptions of the people and therefore impact the acceptance. ...
Article
Full-text available
The deployment of wind energy projects (WEP) within the process of energy transition changes energy landscapes and daily living environments. With regard to social acceptance as one social response towards WEP, the role of different aspects of justice (i.e. procedural, distributive, recognition) has been discussed. This study highlights the importance of social norms and their influence on perceived justice regarding WEP, which has been neglected in the literature so far. The relationship between social norms and perceived justice is explored as a conceptual framework through a systematic literature review and expert interviews. This framework aims to explain how social norms and their relationship with justice are defined, interlinked and how they affect perceptions of WEP. The results argue that social norms surface in situations where all the key elements of a project are decided without public impact. Thus, norms of fairness emerge under uncertain situations with the influence of similar emotions within groups. Moreover, social norms and perceived justice would explain several responses, such as local conflicts, or the motivation to further develop WEP. This study concludes by discussing the applicability of the framework, which needs further analysis as an analytical tool and deeper empirical investigation.
... The combination of a positive valuation and high activity can be perceived as commitment and active engagement of the stakeholders involved, a negative valuation with little activity as connivance or rejection [26]. A positive valuation and little activity can be interpreted as approval or tolerance, but no active commitment to introduce a system change. ...
... Dimensions of acceptance, based on[26]. ...
Article
Within an interdisciplinary, participatory and transformative research approach, a multi-method research design was used to examine acceptance criteria of energy balancing technologies. Energy balancing is important to integrate the increasing amount of renewable energies efficiently into the energy supply system: due to the fluctuating power production from wind and solar power plants flexibilities are needed. The study applied a holistic, systemic perspective, not only focused on the technologies, but also on consumers, producers and the interwining of both. Within the study, a mixture of balancing technologies, suitable for decentralized energy systems on a regional or local level, took center stage. The most relevant stakeholders to define acceptable pathways for planning and realization processes for decentralized energy balancing concepts are in the focus of interest. They are identified as decision holders to foster the implementation of energy balancing. For environmental planning, regional participation and related governance processes results state a lack of awareness for the necessity of energy balancing. A shared understanding of future energy balancing needs and possibilities within respective regarded areas is crucial besides administrative boundaries of e.g. municipalities. Furthermore, different levels to integrate municipal stakeholders and citizens in an adapted planning process for energy balancing concepts have been identified and a prototype of a strategic planning tool was developed and tested.
... Im Hinblick auf die Akzeptanz von Regenwasserbewirtschaftungsmaßnahmen (RWBM) wird die Zustimmung und Handlungsbereitschaft von kommunalen Akteuren bereits seit den 1990er-Jahren untersucht [17,18] [19,20]. Gestützt auf Beiträge aus den Gesellschaft-Technikstudien und der Umweltpsychologie wurde in vorliegenden Forschungen zur Akzeptanz erneuerbarer Energien ein auf zwei Dimensionen beruhender Akzeptanzbegriff konzeptualisiert [19]: auf der Einstellungsoder Bewertungsdimension werden Akzeptanzobjekte (hier also RWBM) vor dem Hintergrund persönlicher Präferenzen und gesamtgesellschaftlicher Wertvorstellungen auf einer von negativ bis positiv reichenden Skala bewertet. ...
... Den Einzelprojekten der Transformation des Energiesystems fehlt es -zumindest in ihrer konkreten Ausgestaltung -an faktischer Zustimmung oder Akzeptanz. Diese wird meist bestimmt von der wahrgenommenen Gerechtigkeit und Fairness des Planungsverfahrens (Rau et al. 2012), d. h., Akzeptanz knüpft an normative Erwartungshorizonte, nämlich an die Zustimmungswürdigkeit oder Akzeptabilität einer Entscheidung. Der Zusammenhang zwischen Akzeptanz eines Infrastrukturprojekts und dessen ...
... The term "acceptance" is often connected with toleration of something, which is impossible to change or is inevitable [4] and applies a top-down normative perspective when acceptance from inhabitants is needed to legitimize the project or to construct infrastructure without public protests [21]. The difference between "social" and "public" acceptance is in its subject. ...
... Hinsichtlich der Akzeptanz ist festzustellen, dass sich die höchsten Zusammenhänge zwischen einer selbst berichteten Akzeptanz und Beteiligungsmöglichkeiten auf der Stufe der Kooperation zeigen (vgl. auch Rau et al., 2012). Eine detaillierte Beschreibung von erprobten Beteiligungsformaten findet sich u.a. ...
... In general, ratings of acceptance are higher than those of support because support requires a behavioral component (Dreyer, Teisl, & McCoy, 2015). People do not always show their rejection of energy projects through obvious behavior, but this does not indicate acceptance (Rau, Schweizer-Ries, & Hildebrandt, 2012), hence the importance of measuring the degree of acceptance among the population. Such acceptance depends on personal, sociopsychological, and contextual factors (Devine-Wright, 2011), involving numerous variables revealed by prior research. ...
Article
In 2014, the Canary Islands were exposed to a decision-making process for an oil drilling project 80 kilometers offshore. Whereas the national government was in favor of oil drilling, the local government was against it because of the environmental impact, and the effect on tourism and the coastal ecosystem. In this study, we analyze the reactions of the local community to this project by connecting beliefs, perceived benefits, perceived risk, procedural justice, negative emotions, and acceptance through a tested structural equation model. The results showed that acceptance was essentially explained by perceived benefits and negative emotions, whereas perceived benefits and procedural justice predicted negative emotions. Several differences between males and females were found. These results are discussed in relation to the importance of understanding the effects and emotional reactions of this type of project on the population before the final decision making.
... Beteiligungsmöglichkeiten lassen sich entlang der Partizipationspyramide auf den Stufen Information, Konsultation, Kooperation und Co-Design im Sinne eigenverantwortlichen Handelns verorten (Rau et al. 2012). In der Praxis sind unter der Überschrift "Mitarbeiter:innen-Partizipation" oftmals mehr oder weniger reine Informations-und Kommunkatiosnmaßnahmen vorzufinden. ...
Chapter
Der Wandel eines Krankenhauses zu einer nachhaltig handelnden Organisation ist komplex, denn das Krankenhaus selbst ist ein komplexes (soziotechnisches) System und auf vielfältige Weise mit seiner Umgebung verbunden. Ein Transformationsprozess hin zu einem „grünen“ Krankenhaus wird daher umso erfolgreicher, je besser er dieser Komplexität gerecht wird und alle betroffenen Ebenen berücksichtigt. In diesem Zusammenhang stellt der partizipative Einbezug der unterschiedlichen Akteurs- und Anspruchsgruppen eine relevante Größe dar, eine ausschließliche Top-down-Strategie erscheint aufgrund der Komplexität des Systems nicht sinnvoll. Gleichwohl bedarf es eines klaren Rahmens: Hier sind die Leitungsebenen entscheidend für die Ermöglichung und Förderung von Nachhaltigkeitsprozessen. Der vorliegende Beitrag gibt einen Überblick über die spezifischen Herausforderungen des Organisationstyps Krankenhaus bei der Transformation zu einer nachhaltigen Organisation und adressiert dabei insbesondere die Perspektiven der unterschiedlichen involvierten Akteure. Für die Gestaltung werden aus umweltpsychologischer Perspektive relevante Einflussfaktoren für Veränderungsansätze skizziert sowie konkrete Anwendungs- und Übertragungsmöglichkeiten beschrieben.
... Currently, there is a noted lack of existing theory distinguishing and connecting policy preferences, acceptance, and support (Dreyer, Polis, & Jenkins, 2017). We draw from the little that we could find (e.g., see also Rau, Schweizer-Ries, & Hildebrandt, 2012), as well as literatures that we perceive might be related (i.e., the literatures relating to legitimacy and procedural fairness) to develop our theoretical approach. Our view of the relationships between constructs is illustrated in Fig. 5.1, which shows policy preference ranging from low to high along the horizontal dimension. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter focuses on the predictors of policy acceptance and upon elucidating the pathways through which different features of public engagement might impact such acceptance—especially when a policy is not preferred. Examination of the relationships between experimentally varied features of engagement and policy acceptance suggests few, if any, main effects of different features. There is even less evidence that any of the engagement features change the relationship between policy preferences and policy acceptance. However, a more fine-grained analysis suggests a more nuanced story. There was evidence that certain features of engagement, such as promoting discussion or encouraging critical thinking, impacted mediators and moderators such as conscientious engagement and negative perceptions of the information that was provided. These mediating or moderating variables, in turn, impacted policy acceptance and/or the relationship between policy preferences and policy acceptance—sometimes in a manner that suggested competing pathways were at work, cancelling one another out, and resulting in our apparent “null effects.” Our results also varied dependent upon whether the policy context was one of relative risk (promoting the development of nanotechnology) or one of relative status quo (promoting slow development and higher regulation of nanotechnology). Thus, our results suggest a fuller understanding of the impacts of engagement features on hoped-for outcomes (like policy acceptance) requires careful attention to causal pathways that operate in different policy contexts.
... When the acceptance of residents is required to legitimize a project or to build infrastructure without public protest, the term "acceptance" is frequently associated with tolerance of something that simply cannot be changed or is unavoidable (Batel et al., 2013). This perception applies a top-down normative perspective (Rau et al., 2012) and has frequently been criticized as it indicates a passive attitude towards something a stakeholder cannot change as opposed to a desire to utilize or pay for innovation, which implies a more active attitude of the stakeholder. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This technical report aims to identify the conditions for effective multi-stakeholder participatory processes where�by all relevant actors are empowered to contribute to industrial policymaking to achieve optimal outcomes. The technical report discusses the application of mul�ti-stakeholder participatory approaches to demonstrate how intensive or extensive such an exercise can be in prac�tice, and documents some basic elements for organizing a participatory policymaking exercise, as well as some common pitfalls.
... These studies started a research tradition that is nowadays known as participatory action research (Lewin 1947b;Reason and Bradbury 2001) and has a strong impact on other subjects, such as job crafting (Wrzesniewski and Dutton 2001) and the organisational change literature (Pasmore and Fagans 1992). PIs have also been identified as a useful approach to raise users' acceptance for PEB (Rau et al. 2012;Staddon et al. 2016), and the 10th principle of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development proclaims that "environmental issues are best handled with participation of all concerned citizens, at the relevant level" (Wheeler and Beatley 2014: 81). Surprisingly however, environmental psychologists tend to neglect participatory approaches to promote PEB (Gifford 2014). ...
Chapter
This chapter argues that participatory interventions (PIs) are effective means for increasing employees’ pro-environmental behaviour (PEB). We rely on the Self-Determination Theory to accentuate that the fulfilment of the three basic psychological needs – autonomy, competence, and relatedness – is necessary before expecting employees to behave with volitional PEB. To provide guidelines of how PIs can be conducted within organisations, we illustrate a prototypical workshop process (detection, decision, implementation) to ensure PEB’s integration into work routines. Furthermore, we highlight the essential elements of a PI, such as (1) change agents’ sufficient facilitation skills of establishing an autonomy-supportive atmosphere, (2) the analysis of the perceived (dis-)advantages associated with PEB, and (3) documentation of agreed measures to establish PEB fostering norms. Finally, we discuss process evaluation and a stronger focus on employees’ characteristics as avenues for further research, and derive implications of how practitioners can enhance PEB by using PIs.
... For example, the strong links between residents' experiences with wind farm planning processes and their levels of experienced stress impacts suggest that improving planning processessuch as by engaging residents actively from the beginning (Firestone et al., 2018;Pohl et al., 2018) -might reduce annoyance and related symptoms. There are positive experiences with early and informal resident participation (Devine-Wright, 2011;Rand and Hoen, 2017;Rau et al., 2012). Although participation cannot guarantee positive perceptions of the planning process, additional problems are more likely in the absence of substantive resident engagement. ...
Article
As wind turbines and the number of wind projects scale throughout the world, a growing number of individuals might be affected by these structures. For some people, wind turbine sounds and their effects on the landscape can be annoying and could even prompt stress reactions. This comparative study analyzed a combined sample of survey respondents from the U.S., Germany and Switzerland. It utilized a newly developed assessment scale (AS-Scale) to reliably characterize these stress-impacted individuals living within populations near turbines. Findings indicate low prevalence of annoyance, stress symptoms and coping strategies. Noise annoyance stress (NAS-Scale) was negatively correlated with the perceptions of a lack of fairness of the wind project's planning and development process, among other subjective variables. Objective indicators, such as the distance from the nearest turbine and sound pressure level modeled for each respondent, were not found to be correlated to noise annoyance. Similar result patterns were found across the European and U.S. samples.
... Currently, there is a noted lack of existing theory distinguishing and connecting policy preferences, acceptance, and support (Dreyer, Polis, & Jenkins, 2017). We draw from the little that we could find (e.g., see also Rau, Schweizer-Ries, & Hildebrandt, 2012), as well as literatures that we perceive might be related (i.e., the literatures relating to legitimacy and procedural fairness) to develop our theoretical approach. Our view of the relationships between constructs is illustrated in Fig. 5.1, which shows policy preference ranging from low to high along the horizontal dimension. ...
Article
The purpose of this book is to share some results and the data from four studies in which we used experimental procedures to manipulate key features of deliberative public engagement to study the impacts in the context of deliberations about nanotechnology. In this chapter, we discuss the purpose of this book, which is to advance science of public engagement, and the overarching question motivating our research: What public engagement methods work for what purposes and why? We also briefly review existing prior work related to our overarching goal and question and introduce the contents of the rest of the book. Given the potential for negative—or at least controversial—effects of new technologies upon the societies in which various publics must live, what could be more democratic than promoting public involvement in decisions about those new technologies? Unless, of course, it turns out that public involvement, which can sometimes be costly, is ineffective, unnecessary, or actually makes things worse. Some have suggested this may be the case (e.g., Sunstein, 2000, 2002), but, for better or worse, public engagement with and about new technologies is happening all around us. Our interest in studying such public engagement—the topic of this book—is to learn how to design it for the better.
... Transparent decision processes include the need for process management on a regional and national scale: regional planning processes include the design of formal and informal participation procedures which are important in terms of the perceived fairness of procedures (i.e. how fair the planning processes are deemed to be) [40]. The same applies to a national dialogue process, where this is yet to be implemented for a sustainable bioenergy strategy. ...
Article
To fulfil the ambitious greenhouse gas reduction targets in Germany requires a fundamental transformation of the energy system. Accordingly, today's bioenergy value chains are faced with substantial transformations to find their role in 2050's low carbon emission energy and supply systems. In this regard, not only economic, environmental, and social aspects need to be taken into consideration. The technology maturity, flexible energy generation and supply and the ability to combine the technologies with CO2 capture are relevant aspects for future bioenergy systems. To evaluate appropriate options for a future energy system an assessment framework with 29 criteria was developed in form of an assessment matrix, and applied for several bioenergy technology pathways. The results show much larger challenges for the implementation and transformation of lignocelluse-based pathways than of biogas-based ones. Trade-offs of the assessment criteria are shown in a heat map. Results might support policy decision makers to develop and implement a long term bioenergy strategy and thus a successful transformation towards a sustainable energy system 2050.
... Theoretical background: Public participation is seen as a critical driver of acceptance and can be categorized with the ladder of participation by Arnstein from Information (low participation), Consultation and Cooperation (high participation -see Rau et.al, 2012). Thus, a high priority of participation is to foster procedural justice by accomplishing transparency and fairness (see Keppler et al., 2011, Hildebrand et al., 2013 with fulfilling the relevant criteria of participation (Rau et al., 2012). ...
... Also, the term "acceptance" relates to tolerating something that is impossible to change (Batel et al., 2013). It is also a part of top-down decision-making process when acceptance from inhabitants is needed to construct projects, decisions about which are taken at the national level, without public protests at the local level (Rau et al., 2012). ...
... Also, the term "acceptance" relates to tolerating something that is impossible to change (Batel et al., 2013). It is also a part of top-down decision-making process when acceptance from inhabitants is needed to construct projects, decisions about which are taken at the national level, without public protests at the local level (Rau et al., 2012). ...
Book
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This book analyses the potential for active stakeholder engagement in the energy transition in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) in order to foster clean energy deployment. Public acceptability and bottom-up activities can be critical for enduring outcomes to an energy transition. As a result, it is vital to understand how to unlock the potential for public, community and prosumer participation to facilitate renewable energy deployment and a clean energy transition – and, consequently, to examine the factors influencing social acceptability. Focussing on the diverse BSR, this book draws on expert contributions to consider a range of different topics, including the challenges of social acceptance and its policy implications; strategies to address challenges of acceptability among stakeholders; and community engagement in clean energy production. Overall, the authors examine the practical implications of current policy measures and provide recommendations on how lessons learnt from this ‘energy lab region’ may be applied to other regions. Reflecting an interdisciplinary approach in the social sciences, this book is an essential resource for scholars, students and policymakers researching and working in the areas of renewable energy, energy policy and citizen engagement, and interested in understanding the potential for bottom-up, grassroots activities and social acceptability to expedite the energy transition and reanimate democracies.
Article
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Der Partizipationstrend ist seit Jahren ungebrochen: ob im Themenfeld Energiewende, in der Stadtentwicklung oder bei der Planung von Großevents – es soll mitgeredet werden bei der Gestaltung und Umsetzung von Politiken und Planungen. Eine genauere Betrachtung offenbart jedoch schnell erhebliche Diskrepanzen zwischen allgemeinen Beteiligungsforderungen, vagen Partizipationskonzepten und der methodischen Qualität von Partizipation. Dieser Beitrag widmet sich dem Thema Partizipation in Mensch-Umweltkontexten als Forschungs- und Anwendungsgegenstand aus sozialwissenschaftlicher, vornehmlich psychologischer Perspektive und gliedert sich in drei Schwerpunkte: erstens, dem Versuch einer strukturierenden Perspektive durch das Aufzeigen von unterschiedlichen Anwendungsfeldern und Systematisierungsansätzen, zweitens, einen Überblick über die aktuelle Partizipationskritik und drittens, dem Aufzeigen psychologischer Methoden zur qualitativen Verbesserung partizipativer Verfahren und deren systematischer Evaluierung.
Chapter
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Die Transformation des Energiesystems kann nur mit erheblichen Anpassungen und einem Umbau der Netzinfrastruktur gelingen. Die Energiewende ist sowohl auf eine allgemeine gesellschaftliche Akzeptanz der politischen Entscheidungen angewiesen als auch auf die lokale Bereitschaft der Bürger die Lasten und Risiken der Energiewende zu tragen. Überall dort, wo konkrete Verantwortungsübernahme gefragt ist, gibt es zunehmend Proteste und Mobilisierungen gegen die Stromtrassen. Um Konflikten zu begegnen und in konstruktive Bahnen zu lenken, werden in der öffentlichen Debatte verstärkt die Potenziale der informellen, dialogorientierten Bürgerbeteiligung herausgestellt. In unserem Beitrag arbeitet wir einerseits die empirischen Potenziale der Bürgerbeteiligung vor dem Hintergrund des Forschungsstandes heraus und anderseits die konkreten Herausforderungen, die sich daraus für die Planung und Umsetzung informeller, dialogorientierter Beteiligungsverfahren im Netzausbau, ergeben. Auf dieser Basis werden Schlussfolgerungen zu Grenzen von informeller dialogorientierter Bürgerbeteiligung gezogen.
Article
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Zusammenfassung Eine gelingende Energiewende und sichere Stromversorgung erfordern die Verstärkung und den Ausbau der Netzinfrastruktur. Ende 2015 wurde der Vorrang von Erdkabeln vor Freileitungen in siedlungsnahen Bereichen beschlossen, um den Netzausbau schneller zu realisieren und lokale Widerstände zu minimieren. Der Beitrag betrachtet die Wahrnehmung und Akzeptanz eines geplanten Erdkabelprojekts zum Stromnetzausbau im ländlichen Raum (Rheinisches Braunkohlerevier) aus der Sicht lokal betroffener Gruppen. Mittels qualitativer Interviews werden die Perspektiven betroffener Anwohner und Landwirte bezogen auf die Energiewende, den Netzausbau, Akzeptanz und Bewertung von Erdkabeln und Freileitungen im Allgemeinen sowie der geplanten Erdkabeltrasse und zugehöriger Nebenanlagen im Speziellen erhoben und miteinander verglichen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen gruppenbezogene Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede. Generell ist eine positive Einstellung beider Gruppen gegenüber der Energiewende und eine Präferenz für Erdkabel im Vergleich mit Freileitungen zu konstatieren. In Bezug auf beide Themen gibt es aber auch kritische Äußerungen. Trotz der generellen Präferenz für Erdkabel wird die konkrete geplante Erdkabeltrasse in der Untersuchungsregion von den betroffenen Anwohnern eher neutral, teils gleichgültig und in verschiedenen Punkten kritisch bewertet. Die Haltung der Landwirte ist aufgrund der Vielzahl wahrgenommener Nachteile eher ablehnend und führt partiell zu (aktiven) Widerstandshandlungen, die das Vorhaben verzögern könnten. Es wird deutlich, dass regionale Standortmerkmale und raum-zeitliche Prozesse, Gewöhnungseffekte sowie Erfahrungswissen eine wesentliche Rolle bei der Bewertung der geplanten Erdkabeltrasse spielen, die bei der Planung von Netzinfrastrukturprojekten berücksichtigt werden sollten.
Chapter
Human beings have always needed energy in order to survive. However, unlike other living organisms, human civilizations have developed tools throughout history and found new forms of energy to power them. As these tools have increased in complexity, humans have ensured their own well-being although this has come at a price to life on earth. This chapter presents the development of research concerning energy use from an environmental psychology perspective. In general, the studies in environmental psychology about energy are organized into two major topics: renewable energies and both efficient and reduced energy use (concern and saving). To present these studies, the chapter is divided into four sections. The first provides a short introduction to the social and psychological aspects of energy issues. The second explores the production and distribution of energy through studies about the acceptance and rejection of renewable energy production and distribution systems, including topics such as participation, place identity and perception of landscape change. Section three deals with energy efficiency and includes studies about managing demand, the use of energy-efficient devices and questions of how to prevent the rebound effect. The final section explores energy sufficiency through studies concerning energy demands, different energy cultures and sustainable energy communities.
Technical Report
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Ziel dieses Projektes ist es, diese Erfahrungen und das Wissen von ExpertInnen zusammen zu bringen, um ein möglichst präzises Bild vom Leben mit erneuerbaren Energien zu zeich-nen und Empfehlungen abzuleiten, wie die vorhandene Akzeptanz eines naturverträglichen Ausbaus der erneuerbaren Energien unterstützt und weiter gefördert werden kann. Im Rah-men unserer Studie wurden erstmals die Akzeptanzfaktoren „Naturschutz“ und „Interessen der AnwohnerInnen“ miteinander verglichen sowie Erfahrungen mit Solar-, Windenergie- und Biogasanlagen einbezogen. Zunächst fassten wir bereits vorliegende Forschungsergebnisse in einem Akzeptanzmodell zusammen. Es folgte eine Befragung in drei Regionen, in denen sowohl Windparks als auch Biogas- und Solaranlagen betrieben werden, die „Regionenbefragung“. Die Suche nach aus-sagekräftigen Untersuchungsräumen führte uns an Orte, die sich in ihren Eigenschaften er-gänzen: Neuenkirchen im Kreis Dithmarschen (Schleswig-Holstein), Heldrungen im Kyffhäu-serkreis (Thüringen) sowie die Stadt Lauterstein im Stauferland (Landkreis Göppingen, Ba-den-Württemberg). So liegen im Umkreis von Neuenkirchen gleich mehrere Windparks, in Heldrungen grenzt der Windpark an das circa 35 Quadratkilometer große Fauna-Flora-Habi-tat „Hohe Schrecke“, und in Lauterstein stehen 16 Windenergieanlagen in einem forstwirt-schaftlich erschlossenen Fichtenwald ⇢ Anhang, Untersuchungsregionen. An allen drei Orten haben wir im Laufe des Jahres 2018 lokale ExpertInnen und Anwohner-Innen befragt. Im Rahmen der ExpertInnenbefragung wurden insgesamt mehr als 30 an den Ausbauvorhaben beteiligte Personen interviewt, darunter politisch Verantwortliche, Projekt-entwicklerInnen, EigentümerInnen der Ausbauflächen und Anlagen, MitarbeiterInnen der ört-lichen Umwelt- und Bauämter und Naturschutzbehörden sowie VertreterInnen von Bürgerini-tiativen und von Natur- und Umweltschutzverbänden. Die detaillierten Ergebnisse dieser Ex-pertInnenbefragung liegt als gesonderter Bericht vor, frei verfügbar unter https:// www.bfn.de/themen/gesellschaft/bildung-kommunikation-und-akzeptanz/ akzeptanz.html. In der AnwohnerInnenbefragung thematisierten wir die Bürgerbeteiligung, wirtschaftliche Teilhabe an dem Projekt, den Ablauf der Planungs- und Genehmigungsprozesse, die Um-weltverträglichkeit der örtlichen Anlagen in Bezug auf Natur, Mensch und Landschaft sowie die bisherige Umsetzung der Energiewende. In Neuenkirchen, Lauterstein und Heldrungen nahmen jeweils zwischen 44 und 64 BürgerIn-nen im Alter von 18 bis 84 Jahre an der Befragung teil. Insgesamt befragten wir 158 Perso-nen, davon 42 Prozent Frauen und 58 Prozent Männer. Einen Großteil der Befragten wählten wir nach dem Zufallsprinzip aus und sprachen sie direkt an, ein kleinerer Teil meldete sich nach Aufrufen in der Lokalpresse. Etwa drei Viertel der Gespräche konnten im direkten Kon-takt vor Ort geführt werden, etwa ein Viertel der Befragten beantwortete unsere Fragen on-line. Um verlässliche, aussagekräftige Ergebnisse zu erzielen, haben wir die Ergebnisse un-serer Regionenbefragung mit anderen Befragungsergebnissen verglichen, die auf Basis ab-weichender Methoden in anderen oder den gleichen Regionen durchgeführt wurden. Die folgende Zusammenfassung bietet einen Überblick über die Themen und Ergebnisse. Bereits an dieser Stelle sei ein wesentliches Ergebnis vorweggenommen: Auch vor Ort wer-den EE-Anlagen mehrheitlich unterstützt, wenn der Ausbau für die AnwohnerInnen auch unmittelbar und nachvollziehbar natur- und umweltverträglich erfolgt – was vor Ort jedoch nicht immer ersichtlich ist. Als ein Beispiel sei hier nur der Umgang mit naturschutzfachlichen Ausgleichsmaßnahmen genannt. Eine differenzierte Darstellung der Ergebnisse liefern die anschließenden Kapitel. Hinweise auf wissenschaftliche Quellen, Referenzstudien und weiterführende Informationen finden sich am Schluss. Eine handliche Übersicht bietet die erwähnte zugehörige Broschüre (https://www.bfn.de/themen/gesellschaft/bildung-kommunikation-und-akzeptanz/akzeptanz.html). Diese Schriftenreihe wird unter den Bedingungen der Creative Commons Lizenz Namens-nennung – keine Bearbeitung 4.0 International (CC BY - ND 4.0) zur Verfügung gestellt (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/deed.de).
Conference Paper
Die Transformation des Energiesystems ist derzeit eine der größten Veränderungen in unserer Gesellschaft. Neben wirtschaftlichen und technologischen Herausforderungen ist die Akzeptanz der Öffentlichkeit bzw. der betroffenen Anwohner ein entscheidender Erfolgsfaktor. Der auf einem EU- und verschiedenen BMWi geförderten Forschungsprojekten basierende Beitrag befasst sich beispielhaft mit der öffentlichen Akzeptanz von Netzausbau-Maßnahmen und den dafür relevanten Faktoren aus umweltpsychologischer Perspektive. Die Untersuchungsergebnisse zeigen, dass neben eher technologiebezogenen Faktoren die subjektiv wahrgenommene Berücksichtigung der prozeduralen Gerechtigkeitskriterien bei den Planungs- und Genehmigungsverfahren im Zentrum steht. Transparenz, frühzeitige, regelmäßige und genaue Informationen sowie Möglichkeiten zur Beteiligung sind wichtige Einflussfaktoren in allen untersuchten Regionen. Hinsichtlich der Partizipation ist ein wesentlicher Diskussionspunkt die Frage der „richtigen“ Öffentlichkeitsbeteiligung, insbesondere bzgl. der Integration von formellen und informellen Beteiligungsmöglichkeiten sowie deren Berücksichtigung auf den unterschiedlichen Verfahrensstufen. In diesem Zusammenhang zeigen sich die Kommunikations- und Beziehungsstrukturen der beteiligten Akteursgruppen als wichtige Einflussgrößen. Hierbei wurde deutlich, dass insbesondere psychologische Dimensionen wie die existierenden Motivzuschreibungen sowie das Vertrauen in Glaubwürdigkeit und Kompetenz der handelnden Akteure relevante Akzeptanzfaktoren darstellen. Eine zentrale Empfehlung für die Planungspraxis ist es, die der Bundesfachplanung vorgelagerte Vorplanungsphase als weichenstellendes Zeitfenster zu nutzen und dementsprechend besonderes Augenmerk auf die Gestaltung von Beteiligungsmöglichkeiten in diesem Rahmen zu legen.
Article
The present contribution addresses the results of a longitudinal study in a ‘bioenergy-region’ concerning the public acceptance of biomass plants and the corresponding influencing factors. Using a standardized questionnaire, 423 persons were polled between 2009 and 2011 on three points of measurement in four places in the bioenergy-region Altmark. One main result of the study is that the reported public acceptance remains constantly high over time; nevertheless it became evident that the respective influencing factors differ in their strength, whereas the perceived regional benefit shows a strong connection to the reported public acceptance of biomass plants at each point of measurement. Concluding the research results, the acceptance of biomass plants doesn't seem to be a fixed construct, but has to be seen in context of the respective experiences with plants on a local level over time. In addition to the local population, key actors of the regional biomass sector were also interviewed (N = 26). The analyses show significant differences in the perception and evaluation of the current informational level between the population and the key actors. Furthermore, the key actors estimated the utilisation of biomass even more positively and expected a greater ‘signal function’ of the bioenergyregion-project compared to the population.
Article
The promotion of low carbon energy and associated infrastructures for tackling climate change is a central task for governments worldwide. However, public and, mainly, local, opposition to those infrastructures may slow down or even halt that process. Thus, in the last few years a body of research has developed specifically to understand the social acceptance of technologies such as wind turbines or bioenergy plants. We argue that the use of ‘acceptance’ in this literature should be further discussed. We contend that using the word ‘acceptance’ may present some constraints for the theoretical advancement of this area of research and to the implications that may be taken from it to the wider society. This is further highlighted through the presentation of findings from surveys conducted with nationally representative samples from the UK and Norway which examined their acceptance of and support for new high voltage power lines. We conclude by suggesting that the literature on public responses towards low carbon energy and associated infrastructures should be more critical in the conceptualisation of its research agenda, become empirically more consistent and transparent, and examine other types of relations between people and energy infrastructures besides acceptance or opposition.
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