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... A better understanding of RAE in youth players would raise the awareness of the need to reduce bias due to (de)selection [36]. In general, a birthdate closer to the beginning of the year (e.g., in the first three months) is associated with an athletic advantage, resulting in an over-representation of athletes born early in the year [79,80]. ...
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This review aimed to identify and synthesize the most significant literature addressing talent identification and development in futsal. A systematic review of Web of Science™ (all databases), Scopus, PubMed and SPORTDiscus databases was performed according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. This study included original articles in English, Spanish or Portuguese containing relevant data on talent development/identification of male futsal players. The search yielded 238 articles. After screening, a total of 32 manuscripts were fully reviewed. The quality of the data reviewed was generally good. Results indicate that the most successful players exhibit technical, tactical, anthropometric, physiological and psychological advantages and are distinguished from lower-level players based on their earlier dedication to training. This review highlights the need for those involved in the process of identifying and developing talented futsal players to consider the technical and tactical skills of futsal players, along with their anthropometric and physiological characteristics, scaled to age. Finally, special attention should be paid to the supportive psychosocial environments created in sports academies for developing futsal players. Overall, talent identification and development programmes in futsal need to be dynamic and offer the possibility of changing assessment parameters in the long term.
... Sports tournaments for young athletes are often organized based on categories gathered according to year of birth, and it leads to conflicts among peers who were born in the same year, or within a 2-year time interval (Musch & Grondin, 2001). Thus, children born in January and December of the same year who compete to each other present differences close to one year of life, whereas this difference may mean approximately 20% of the total age of the young athlete in categories grouped every two years (Barnsley, Thompson, & Barnsley, 1985;Mujika et al., 2009). Since the 1980s, the literature provides information showing that coaches and sports managers tend to select athletes born in the first months of the year to participate in organized competitions and to be promoted to higher performance levels (Cobley, Baker, Wattie, & McKenna, 2009). ...
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The relative age effect on the selection of young athletes and the performance of Brazilian futsal teams El efecto de la edad relativa en la selección de jóvenes atletas y el rendimiento de los equipos brasileños de fútbol sala Efeito da idade relativa na seleção de jovens atletas e no rendimento de equipes brasileiras de futsal RESUMEN (150 palabras) (mismo orden que títulos) Objetivo: El objetivo del presente estudio es evaluar el efecto de la edad relativa en la selección de los atletas jóvenes y el rendimiento de los equipos de fútbol sala. Métodos: Se recopiló la fecha de nacimiento de 2.676 jóvenes atletas (femeninos: n=292; masculinos=2.384) que jugaban en las categorías Sub-9 a Sub-20 de fútbol sala brasileño. Los atletas fueron categorizados en base al cuartil y al semestre de nacimiento. La posición final de los equipos en el torneo fue categorizada como finalista, semifinalista y no semifinalista. Se aplicó la prueba chi-cuadrada, el V de Cramer y los modelos de regresión logística multinómica. Resultados: Los datos apoyaron la hipótesis sobre la tendencia a seleccionar atletas que nacieron en los primeros meses del año en equipos masculinos, pero no se observó lo mismo en equipos femeninos. Además, sólo los atletas de la categoría Sub-13 que nacieron en el primer semestre del año presentaran un 50% de posibilidades de estar entre los finalistas del torneo cuando se comparan con sus compañeros. Aplicaciones prácticas: La edad relativa tuvo efecto en el equipo de atletas masculinos jóvenes, pero tal efecto no se asoció con el rendimiento positivo de los equipos de fútbol sala, excepto para la categoría Sub-13. Por lo tanto, se recomienda a los entrenadores de atletas jóvenes valorar otros factores en el momento para seleccionar y componer sus equipos dentro del contexto evaluado aquí. Palabras clave: Maturación; Identificación de talentos; Desarrollo de jóvenes; Competición. ABSTRACT (150 words) (same order that title) Aim: The aim of the present study is to assess the effect of relative age on the selection of young athletes and the performance of futsal teams. Methods: The date of birth of 2,676 young athletes (female: n=292; male=2,384) playing in the U-9 to U-20 categories of Brazilian futsal was collected. The athletes were categorized based on quartile and on the semester of birth. The final position of the teams in the tournament was categorized as finalist, semifinalist and non-semifinalist. The chi-square test, the Cramer's V and multinomial logistic regression models were applied. Results: The data supported the hypothesis about the trend to select athletes who were born in the first months of the Cita: Leonardi, T.J.; Kunrath, C.A.; Silva, I.F.d.; Rucco, G.d.S.; Aires, H.; Berger, A.G.; Cardoso, M. F.d.S. (2022). The relative age effect on the selection of young athletes and the performance of Brazilian futsal teams. Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte, 22(3), 212-226 Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte, 22, 3 (septiembre) Leonardi et al. 214 year in male teams, but it was not observed in female teams. Additionally, only athletes in the U-13 category who were born in the first semester of the year present 50% chance to be among the finalists in the tournament when they are compared to their peers. Practical application: The relative age had effect on the team of young male athletes, but such an effect was not associated with the positive performance of futsal teams, except for the U-13 category. Thus, coaches of young athletes are recommended to value other factors at the time to select and compose their teams within the herein assessed context. Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo é avaliar o efeito da idade relativa na seleção de jovens atletas e o desempenho das equipes de futsal. Métodos: Foi coletada a data de nascimento de 2.676 jovens atletas (feminino: n=292; masculino=2.384) jogando nas categorias Sub-9 a Sub-20 do futsal brasileiro. Os atletas foram categorizados com base no quartil e no semestre de nascimento. As equipes foram agrupadas de acordo com a posição final no torneio como finalista, semifinalista e não semifinalista. Foram aplicados o teste de Qui-quadrado, V de Cramer e os modelos de regressão logística multinomial. Resultados: Os dados corroboraram a hipótese sobre a tendência de selecionar atletas nascidos nos primeiros meses do ano em equipes masculinas, mas isso não foi observado em equipes femininas. Além disso, apenas atletas da categoria Sub-13 que nasceram no primeiro semestre do ano apresentaram 50% de chance de estar entre os finalistas do torneio quando são comparados aos seus pares. Aplicações práticas: Houve efeito da idade relativa na seleção de jovens atletas do sexo masculino, mas tal efeito não esteve associado ao desempenho positivo das equipes de futsal, com exceção da categoria Sub-13. Assim, os treinadores de jovens atletas são recomendados a valorizar outros fatores no momento para selecionar e compor suas equipes dentro do contexto aqui avaliado.
... The relative age effect in sports was first made among elite ice hockey players in Canada in the early 1980s (Barnsley et al., 1985;Grondin et al., 1984;Van Den Honert, 2012). Since then, the relative age effect has been used in handball (Schorer et al., 2009), soccer (Cobley et al., 2008), basketball (Delorme & Raspaud, 2009), baseball (Thompson et al., 1991), rugby (Till et al., 2010), swimming (Nagy et al., 2015), tennis (Edgar & O'Donoghue, 2005), and volleyball (Okazaki et al., 2011). ...
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Objective: to examine relative age effect and its effect on league ranking in Turkish female's first football league. Method: the data of 2684 players, who participated in the league between 2012 and 2019 was gathered from the official website of The Turkish Football Federation and their birthdates were divided into quarters by month. To test the extent of the relative age effect in each season, a chi-square test was used to assess the observed and expected birth distribution across the sample of players. Chi-square values were followed up by calculating Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (95%CI) for the quartile distributions in order to examine subgroup differences. Significance level was accepted as 0.05. Results: it has been found that there is the relative age effect among all season birth-quarters distributions (X 2 =90.858, p<0.05). Each season evaluate separately, it was found significant differences in five season which include.05). It has been found that there are significant differences among teams' birth-quarter distributions according to league ranking in each season (p<0.05). Conclusion: this study was presented that there is relative age effect in Turkish woman soccer players. Even though all season league ranking assessment for the relative age effect was found statistically differences, it is difficult to say that the relative age effect is an important factor for success.
... One determinant that has been associated with participation in the physical activity context of organized sport is relative age. Relative age refers to the difference in age between individuals in a cohort [17,18], such as those grouped within the same grade in the school system. These age groupings are intended to help promote developmentally appropriate instruction and competition [19,20]. ...
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Despite their prevalence, the longitudinal impacts of relative age effects (RAEs) on sport and other forms of physical activity (PA) are understudied. This study examined longitudinal participation patterns in organized sport (team and individual), unorganized PA, and non-participation with respect to RAEs in a prospective cohort of adolescents. Data from the first 24 cycles of the MATCH study were used for analyses. Elementary students (n = 929) were recruited from 17 schools in Atlantic Canada. Respondents self-reported PA three times/year. Mixed multilevel logistic models compared the likelihood of participating in each context across birth quarter. Chronological age and gender were considered, along with the interaction between chronological and relative age. Individuals born in Quarter 1/Quarter 2 were more likely to report participation in organized team sport but not individual sports. Relatively older participants born in Quarter 2 were more likely to report participation in unorganized PA. Increasing chronological age was associated with decreased participation in organized sport (particularly team-based) and increased non-participation. Gender was not associated with organized sport participation, but girls were under-represented in unorganized PA and more likely to report non-participation. The interaction parameters suggested that RAEs were consistent throughout adolescence in each context. Longitudinal analyses suggest RAEs are context dependent.
... In the sports field, relative age can be defined as the chronological age difference that occurs between athletes of the same age group (Lorenzo-Calvo et al., 2021;Diaz del Campo, 2013). The collection of consequences derived from this difference in a birthdate is commonly referred to as the RAE (Lorenzo-Calvo et al., 2021;Barnsley, Thompson, Barnsley, 1985). In other words, it is a theory that if a grade is composed of people born from January to December, students born in January will inevitable have better physical, cognitive, and mental development than students born in December (Minsoo, Jiwun, Hyo-Jun, 2021;Sedano, Vaeyens, Redondo, 2015). ...
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Success in sports depends on several factors. One of those factors is a psychological and physical advantage, or in other words psycho-physical maturity. Relative age effect (RAE) is one of the phenomenons which can give advantages or disadvantages in sports competitions. Because of this particular effect, many children and young people experience unfair competition conditions. The goal of this study was to detect the difference in RAE existence between genders in sports by analyzing research about RAE in sports, published between 2017 and 2021. Accordingly, scientific databases „Google Scholar", „Web of Science" and „Research Gate" were used for extraction of adequate scientific papers (n=16). Analyzed papers cover a total of 25 sports (14 individual and 11 team sports). Results of this research suggest the greatest impact of RAE among young males (<18 years old), RAE occurs in 81,81% of analyzed samples. The male sample is also affected by RAE, with 85,71% of occurrence among the overall male sample, and 42,86% among the sample composed of males only. There is no significant tendency among females only, while RAE occurs among half of the female samples. The majority of RAE-positive female samples belong to individual sports while the majority of male samples belong to absolute bodyweight sports. No significant differences were found between sports and among the sample of Olympic games competitors. Also, it can be stated that RAE depends on many factors and effects, which can be controlled to a greater extent. Future research should focus on the analysis of the existence of RAE between sports, especially boundaries between groups of sports and among Olympic competitors.
... Such a policy leads to certain significant consequences with regard to participation, performance and success in sports Musch & Grondin, 2001). The "relative age" refers to those chronological age differences between individuals due to the cut-off dates to assign individuals into certain age categories, and all of the advantages, disadvantages and consequences caused by this phenomenon are called "relative age effect" (RAE) (Barnsley et al., 1985). A growing body of literature has examined RAE to gain a more thorough understanding of the underpinning mechanisms Hancock et al., 2013;Wattie et al., 2015). ...
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Relative age effect is a worldwide phenomenon referring to the subtle age-related (dis)advantages of athletes in the same age category, particularly in soccer and ice-hockey. Although well-established knowledge has been achieved to a certain extent, a need for further research is still valid considering different demands of each sport and possible differences in the course of time. The purpose of this study was to investigate the participation trends among elite figure skaters in the world regarding relative age effect, and to determine whether a decade has made a difference. The study sample was composed of 2313 figure skaters competing between 2009-10 and 2018-19 seasons. They were categorized into four quartiles according to their birth months. Total and season by season analyses were conducted to project any possible seasonal effect over a decade. Chi-square (χ²) goodness-of-fit tests were used to determine asymmetries in distributions, and odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals were used to compare quartiles with each other. Effect sizes were calculated using Cramer’s V (V). The results differed for disciplines and genders. Relatively older male skaters in pairs discipline were significantly overrepresented (χ² = 8.528, p = 0.036, V = 0.11) and a trend favoring relatively younger skaters was determined in men’s singles discipline through the last three seasons. Season-based analyses revealed no relative age effect except for the last three seasons. In conclusion, disciplines of figure skating seem to have complex and different demands regarding relative age effect, and time seems to become a determinant for further studies.
... The RAE was first explored in a sporting context in a study of adult Canadian ice hockey players (n = 715), where Barnsley et al. (1985) discovered that 61.8% of players were born in the first six months of the year, with players being twice as likely to be born in BQ1 compared to BQ4. Since then, numerous studies have assessed the frequency and impact of the RAE in team sports such as volleyball (Rubajczyk and Rokita 2020), basketball (Gonçalves and Carvalho 2021), handball (Schorer et al. 2013), Australian rules football (Coutts et al. 2014;Tribolet et al. 2019), rugby league (Till et al. 2010;Cobley et al. 2014), rugby union (Kelly et al. 2021a), and soccer (Del Campo et al. 2010;Dugdale et al. 2021). ...
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Background: Background: In the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA), Talent Academies (TAs) and senior teams cater for high-performing players. However, only two previous studies have quantified the relative age effect (RAE; i.e., a selection bias favouring those born near the beginning of the cut-off date) in these cohorts. Additionally, no studies have explored stakeholder understanding of the RAE using qualitative methods. Aim: This study aimed to: (a) quantify the RAE in TAs and senior teams, and (b) investigate stakeholder perspectives of the talent development environment, providing practical insight into the RAE. Methods: A mixed methods sequential explanatory study design was employed. Phase one involved a retrospective analysis of longitudinal data for the frequency and distribution of births using TA (n = 12,445) and senior (n = 8,752) players. Phase two comprised two focus groups of key stakeholders [coaches (n = 4) and Talent Development Leaders (n = 4)] at TA and senior level. Results: Analysis revealed a significant difference between TA birth quarter (BQ) distributions compared with expected distributions (P < 0.001; BQ1 = 30.4% vs. BQ4 = 17.6%), whereas at senior level, there were no significant differences observed (χ2 (df = 3) = 3.812, P = 0.282). In phase two, inductive analysis revealed three higher-order themes: (a) understanding of the RAE, (b) selection criteria, and (c) player characteristics. Conclusion: The GAA are encouraged to reflect on the practice of chronological age band grouping, investigate possible solutions to limit the effects of the RAE, and offer support programmes to educate key stakeholders.
... One such factor suggested as underpinning these selection biases is the relative age effect (RAE) [7,8]. The inevitable chronological grouping of children as they enter the education system has been shown to promote early advantage for those born just before or after the academic cut-off date (11). ...
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(1) Background: There is abundant literature in talent development investigating the relative age effect in talent systems. There is also growing recognition of the reversal of relative age advantage, a phenomenon that sees significantly higher numbers of earlier born players leaving talent systems before the elite level. However, there has been little investigation of the mechanisms that underpin relative age, or advantage reversal. This paper aimed to investigate (a) the lived experience of relative age in talent development (TD) systems, (b) compare the experience of early and late born players, and (c) explore mechanisms influencing individual experiences. (2) Methods: interviews were conducted with a cohort of near elite and elite rugby union players. Data were subsequently analysed using reflexive thematic analysis and findings considered in light of eventual career status. (3) Results: challenge was an ever-present feature of all players journeys, especially at the point of transition to senior rugby. Psycho-behavioural factors seemed to be a primary mediator of the response to challenge. (4) Conclusions: a rethink of approach to the relative age effect is warranted, whilst further investigations of mechanisms are necessary. Relative age appears to be a population-level effect, driven by challenge dynamics.
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Sporcu gelişimi alanyazınında yılın son aylarında doğan sporcuların kronolojik yaş gruplarına ayrılma sonucu gelişimsel fırsatlarla eşit oranda buluşamaması bağıl yaş etkisi olarak tanımlanmıştır. Önceki çalışma bulguları, bağıl yaş etkisini genellikle yalnızca sporcu doğum aylarının çeyrekler bazında retrospektif olarak incelenmesine dayanır. Yarışmacı spor ortamlarında bağıl yaş etkisinin varlığının ve bunun nedenlerinin farklı veri kaynaklarından çok boyutlu incelenmesi, spor programlarının çocuk ve gençlere adil öğrenme ve gelişim fırsatları yaratabilmesi için üretilecek stratejilerin belirlenmesinde oldukça önemlidir. Bu çalışmanın amaçları, yarışmacı gençlik futbol ortamında bağıl yaş etkisinin var olan durumunu saptamak ve ekolojik bakış açısıyla bağıl yaş etkisinin oluşumunu etkileyen unsurları incelemektir. Çalışmada öncelikle 17 spor kulübünden 12-18 yaş yarışmacı futbolcuların (n = 676) aya bağlı (çeyrek) doğum tarihleri incelenmiştir. Nicel verilerin analizinde betimsel istatistik kullanılmıştır. Bağıl yaş etkisinin nedenlerinin ekolojik bakış açısıyla incelenmesinde aynı spor ortamından antrenörler (n = 10) ile yarı yapılandırılmış görüşmeler yapılmıştır. Görüşmeler, Tematik Analiz yoluyla incelenmiştir. Çalışma bulguları, bağıl yaş etkisinin incelenen spor ortamındaki süreğenliğine ve antrenörlerin bağıl yaş etkisi ile ilgili düşük farkındalık ve bilgiye sahip olduklarına işaret etmektedir. Ayrıca bulgular, incelenen spor ortamındaki sosyal ekolojik etkenlerin bağıl yaş etkisinin oluşumuna ve sürdürülmesine etkileri ile ilgili derinlikli bilgi sunmaktadır. Bulgular, güncel sporda bağıl yaş etkisi ve sporcu gelişimi alanyazınları ile tartışılmış ve sonraki çalışmalar için önerilerde bulunulmuştur.
Thesis
Traitant la question du meilleur régime économique dans une démarche de philosophie politique appliquée, nous menons une critique du capitalisme d’un point de vue non pas marxiste mais libéral, au sens de la doctrine fondant la démocratie moderne. Nous appliquons les critères de justice de Rawls aux statistiques de Piketty sur les inégalités pour montrer que le capitalisme est injuste, ce qui exige de forger une interprétation projective, réellement applicable, du principe de différence. Passant de l’évaluatif au prescriptif, nous proposons un régime alternatif : l’équitéisme, qui place en son cœur non plus le capital, mais l’équité. Plutôt que l’accroissement de la réglementation ou de la fiscalité, nous prônons une réforme en profondeur des institutions organisant la circulation de la richesse (la monnaie), sa production (l’entreprise) et sa transmission (l’héritage). Ligne de crête entre libertarianisme et républicanisme, cet institutionnalisme libéral requiert une forme de criticisme juridique distinguant, au sein du droit positif, deux types de dispositions : celles qui transcrivent des droits naturels à sanctuariser (propriété, liberté contractuelle) et celles du « droit positif pur » que l’État institue souverainement, pour conférer aux agents des droits surérogatoires par rapport aux droits naturels. Cela autorise la mise en place des trois piliers de l’équitéisme : la monnaie libre (désencastrée du marché de la dette), l’entreprise partenariale (émancipée de l’actionnariat) et l’héritage universel (libéré du cadre lignager). Échappant à l’emprise du capital, cette économie de marché non capitaliste respecterait la justice commutative, distributive et attributive.
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