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Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy are personality traits understood to be dispositions toward amoral and antisocial behavior. Recent research has suggested that sadism should also be added to this set of traits. In the present study, we tested a hypothesis proposing that these four traits are expressions of one superordinate construct: The Dark Tetrad. Exploration of the latent space of four “dark” traits suggested that the singular second-order factor which represents the Dark Tetrad can be extracted. Analysis has shown that Dark Tetrad traits can be located in the space of basic personality traits, especially on the negative pole of the Honesty-Humility, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Emotionality dimensions. We conclude that sadism behaves in a similar manner as the other dark traits, but it cannot be reduced to them. The results support the concept of “Dark Tetrad.”
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1
2
Original Article
3
4
The Dark Tetrad
5
Structural Properties and Location in the
6
Personality Space
7
Janko Mededovic
´
and Boban Petrovic
´
8
Institute of Criminological and Sociological Research, Belgrade, Serbia
9
Abstract. Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy are personality traits understood to be dispositions toward amoral and antisocial
10
behavior. Recent research has suggested that sadism should also be added to this set of traits. In the present study, we tested a hypothesis
11
proposing that these four traits are expressions of one superordinate construct: The Dark Tetrad. Exploration of the latent space of four ‘dark’
12
traits suggested that the singular second-order factor which represents the Dark Tetrad can be extracted. Analysis has shown that Dark Tetrad
13
traits can be located in the space of basic personality traits, especially on the negative pole of the Honesty-Humility, Agreeableness,
14
Conscientiousness, and Emotionality dimensions. We conclude that sadism behaves in a similar manner as the other dark traits, but it cannot be
15
reduced to them. The results support the concept of ‘Dark Tetrad.
16
Keywords: Machiavellianism, narcissism, psychopathy, sadism, Dark Tetrad, HEXACO personality traits
17
18
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The Dark Triad
20
During the past decade, a triplet of personality traits known
21
as the ‘Dark Triad’ has drawn significant attention from
22
researchers (Paulhus & Williams, 2002). These three traits,
23
narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy, although
24
conceptualized in different contexts by various researchers,
25
represent a part of the ‘dark side’ of human personality
26
(Jonason, Webster, Schmitt, Li, & Crysel, 2012). Although
27
there are studies showing that these traits can have a posi-
28
tive outcome for the person, such as social status, popular-
29
ity, having a leading position (Hawley, 2003; Wai &
30
Tiliopoulos, 2012), as a whole, the Dark Triad traits repre-
31
sent the dispositions for antisocial and amoral behavior and
32
primarily are perceived as socially unfavorable (Judge,
33
Piccolo, & Kosalka, 2009; Stead, Fekken, Kay, &
34
McDermott, 2012).
35
Research regularly shows that the traits of the Dark
36
Triad are correlated, but cannot be considered equivalent
37
– correlation coefficients ranging from .20 to .50 show that
38
each trait, in spite of the common variance, contains a sub-
39
stantial quantity of a specific content (Lee et al., 2013).
40
This practically means that although the constructs are
41
overlapping, with the common core primarily made of
42
self-centeredness, manipulativeness, and callousness, in
43
other words, the lack of empathy (Jones & Figueredo,
44
2013
Q1
), they have, at the same time, unique characteristics
45
which make them distinct (Furnham, Richards, & Paulhus,
46
2013). Current research shows that the structure of the
47
Dark Triad can best be described by the bifactor
48
structural model, composed of three individual traits, and
49
of one factor of a higher order (Jonason & Luévano, 2013).
50
Toward the Conceptualization of the Dark
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Tetrad Sadism as a ‘‘Fourth Element’’
52
Sadism represents a combination of different behavioral,
53
cognitive, and interpersonal characteristics related to plea-
54
sure in connection with inflicting physical or emotional
55
pain on other persons (Reidy, Zeichner, & Seibert, 2011),
56
to control, punish, and humiliate others (Myers, Burket,
57
& Husted, 2006). Several studies have shown that sadism
58
and the Dark Triad traits, primarily psychopathy, have many
59
common characteristics, such as the lack of empathy and
60
readiness for emotional involvement (Kirsch & Becker,
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2007), inflicting suffering on others, and a connection with
62
antisocial behavior (Chabrol, Van Leeuwen, Rodgers, &
63
journé, 2009). At the same time, certain findings show
64
that these are connected but distinct traits (Mokros,
65
Osterheider, Hucker, & Nitschke, 2011). Reidy et al.
66
(2011) have found that sadism, separately from psychopa-
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thy, predicted unprovoked aggression in the laboratory con-
68
text. There are findings that sadistic characteristics are
69
present among high school students, but also that sadism
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predicted the delinquent behavior separately from other
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traits of the Dark Triad (Chabrol et al., 2009). Two studies
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showed that sadism significantly predicts behavior aimed at
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hurting other living creatures, even when the variation
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of Dark Triad traits is taken into account (Buckels, Jones,
Journal of Individual Differences 2015
DOI: 10.1027/1614-0001/a000179
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& Paulhus, 2013). Research conducted in the populations of
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convicts showed that brutal and destructive amoral disposi-
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tions, that include sadism too, can be a better predictor of
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criminal recidivism than psychopathic traits (Me dedovic´,
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Kujacˇic´, & Knez
ˇ
evic´, 2012). Therefore, the proposal of
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Chabrol and other researchers to add sadism to the other
81
three traits within the new construct of the ‘Dark Tetrad’
82
seems reasonable (Buckels et al., 2013; Chabrol et al.,
83
2009; Paulhus, 2014).
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Dark Traits and the HEXACO Personality
85
Domains
86
One of the important questions for understanding the nature
87
of the dark traits is their relationship with basic personality
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dimensions. In the past several years, there has been more
89
research investigating the connection between the dark
90
traits and the HEXACO personality model. This model,
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besides the variants of the well-known Big Five dimensions
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Emotionality, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness,
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and Conscientiousness, introduces another dimension of
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personality, Honesty-Humility (Lee & Ashton, 2004). This
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trait is accountable for a morally relevant, pro-social
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behavior and represents some aspects of reciprocal altruism
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(Ashton & Lee, 2007). Therefore, it may be assumed that
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the dark traits can be positioned at a negative pole of this
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dimension and thereby, that HEXACO model can provide
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useful information in understanding the dark traits of per-
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sonality. A number of studies show negative correlations
102
of narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy with this
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dimension of the HEXACO model, and negative correla-
104
tions with the dimensions of Agreeableness and Emotional-
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ity (Ashton, Lee, & Son, 2000;
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De Vries, Jonason, &
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McCain, 2012; Lee & Ashton, 2005; Lee et al., 2013).
107
In only one study (Me dedovic´, 2012) the relations of sad-
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ism and other antisocial and amoral personality traits with
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the HEXACO personality model were investigated. It was
110
found that Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and sadism,
111
with other traits, belonged to the negative pole of the
112
Honesty-Humility dimension, creating a separate factor
113
labeled Dishonesty in those analyses.
114
The Present Study
115
Since the results of previous research indicate that there is a
116
possibility that the Dark Triad traits can be extended with
117
sadism, in this study we wanted to investigate the correla-
118
tions between those four traits, as well as the characteristics
119
of their latent space. The goal of the study was to investi-
120
gate whether it is justifiable to extend the concept of the
121
Dark Triad,’ introducing the trait of sadism. We expected,
122
in line with the findings of Furnham et al. (2013), that all
123
four dark traits will correlate moderately-highly, and that
124
the hierarchical factor analysis will show the existence of
125
the higher-order factor of Dark Tetrad. Finally, it was espe-
126
cially important to investigate the position of the ‘Dark
127
Tetrad’ traits within the basic structure of personality,
128
primarily the relationship with the Honesty-Humility
129
personality dimension.
130
Method
131
Sample
132
Data gathering was accomplished via online survey.
133
The total number of participants was 506; however, a signif-
134
icant number of respondents did not fill out all of the ques-
135
tionnaires that were administered. Information concerning
136
participants sex, age, and education were asked at the
137
end of the survey, which were answered by 402 participants
138
(there is missing data for 104 respondents and the informa-
139
tion about the education and sex presented here refer to the
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402 participants who provided that data). The mean age of
141
the participants was 28.3 years (SD = 6.95) with mean edu-
142
cation of 15.6 years of formal education (SD = 3.31).
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Female participants consisted of 70% of the sample.
144
Because of the different sample size regarding the data col-
145
lected on different measures, we showed the precise sample
146
size on every measure analyzed in the present study
147
(Table 1).
148
Materials
149
Machiavellianism
150
MACH-IV (Christie & Geis, 1970). The MACH-IV is the
151
most widely accepted operationalization of Machiavellian-
152
ism. The 20 items of MACH-IV reflect beliefs in manipu-
153
lative tactics (Machiavellian tactics), a cynical attitude to
154
human nature (Machiavellian views), and a pragmatic
155
morality (Machiavellian morality) (Jones & Paulhus,
156
2009). Participants rate items on a 5-point scale
157
(1 = strongly disagree,5=strongly agree), for each of
158
the three subscales.
159
Narcissism
160
Narcissistic Personality Inventory-13 (NPI-13; Gentile
161
et al., 2013). The NPI-13 is a very short measure that
162
explores three facets of narcissism: Leadership/authority,
163
Grandiose exhibitionism, and Entitlement/exploitativeness.
164
It encompasses 13 items consisting of pairs of attitudes,
165
such as: ‘(A) when people compliment me I sometimes
166
get embarrassed’’ and ‘(B) I know that I am good because
167
everybody keeps telling me so. Participants choose the
168
attitude that best applies to them.
169
Psychopathy
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Self-Report Psychopathy scale (Paulhus, Neumann, &
171
Hare, in press). The SRP-3 is a self-report inventory
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designed to assess four facets of psychopathy: Interpersonal
J. Me dedovic´ & B. Petrovic´: The Dark Tetrad
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manipulation, Callous affect, Erratic lifestyle, and Antiso-
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cial behavior. It consists of 64 items to which participants
175
respond on a scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly
176
agree).
177
Sadism
178
Varieties of Sadistic Tendencies inventory (VAST; Buckels,
179
2012). VAST is a 17-item measure of different manifesta-
180
tions of sadism. It contains items that assess Core sadism
181
(item example is ‘I enjoy hurting people’’), Substitutive
182
sadism (‘‘in video games, I like the realistic blood sports’’),
183
and Political sadism (‘If lives were threatened, I would be
184
in favor of torturing a terrorist’’). A new, revised version of
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sadism questionnaire has recently been published (Paulhus
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& Jones, 2015). Participants rate items on a 5-point scale
187
(1 = strongly disagree,5=strongly agree), for each of
188
the subscales.
189
HEXACO Model of Personality
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HEXACO-PI-R (Lee & Ashton, 2004). This instrument
191
operationalizes the HEXACO model using the following
192
six personality dimensions: Honesty-Humility, Emotional-
193
ity, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness,
194
and Openness to experience. The standard version of the
195
HEXACO-PI-R includes 100 items that measure 25 facet
196
scales, which are subsumed within the six higher-order fac-
197
tors (four facets for each of the six HEXACO factors plus
198
the interstitial altruism facet). Participants were asked for
199
their agreement (1 = strongly disagree;5=strongly agree)
200
with the statements.
201
All the questionnaires to be used in Serbia were trans-
202
lated into Serbian and back-translated into English, after
203
which the English and Serbian versions were carefully
204
checked for equivalence.
205
Reliabilities of all scales used in the research will be
206
provided in Table 3 in the Results section for a handy
207
comparison. Coefficients of reliability will be shown.
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However, instead of a coefficient, a correlation with the full
209
scale will be presented for Morality (Machiavellianism)
210
measure. Morality is a scale that consisted of two items
211
(Rada, de Lucas Taracena, & Rodriguez, 2004), however,
212
its a coefficient was very low and we decided to use only
213
one item in the analysis, the one that had the higher corre-
214
lation with the full Machiavellianism scale. It was the item
215
‘all in all, it is better to be humble and honest than to be
216
important and dishonest (reverse keyed).
217
Results
218
The first conducted analysis is aimed at exploring the
219
relations between the subordinate traits of the Dark Tetrad.
220
As may be seen from Table 1, most of the correlations are
221
positive and statistically significant, suggesting the overlap-
222
ping of the dark traits.
223
The only exceptions are narcissistic traits. The trait of
224
Leadership/authority has systematic positive correlations
225
with other variables, but two other narcissistic dispositions
226
show a weak convergence with other measured traits.
227
However, there is a certain pattern of significant correla-
228
tions. Both narcissistic traits are significantly related to
229
two psychopathic traits, Interpersonal manipulation and
230
Erratic lifestyle, and to Core sadistic traits. The correlation
231
between Grandiose/exhibitionism and Machiavellian moral-
232
ity is also significant. All relations between other Dark
233
Tetrad traits, including all modalities of sadism, are signif-
234
icant and positive, except the correlation between the Erra-
235
tic lifestyle and Political sadism which is not significantly
236
different from zero.
237
In order to explore the latent structure of the Dark
238
Tetrad narrow traits, we conducted exploratory factor anal-
239
ysis with Principal Axis Factoring as a method for data
240
extraction. Results of the parallel analysis (Hayton, Allen,
241
& Scarpello, 2004) showed that two factors can optimally
242
explain the variance of the original measures. Factors are
243
rotated in the promax position. The scores of the Dark
244
Tetrad traits on the higher-order factor were calculated also,
Table 1. Descriptive statistics and bivariate correlations between the Dark Tetrad measures
NMSD 12 3 456789101112
1. Leadership/authority 482 0.42 0.33
2. Grandiose/exhibitionism 482 0.52 0.28 .39**
3. Entitlement/exploitativeness 482 0.48 0.36 .15** .26**
4. Tactics 506 2.50 0.60 .21** .08 .07
5. Morality 501 2.10 1.11 .26** .18** .06 .37**
6. Views 503 2.73 0.50 .15** .03 .05 .48** .15**
7. Interpersonal manipulation 463 2.47 0.54 .46** .24** .11* .56** .31** .47**
8. Callous affect 463 2.07 0.45 .27** .09 .05 .35** .22** .32** .57**
9. Erratic lifestyle 463 2.49 0.55 .23** .23** .12** .23** .24** .23** .49** .43**
10. Antisocial behavior 463 1.50 0.49 .01 .00 .01 .18** .16** .26** .29** .26** .35**
11. Core sadism 485 1.82 0.69 .35** .18** .10* .37** .19** .27** .57** .50** .43** .22**
12. Substitutive sadism 483 1.43 0.64 .14** .05 .04 .26** .13** .18** .37** .51** .44** .22** .45**
13. Political sadism 483 2.95 0.93 .12** .04 .01 .37** .10* .37** .35** .26** .15** .07 .25** .20**
Notes. N = Number of participants; M = Mean; SD = Standard Deviation; *p < .05. **p < .05
Q7
.
4J.Mededovic´ & B. Petrovic´: The Dark Tetrad
Journal of Individual Differences 2015 Ó 2015 Hogrefe Publishing
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245
using the Schmid-Leiman algorithm (Schmid & Leiman,
246
1957). Results of the parallel analysis and the loadings of
247
original variables on the first- and second-order factors
248
are presented in Table 2.
249
As may be seen in Table 2, the first extracted factor (F1)
250
is loaded with all of the dark traits except narcissism, which
251
aspects load on the second factor (F2). Two latent factors
252
were moderately correlated (r =0.48).
253
On the second-order factor, all measured traits have high
254
loadings, except Narcissism measures, which have the low-
255
est loadings especially Entitlement/exploitativeness trait,
256
which loaded below .30.
257
Before we continue to the next analysis, we will briefly
258
describe three-factor and four-factor solutions, which were
259
also analyzed. Those solutions were examined because of
260
their conceptual importance: Considering the four-factor
261
latent space, it could be hypothesized that all four traits could
262
be extracted singularly; three-factor structure could reveal if
263
the sadism could be reduced on some of the Dark Triad traits.
264
However, empirically extracted solutions did not correspond
265
to the proposed hypothesis. Four-factor solution had the fol-
266
lowing structure: the first factor was loaded with the traits
267
depicting manipulation – Machiavellian Tactics and Views,
268
Political sadism and psychopathic Interpersonal Manipula-
269
tion; the second factor referred to sadistic characteristics
270
Core and Substitutive Sadism followed by the Flattened
271
Affect; third factor was constituted by all of the narcissistic
272
traits and the fourth factor was loaded with the Erratic life-
273
style and Antisocial behavior, thus representing a disposition
274
toward impulsive and antisocial behavior. Machiavellian
275
Morality had positive loadings of almost the same magnitude
276
on the first and the third factor. Three-factor solution
277
revealed a structure where the first extracted factor was a
278
mixture of psychopathic and sadistic traits, the second was
279
identical to first extracted factor in the four-factor solution
280
(traits describing manipulative tendencies), and the third
281
factor was fully obtained narcissism.
282
Further examination of the nature of the dark traits is
283
explored by an attempt to localize them within the space
284
defined by basic personality traits. An extension analysis
285
(Gorsuch, 1997; O’Connor, 2001) is used to achieve this
286
goal. This procedure is based on the extraction of the latent
287
factors from the space defined by core variables (in this case
288
personality traits) and the extension variables (Dark Tetrad
289
traits) are loaded on extracted factors afterwards. The advan-
290
tage of this analysis lies in the fact that it allows the estima-
291
tion of the extension variables loadings on the factor space
292
that is not affected by the inclusion of the extensionvariables
293
themselves. The results of this analysis are shown in Table 3.
294
The upper part of Table 3 shows the results of EFA per-
295
formed on the core variables. It can be seen that the
296
expected six factor solution is obtained with the appropriate
297
structure of all of the HEXACO domains. It must be noted
298
that negative poles of four factors are extracted: Extraver-
299
sion, Openness for experience, Conscientiousness, and
300
Honesty-Humility. The lower part of the table shows the
301
loadings of Dark Tetrad traits on personality traits. Almost
302
all of the extension measures load dominantly on the nega-
303
tive pole of Honesty factor. It can be seen that the negative
304
pole of Agreeableness factor is also loaded with several
305
extension variables, including Antisocial behavior, which
306
highest loading is on this personality trait. Callous affect
307
loaded dominantly on the negative pole of Emotionality,
308
while Erratic lifestyle had loadings of almost the same
309
magnitude on negative poles of Honesty-Humility and
310
Conscientiousness. Core and Substitutive sadism also
311
loaded positively on introversion factor and negatively on
312
Emotionality, while Political sadism had loadings on nega-
313
tive pole of Agreeableness and Openness to experience.
314
Discussion
315
Congruence Between the Dark Tetrad Traits
316
Relations between the dark traits were examined in numer-
317
ous studies (Furnham et al., 2013). The main conclusion
Table 2. Higher-order factor analysis of the Dark Tetrad traits
Eigen values
Variable real-data
% of variance
Mean of random
% of variance F1 F2 hoF
Leadership/authority 3.17 26.8* 15.7 .09 .58 .42
Grandiose/exhibitionism 2.55 20.6* 14.1 .20 .72 .30
Entitlement/exploitativeness 1.30 11.0 12.7 .15 .42 .21
Tactics 1.06 7.9 11.4 .62 .03 .63
Morality 0.82 6.6 10.1 .27 .23 .51
Views 0.72 5.7 8.8 .58 .13 .55
Interpersonal manipulation 0.61 5.0 7.6 .73 .22 .82
Callous affect 0.54 4.3 6.4 .71 .06 .65
Erratic lifestyle 0.53 4.0 5.2 .50 .13 .68
Antisocial behavior 0.49 3.8 3.9 .44 .17 .50
Core sadism 0.45 2.6 2.7 .58 .13 .65
Substitutive sadism 0.42 1.8 1.4 .62 .14 .55
Political sadism 0.36 0.0 0.0 .48 .09 .42
Notes. Results of the parallel analysis are shown in the first three columns; results of higher-order EFA are shown in the last three
columns; hoF = higher-order factor.
J. Me dedovic´ & B. Petrovic´: The Dark Tetrad
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318
derived from these studies is that Machiavellianism, psy-
319
chopathy, and narcissism are overlapping, but distinct traits.
320
Similar results are obtained, when sadism is added into the
321
analysis: correlations are positive and small to moderate in
322
strength (Chabrol et al., 2009). Our data contributes to this
323
conclusion. Analysis of the bivariate relations between the
324
Dark Tetrad traits reveals the same pattern. There are traits
325
that share more variance, indicating substantial overlapping:
326
Interpersonal manipulation and Machiavellian tactics,
327
Callous affect and Core sadism; Callous affect with Core
328
and Substitutive sadism. However, even these correlations
329
are not high enough to declare these traits to be measures
330
of the same construct. Instead of that, we can conclude that
331
the pattern of correlations is consistent with previous
332
research claiming the conceptual distinction of the Dark
333
Tetrad traits (Chabrol et al., 2009).
334
An obvious aberration from the pattern of examined
335
correlations can also be detected in the data. At least two
336
of the narcissistic traits show low congruence to other dark
337
traits: Grandiose/exhibitionism and Entitlement/exploita-
338
tiveness. This finding can be interpreted from two view-
339
points, at least. Firstly, previous studies have shown that
340
there are reasons to be concerned about the psychometric
341
properties of the NPI as a measure of narcissism (Brown,
342
Budzek, & Tamborski, 2009; Rosenthal, Matthew Montoya,
343
Ridings, Rieck, & Hooley, 2011). However, the other rea-
344
son cannot be overlooked: It is conceptual in its nature
345
and it posits that narcissistic traits are partly different from
Table 3. Extension loadings of the Dark Tetrad on basic personality traits
X()AO()C()EH() a
Core variables (HEXACO-PR):
Sincerity .06 .16 .18 .13 .00 .45 .64
Fairness .16 .16 .08 .18 .18 .55 .76
Greed avoidance .00 .26 .03 .01 .07 .42 .74
Modesty .11 .22 .00 .03 .15 .30 .61
Fearfulness .04 .03 .20 .12 .45 .18 .69
Anxiety .35 .35 .11 .28 .40 .22 .58
Dependence .03 .03 .02 .14 .42 .04 .75
Sentimentality .15 .19 .09 .00 .53 .26 .67
Social self-esteem .73 .08 .05 .24 .09 .15 .61
Social boldness .44 .25 .17 .00 .12 .13 .72
Sociability .56 .09 .13 .05 .27 .03 .76
Liveliness .81 .17
.10 .14 .03 .19 .74
Forgiveness .17 .56 .06 .06 .14 .27 .68
Gentleness .07 .53 .00 .17 .27 .25 .64
Flexibility .07 .58 .13 .14 .13 .33 .59
Patience .08 .75 .02 .10 .06 .31 .65
Organization .26 .04 .10 .61 .04 .17 .68
Diligence .44 .03 .32 .67 .02 .22 .67
Perfectionism .09 .16 .25 .65 .13 .03 .60
Prudence .15 .23 .03 .62 .06 .31 .71
Aesthetic appreciation .10 .08 .65 .14 .17 .26 .70
Inquisitiveness .10 .07 .47 .30 .12 .13 .69
Creativity .17 .03
.69 .00 .15 .18 .73
Unconventionality .03 .04 .66 .11 .06 .14 .63
Altruism .33 .34 .22 .16 .55 .39 .74
Extension variables (Dark Tetrad):
Leadership/authority .08 .30 .05 .07 .18 .36 .63
Grandiose/exhibitionism .06 .26 .09 .06 .02 .26 .57
Entitlement/exploitativeness .11 .20 .11 .00 .09 .20 .53
Tactics .25 .26 .22 .09 .15 .36 .63
Morality .07 .24 .08 .15 .08 .33 .45*
Views .14 .20 .18 .08 .14 .24 .62
Interpersonal manipulation .18 .42 .12 .05 .28 .49 .78
Callous affect .25 .26 .11 .03 .48 .33 .70
Erratic lifestyle .08 .24 .09 .34 .17 .35 .73
Antisocial behavior .06 .20 .10 .17
.09 .13 .72
Core sadism .28 .09 .03 .12 .21 .39 .70
Substitutive sadism .25 .08 .01 .09 .23 .23 .75
Political sadism .09 .17 .16 .02 .12 .27 .59
Notes. X = eXtraversion; A = Agreeableness; O = Openness; C = Conscientiousness; E = Emotionality; H = Honesty-Humility.
Highest loadings on every factor are given in bold type. a = reliability coefficient; * = correlation with the full scale.
6J.Mededovic´ & B. Petrovic´: The Dark Tetrad
Journal of Individual Differences 2015 Ó 2015 Hogrefe Publishing
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346
other dark traits. Previous data also suggested that narcis-
347
sism does not correlate with other Dark Triad traits as
348
strongly as Machiavellianism and psychopathy correlated
349
between themselves (Lee & Ashton, 2005). It has been
350
found that narcissism correlates positively with emotional
351
intelligence, which is quite opposite, comparing to Machi-
352
avellianism and psychopathy (Petrides, Vernon, Schermer,
353
& Veselka, 2011); also, narcissism is related to functional
354
impulsivityandaggressioninresponsetoanego-threat,
355
while psychopathy is associated with dysfunctional impul-
356
sivity and aggressive behavior in response to a physical
357
provocation, while Machiavellianism has no relation to
358
impulsivity (Jones & Paulhus, 2010, 2011). Also, it should
359
be noticed that Leadership/authority shows the highest con-
360
gruence with other dark traits, but not with the psychopathic
361
disposition of Antisocial behavior, which is a partial repli-
362
cation of previous findings (Ackerman et al., 2011). These
363
findings suggest that narcissism could behave somewhat
364
differently compared with other dark traits and this could
365
be the source of its lower congruence with them. This
366
hypothesis would indicate that despite the low reliability,
367
the validity of NPI scales remains undisturbed.
368
The Latent Space of the Dark Tetrad
369
In order to examine the latent structure of the Dark Tetrad
370
traits an EFA was conducted with the Principal Axis Factor-
371
ing as a method for a factor extraction. Two first order fac-
372
tors were found as an optimal solution for the explanation
373
of the dark traits’ variance. The factor that explained most
374
of the variance was constituted from all of the traits, except
375
the narcissism aspects, which form the second extracted
376
factor. It is clear that the latent space of Dark Tetrad traits
377
is congruent with previously obtained bivariate correlations
378
of the traits. Although the two factors correlated moderately
379
(r = .48), two factor solution suggests that narcissistic traits
380
are somewhat different than other dark traits.
381
Moderate positive correlation between the first-order
382
factors suggests that the existence of a singular higher-order
383
factor is plausible. Indeed, the higher-order factor analysis
384
revealed that all of the traits had considerable loadings on
385
the superordinate factor. Only one narcissistic trait, Entitle-
386
ment/exploitativeness, had a loading below .30, as could be
387
expected from previously described data. The highest load-
388
ings on the higher-order factor had three psychopathic traits
389
(Interpersonal manipulation, Callous affect, and Erratic life-
390
style), together with Machiavellian tactics, and Core sadism
391
too. All of these traits describe manipulative, fickle,
392
exploitative characteristics and attitudes. This finding is
393
again in line with the data from Jones and Figueredo
394
(2013), with the difference that present data even more
395
accentuate the role of psychopathy in the space of dark
396
traits. There is a possibility that the crucial features of Triad
397
and Tetrad are somewhat different, however the important
398
finding is that sadistic traits have substantial loadings on
399
the higher-order factor, suggesting the similar nature of sad-
400
ism compared to other dark traits. The most important
401
information inferred from these results is that it is plausible
402
to conceptualize a singular construct on the top of the hier-
403
archy of the dark traits. This is also the first evidence that
404
sadistic traits should to be added to the Dark Triad model
405
in order to acquire a more comprehensive construct of
406
amoral and antisocial personality dispositions.
407
It is also interesting to mention the results of three-
408
factor and four-factor structures in the space of the Dark
409
Tetrad. First, the expected structure where every narrow
410
trait loads on the appropriate factor was not obtained.
411
The four-factor solution offered the following structure
412
instead: amoral tendencies based on manipulation, shallow
413
affect/sadism, narcissism, and impulsivity/antisocial behav-
414
ior. This result implies that perhaps there can be a problem
415
with the current conceptualization of the Dark Traits on the
416
facet level. Surely it would be fruitful to analyze the latent
417
structure of the Dark Tetrad traits in future research too.
418
Secondly, this analysis showed that sadism cannot be simply
419
reduced to other dark traits. This is an important finding
420
because it justifies the addition of sadism into the Dark
421
Tetrad concept. However, sadism is closely related to psy-
422
chopathy, especially to the trait of Callous Affect, which
423
is congruent to previous research on the relationship
424
between psychopathy and sexual sadism (Mokros et al.,
425
2011).
426
Understanding the Dark Tetrad Through the
427
Lens of Basic Personality Traits
428
Is the Dark Tetrad a disposition which is relatively indepen-
429
dent from basic personality traits? Our hypothesis was that
430
it is not. Earlier research suggested that the Dark Triad traits
431
are outside the Big Five personality dimensions (Veselka,
432
Schermer, & Vernon, 2012), although there are suggestions
433
that all of the Dark Triad traits except the Machiavellianism
434
can be reduced to five lexical personality factors (O’Boyle,
435
Forsyth, Banks, Story, & White, 2014). However, the six
436
factor lexical model of personality contains an additional
437
dimension, Honesty-Humility, that is very important for
438
an explanation of morally relevant behavior (Dunlop,
439
Morrison, Keonig, & Silcox, 2012). We assumed that the
440
opposite pole of this dimension represents a comprehensive
441
space that contains most of the dark traits. Additional
442
hypotheses are derived for the role of negative poles of
443
Emotionality, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness in
444
the explanation of the Dark Tetrad variance (Ashton &
445
Lee, 2001; Jonason & McCain, 2012).
446
Extension factor analysis confirmed all of our hypothe-
447
ses. In fact, most of the Dark Tetrad traits loaded on the
448
opposite pole of the Honesty-Humility factor. This result
449
is a replication of the finding that the most of the dark traits
450
can be located on the negative pole of the Honesty person-
451
ality factor, identifying this trait as the most important per-
452
sonality dimension regarding the morally relevant personal
453
characteristics (Ashton et al., 2000; De Vries & Van
454
Kampen, 2010; Jonason & McCain, 2012; Me dedovic´,
455
2012).
456
Resultsfrom the extension analysissuggest that Honesty-
457
Humility is important for understanding the narcissistic
J. Me dedovic´ & B. Petrovic´: The Dark Tetrad
7
Ó 2015 Hogrefe Publishing Journal of Individual Differences 2015
uncorrected proof
- not for distribution
458
traits too: all three NPI scores loaded on the opposite pole
459
of Honesty factor. This finding is in accordance with previ-
460
ous studies that have found a negative correlation between
461
the Honesty-Humility factor and egoism, which is a core
462
feature of narcissism (De Vries, De Vries, De Hoogh, &
463
Feij, 2009
Q3
). Existing data also confirms that although
464
positive, correlations between Honesty-Humility and nar-
465
cissism have the smallest magnitude compared to other
466
Dark Triad traits (Lee & Ashton, 2005). Indirectly, the
467
results suggest that, despite the low reliability, the validity
468
of the NPI is unbiased (Miller, Maples, & Campbell,
469
2011; Miller, Price, & Campbell, 2012) and that it
470
accurately assesses narcissistic traits.
471
However, there is an additional trait that turned
Q4
to be
472
important in the explanation of the narcissistic traits in a
473
very interesting manner: Grandiose/exhibitionism loaded
474
positively and Entitlement/exploitativeness loaded nega-
475
tively on the Agreeableness factor. Most of the researchers
476
found that narcissism has negative correlations with Agree-
477
ableness (e.g., Mathieu, 2013), suggesting that narcissistic
478
persons do not care about warmness and cooperativeness
479
in interpersonal relationships. A puzzling finding in
480
the present data is the positive relationship between
481
Grandiose/exhibitionism and Agreeableness. There are at
482
least two previously obtained findings that indirectly can
483
corroborate this result. When HEXACO Agreeableness is
484
analyzed, it had nearly zero correlations with narcissism
485
(Lee & Ashton, 2005). Furthermore, previous data showed
486
that NPI Entitlement had negative correlations with Agree-
487
ableness, but the NPI score without Entitlement did not cor-
488
relate significantly with this personality dimension (Strelan,
489
2007). A possible explanation of this result is that two
490
remaining narcissistic traits have correlations of opposite
491
direction with Agreeableness, which could lead to a near
492
zero correlation as it happened in the present data (Grandi-
493
ose/exhibitionism had positive but Leadership/authority
494
produced negative correlation with Agreeableness). This
495
could mean that the relations between narcissism and
496
Agreeableness are complex and that narcissistic traits have
497
the potential for reciprocity and cooperativeness too.
498
Psychopathic characteristics are shown to have relations
499
with various personality traits too. Erratic lifestyle is largely
500
located on the negative pole of Conscientiousness. This
501
relation was obtained earlier (Seibert, Miller, Few, Zeichner,
502
& Lynam, 2011), and it can probably be attributed to impul-
503
sivity as a common disposition both to the negative pole of
504
Conscientiousness (Egan & Beadman, 2011) and Erratic
505
lifestyle (Williams, Paulhus, & Hare, 2007). Callous affect
506
constitutes a negative pole of the Emotionality personality
507
domain. This finding is in accordance with the concept of
508
emotional shallowness and coldness that characterize the
509
callous affect trait, and the empirical finding that low anx-
510
iety and fearlessness are part of the psychopathy construct
511
(Neumann, Hare, & Johansson, 2013). Finally, antisocial
512
behavior is associated with the negative pole of Agreeable-
513
ness trait, proving once more that low Agreeableness is a
514
reliable predictor of criminal behavior (Miller & Lynam,
515
2001).
516
It was expected that sadistic traits have negative rela-
517
tions with Honesty-Humility and Emotionality. However,
518
negative relations of Core and Substitutive sadism with
519
Extraversion emerged too. Previous findings also showed
520
that brutal and sadistic amoral tendencies are related to
521
introversion features (Me
dedovic´, 2011). Sadism also has
522
positive correlations with depression (Chabrol et al.,
523
2009), which is a marker of introvertive characteristics in
524
the HEXACO model of personality (Me dedovic´, 2014).
525
This result can be a novel finding regarding the personality
526
features of the persons who have a high degree of sadistic
527
traits: They are withdrawn in interpersonal relations
528
with a lack of social skills and probably with a low activity
529
level.
530
Conclusions, Limitations, and Future
531
Directions
532
Analyzing the correlations between the narrow traits of
533
Machiavellianism, psychopathy, narcissism, and sadism,
534
the latent structure of these traits, and their position in the
535
personality space suggest the same conclusion: it is plausi-
536
ble to broaden the Dark Triad model with sadistic traits.
537
This model is already proposed by some researchers
538
(Buckels et al., 2013; Chabrol et al., 2009; Paulhus,
539
2014). The expanded model of the Dark Traits will deepen
540
our understanding of amoral and antisocial personality dis-
541
positions, which could result in practical implementations.
542
The main limitation of the present study is the low reli-
543
ability of the narcissism scale. The results of this study sug-
544
gest that narcissism scales used in research are valid, but
545
low reliability may produce correlations of a smaller mag-
546
nitude or nonsignificant correlations. The consequence
547
could be a Type 2 error: Dismissing the effects that actually
548
exist in the population because they are not detected due to
549
a low reliability of the scales. We can advise other research-
550
ers to use longer measures with more items that would
551
probably provide a higher reliability.
1
552
Future research should build a wide nomological net-
553
work for the Dark Tetrad model. This could imply several
554
parameters: varying the operationalizations of four traits
555
(self-report, peer ratings, behavioral assessments, longitudi-
556
nal measures, etc.; however, using the multidimensional
557
measures is recommended); searching for the common
558
characteristics of all measures; analyzing the Dark Tetrad
559
traits relations with other phenomena in specific subgroups
560
of participants – first of all in the population of convicts or
561
other groups assumed to engage in immoral or antisocial
562
behavior.
1
It can also be noted that the correlations obtained in the present study, together with the factor loadings of the HEXACO facets, are
somewhat lower than the ones reported in other research. It is possible that, due to some specific factors, the relations between the
measures are underestimated to some extent in the present dataset.
8J.Mededovic´ & B. Petrovic´: The Dark Tetrad
Journal of Individual Differences 2015 Ó 2015 Hogrefe Publishing
uncorrected proof
- not for distribution
563
Acknowledgments
564
The authors thank Ivana Jakšic´, from Institute of Educa-
565
tional Research, Belgrade, Serbia, for technical support.
566
This work was supported by the Ministry of Education,
567
Science and Technological Development, Republic of
568
Serbia (Grant No. 47011).
569
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778
Date of acceptance: February 26, 2015
779
Published online: XX, 2015
780
781
Janko Me dedovic´
782
783
Institute of Criminological and Sociological Research
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Odeska 7
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10 J. Me dedovic´ & B. Petrovic´: The Dark Tetrad
Journal of Individual Differences 2015 Ó 2015 Hogrefe Publishing
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... However, some recent studies have shown that the inclusion of sadism contributes to better elucidation of profiles more prone to sadism (Dinić et al, 2020). Furthermore, sadism has shown uniqueness among the Dark Tetrad, and it is not justified to consider it redundant (Dinić et al., 2020;Međedović & Petrović, 2015). ...
... In this study, fourfactor ability model of EI based on the Wong and Low questionnaire (2002) was used, which represents an operationalization of Salovey & Mayer's (1990) conceptualization of EI. Based on the theory that EI involves the abilities to properly understand, use and regulate emotions (Mayer et al., 2016), and empirical evidence that empathic deficit and callousness are core of Dark Tetrad traits, especially psychopathy and sadism (Ali et al., 2009;Dinić et al., 2020;Međedović & Petrović, 2015;Paulhus, 2014), we expect that psychopathy and sadism negatively correlate with the overall score of EI and all the subdimensions of EI. Since Machiavellianism involves manipulativeness and the callousness exploitation of others for one's own ends (Spain et al., 2014), and with prior research showing negative associations of Machiavellianism and EI dimesions (Miao et al., 2019;Vize et al., 2018), we expect negative relations between Machiavellianism and emotion appraisal in self and in others. ...
... The negative associations between them were consistent with the studies showing that these dark traits were related to low emotionality (Akram & Stevenson, 2021;Plouffe, 2017;Schreyer et al, 2021). These results are in line with the theoretical assumptions that Machiavellianism, psychopathy and sadism entail an emotional coldness and low emotionality (Međedović & Petrović, 2015;Paulhus & Williams, 2002). Contrary to our hypothesis, narcissism was unrelated to the self-emotion appraisal dimension. ...
Article
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The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between Dark Tetrad traits (Machiavellianism, narcissism, psychopathy and sadism) and ability emotional intelligence dimensions – self-emotion appraisal, others’ emotion appraisal, use of emotion and regulation of emotion. The Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale, Short Dark Triad and Assessment of Sadistic Personality were applied to a sample of 322 participants from the general population (63% women) of Croatia. Results showed that both psychopathy and sadism had negative relations with emotional intelligence. Sadism showed significant effects on self-emotion appraisal, others’ emotion appraisal, and use of emotion dimensions, while psychopathy showed significant effect on regulation of emotion. Machiavellianism negatively correlated to a weaker degree with self-emotion appraisal and others’ emotion appraisal, but it showed no significant effects on emotional intelligence dimensions in regression analysis. Narcissism showed positive effects on EI as a whole, use of emotion and self-emotion appraisal. The results highlighted the importance of the dark traits in the explanation of emotional intelligence and showed that the dark traits are differently associated with emotional intelligence dimensions.
... In recent decades, there has been a growing interest in personality dispositions toward amoral and antisocial behavior. A comprehensive model of these traits is labeled as the Dark Tetrad (Međedović & Petrović, 2015;Paulhus, 2014) and encompasses traits like narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy and sadism. Narcissism depicts entitlement, superiority and an inflated view of self (Raskin & Terry, 1988); Machiavellianism represents an attitude which rationalizes and justifies the use of other people for one's self interest (Christie & Geis, 1970), while sadism is based on the aberration in emotional processes where one feels positive emotions (enjoyment) when hurting others or watching others in distress (O'Meara et al., 2011). ...
... Note that we base our hypotheses on previous research on psychopathy in a forensic and criminological context since there are no data regarding other traits. However, we believe that the same hypotheses can be set for all examined dark traits in the context of the present research (i.e., examining the relations between dark traits, the type of offence and criminal recidivism): psychopathy (especially multidimensionally-measured psychopathy as it was assessed in the present study) shares a substantial portion of variation with other dark traits (Chabrol et al., 2009;Međedović & Petrović, 2015), and this shared variation is based on the lack of empathy and interpersonal antagonism (Dinić et al., 2021). Therefore, we expected all the dark traits to be positively related to criminal recidivism. ...
Article
Dark personality traits describe amoral and antisocial behavioral dispositions and are often described by psychopathy (i.e., interpersonal, affective, lifestyle, and antisocial characteristics), narcissism, Machiavellianism, and sadism. These traits are related to various socially detrimental behavioral outcomes, including criminal behavior and delinquency. Furthermore, psychopathy is frequently related to homicide, both in scientific and in popular literature; however, the empirical data on the link between psychopathy and other dark traits with homicide is still scarce. We examined self-reported psychopathy, Machiavellianism, sadism, and the indicators of criminal recidivism (number of offences, number of lawful sentences and penal recidivism) in a sample of male homicide offenders (N = 46), other violent offenders (N = 82), and non-violent offenders (N = 119). The results showed that homicide offenders have less pronounced psychopathy, sadism, and criminal recidivism compared to the other two groups – the differences were particularly evident in comparison to the group of non-homicide violent offenders. There were no statistically significant differences in Machiavellianism. Our data cast a doubt on the widely acknowledged link between psychopathy and murder. The findings can be explained largely by the fact that homicide is a heterogeneous criminal offence; while it is possible that psychopathy and other dark traits may be linked to some types of homicide, this link cannot be established for homicide in general.
... The Dark Tetrad traits were also associated with higher levels of advantageous and disadvantageous risk taking, malevolent creativity, lying and sinning, especially pride, greed, and lust, giving less importance to fairness attitudes and purity values (Forsyth et al., 2021;Hart et al., 2021;Jonason et al., 2017;Kapoor & Kaufman, 2021;Martin et al., 2022;Međedović & Petrović, 2015;Nott & Walker, 2021;Stanwix & Walker, 2021), while not having a tendency not to rely on supernatural beliefs (Schofield et al., 2021). ...
Article
With this meta-analytic review, we aimed to estimate the relationship that sadistic personality has with the Dark Triad traits and, secondarily, describe the research on the Dark Tetrad traits. We searched for articles in the following databases, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, PubMed, ScienceDirect, SCOPUS, and Web of Science, where we found 128 articles to qualitatively evaluate and 103 articles to quantitatively analyze. Sadism correlated with narcissism (r = 0.26), Machiavellianism (r = 0.43), and psychopathy (r = 0.58). The most common themes across the studies were: (a) structural aspects of the Dark Tetrad; (b) online behavior; (c) aggressiveness; (d) moral beliefs and behavior; (e) video games; (f) sexual behavior, and (g) emotional functioning. The Dark Tetrad traits correlated with several dysfunctional behaviors and socially maladaptive outcomes. Finally, sadism is potentially more similar to psychopathy and Machiavellianism, than narcissism.
... Sadism has recently been linked to the Dark Triad because these traits all share a common "callous core"-a lack of empathy toward others. Factor analyses have supported this theorizing by showing that sadism is a unique dimension that highly correlates with the Dark Triad (Dinić et al., 2020;Johnson et al., 2019;Međedović & Petrović, 2015;Paulhus, 2014). These four traits are now studied together and known as the Dark Tetrad. ...
Article
Objective: This research examines the interface between ideological passion and the dark tetrad personality traits to predict violent (vs. peaceful) political activism. Meta-analytic research shows that ideological obsessive passion (OP) is one of the strongest psychological factors associated with violent activism. Here, we examine whether this relationship is magnified by the dark tetrad (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, psychopathy, and sadism), which have often been associated with antisocial behavior. Method: In Studies 1A–C, the interaction between ideological passion and the dark tetrad was tested cross-sectionally with three distinct ideological groups, namely, Democrats (N = 566), Republicans (N = 479), and Black Lives Matter supporters (N = 204). In Study 2, we tested the same model using an experimental manipulation of obsessive (vs. harmonious) passion in a sample of environmentalists (N = 233). Results: In Studies 1A–C, the relationship between OP and violent activism was systematically accentuated by sadism. Of note, these effects were specific to violent activism and unrelated to peaceful activism. In Study 2, we replicated these findings and showed that the relationship between sadism and violent activism was significant when individuals were in an obsessively (but not harmoniously) passionate mindset. Conclusion: These results shed light on the interplay between motivation and personality traits to predict violent activism.
Article
Studies have identified the Dark Triad as a predictor of crime. White-Collar Crime (WCC) costs billions of estimated losses and has significant consequences for businesses, employees and consumers. Despite this, research on the Dark Triad and WCC is scarce. This study aimed to explore the relationship between the Dark Triad and WCC. Analyses, which were conducted on a sample of 157 participants, revealed significant relationships between subclinical psychopathy (disinhibition and meanness), narcissism, and attitudes and beliefs towards WCC. Sub-components of the Dark Triad do not have the same predictive powers. These findings have several implications, ranging from exploring which personality traits can predict potential predispositions towards WCC, to offering a much-needed empirical foundation in the development of effective prevention strategies.
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Workplace productivity is badly affected by many negative factors such as narcissism, and sadism. In addition, paranoia and antagonism play an important role in increasing workplace incivility. Through emotional intelligence, such negative behaviors could be addressed by managers and their junior colleagues. The current study aims to investigate the parallel mediating role of paranoia, antagonism, and emotional intelligence on the relationship between narcissism, sadism, and workplace incivility. A survey approach was used. Primary data was collected in PLS-SEM. The population of the study was all faculty members in higher education institutions in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Pakistan) region. A measurement model and structural model were developed. The measurement model demonstrated that convergent and discriminant validities were established. The structural model's findings revealed that narcissism, antagonism, and emotional intelligence were not mediated between narcissism and workplace incivility. Similarly, emotional intelligence did not play any mediating role between sadism and workplace incivility. This implied that emotional intelligence has no role in decreasing or reducing workplace uncivil behavior.
Article
Purpose: Research suggests that physical, psychological, and/or sexual focussed Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is related to the dark triad (DT) traits of Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism. This study extends these findings by considering the addition of everyday sadism into the four-dimension dark tetrad (DTET), testing the possibility that moral disengagement (MD) mediates the relationship between these variables. It was also examined whether the DTET provided incremental validity to the more general personality traits Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Openness (HEXACO) to predict IPV. Method: Males and females (N = 416) from the general population completed five questionnaires in an online survey (HEXACO-60, MMEA, PMDS, CTS2S, SD4). Results: A principal component factor-analysis found that sexual IPV did not load as an individual factor and distinct form of violence on the CTS2S scale so was excluded from this study. Four hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted, using the demographics, HEXACO and either the DTET traits or an overall DTET variable as predictor variables, and either physical or psychological IPV as the dependent variables. Only psychopathy predicted physical and psychological IPV; MD mediated the relationship between psychopathy and psychological IPV. Although the DTET added incremental validity over HEXACO to predict physical IPV, HEXACO low Agreeableness was the strongest predictor of psychological IPV. Conclusions: Those higher in psychopathy may show different offending trajectories for physical and psychological IPV dependent upon the use of MD processes. Despite the DTET adding incremental validity over the HEXACO dimensions, some HEXACO elements better explain the relationship between personality and psychological IPV than the DTET.
Article
The Dark Tetrad is a cluster of four “dark” personality traits which are socially aversive, with distinct conceptual roots, but which are intercorrelated: narcissism, psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and sadism. Narcissism is associated with an inflated self-esteem and feelings of grandiosity; psychopathy involves a reduced empathy and a lack of remorse or guilt; Machiavellianism is characterized by a tendency for manipulation for own personal benefit; sadism involves feelings of pleasure with the pain or suffering of others. Sexism is the group of beliefs linked with the perceived superiority of men over women. Previous studies have found relationships between the Dark Tetrad and the tolerance to the use of sexual violence, and between the former and sexism. Furthermore, sexism has been linked with the acceptance of sexual violence. This study aims to revise the literature exploring the link between each of the components of the Dark Tetrad and the legitimation of the use of sexual violence; it also aims to present the associations that have been found between the aforementioned variables and sexism, and related concepts, in multiple studies. Based on the previous literature, suggestions for aims of future research in this field (i.e., Dark Tetrad, sexual violence, sexism) are made, more specifically exploring the relative effect of each of the components of the Dark Tetrad in the explanation of the legitimation of sexual violence, as well as exploring a possible, at least partial, mediation of sexism in the link between each of the “dark” traits and the acceptance of sexual violence.
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Study 1 examined how personality and attitudes are related to daily pro-environmental behavior (PEB) and whether these relationships are moderated by perceived behavioral costs and benefits. One hundred and seventy-eight participants responded to scales measuring the dark and light side of personality, as well as their pro-environmental attitude. Afterward, they were notified three times a day for 7 days in a row. Each time they reported their PEB that had occurred in the past four hours and indicated their behavioral costs and benefits. Multilevel analyses showed a positive relationship between the frequency of PEB and the light triad of personality and pro-environmental attitude, while the dark tetrad was negatively related to PEB. Unexpectedly, less environmentally aware participants reported to engage in PEB with higher costs and lower benefits than did pro-environmental participants. A second study (N = 159) suggests that less environmentally aware people do not actually engage in PEB with high costs and low benefits, but rather that they only perceive their behavior to be costly and of little benefit. Overall, our findings suggest that the way people perceive their daily PEB is not necessarily shared by others.
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