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The structure of value: Accounting for taste, in affect and cognition: The seventeenth annual Carnegie symposium on cognition

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... Lorsque l'éco-certification et la marque sont présentées ensemble, une différence entre leurs origines peut créer une incongruence modérée, par rapport au cas où les deux attributs portent la même origine. Dans le domaine de la publicité, certains chercheurs (Mandler, 1982) ont montré que l'efficacité du message augmente lorsque les signaux mobilisés sont congruents ou modérément incongruents. S'agissant de la labellisation, cependant, il n'existe aucune preuve empirique de l'impact de l'« éco-certification », de la « marque » et de leur congruence dans l'explication de l'évaluation des produits éco-certifiés et marqués. ...
... Cependant, une telle situation est rare, car il est difficile de trouver une correspondance totale entre les caractéristiques attendues et les caractéristiques réelles (Festinger, 1957). Ainsi, Mandler (1982) suggère que le passage du concept d'incongruence à celui de congruence est sous-tendu par l'idée d'un continuum, et qu'une incongruence modérée génère une évaluation plus positive qu'une congruence. La Figure 1 illustre la théorie de la congruence de Mandler. ...
... La plupart du temps, la valeur lors du processus d'adaptation est négative, car l'incongruité schématique intense conduit à un sentiment d'impuissance. A partir de ce modèle, Mandler (1982) a estimé qu'une incongruence intense conduit à un jugement positif ou négatif, alors qu'une congruence élevée crée une évaluation légèrement positive. En ce qui concerne l'incongruence modérée, son effet positif a été confirmé dans des études antérieures (Dahlén et al., 2008 ;Meyers-Levy et Tybout, 1989). ...
Article
Dans la littérature sur la consommation responsable, il est couramment établi que les informations sur l’éco-certification, la marque et le pays d’origine ont des effets sur le comportement des consommateurs. Cette recherche étudie comment l’origine de l’éco-certification et l’origine de la marque interagissent entre elles et influencent l’intention d’achat pour les produits verts. L’expérimentation inter-sujets de type 2 (éco-certification: nationale vs. étrangère) × 2 (marque : nationale vs. étrangère), menée auprès de 640 consommateurs vietnamiens, montre que les répondants sont plus enclins à acheter des produits verts de marques nationales. Elle souligne, en revanche, que la mention de l’origine de l’éco-certification n’a pas d’effet significatif sur l’intention d’achat. En outre, un effet d’incongruence modérée entre l’origine de l’éco-certification et l’origine de la marque est partiellement confirmé. Ces effets sont modérés par l’implication vis-à-vis du produit, la familiarité avec la marque, la familiarité avec le produit et les caractéristiques démographiques des individus. Les résultats obtenus ont permis de proposer différentes préconisations théoriques et managériales.
... In particular, this study expects that the product type moderates the impact of the review type on review helpfulness. Interestingly, according to Mandler (1982), a congruent relationship is not very noteworthy, that is, congruent information is processed less elaborately than incongruent information, and, therefore congruent information is not as memorable as incongruent information. If we apply the Mandler (1982) schema-congruity theory to this study, we may say that a customer review would be more helpful when the product type is mismatched with the review type. ...
... Interestingly, according to Mandler (1982), a congruent relationship is not very noteworthy, that is, congruent information is processed less elaborately than incongruent information, and, therefore congruent information is not as memorable as incongruent information. If we apply the Mandler (1982) schema-congruity theory to this study, we may say that a customer review would be more helpful when the product type is mismatched with the review type. For example, reviews incorporating utilitarian sentences or words could increase the review helpfulness when the product is hedonic. ...
... Interestingly, however, the result of this study coincides with earlier studies that argued that ads promoting hedonic functionality over utilitarian are more preferable when the product is utilitarian (Lim & Ang, 2008). As described earlier when proposing hypotheses, this kind of outcome may occur because incongruity between ads/review type and product type makes viewers/listeners/reviewers process the incongruent information more elaborately and make it more memorable (Mandler, 1982). ...
Article
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Online sales can be influenced significantly by customer reviews, and thus there are several studies on what makes an online review helpful to consumers. However, none of those researches address the review helpfulness in the context of hedonic and utilitarian review types. This study examines how product type (hedonic and utilitarian) moderates the relationship between the level of review type (hedonicity and utilitarianity) and review helpfulness. To test the moderating effects, customer review data for perfume and bar soap product was collected from Amazon.com and analyzed by using a text-mining tool (QDA Miner) and a structural equation modeling software (AMOS 22.0). The results of this study indicate that the product type moderates the impact of the review type on review helpfulness when product type and review type are incongruent. Further, results show that the number of sentences in a customer review affects the review helpfulness when product type is utilitarian.
... We draw on schema congruity theory to support haptic cue congruity. Mandler (1982) suggests that schemas are representations of experience that guide action, perception, and thought. Schemas, which are available at different levels of generality and abstraction occur as a result of our interactions with the environment. ...
... Schemas, which are available at different levels of generality and abstraction occur as a result of our interactions with the environment. Such activation arises out the concatenation of certain variables of a schema, such as a certain size or a range of colors (Mandler, 1982). From a marketing perspective, congruity is represented by a match between the attributes of an object or product and a relevant schema (Meyers-Levy & Tybout, 1989). ...
... Conversely, schema incongruity is a case of interruption of expectations and predictions (Mandler, 1982). Incongruity involves some form of mismatch (Meyers-Levy & Tybout, 1989). ...
Article
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The present research builds upon the touch literature to show that the salience of haptic product attributes related to product surface texture (smooth, rough) and weight (light weight, heavy weight) influence consumer product impressions. We propose that haptic cue congruity across texture and weight drive consumer product impressions depending on a consumer's need for touch (NFT). We show that high autotelic‐NFT consumers who touch for sensory pleasure enjoyed the incongruity between smooth texture and heavy weight haptic cues, and consequently showed favorable evaluations towards exciting brands. In contrast, low autotelic‐NFT consumers prefer the anticipated match between smooth texture and light weight haptic cues, which conformed to their expectation about the nature of a sophisticated brand personality. Further, we show how the interactive effect of haptic attributes and a consumer's autotelic‐NFT on willingness to purchase is mediated by product personality. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
... Passer du multicanal au cross-canal implique donc de mieux prendre en compte les jeux d'interactions des canaux et d'identifier l'intensité souhaitable de leur cohérence (Vanheems, 2006 ;Puccinelli et al., 2009 (Mandler, 1982), l'harmonieuse combinaison de plusieurs éléments (la très bonne image du site et des magasins, leur congruence qui a l'avantage de ne pas remettre brutalement en cause le schéma initialement établi, la familiarité avec les deux canaux, mais aussi la caution apportée par une attitude très favorable envers l'enseigne) a enclenché un phénomène d'assimilation, se traduisant par une modification graduelle du schéma initial de type bookkeeping (Weber et Crocker, 1983). Cette mise en relief inédite de la diversité des schémas mentaux qui supportent les jugements de congruence, n'a été permise que par notre parti pris conceptuel de considérer ici la congruence des canaux non plus comme une variable modératrice, mais comme une variable médiatrice comme l'ont aussi démontré Badrinarayanan et al. (2012). ...
... Sur un plan plus théorique, le fait qu'une incongruence modérée des canaux ne produise pas d'effet particulier sur la décision des clients remet en cause, du moins dans le contexte de la distribution multicanal, les conclusions de Mandler (1982) et Meyers-Levy et Tybout (1989). ...
... En distinguant théoriquement et empiriquement la congruence du fit non plus dans le domaine des extensions de marques mais dans celui des extensions de circuits de distribution, une seconde recherche (Bèzes et Dubois, 2013) 3 contribue à cet effort indispensable de clarification des concepts. Dans un premier temps, elle montre que la similarité relationnelle est en fait la congruence théorisée par Mandler (1982) et opérationnalisée en marketing par Meyers-Levy et Tybout (1989). ...
... Therefore, consumers would mostly prefer new products that are moderately incongruent. This inverted U shape relation between perceived incongruity and product evaluation has been explained by schema congruity theory (Mandler, 1982), and over the years many studies have supported the idea of an inverted U shape relation between product incongruity and product evaluation (Campbelland Goodstein, 2001;Jhang et al., 2012;Maoz and Tybout, 2002;Meyers-Levy and Tybout, 1989;Noseworthy et al., 2014). ...
... A schema is a stored framework that contains information about product categories, such as product attributes and their links with each other, and prototypic exemplars (Fiske and Linville, 1980). Schema congruity theory predicts an inverted U shape relation between perceived incongruity and product evaluation: moving from products that are perceived as congruent to products that are perceived as incongruent, consumer evaluations first increase and then decrease (Mandler, 1982;Meyers-Levy and Tybout, 1989). Specifically, when consumers perceive the product to be congruent with their schema, consumers evaluate the product mildly positive, because consumers like their expectations to be confirmed. ...
... Incongruent products are more noteworthy than congruent products, and thus evoke more cognitive elaboration (Peracchio and Tybout, 1996). Successfully resolving such incongruity can lead to positive affect, such as curiosity and interest (Berlyne, 1966;Mandler, 1982;Noseworthy et al., 2014). However, when consumers perceive too much incongruity in products, understanding the product can be elusive to consumers, even after deliberation (Mandler, 1982;Peracchio and Tybout, 1996). ...
Article
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Previous research has shown that perceived incongruity affects product evaluations in an inverted U shape. However, it remains unclear whether this relation also occurs at individual levels with continuous incongruity measures, and for products with repurposed materials. Five within-subjects studies do not show the inverted U relation across all participants. Instead, consumer subgroups show a monotonic relation: higher congruity leads to higher product evaluations. This aligns with processing fluency theory. Additionally, we demonstrate that the degree of processing from raw to end materials and the extent to which materials fulfil product functions mediate the effect of repurposed materials on perceived incongruity.
... With greater fluency, with some possible exceptions (e.g. humor ads) (Yoon, 2013), relevant ads will be better appreciated than an irrelevant ad (Mandler, 1982). Although not easily controllable, relevance for native ads placed on social media should be considered important for its success. ...
... In this case, the previously discussed relevance effect on ad evaluations will become manifest; if the native ad is in alignment with the content posts, it will increase favorable ad responses (e.g. Cho and Boster, 2005;Mandler, 1982). The thematic connection between the content and the native ad will help increase fluent processing and thus, will be received more favorably (Germelmann et al., 2020). ...
... Germelmann et al., 2020;Kim and Sundar, 2010) and some have specifically investigated ad-media congruence for in-feed native ads (e.g. but the current research helps build further arguments that ad-content relevance could be important, while considering SNS user factors. This helps expand the applicability of schema theory (Mandler, 1982) to explaining native ad effects thematically relevant to surrounding media content on different social media platforms such as Instagram and Twitter. ...
Article
Purpose Native advertising on social media continues to be a popular ad placement for marketers. With native ad-content relevance in need of further exploration regarding individual differences and social media public sentiment waning, this study set out to test the effects of ad-content relevance of native ads varying by users' pre-existing social networking site (SNS) attitude. Design/methodology/approach Two experiments were conducted with native ads relevant and irrelevant to the surrounding media content with SNS attitude as a measured moderator and perceived ad importance as the mediator. Findings Across Instagram and Twitter, SNS attitude moderated the effect of ad relevance on ad responses. Users that had lower SNS attitudes had significantly higher ad ratings that were relevant (vs. irrelevant) to the media content, while those that had higher SNS attitudes did not show differences. The lower SNS attitude individuals showed a greater appreciation for the relevant ads through the mediating effect of perceived importance. Practical implications Marketers need to look beyond traditional ad attitude models and craft ad content strategies that consider target audiences' SNS preferences. Layering targeting tactics on Instagram and Twitter such as “interests” and “life events” with demographic targeting could help increase the chances of ad-content relevance. SNSs should advance their ad placement tools and utilize image, speech, and text recognition algorithms to help achieve ad-content relevance for greater ad effectiveness. Originality/value This study adds to the literature by identifying SNS attitude as a qualifier of ad-content relevance effect for SNS native ads and uncovering perceived ad importance as the underlying psychological mechanism.
... Lorsque l'éco-certification et la marque sont présentées ensemble, une différence entre leurs origines peut créer une incongruence modérée, par rapport au cas où les deux attributs portent la même origine. Dans le domaine de la publicité, certains chercheurs (Mandler, 1982) ont montré que l'efficacité du message augmente lorsque les signaux mobilisés sont congruents ou modérément incongruents. S'agissant de la labellisation, cependant, il n'existe aucune preuve empirique de l'impact de l'« éco-certification », de la « marque » et de leur congruence dans l'explication de l'évaluation des produits éco-certifiés et marqués. ...
... Cependant, une telle situation est rare, car il est difficile de trouver une correspondance totale entre les caractéristiques attendues et les caractéristiques réelles (Festinger, 1957). Ainsi, Mandler (1982) suggère que le passage du concept d'incongruence à celui de congruence est sous-tendu par l'idée d'un continuum, et qu'une incongruence modérée génère une évaluation plus positive qu'une congruence. La Figure 1 illustre la théorie de la congruence de Mandler. ...
... La plupart du temps, la valeur lors du processus d'adaptation est négative, car l'incongruité schématique intense conduit à un sentiment d'impuissance. A partir de ce modèle, Mandler (1982) a estimé qu'une incongruence intense conduit à un jugement positif ou négatif, alors qu'une congruence élevée crée une évaluation légèrement positive. En ce qui concerne l'incongruence modérée, son effet positif a été confirmé dans des études antérieures (Dahlén et al., 2008 ;Meyers-Levy et Tybout, 1989). ...
Article
In the mainstream of green consumption literature, it is asserted that information on eco-certification, brand, and country-of-origin has certain effects on consumer behavior. This study explores how eco-certification origin and brand origin would interact and influence the consumers’ purchase intent for green products. To achieve this objective, the authors conducted a 2 (eco-certification: domestic vs foreign) × 2 (brand: domestic vs foreign) between-subject experiment with 640 Vietnamese respondents. The results indicate that Vietnamese consumers are more inclined to purchase green products with domestic brands, while eco-certification origin has no main effect on such behavior. Moreover, a moderate incongruity effect between eco-certification origin and brand origin is partially confirmed. These effects are moderated by the product involvement, brand familiarity, product familiarity, and individuals’ demographic characteristics. The authors consequently draw theoretical and managerial implications from the results obtained.
... Second, by building on schema-congruity theory (Mandler, 1982), we answer Noseworthy, Di Muro, and Murray (2014) call to explore the role of congruence in generating curiosity for a new product. While recent work suggests that less congruent new products can drive curiosity (Daume & Hüttl-Maack, 2020;Sääksjärvi, Gill, & Hultink, 2017), to our knowledge, no prior research has examined the impact of congruence in the context of social media. ...
... According to Mandler (1982) schema-congruity theory, new information aligned with existing knowledge structures is deemed schema congruent, while new information that does not fit into an existing semantic network is often rejected given its schema incongruity. Scholars use the term "congruence" almost interchangeably with terms such as "fit" and "similarity" (Hayran & Gürhan-Canli, 2016). ...
... Conversely, low congruence obstructs-and may even prevent-the transfer of such associations. According to schema-congruity theory, the mismatch between new information and existing schemas and expectations about a brand and the resulting difficulty to resolve extreme incongruity drive negative evaluations of the incongruent information (Mandler, 1982). Scholars have demonstrated the robustness of this congruity-affect relationship, while identifying boundary conditions (Campbell & Goodstein, 2001;Maoz & Tybout, 2002;Meyers-Levy & Tybout, 1989;Noseworthy et al., 2014;Noseworthy & Trudel, 2011;Stayman et al., 1992). ...
Article
When new products are announced, stakeholders often expect them to be congruent with the brand. Nevertheless, brands often go against stakeholders’ expectations and announce less congruent new products. However, the effects of brand congruence on consumers’ brand engagement (i.e., the sharing and commenting of posts) are not well understood. Drawing on schema-congruity theory, we show that (1) consumers are more curious about less congruent new products announced on social media, (2) this curiosity drives their intention to engage with the posted announcement, and (3) brand background operates as a boundary condition of this effect. While prior work shows that high congruence drives positive evaluations of brand extensions, we find that this positive effect only holds for brands with a traditional (vs. non-traditional) background. We demonstrate the robustness of our findings across three experiments using real and fictitious brands.
... This result is interesting in light of the literature on information congruity. Mandler's (1982) work on congruity theory has been highly influential across many contexts. This author asserts that stimuli with moderate incongruity is often most preferred by consumers as they combine their curiosity for new experiences with the ability to link the incongruent information with previous knowledge held in memory. ...
... Another limitation is that our study design does not allow for examination of possible curvilinear effects of shopping goal congruent promotions on satisfaction (Mandler, 1982). Future research may investigate retailers' use of several types of congruent and incongruent shopping information to understand if moderate and extreme levels of incongruity adds to our understanding of omnichannel initiatives. ...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to investigate whether customer satisfaction varies when presented with different types of omnichannel promotions (shopping goal-congruent vs shopping goal-incongruent and monetary vs non-monetary promotions) and if the effect on satisfaction is mediated by service excellence. In addition, this paper examines whether consumers respond differently to these promotions when shopping for utilitarian or hedonic products or when they have an inherent utilitarian or hedonic shopping motivation. Design/methodology/approach Two online shopping scenario experiments are conducted. Study 1 ( n = 1,034) differentiates effects of omnichannel promotions between hedonic and utilitarian product categories. Study 2 ( n = 345) contrasts hedonic and utilitarian shopping motivation in the same product category. Findings The findings in this paper demonstrate positive effects from both presenting a shopping goal congruent and a monetary promotion in an omnichannel setting on customer satisfaction. The positive effects are explained by service excellence and are demonstrated to be attenuated in the hedonic product category and for consumers with a hedonic shopping motivation. Research limitations/implications The effect of omnichannel promotions was demonstrated using a scenario-based experimental approach, future research should use field experiments. Practical implications The findings in this paper demonstrate practical implications for a retailer who wishes to optimize its omnichannel promotion strategy across channels and touchpoints. Originality/value To date there is little directions for retailers on how to optimize their omnichannel promotion strategy. This paper contributes to research and practice by demonstrating that shopping goal-congruent promotions (vs in-congruent) and monetary promotions (vs non-monetary) increase customer satisfaction more in an omnichannel context. The effects are enhanced for utilitarian (vs hedonic) products/shopping motivation.
... Hence, a more elaborate way of information processing is activated to resolve or make meaning of the incongruity (Lee and Schumann 2004). It is therefore claimed that (a moderate level of) incongruity has the greatest potential to draw people's attention and encourage them to process information more elaborately (Fleck, Korchia, and Le Roy 2012;Lee and Schumann 2004;Mandler 1982). ...
... Hence, these effects will be stronger when cognitive resources are available, as is the case during media multitasking with high task relevance in comparison with that of low task relevance. In contrast, congruent information is perceived to fit better with the schema and expectations of consumers and is therefore evaluated more positively (Mandler 1982). Information processing ease is higher, resulting in more positive attitudes toward the information. ...
Article
Online advertising banners are often subject to banner blindness, meaning that people avoid looking at them. The current study examines whether web surfing while watching television, a form of media multitasking, influences how people respond to online ad banners. The experimental study examines whether people respond differently to an online ad banner which thematically fits with the website content (i.e., banner congruity) and which is animated (i.e., banner animation), taking into account the relevance between media tasks (whether the content of the television program and the website are related). Individuals’ cognitive (visual attention paid to the banner, measured by eye-tracking technology) and attitudinal (online banner irritation) advertising responses are measured as dependent variables. The results indicate that during media multitasking with high task relevance, higher visual attention was obtained for an incongruent (versus congruent) ad banner. When task relevance was low, no such differences were found. This two-way interaction effect was not significant for banner irritation. Further, a significant three-way interaction with task relevance, banner congruity, and banner animation was found on banner irritation but not on visual attention. Concretely, the lowest levels of banner irritation were obtained for a congruent, animated banner in a media multitasking context with high task relevance.
... As cognitive misers in general (Stangor and Duan, 1991), it takes efforts for us to mentally jump from one topic to another, which can have high switching costs and can be cognitively taxing (Mayr and Kliegl, 2000). Schema congruent information will likely create a positive effect, as there is "familiarity, acceptability, and a basic sense of liking" (Mandler, 1982). Sometimes incongruity can increase arousal, memory and positive attitudes due to the unexpected surprise it creates. ...
... However, such positive incongruity effects seem to be reserved for more specialized message content, such as humor and shock (Yoon, 2013). Even then, incongruity strategies can be fraught with peril as the resolution of the incongruity (being able to successfully, and with some degree of ease, place the information in an activated or existing schema) could be difficult, and therefore, can cause confusion or irritation (Mandler, 1982). It may also be reserved for cases where the individual has the cognitive resources and the motivation to take on the incongruity puzzle (Yoon, 2013). ...
Article
Social media have become an increasingly important venue for prosocial campaigns. Competing for the public’s attention in the digital space is an ongoing challenge. This study aims to test the influence of ad-context congruence, ad position and ad type (i.e. public service advertising [PSA] vs cause-related brand [CRB] advertising) on the effectiveness of prosocial native advertising on social media. Two experiments were conducted on different social media platforms (i.e. Twitter and Instagram) with varied prosocial issues (i.e. healthy eating and environmental sustainability). Experiment 1 indicated that the congruence between prosocial native ads and social media feeds elicited greater ad involvement and a more favorable ad attitude, regardless of ad position. Experiment 2 revealed that such an impact was contingent on whether the prosocial native ad was a public service ad or a CRB ad. The positive influence of ad-context congruence was pronounced among public service ads but was not observed among CRB ads. Perceived ad involvement mediated the interaction effects between ad-context congruence and ad type on ad attitude and behavioral intention. The study extends ad-context congruence research to the context of prosocial native advertising on social media. Moreover, it identifies ad type as a boundary condition for the congruence effects and reveals that increased ad involvement is the mechanism underlying the positive effect of congruent PSA.
... Consequently, additional consistent messages are less likely to prompt extensive cognitive elaboration (Meyers-Levy and Tybout 1989). This suggests that when fit is high (high consistency), lack of inconsistency is unarousing, and customers have little need to resolve minor differences, and cognitive elaboration with respect to the inconsistency should be low (Mandler 1982). Therefore, in high-fit conditions, customers have low motivation to process information as communicated, so that communication would have little effect on customer certainty nor moderate the relationship between SOF and customer certainty. ...
... Prior research found that consumers feel more favorable about products that are moderately incongruent with their associated schemas than those that are extremely incongruent or completely congruent (e.g., Meyers-Levy and Tybout 1989). In addition to differences in arousal and the need to resolve incongruity and difficulties in doing so developed above, Mandler (1982) argues that the process of cognitive elaboration is rewarding in and of itself, and therefore, more personal benefits occur for moderate versus low or high incongruity. Based on the aforementioned logic, we hypothesize that Hypothesis 5: Marketing communication moderates the relationship between SOF and customer certainty in an inverted U-shape manner: When fit is high, communication has no effect on certainty nor on the relationship between fit and certainty; when fit is moderate, communication has a positive effect on certainty and negatively moderates the relationship between fit and certainty (i.e., reduces the impact of fit on certainty); and when fit is low, communication has a negative effect on certainty and also positively moderates the relationship between fit and certainty (i.e., increases the impact of fit on certainty). ...
Article
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Despite a long-standing interest in service offshoring from both academics and practitioners, the questions how and under what conditions customers react when a well-known national brand decides to outsource its services to an offshore service provider (OSP) is an understudied area. Drawing on cognitive consistency theory, we test a new construct called, “service offshoring fit” (SOF) that captures customer overall perceptual consistency in their memory networks between the focal firm and the OSP as indicated by the suitability, appropriability, and logicality of the alliance. Using 393 responses from a panel of customers of focal brands, we show that customer certainty mediates the relationship between SOF and intention not to switch by current customers. Our findings also reveal an inverted U-shaped relationship between marketing communications and customer certainty at different levels of SOF. Specifically, if firms communicate consumers’ benefits associated with offshoring, they can mitigate or avoid negative customer reactions (and subsequently increase customer certainty); however, after a certain point, such effects are reduced.
... Las experiencias se interpretan en términos de nuestros esquemas actuales, a medida que se descubren nuevos eventos se ajustan a los actuales con ciertos ajustes de organización y a partir de ahí se emiten juicios basados en dos estructuras (Mandler, 1982): la estructura de la evidencia externa -aquella que se obtiene de la exposición al mundo-y la estructura de la mente del observador -basada en las experiencias pasadas y las expectativas actuales-, cuando la entrada de los datos, se realiza desde un proceso automático, se selecciona un esquema coincidente, por lo que las caracterizaciones homogéneas podrán otorgar características familiares al momento de su interacción y posible asimilación. ...
... Koestler (1964), utiliza una técnica de creatividad llamada bisociación, que la conecta la con marcos de referencia, específicamente al conectar información no esperada en espacios congruentes (esquema de incongruencia) se genera un contraste en las reacciones placenteras de los eventos a los que se está familiarizado, se estimula la atención y el proceso cognitivo (Mandler, 1982). Los niveles de incongruencia pueden elevar la intensidad emocional, separando lo que se encuentra con lo que se esperaba, eleva la excitación fisiológica, lo que puede valorar el suceso como interesante (si el nivel de discrepancia es extremo puede conducir a la experiencia negativa), para entender la congruencia e incongruencia Sanabria De acuerdo con Sternbert y Lubart (1991), la creatividad consiste en cinco componentes: ...
Thesis
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La vivencialidad educativa a través de la realidad virtual es una propuesta de mediación tecnológica que pretende renovar las posibilidades pedagógicas del docente y las capacidades de aprendizaje de los estudiantes desde un enfoque de reconstrucción inmersivo, el cual considero a la enseñanza activa, situacional y experiencial dentro de su estructuración teórica, para posteriormente amplificarlas a través de “vivencias virtualizadas".
... This is why, for example, congruence between the values of the firm and those of the consumer contributes to his/her satisfaction and loyalty (Sirdeshmukh et al., 2002). But the parallel between satisfaction and congruence does not stop there, since individuals can use a cognitive mechanism of assimilation to manage slight dissatisfaction (Latour and Peat, 1979) and to reduce moderate incongruence (Mandler, 1982). The positive affect induced by moderate incongruence (Mandler, 1982) can also be explained by the satisfaction of having found a suitable solution for what is finally an acceptable cognitive effort (Garbarino and Edell, 1997). ...
... But the parallel between satisfaction and congruence does not stop there, since individuals can use a cognitive mechanism of assimilation to manage slight dissatisfaction (Latour and Peat, 1979) and to reduce moderate incongruence (Mandler, 1982). The positive affect induced by moderate incongruence (Mandler, 1982) can also be explained by the satisfaction of having found a suitable solution for what is finally an acceptable cognitive effort (Garbarino and Edell, 1997). On the other hand, if the dissatisfaction or incongruence is too strong, an accommodation or contrast mechanism is activated (Sherif and Hovland, 1961). ...
Purpose No other research analyzes the formation of overall satisfaction across channels, including the reciprocal interactions between store and website satisfaction and the factors that moderate them. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to examine how overall customer satisfaction is formed from the image and perceived congruence of the two main existing channels and the satisfaction induced by each. Design/methodology/approach The online study covers 909 customers of a French mortar-to-click retailer specializing in women's and children's clothing. The conceptual model incorporates reciprocal interdependence between store satisfaction and website satisfaction. This model is tested using the procedure specific to non-recursive structural equation model. Findings Overall satisfaction with the retailer is not only generated by satisfaction with the store and the website, but also directly and indirectly by the image of each channel. The contribution of the variables depends on the personal and situational characteristics of the customer. Not only is the relationship confirmed from store satisfaction to website satisfaction, but for the first time, in rarer cases the reverse is also observed. On the other hand, while the perceived congruence of channels can improve satisfaction with the channel for certain types of customers, in other cases the congruence can also worsen customers' overall satisfaction. Research limitations/implications The detailed analysis of the formation of this satisfaction shows the pre-eminence of the customer over the retailer's initiatives. A retailer may facilitate or encourage virtuous interaction between retailer's channels by making the transfer of information and products more fluid (click and collect for example); but in the end, the customer is the one who decides whether or not to bring the channels closer together. Originality/value Contrary to what the literature assumes, in some cases, the retailer's attempt to integrate the channels may even reduce overall satisfaction if customers do not want this integration, just as a high level of satisfaction on the website can reduce in-store satisfaction.
... Thus, the likelihood is greater that pseudo-reviews at this early stage may be of similar/equal number as authentic reviews. We adopt Yoon's (2013) four-stage process model that integrates Schema Incongruity Theory (Mandler, 1982) and Optimal Stimulation Level ("OSL," Zuckerman, 1979) as the guiding conceptual framework to explain how consumers might process and react to pseudo-reviews among authentic reviews. Consumers apply their pre-existing mental schemas of what constitutes an online review, comprised of all the mental connections and semantic associations that form the understanding of the "review" construct, which are developed and reinforced with each successive exposure to online reviews (Bartlett, 1932;Beals, 1998;Bright Local, 2017). ...
... The mere recognition of incongruity does not automatically lead to careful processing of the incongruous stimulus; it must provide an optimum level of stimulation (Crowley & Hoyer, 1994;Lichtlé, 2007;Mandler, 1982) for further processing to occur (Yoon, 2013). If the stimulation level is too low or too high, further engagement does not occur as it is not enough or too much to warrant further engagement. ...
Article
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A pseudo-review is a type of online user-generated review (“review”) posted on an e-commerce website that often resembles an authentic review on the surface, telling an exaggerated story about alleged product use. However, while authentic reviews often include humor as a stylistic device to convey a genuine product evaluation, pseudo-reviews use humor to mock some product aspect. This research introduces, conceptualizes, and investigates consumer response to pseudo-reviews. Study 1 demonstrates that pseudo-reviews have little effect on product attitude when presented in isolation. However, in Study 2, when pseudo-reviews are presented together with authentic reviews, they negatively affect attitude and purchase intentions, but only to a limited extent, in that medium level incongruity (2 pseudo-reviews and 2 authentic reviews) ratings were lower than the control condition (no pseudo-reviews and 2 authentic reviews). The low level (one pseudo-review) and high level (four pseudo-reviews) incongruity conditions had no distinguishable effects on product evaluations compared to the control conditions. The paper discusses theoretical implications for schema incongruity and optimal stimulus level literature streams, as well as managerial implications for companies that seek to understand how to manage their online reputation given the growing importance and prevalence of user-generated content.
... This final observation is interesting because of its link with the theory of the 'moderate incongruity effect' (Mandler, 1982) derived from the works of Berlyne (1970) in experimental aesthetics. According to this theory, the relationship between novelty and aesthetic appreciation follows an inverted U curve (Blijlevens et al., 2012;Hekkert et al., 2003;Schoormans and Robben, 1997). ...
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This research investigates the introduction of innovative designs through content and semiotic analyses of the visual codes of two wine regions: one known to be traditional (Bordeaux) and the other to be innovative (Barossa Valley). The content analysis indicates that the Australian wines differentiate themselves by choosing various themes and styles of illustration, while still conforming to the dominant visual codes for the layout, composition, typefaces and colours. Furthermore, the semiotic analysis shows that the themes and styles of illustration introduced in the Barossa category carry 'signifieds' that are relevant to the product category. Thus, the results indicate that the Barossa wineries fulfil two conditions suggested by the literature: moderate novelty and 'ideal incongruence' (unexpected but relevant). More importantly, by analysing the meanings of the visual codes used in the two wine regions, this work decodes the elements of graphic design language for the wine category, thus elucidating how it is possible to create a wine label that is unexpected but relevant. Finally, the research allows the identification of four main strategies for brand positioning and indicates how to express them through label graphic design.
... As empirical research has generally found high congruence leads to positive advertising effectiveness, we predict that highly congruent ad content will result in less negative consumer responses toward ads due to their persuasion knowledge activation. On the other hand, ads with low congruence lack connection to the established schema of the article's earlier content (McDaniel 1999), thereby making the comprehension of new information difficult (Mandler 1982). Given this, low congruence ads could accelerate the activation of persuasion knowledge and increases the effect of persuasion knowledge on advertising effectiveness. ...
Article
WeChat Official Accounts, subscription-based accounts that broadcast information to followers, have become a popular venue for native advertising in China. This study investigated the effects of individuals’ ad skepticism and ad-content congruence on native advertising effectiveness in WeChat Official Accounts, as well as the mediating role of advertising value on the interaction effect of ad skepticism and ad-content congruence. Results showed that ad skepticism negatively influenced perceived ad effectiveness. Ad-content congruence positively influenced perceived ad effectiveness only for individuals with high ad skepticism, because they perceived more advertising value in congruent native ads than incongruent native ads.
... A significant volume of research explored the concept of celebritybrand congruence or fit and its influence on consumer attitudes. The congruence hypothesis originated in psychology, where Mandler (1982) defined congruence as 'a structural correspondence between two entities.' Researchers in marketing and consumer behavior afterward have considered 'congruence' as a 'match' between two entities or simply a measure of two entities going together. ...
Article
The present study extends research on the role of celebrity endorsements in destination marketing by exploring various facets of the effect of celebrity endorsements in destination marketing on the consumer. More specifically, theories of source credibility, congruence, social identity and consumer cosmopolitanism, are used to build research questions that investigate the relative effectiveness of a celebrity endorsed tourism advertisement vis a vis a generic advertisement and the boundary conditions governing the same such as destination type (local/global), celebrity country of origin and consumer level factors. The research questions are addressed using four experimental studies in sequence. The same four experiments are run in three countries with different socio-cultural backgrounds to enhance generalization, with a combined sample size of 1073 respondents. Major findings suggest that a celebrity endorser is effective for a destination advertisement. Significant cross-country differences were observed in consumer affect depending on the choice of celebrity (local or global) and the destination type (i.e., domestic or international). The effects are also moderated by consumer cosmopolitanism. The study has multiple theoretical and managerial implications.
... Meanwhile, incongruence theory proposes that when information is consistent, there is little elaboration. In contrast, when information is inconsistent, there is more elaboration (Mandler, 1982). Thus, inconsistent information leads to more attention and elaboration (Heckler and Childers, 1992). ...
Article
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Retailers like to use different colors to present the sale price and original price when they are presenting a promotion price. How does the inconsistent color presentation of the prices influence consumers’ purchase likelihood? The extant research does not consider this question. This article will address this question. Drawing on incongruence theory and the persuasion knowledge model (PKM), this article proposes that when the color of the sale price is inconsistent (vs. consistent) with that of the original price, consumers show less preference for the sale price. The reason is that consumers perceive the price as being less trustworthy, which leads to a lower purchase likelihood. Furthermore, this effect is affected by the brand awareness of products. Specifically, when products are less-known brands, the inconsistent (vs. consistent) colors of the sale price and original price will lead to a lower purchase likelihood. In contrast, when products are well-known brands, the inconsistent (vs. consistent) colors of the sale price and original price will lead to a high purchase likelihood. In this article, four studies are used to verify these hypotheses, and implications of theory and practice of the present research are discussed.
... Weiner (1985) suggests that low fit causes greater elaboration because uncertainty leads to more thinking and searching for reasons. Mandler (1982) argues that people perceive thoughts related to low fit, such as incongruity and unexpectedness, as negative-which in turn may lead to negative attitudes toward the sponsorship (Fazio & Williams, 1986;Houston & Fazio, 1989). ...
Article
The current research investigates the factors associated with the efficacy of cause-related marketing campaigns. A pilot study and three experiments using different supported causes demonstrate that consumers’ beliefs about changeability influence their responses to CRM efforts. Specifically, we examine under what conditions and why self-benefit frames (vs. other-benefit frames), which highlight how supporting a cause can also be beneficial for consumers (vs. emphasize helping those in need), promote or inhibit the persuasiveness of CRM campaigns. We demonstrate that growth mindsets respond more positively to CRM campaigns with other-benefit (vs. self-benefit) frames when the fit between the firm and the supported cause is high. The findings show that procedural-fairness beliefs and positive-outcome perceptions drive this effect. Conversely, fixed mindsets respond more favorably to CRM campaigns focused on helping others when the firm–cause fit is lower. Positive-outcome perceptions appear to drive this effect.
... Incremental innovations include a low level of technological change in product design, usually perceived well by consumers and they can adapt the new product easily. Since the changes in the product are limited, the new scheme of the product is consistent and easy to understand compared with the old one (Mandler, 1982). Another reason for the success of adaptation to incremental technological changes is the low degree of effort required. ...
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This study aims firstly to determine the differences in effects between perceived usefulness and ease of use, attitude, and behavioral intention towards a product. The focus will be on the use of a technological attribute in product design in the frame of the technology acceptance model. Secondly, this study aims to examine whether or not these effects differ according to product type. Four different questionnaire forms were designed using the scenario technique and experimental design. The research data were collected from 504 people by a face-to-face survey method. The data were subjected to MANOVA and Multiple Group Structural Equation Modeling. As a result of this research, it was found that the effects among the variables within the technology acceptance model were significant. When the obtained model is evaluated according to the product design and product type, it is concluded that the model differs in the case of using a technological attribute in product design, but does not differ according to product type, and the model was valid for all product types.
... Events which, after cognitive processing, can be adapted to alternative schematizations, that is, with a somewhat delayed congruity, tend generally to be experienced as agreeable (G. Mandler 1982Mandler , 1984cf. also Ranta 2000: 239-240). ...
Article
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The theoretical debate on the nature of narrative has been mainly concerned with literary narratives, whereas forms of non-literary and especially pictorial narrativity have been somewhat neglected. In this paper, however, I shall discuss narrativity specifically with regard to pictorial objects in order to clarify how pictorial storytelling may be based on the activation of mentally stored action and scene schemas. Approaches from cognitive psychology, such as the work of Schank, Roger C. & Robert P. Abelson. 1977. Scripts, plans, goals and understanding. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum; Mandler, Jean Matter. 1984. Stories, scripts, and scenes: Aspects of schema theory. London/Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum; Schank, Roger C. 1995. Tell me a story: Narrative and intelligence. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, suggest that cognition crucially depends on the storage and retrieval of action scripts or schemata, that is, narrative structures, which may occur at various levels of abstraction. These schemas incorporate generalized knowledge about event sequences, such as the order in which specific events will take place; causal, enabling, or conventionalized relations between these events, and what kind of events occur in certain action sequences. There also are scene schemas that are characterized by spatial rather than temporal relations. Further kinds of schemas seem also to play a decisive role. Drawing upon considerations from schema and script theory, I will focus on some concrete examples of pictorial narration, more specifically depictions of the Annunciation of the Virgin Mary, where narrative schema structures become involved and, indeed, the comprehensibility of the pictures as such presuppose mental script representations.
... The IGA may have a different impact on the consumer's attitude based on familiarity or unfamiliarity of the brand. Mandler (1982) suggested that consistent messages that match well with the individual's schemas result in creating more favorable responses. However, Mau, Silberer, and Constien (2008) found that unfamiliar brands gain a favorable attitude, though the attitude toward the familiar brand deteriorates due to their presence in games. ...
Article
Gamification on the mobile platform through the concept of online games has the potential to create unprecedented engagement with customers. With the growth in the gamification market due to the increase in internet penetration and the number of mobile devices, it has become one of the potential channels to reach and influence young consumers who spend more time on gaming. There is a shortage of empirical evidence on the impact of gamification on online consumer decisions. This study uses 'psychological ownership theory' and 'schema theory' to examine the effects of gameful experience (GFUL) on the attitudes of online gamers (N = 326). Data were analyzed using AMOS 25 and Process Macro for SPSS. The analytical results indicated that GFUL is mediated through both the intervening variables (perceived in-game advertisement effectiveness and psychological ownership), which positively influence gamers' attitudes towards the game and in-game advertising. Further, the study investigated the impact of in-game advertisement intrusiveness. Based on the research findings, this study proposed the theoretical and managerial implications.
... Simply put, congruence describes "how well things go together" (Maille and Fleck, 2017). Many studies base their reasoning on Mandler's (1982) hypothesis that evaluations of an object's characteristics depend on the overarching category to which an Consumptionsupportive packaging functionality object belongs. More specifically, this means that it is generally beneficial when a (new) product feature meets underlying expectations because individuals will make their (product) evaluations based on how similar (i.e. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide the first empirical evidence on how consumption-supportive packaging functionality influences consumers’ purchase intentions. Consumption-supportive packaging functionality implies that the packaging itself serves a function that actively helps users achieve their consumption goals and that supports the objectives consumers have in mind when using it. Design/methodology/approach To achieve the research goal, this study presents four between-participant experimental studies. In the studies, this paper tests for the direct effect of consumption-supportive packaging functionality on consumers’ purchase intentions across different product categories. Moreover, this study tests for the mediating effect of perceived product meaningfulness to explain the underlying mechanism (Studies 2 and 3) and for the moderating effect of product complexity (Study 4). Findings This paper shows that consumption-supportive packaging functionality leads to higher purchase intentions. The findings also reveal that perceived product meaningfulness is one underlying mechanism that helps us to explain the positive effect of consumption-supportive packaging functionality on purchase intention. Moreover, findings reveal that the positive effect of consumption-supportive packaging functionality only works for low-complex products, but not for high-complex ones. Research limitations/implications This research offers a new perspective on package design, and thus advances the understanding of how to package functionality can influence consumer responses. Moreover, this study contributes to the Gestalt theory because it applies a holistic design view on the packaging that influences product perception. Practical implications For low complex products, marketing managers should consider integrating packaging functionality into their communication strategy to focus on the overall Gestalt of the product. Product designers should integrate consumption-supportive packaging functionality in the product design to evoke positive consumer responses. Originality/value The research gives first empirical evidence on how and when consumption-supportive packaging functionality influences consumers’ product evaluations.
... Previous work on stores within stores shows that highimage and low-image fit between the stores is viewed favorably (Banerjee and Drollinger, 2017). For parent brand-image fit, Congruity Theory (Mandler, 1982) suggests that high fit causes consumers to assimilate any slight incongruity into in one of the existing brand image schemas (Meyers-Levy, 1991). However, in low fit, consumers employ an accommodation strategy where they form a new unique schema or brand image because they find it difficult to interpret and rearrange existing schema information (Lee and Schumann, 2004). ...
Retailer brand collaborations are an underexploited way for retailers to expand product lines and target new segments relatively quickly and cheaply, yet little work has explored the area and the influence of important factors in the image inheritance process remains unknown. Using data from two experiments involving 240 subjects, we examine the role of brand type, brand strength and the fit between parent and brand collaboration product categories to show that a new retail product's image inherits more characteristics from a symbolic parent brand (even when the brand is weak) and when there are higher degrees of parent retailer-image fit. However, fit between the new retail collaboration's product category and that of the parent brands is only important for functional brands. The results help retailers decide which partner to choose to maximize image inheritance.
... An influential framework by Mandler (1982) showed that consumers make sense of information (marketing stimuli) after thorough conscious or unconscious evaluation, which affects how they classify such information as congruent or incongruent. According to Mandler's proposition, a congruent campaign will influence positive schematic processing, which will conform to the consumer's expectations, thereby arousing positive feelings. ...
Chapter
“Sponsorship: Practices and Benefits in Emerging Markets” details the strategic sponsorship activities and mechanisms that can be implemented to communicate with customers and other stakeholders.
... Liu et al. (2017b) adopt the same technique and conclude that consumer preferences peak for designs at average levels of brand consistency and prototypicality. These findings align well with psychology theory that posits that people prefer moderate incongruity (Mandler 1982). ...
Article
The rise of unstructured data (UD), propelled by novel technologies, is reshaping markets and the management of marketing activities. Yet these increased data remain mostly untapped by many firms, suggesting the potential for further research developments. The integrative framework proposed in this study addresses the nature of UD and pursues theoretical richness and computational advancements by integrating insights from other disciplines. This article makes three main contributions to the literature by (1) offering a unifying definition and conceptualization of UD in marketing; (2) bridging disjoint literature with an organizing framework that synthesizes various subsets of UD relevant for marketing management through an integrative review; and (3) identifying substantive, computational, and theoretical gaps in extant literature and ways to leverage interdisciplinary knowledge to advance marketing research by applying UD analyses to underdeveloped areas.
... To further elaborate onto incremental innovation, a threefold of main features has been established through literature. First of all, Mandler (1982) observed that organizations tend to lean on the side of incremental innovation, since it appears to benefit from low-intensity emotions and represents a certain degree of certainty and safety. Secondly, Rosenberg & Steinmueller (1988) argued that technical changes are incremental within a given industry, based on the use of knowledge and imitation. ...
Book
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This monograph investigates the involvement of firms in strategic alliances and the interplay with organizational absorptive capacity and organizational ambidexterity. The theoretical work highlights the positive aspects, as well as the negative aspects, for firms engaging in strategic alliances. The main contribution relates to the evaluation of both positive and negative outcomes of various types of strategic alliances. This monograph presents different avenues for firms regarding how to benefit from strategic alliances in terms of innovation, while avoiding threats such as unintended knowledge spillovers.
... Yapılan çalışmalarda hareketli nesnelerin öğrenme materyali olarak kullanılmaya başlanması ve animasyonların akılda tutma ve anlama üzerindeki etkisi incelenmiştir. Bu incelemeler sonucunda animasyonlu nesnelerin anlama üzerinde etkisi olduğunu söyleyen çalışmalar olduğu kadar herhangi bir etkisi olmadığını belirten çalışmalar da ilgili literatürde yer almaktadır (Rieber, 1989;Rieber ve Hannafin, 1988;Schank, 1979;Kintsch, 1980;Mandler, 1982). ...
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z Biçimlendirici deney deseni kullanılarak yapılan bu araştırmanın amacı arttırılmış gerçeklik teknolojisi ile hazırlanmış metinler aracılığıyla ilkokul 3.sınıf öğrencilerinin yazılı anlatım seviyelerinde artış sağlamaktır. Araştırmaya Siirt il merkezindeki bir devlet okulunda öğrenim görmekte olan 88 ilkokul 3.sınıf öğrencisi katılmıştır. Araştırma ilk hafta ön-test ve son hafta son-test olmak üzere toplam 8 hafta sürmüştür. İkinci ve yedinci haftalarda araştırmacı tarafından geliştirilmiş olan arttırılmış gerçeklik temelli kitaplar kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın nitel kısmı için yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme formları hazırlanmıştır. Her hafta metinler okunduktan sonra hikâyeye yönelik öğrenci görüşleri alınmış ve bir sonraki hikâyede neler olmasını istediklerine yönelik sorular sorulmuştur. Buradan elde edilen verilerle, kod, kategori ve temalara ulaşılmıştır. Bunun sonucunda öğrencilere her hafta kendi isteklerine göre arttırılmış gerçeklik temelli hikâye metinleri sunulmuştur. Öğrencilerin okunan her hikâyeden sonra bireysel olarak gelişimlerini gözlemlemek için tekrarlı ANOVA, ön-test ve son-test puanları arasındaki farkı belirlemek için ise bağımlı gruplar t-testi yapılmıştır. Araştırmanın ön-test ve son-test puanları karşılaştırıldığında arttırılmış gerçeklik temelli çocuk kitaplarının yazılı anlatım becerisi üzerinde anlamlı bir etkisi olduğu sonucuna varılmıştır.
... (value) (Cronin et al. 1997;Dodds and Monroe 1985;Drew and Bolton 1987;Heskett et al. 1990;Holbrook and Corfman 1985;Mandler 1982;Perry 1926;Sewall 1901;Zeithaml 1988). ...
... The stimulus of immersive VR is unusual in nature so can cause schema incongruity, making it difficult for users to readily categorize it, resulting in an increase in affect or arousal -for example, emotion (Fiske, 1982;Mandler, 1982). Prior research (Cox & Locander, 1987) has also indicated that perceptions of novelty can be framed as affective. ...
... Whereas our study confirms the importance of congruence between influencer and product characteristics (Erdogan 1999;Kamins and Gupta 1994), congruity theory and research has shown that mild incongruence can sometimes result in more favorable brand evaluations (Groza, Cobbs, and Schaefers 2012;Mandler 1982). This is often linked to a novelty effect, where the unexpected has positive effects (Yoon 2013), however only when the incongruities can successfully be resolved (Groza, Cobbs, and Schaefers 2012). ...
Article
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Social media influencers are increasingly employed as product endorsers, and a growing body of academic research confirms that influencers are an effective advertising instrument. However, more research is needed on the specific influencer characteristics driving this success, and the processes responsible for these effects. In this study, we investigated to what extent product-influencer fit and number of followers interact in contributing to positive advertising outcomes and influencer evaluations. Moreover, we investigated to what extent perceived credibility of the influencer and identification with the influencer mediate these relationships. We conducted a 2 (poor vs. good product-influencer fit) X 2 (moderate vs. high number of followers) between-subjects experiment among 432 Dutch Instagram users. Participants were exposed to Instagram posts of health and fitness influencers who endorsed either a protein shake (good-fit) or ice cream (poor-fit). Results showed that fit and number of followers seem to work in tandem: although influencers with a high number of followers are liked more, and their endorsements result in a more positive attitude toward both the ad and product, and a greater likelihood to buy the advertised product as compared to influencers with a moderate number of followers, the endorsed product should fit the influencer’s self-branded image for these positive effects to occur. Moreover, effects were all mediated by perceived credibility and identification, which appear to be important drivers of influencer endorsement effects. Together, our findings contribute to a growing body of knowledge on the processes driving audience responses to influencer marketing, and provide clear guidelines for practitioners.
... Congruence deals with determining the similarity, match, fit, or alignment between the conceptually distinct functions or components (Edwards, 1994). Mandler (1982) defined congruence as an "assessment of the fit between two or more strategic entities" within the businesses or organizations when juxtaposed (Lee et al., 2020). The interrelation or relatedness amongst strategic aspects can be effectively projected through a congruence identification (Fry and Smith, 1987;Germelmann et al., 2020). ...
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Purpose This study provides a systematic review of the literature within the manufacturing strategy (MS) domain focusing on the congruence aspect of different strategic functions to determine the state-of-the-art research progression and the trend of publications. Design/methodology/approach We have adopted a five-stage review methodology consisting - 1) Article Identification; 2) Inclusion/Exclusion; 3) Review of the Articles; 4) Literature Analysis; 5) Future research directions. 121 articles focusing on congruence aspects and specific to the MS domain are identified and reviewed. Bibliometric analysis comprising keyword co-occurrence using a VOSviewer© software, and citation analysis is performed. Further, content analysis is carried out to categorize articles based on the type of research methodology, type of tool/method used, and aspects considered for congruence study. Findings Based on the research gaps identified in the existing literature on the congruence aspect within the MS domain, this study offers future research directions. Majorly, the work found is an empirical survey. Literature scants to develop a framework that helps to quantify the congruence between two strategic functions. Research limitations/implications This study facilitates researchers and practitioners to understand the congruence between different strategic aspects studied in the literature and the level of fit between them. Further, the identified research directions can encourage researchers and practitioners to conceive novel approaches to conduct future works on congruence theme. Originality/value The unicity of the current review lies in its theme, i.e. congruence aspect within MS. To the best of author's knowledge, no comparable study is observed to review the congruence aspect in any other domain.
... An influential framework by Mandler (1982) showed that consumers make sense of information (marketing stimuli) after thorough conscious or unconscious evaluation, which affects how they classify such information as congruent or incongruent. According to Mandler's proposition, a congruent campaign will influence positive schematic processing, which will conform to the consumer's expectations, thereby arousing positive feelings. ...
... An influential framework by Mandler (1982) showed that consumers make sense of information (marketing stimuli) after thorough conscious or unconscious evaluation, which affects how they classify such information as congruent or incongruent. According to Mandler's proposition, a congruent campaign will influence positive schematic processing, which will conform to the consumer's expectations, thereby arousing positive feelings. ...
Article
Emotions are deeply rooted in the human mind and vital to many knowledge processes, such as knowledge creation and knowledge sharing. Nonetheless, the knowledge management (KM) discipline largely approaches KM from a rational rather than an emotional standpoint. Therefore, starting with a broad view on emotions in general as well as several discrete emotions, our paper presents a structured review of existing evidence on emotions and their role in KM research. We use a structured literature review approach to examine research on emotions as a general concept as well as several discrete emotions in KM research. We recognize and incorporate an integrative emotions‐in‐KM framework, dividing KM into enablers, processes, and intermediary outcomes as well as organizational performance, and connected emotions with each of these parts. After identifying 72 relevant research publications, we analyze and assign these publications to our initially developed integrative review framework. We present several research opportunities to inspire and encourage further research on emotions in KM. Our analysis reveals a strong focus on empirical approaches; we suggest future research employs further qualitative research to incorporate profound theories and models for further exploring emotions in KM. Furthermore, emotions as the intermediary outcome or during knowledge creation and knowledge use could be investigated in further research endeavors. By showing in which KM contexts and processes emotions are displayed, organizations can draw conclusions to trigger positive emotions for better KM as well as reducing barriers caused by emotions.
Article
Academics and practitioners increasingly focus on the concept of proximity, but the growing literature features a confusing diversity of approaches. This article offers a macro-analytical and conceptually unified vision of proximity. Based on an in-depth analysis of literature, this integrative synthesis offers a fourfold contribution: characterize and classify approaches to proximity, understand the place occupied by proximity in theoretical models in marketing, consider the managerial interest of proximity, and develop propositions for continued research into proximity topics.
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Cet article vise à examiner l’influence du label biologique sur la préférence des produits régionaux dans le contexte tunisien. Les résultats issus d’une enquête auprès de 193 consommateurs montrent globalement une faible préférence pour le label biologique. Plus précisément, « les amateurs du terroir et de la production naturelle » ont une préférence pour une huile d’olive biologique, qu’ils associent davantage à un petit terroir de production. « Les non avertis », en revanche, expriment une préférence pour une production intensive.
Article
This study proposes that the interaction effect of brand personality fit and product category fit will influence perceived masstige under a co-branding context. When product category fit is high, low (vs. high) brand personality fit leads to greater perceived masstige. However, when product category fit is low, high (vs. low) brand personality fit leads to greater perceived masstige. Furthermore, the interaction effect of brand personality fit and product category fit on perceived masstige is mediated by processing fluency and perceived novelty. Specifically, when product category fit is low, high (vs. low) brand personality fit can elicit greater processing fluency, leading to higher perceived masstige. In contrast, when product category fit is high, low (vs. high) brand personality fit can stimulate perceived novelty, leading to higher perceived masstige. In addition, we examine how perceived masstige influences brand equity. Focusing on the masstige co-branding strategies between a mass brand and a luxury brand, this study aims to build a bridge between co-branding and masstige.
Chapter
Dieses Kapitel führt in das Thema Käuferverhalten ein. Dabei werden Erkenntnisse aus mehreren Forschungsdisziplinen herangezogen. Kenntnisse zu den Komponenten, die das Käuferverhalten steuern, sind für Marketingentscheidungen unentbehrlich. Zu den das Verhalten steuernden Faktoren zählen einerseits die psychischen Prozesse von Konsumenten, welche aktivierende und kognitive Komponenten enthalten. Andererseits sind Umweltfaktoren bedeutsam, denn Konsumenten agieren in einer physischen und sozialen Umwelt, die ebenso auf das Kaufverhalten einwirkt.
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of loyalty in consumers’ selection of brand extensions in the presence of familiar competitors. The findings show that fit may not have a linear relationship with the choice of an extension when loyalty and brand familiarity are considered. Loyal consumers’ likelihood to choose high-fit and moderate-fit extensions is not much lower than their likelihood to choose products from familiar competitors. We also find an inverted-U-shaped relationship between choice behavior and degree of perceived fit for loyal and moderately loyal consumers. Moreover, brand concepts can make a brand more elastic and extendable, increasing loyal and moderately loyal consumers’ likelihood to choose moderate- and even low-fit extensions. However, disloyal consumers are highly unlikely to choose extensions over products from familiar competitors regardless of fit and types of similarity. Finally, the effect of similarity on consumers’ choice of extensions is fully mediated by loyalty and perceived risks.
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Music is considered as one of the most important executional cues in advertisements. It is a ubiquitous phenomenon in the context of television and radio advertising, with more than 94% of advertisements incorporating a certain type of music. Music accounts for a significant commercial advantage in the context of advertising by producing favorable associations with the product/brand, contributing to the message, and by attracting consumers’ attention and enhancing message recall.
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