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Inclusive Protected Area Management in the Amazon: The Importance of Social Networks over Ecological Knowledge

  • Instituto Alexander von Humboldt Biodiversity Research Institute

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In the Amacayacu National Park in Colombia, which partially overlaps with Indigenous territories, several elements of an inclusive protected area management model have been implemented since the 1990s. In particular, a dialogue between scientific researchers, indigenous people and park staff has been promoted for the co-production of biological and cultural knowledge for decision-making. This paper, based on a four-year ethnographic study of the park, shows how knowledge products about different components of the socio-ecosystem neither were efficiently obtained nor were of much importance in park management activities. Rather, the knowledge pertinent to park staff in planning and management is the know-how required for the maintenance and mobilization of multi-scale social-ecological networks. We argue that the dominant models for protected area management-both top-down and inclusive models-underestimate the sociopolitical realm in which research is expected to take place, over-emphasize ecological knowledge as necessary for management and hold a too strong belief in decision-making as a rational, organized response to diagnosis of the PA, rather than acknowledging that thick complexity needs a different form of action. Co-production of knowledge is crucial for governance, but mainly not for the reasons for which it is promoted.
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Sustainability 2012, 4, 3260-3278; doi:10.3390/su4123260
ISSN 2071-1050
Inclusive Protected Area Management in the Amazon: The
Importance of Social Networks over Ecological Knowledge
Paula Ungar 1,* and Roger Strand 2
1 Alexander von Humboldt Institute for Research on Biological Resources, Avenida Paseo de Bolívar
(Circunvalar) 1620, Bogotá, Colombia
2 Centre for the Study of the Sciences and the Humanities, University of Bergen, P.O. Box 7805,
N-5020 Bergen, Norway; E-Mail:
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail:;
Tel.: +57-1-3202-767; Fax: +57-1-320-2767.
Received: 3 September 2012; in revised form: 5 November 2012 / Accepted: 16 November 2012 /
Published: 30 November 2012
Abstract: In the Amacayacu National Park in Colombia, which partially overlaps with
Indigenous territories, several elements of an inclusive protected area management model
have been implemented since the 1990s. In particular, a dialogue between scientific
researchers, indigenous people and park staff has been promoted for the co-production of
biological and cultural knowledge for decision-making. This paper, based on a four-year
ethnographic study of the park, shows how knowledge products about different
components of the socio-ecosystem neither were efficiently obtained nor were of much
importance in park management activities. Rather, the knowledge pertinent to park staff in
planning and management is the know-how required for the maintenance and mobilization
of multi-scale social-ecological networks. We argue that the dominant models for protected
area managementboth top-down and inclusive modelsunderestimate the sociopolitical
realm in which research is expected to take place, over-emphasize ecological knowledge as
necessary for management and hold a too strong belief in decision-making as a rational,
organized response to diagnosis of the PA, rather than acknowledging that thick
complexity needs a different form of action. Co-production of knowledge is crucial for
governance, but mainly not for the reasons for which it is promoted.
Keywords: protected areas; knowledge; co-management; Colombia; Amazon basin
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1. Introduction
Although different academic discourses and technical guidelines on protected area (PA)
management can be found today, both in academic literature and in normative guidelines, it can be said
in general terms that there is a more or less widespread turn to acknowledging the social dimension of
the territories and their ecological complexity. Community-based management, co-management,
adaptive management and the more recent adaptive co-management are examples of these tendencies
in academic literature [13]. Regarding management guidelines, the inclusion by the IUCN of
management categories V and VI is an example of the acknowledgement of the relationships of people
with nature as valuable for conservation [4]. This turn has many dimensions (for instance, a change in
the role assigned to the State in conservation); the one we will explore here is related to what is
regarded as pertinent knowledge for conservation; to how it is generated and to how it is expected to
inform decision-making.
In the conventional PA management model, also known as the ―Yellowstone model‖, knowledge
for conservation decision-making is mainly expected to be produced by natural-scientific experts,
based on what Holling called ―the analytic culture in ecology‖—characterized by simple causality,
focused on a single scale, using classical statistics and searching for a precise truth [5]. In this
conventional model, expert knowledge is expected to flow uni-directionally to the decision- and
policy-making arena, where it is implemented through command-and-control methods. This
mechanism, identified as the ―transfer and translate model‖ [6] or as ―push-and-pull‖ interventions [7] is
characterized basically by its one-directional flow between knowledge and action.
Seen from a more critical perspective, this process of knowledge production can be regarded as
―simple rationality‖ [8]: the world is isolated from the process of knowledge production and reason
guides research on a mechanical, causal nature that can be reduced to its parts and understood by
experts. Such an objectively produced and reliable knowledge informs and legitimizes political action,
in what Funtowicz and Strand call the ―modern model‖ [9]. As we will try to argue, our results suggest
that more recent ―complexity-aware‖, inclusive PA management ideals share some of the
characteristics of this simple rationality and, in more general terms, can be said to be still partially
embedded in a modern model.
The conventional model of natural resources management has been questioned from two interrelated
perspectives: non-equilibrium ecology and a growing awarenessstemming from both social and
ecological researchof the need to conceive people and nature as part of the same system [1012]
From the perspective of non-equilibrium ecology, normal expert scientific knowledge’s ability to deal
on its own with unpredictable, emergent, multi-scale systems is questioned [11,13]. Besides needing
methodological transformationsfrom an analytic to an integrative approach [5]non-equilibrium
ecology calls for the inclusion of different disciplines and stakeholders in the production of knowledge.
In co-management schemes, where both complexity and ―people-in-nature‖ approaches merge,
dialogue between forms of knowledge is considered crucial [3,14]. According to Berkes [3],
Knowledge for dealing with ecosystem dynamics, resource abundance at various scales, trends and
uncertainties, is dispersed among local, regional, and national agencies and groups [3].
Ways to promote this dialogue vary significantly and are often confused and contradictory, both in
conceptual and methodological terms [6,15,16]. Participative monitoring and research, which include
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local communities as ―equal partners‖ in order to widen the range of available information and design
pertinent management strategies, are a way to promote such co-production of knowledge. Another
example of co-production of knowledge are place based learning communities, where local research
projects, aimed at dealing with local problems, are supported through capacity building and
collaboration around the construction of locally relevant knowledge [17].
Many of the methodological and epistemological difficulties implied in knowledge co-production
and how to deal with them have been discussed in the literature, such as the conflicts between scales
and value-systems implied in different knowledge systems (for instance, Huntington [18], Hill and
Coombes [19], Cundill, Fabricius and Marti [15] and Cash, et al. [20]). Also in this context, power
differences are often mentioned as a dimension to be dealt with: scientific knowledge is often an
instrument for reinforcing the powerful stakeholders’ worldviews and decisions on the
territories [2123]. Also, there have been calls to the explicit acknowledgement of the political load of
scientific concepts and methods, which would imply questioning the scientific input to such dialogues,
being explicit about its value-load and opening it to collective scrutiny [2426].
In this complexity-aware arena, transdisciplinary knowledge is expected to inform decision-making
in an adaptive circuit. In adaptive management, decisions are treated as hypotheses and adjusted
according to their performance, which seems more appropriate in the face of unpredictability [10,13].
Also, some authors, calling attention to the fact that management has to respond to socially desirable
states of socio-ecosystems, promote adaptive management around socially constructed scenarios. In
this context, the role of experts would be to describe the possible futures for the managed
social-ecological systems [27,28].
More recently, in the context of adaptive co-management, attention is being called to learning as a
crucial process for decision-making [29], which has been defined as the change in the collective
understanding of a problem, as a result of social interaction [30]. For successful co-management, social
networks in which this self-organized learning takes place and the ways in which it is transmitted and
stabilized are key [31]. Although there is a growing interest in learning in the resource management
literature [32,33], it is difficult to find management guidelines where learning is made visible and
promoted in an explicit manner, as ecological knowledge production is.
Also in the Colombian conservation arena, changes towards inclusive governance have taken place,
mainly as a result of a national tendency to acknowledge Indigenous territorial rights (as reflected,
among others, in the National Constitution of 1991) and also in accordance to international
conservation trends and agreements. Initiatives in this respect are promoted by NGOs and the State:
the currently in force ―Parks with the People‖ national conservation policy, which advocates for
sharing power and defining conservation objectives jointly with local communities, is an example of
this trend [34].
Although contested and differentially interpreted at different levels of the institution and regions of
the country, the guidelines for PA management (that resulted from a technical interpretation of the
aforementioned policy) can be schematized as shown in Figure 1.
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Figure 1. A schematic version of the management model that was adopted by the Unidad
de Parques Nacionales of Colombia (UNPC) for implementation by National Parks.
This model incorporates some of the assumptions of inclusive visions of protected area
management mentioned above. For instance, the management plan is expected to be regularly revised,
in an adaptive mode. However, the feature that we wish to explore here in some depth is the
collectively produced knowledge as an input for action. In Amacayacu National Park, as we shall
discuss in the following sections, there were different scenarios that were a fertile ground for
producing such an input.
Below, we describe Amacayacu National Park (ANP), the Amazonian PA where we carried out our
research, and the methods we used. In the third section, we describe some of the difficulties faced by
the initiatives for collective production of knowledge in ANP. In the fourth section, we present a
description of the knowledge-action circuit that is functioning in the Park and revise the apparent
failure of the co-production initiative. Finally, we discuss the significance of our findings in terms of
current understandings of inclusive protected area management.
2. Study Site and Methods
2.1. Amacayacu National Park
Amacayacu National Park (ANP) is one of the 17 national parks of the Colombian Amazon region
and one of the 56 Colombian national parks, which together cover 13% of the countrys continental
surface. They are under the authority of the Unidad de Parques Nacionales de Colombia (UNPC), a
relatively autonomous part of the Ministry of the Environment and Sustainable Development. There
are five to 15 members of staff employed at the local level (a variability that is a consequence of the
high proportion of short-term contractors). The Park’s offices are located in the Southern part of the
Park and in Leticia, the biggest city of the Colombian Amazon (aprox 70.000 inhabitants), one hour
away from the Park facilities by boat.
ANP was declared in 1975, and it covers 293,500 hectares of lowland tropical rainforest in the
extreme Southern Colombian Amazon (Figure 2. Map of ANP). Climate is typical of lowland tropical
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rainforest, with over 90% of air humidity and a mean annual rainfall of 3200 mm. The level of the
Amazon River varies greatly (by up to 11 meters) between January and July. The region’s ecosystem
and species richness is very high for national and international standards, with reports of over 980 bird
species, 195 terrestrial mammals and 4500 vascular plants [35]. The woody plant species richness of
the Southern Amazon region of Colombia is one of the greatest of the whole Amazon basin [36].
Figure 2. Map of Amacayacu National Park
In its Southern sector, 12% of the Park territories coincide with legally recognized Indigenous
territories inhabited by approx. 5,000 persons, mostly from the Tikuna ethnic group. Decisions
regarding shared territory have to be agreed upon with Indigenous authorities. These local
communities can be said to be among the least ―traditional‖ in the Colombian Amazon, living close to
the city of Leticia and market economy. Most of them do not speak Indigenous languages. However,
livelihoods are still largely based on collective work, depending on the products of traditional
orchards, fishing and hunting and the selling of handicrafts to tourists who visit the Park.
ANP is one of the most visited national parks in Colombia due to its accessibility and relative
political stability, and it enjoys a well-established infrastructure for tourists and researchers. It is one of
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the Colombian PAs where more academic research projects have been carried out (between 1998 and
2008, it housed over 10% of the total number of research projects that were carried out in the same
period for all 56 National Parks) and also one of the few Colombian National Parks where
co-production of knowledge and Indigenous research have been systematically promoted and
documented. Despite occasional illegal logging and mining activities, it is a ―very well conserved
area‖, according to an institutional evaluation of effectiveness carried out in 2007 [37].
2.2. Methods
This study is based on ethnographic work performed in two periods by the first author: in
20032005, when she worked with the Dutch NGO Tropenbos to support its work on
problem-oriented research in ANP; and then in 20072009, when she was in charge of the Research
Program of National Parks, employed at the national offices of the UNPC. During this period, she
carried out participant observation in her everyday undertaking, registered in field notes of events,
conversations and observations. Five workshops that dealt with the issues of management planning and
pertinent knowledge were selected for analysis, two of which were carried out in ANP with local
stakeholders. In the other three, staff of this and other Amazonian National Parks took part around the
same issues. Also, six focus groups for deepening this issue were organized, with the participation of
staff from the local, regional and national levels of the National Parks and of NGOs, of other
organizations’ representatives and of academic researchers. Sixteen semi-structured open interviews
were carried out. Selection of interviewees was based on previous participant observation in order to
include key persons from different levels and organizations. Questions were adjusted in the course of
the interview, but they all dealt with issues such as interviewees’ everyday undertaking, their
relationships with other stakeholders at different levels, their perception of formal planning
instruments and the role of different forms of knowledge in their actions. Thirteen documents were
selected for analysis in order to account for the wider historical and geographical context of PA
management in Colombia and in the Colombian Amazon. These included unpublished technical
documents, reports by different organizations and proceedings of meetings.
Ethnographic information, interviews and documents were analyzed manually following the basic
principles of grounded theory [38]: stakeholders’ problems and ways to deal with them were
investigated systematically without formulating a priori hypotheses. Codes were identified that
emerged from the data, and they were later grouped in categories and subcategories. Empirical content
in each category/subcategory was identified in the material and then systematized in order to recognize
emerging schemes. Initial categories were: relationship between knowledge and action;
implementation of strategies, plans and guidelines; practical problems of the stakeholders; and ways to
deal with difficulties.
Throughout this investigation, we refer to networks as system made of people, groups of people and
components of nature that are interconnected in different ways (through flows of information or
resources, by emotional or value ties). We do not refer to social networks as defined in the social
network analysis literature and we did not conduct any quantitative analysis, as has been done
elsewhere for governance and environmental management (see for instance [39]).
Sustainability 2012, 4 3266
3. Problems Implementing the Model: Difficulties in the Dialogue between Forms of Knowledge
In order to analyze how co-production of knowledge was carried out in ANP, we addressed three
arenas in which it was promoted: local research projects, formulated and implemented jointly by
Indigenous people and park staff; projects proposed by academic researchers, which were expected to
be adjusted through deliberative processes with Indigenous people and carried out jointly; and the
collective identification and prioritization of Conservation Objects for the management plan.
3.1. Local Research Projects
Since the 1990s, long before the formulation of a management plan for ANP (which took place in
2004), collective research projects have been formulated by Indigenous people and Park staff, projects
that are expected to serve both conservation objectives and Indigenous people’s economic interests. At
the beginning, these were aimed at establishing small-scale sustainable production industries. In 1999,
with the arrival of the NGO Tropenbos, which had experience on collective and Indigenous research in
other parts of the Colombian Amazon, and the support of a biologist based in ANP, the communities
continued formulating what were then called ―Proyectos propios‖ (―Own projects‖). These projects
were oriented towards monitoring of fauna and the production of local cartography, implied the
co-production of social-ecological knowledge and were therefore expected to inform management
decisions. Some of these projects obtained financial support of national agencies.
These local research projects, in which Indigenous people registered information on fishing and
hunting and established agreements on these activities, generated numerous collectively crafted maps
of the territories and detailed information about places and times of fishing and hunting. They were
also expected to generate information for Indigenous and PA staff decision-making, for instance, on
times and places where these activities were to be allowed. Although they were mentioned by both
staff and Indigenous people as very important projects, such a use of information was not reported; the
formal agreements on restrictions to resource use were only ephemerally implemented, lasting only as
long as there was financing for the salaries of the participants that were in charge of surveillance. Also,
lack of clarity about the subsequent use of locally-generated information, which arose suspicions
among Indigenous members of the group, was a source of conflict and a reason given to explain the
short life of these projects. Similar situations were mentioned for other Amazonian Parks, where
initiatives of local monitoring of natural resources were carried out, where the processes of
participative monitoring were regarded as very valuable, but the results of which were not explicitly
used as input for decision-making.
3.2. Academic-Staff-Indigenous Interactions in the Local Working Group on Research
With the methodological and financial support of Tropenbos, a ―Local Working Group on
Research (LWGR) was in function throughout the period 20012006. This group was formed by a
representative of each of the five Indigenous communities present in ANP or its surroundings, a
representative of ANP staff and often a volunteer from Tropenbos. Besides carrying on with the
Proyectos Propios‖, the group was expected to discuss and adjust academic research projects planned
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for the Park,. Such discussions were expected to re-orient the projects to address local questions,
include local knowledge or involve local co-researchers.
The LWGR, as explained by the Director of Tropenbos, was expected to be, a platform for
dialogue (…): for identifying what the others have, what they know, what they need. It was conceived
as a mechanism for debating and supporting proposals from different sides (academia, ANP and
Indigenous) 1. However, the LWGR became a rather bureaucratic space in which academic
researchers’ permission for entering Indigenous territories was discussed and where negotiations about
financial issues took place, such as on the number of Indigenous people to be hired in research projects
and their salaries. There were virtually no discussions on the objectives or the conceptual or
methodological characteristics of research projects.
Despite the intentions that were in the origins of the LWGR, in practice, it became a scenario where
historical lack of trust between Indigenous people and researchers and between the latter and Park staff
emerged. As one Indigenous member of the group stated in an interview, ―All our lives we will be
watching how others come and do research on us, and when our children grow up there will be nothing left
to investigate.Also, for many academic researchers, the presence of Indigenous territories in the Park and
the insistence of local staff in promoting prior consultation of projects became a significant obstacle for
scientists’ undertakings. In some interviews and group discussions, we found a prejudice among
researchers towards local staff, according to which they were not trustworthy because of their bureaucratic
mentality and their eagerness to show their power. One PhD researcher stated: (Local personnel have) the
superiority complex of a doorman who sees himself as the owner of the building. Local staff, on their side,
often referred to academic research as a distant, inaccessible activity, carried out by some advanced and
chosen‖, who were scarcely interested in making their results useful for management problems.
Although the LWGR could in principle be regarded as fertile ground for the co-production of
relevant knowledge, we could observe no reference to new knowledge on ecological attributes of the
Park as a product of the Group that had actually been used for formulating the management plan or for
decision-making. However, it is important to note here that from these meetings and later field work,
significant friendships between academic researchers, staff and Indigenous people emerged, and some
Indigenous members of the group became leaders of their communities and kept being important allies
of ANP staff for other joint issues. We shall return below to the question of the importance of this
group for strengthening social networks, building trust and redistributing power, and for the moment
merely note, as a sign of the importance of the processes that took place in the LWGR, how all of the
involved stakeholders regretted the dissolution of the group in 2009.
3.3. Participative Definition of Conservation Objects
A third agenda that entailed participatory processes around knowledge production was the
identification and prioritization of Conservation Objects (COs) for the Management Plan. According to
the then in force guidelines for formulating management plans, COs are the elements that are expected
to be used for making a diagnosis of the conservation state of the Park and the pressures that threaten
1 Statements between inverted commas are direct quotes from transcribed interviews, workshops or
focus groups.
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it, and management decisions are supposed to be planned and then implemented as a result of this
diagnosis. COs can belong to one or more of the following categories: Attributes of biodiversity
(e.g., ecosystems, population or species), ecosystem services and ―natural attributes of cultural and
historic value‖.
PA staff was expected by the central offices of UNPC to formulate first an ―institutional
management plan‖, which implied the selection of its conservation objects and a description of their
state and of the pressures to which they were subject, based on a revision of the academic research that
had been carried out in the Park. This stage of the process could be regarded as a first attempt at
carrying out a dialogue between academic knowledge and management needs, in as far as it implies an
understanding of academic knowledge by local staff. Then, this institutional plan was to be adjusted
with other stakeholders. The park staff carried out seven workshops and numerous meetings with
academia, NGO and Indigenous communities between 2003 and 2004 for this purpose.
Already in the first stage of definition of COs, it became clear to ANP staff that the available
scientific research did not serve management needs, not even for the diagnostic stage. For instance, a
revision of existent literature on ANP did not provide a general outlook on biodiversity in the area,
because more than 90% of the studies had been carried out in the Southern (more accessible) part of
the Park; most research was performed in very limited time frames, with incompatible methodologies,
and about particular species of academic interest, which impeded generalizations about, for instance,
keystone species, their uses or the threats to which they were subject. Therefore, the park staff ended
up defining a preliminary list of COs based mainly on, what they knew, what they thought to be
important,‖ as a way to comply with the requirements of the management plan and, To have
something to bring to the participatory exercises, prescribed in the guidelines for formulating the
management plan.
However, the main difficulties found by ANP staff for identifying and prioritizing COs, and for
advancing participatory processes with local communities in order to adjust their list of priorities, were
related to the notion of CO itself and its incompatibility to what they defined as management priorities.
While COs are implicitly defined as a limited list of ―objectively defined biological or cultural
components of the Park, management priorities (in terms of protection, monitoring and negotiation) for
Indigenous people, as well as for ANP staff, were different: they were constituted by temporally and
spatially dynamic and social-natural components of the territory. Multifunctional traditional orchards,
game or medicinal groups of species are examples of such practical priorities (over, for instance, an
endangered or a charismatic species, as defined by conservation biology).
More importantly, these priorities were regarded as such because they were valued by local
communities. In fact, some years later, as a result of their experience in identifying COs, Amazonian
Parks staff proposed alternative guidelines for formulating management plans, based on what they
called ―Integral Conservation Priorities‖, which are biodiversity elements prioritized using criteria of
local use and shared value, among other criteria [40].
Moreover, as will be further described and discussed below, particularly in Sections 4.2 and 5.2,
what was regarded by local staff as crucial for governance of ANP was not so much the knowledge on
these valued components (which was in fact produced by many academic studies, but generally not
regarded as useful by local stakeholders), but the collective process of investigation through which
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both staff and local communities learned from each other and from each other’s history, interests and
values, among other relevant results.
At the end of this participative process, a list of COs was produced for the management plan, but it
was regarded, as the management plan in general terms, as a formal requisite for that document, that
had little or no effect on management decisions. This was stated in similar terms by most members of
local and national staff, both in interviews and in focus groups. Action in the Park, as reported by a
member of local staff, ―kept being carried out as it had always been‖.
4. Management of ANP and the Knowledge that Informed It
Our empirical research of the ANP strongly indicated that the circuit of informed management was
not taking place as established in the ideal model (illustrated in Figure 1). Specifically, the use of
scientific and/or co-produced knowledge for informing planned decisions was not evident. Still, the
park has been assessed as a ―very well conserved area‖, according to institutional evaluation based on
both ecological and institutional indicators [37], a description that we do not object to. Accordingly,
we were led to reconsider the apparent ―failure‖ of co-production of knowledge experiments to cast a
critical light on some of the theoretical idealizations on how management of PAs is and should be
conceived in inclusive management models.
4.1. Re-Thinking Action and Pertinent Knowledge
Throughout our interviews and observational studies, we have analyzed how local staff of ANP
themselves describe their own activities. They consistently did so in a way that allowed us to group
these activities in two categories: reactions to crises and constant activities that have been carried out
since the origin of the Park. Crises, called by local staff ―junctures‖, can be defined as the unexpected
emergence of propitious or unfavorable circumstances whose origin lies outside the field of control of
ANP staff and that needed immediate attention. Some crises originated in illegal activity, such as the
sudden entrance of loggers into the park. Other crises stem from closer surroundings of ANP, such as
unexpected changes of political representatives of Indigenous communities. Requirements of the
UNPC national office to implement new planning or evaluation instruments in reduced times or
unexpected decisions on budget allocation made by the national office were also perceived at the local
level as junctures. Actions consisted, in these cases, of reducing the impact of such crises, for instance,
recurring to the confidence of allied providers of the much needed gasoline for motorboats in the
presence of a sudden budget reduction. Alternatively, crises could also be turned into opportunities, for
instance, through involving new stakeholders from other organizations for confronting together illegal
logging, stakeholders that would later remain as allies. These are but a few examples that demonstrate
how the capacity to deal with junctures is highly dependent on the strength and flexibility of social
networks around ANP.
Other lines of work developed by local staff were constant, carried out since the origin of the park,
and responded to historical ecological and institutional dynamics. Supporting local communities in
their search for income is a good example of this kind of activity. Local staff has worked to involve
Indigenous people in tourism in several ways. Also, local staff has supported local communities in the
formulation of and fundraising for projects for the establishment of domestic manufacturing based on
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non-timber forest products. Other examples of constant activities are: environmental education, carried
out in local schools and with elderly people as trainers; meetings with local authorities for establishing
agreements on resource extraction; attendance to researchers, who have been conducting research in
ANP since its establishment, and the control and surveillance activities, mainly consisting of
accompanying local monitoring activities. Also, the communication with the Central Office,
responding to constant requirements on administrative issues, was considered, Part of our daily life.
Such constant activities can be seen as a way to maintain, strengthen, generate or re-orient multi-scale
and multi-level social ecological networks, which are key to being able to react to crises.
In this circuit, the management plan did not play an important role as the instrument for organizing
informed activities. As mentioned above, its elaboration, which took place between 2003 and 2004,
was perceived by local staff as a task imposed by the central office, a job that needed to be done for
fulfilling a requirement. In interviews, workshops and focus groups, members of local staff stated in
different manners that action at the local level kept being carried out in the ways in which it was being
done before the plan existed.
Thus, action in ANP was not guided by a diagnosis of the state of and pressures on components of
the biological systems, systematized in a management plan in order to design responses. Rather, what
was crucial was the (non-documented) knowledge of the functioning of multi-scale social-ecological
networks and of the associated values of different stakeholders. Knowledge and abilities for mobilizing
stakeholders at the local level (who, when and how to convene on different kinds of meetings, for
instance), which also implies knowing which features of the ecosystems are valuable for them (as
mentioned in the previous section) or on how to deal with the requirements of the upper levels of the
same or other organizations (without abandoning local priorities) are examples of the kind of
knowledge that was constantly mobilized for decision-making. This kind of knowledge was said to be
acquired through individual experience, collective processes and personal abilities.
This form of management, a combination of actions at different temporal and spatial scales that
requires both knowledge of the emergent complex social-ecological system and particular abilities, is
evidently different to command-and-control, but it does not coincide either with the idea of adaptive
co-management, defined as a systematic, collective trial and error exercise around explicitly
agreed-upon objectives and actions. This way of acting is similar to the metaphor that Delgado and
Strand used to describe their vision of environmental governance: A complex dance, in which dancers
adjust their movements to rhythmic or abrupt movements of others and whose functioning depends
greatly on trust, dependency and opposition [41].
4.2. Rethinking the Process of Knowledge Co-Production. Really a Failure?
In section 3, we described what could be defined as a failure of co-production of knowledge, from
the point of view of the management model that was supposed to be implemented (Figure 2): Locally
formulated research projects were short-lived, and the information they generated was not translated
into the management plan or into explicit decisions; the efforts for adapting academic research to
include local needs and knowledge resulted in a scenario for political and financial negotiations, and it
was not possible to arrive upon a list of agreed-upon Conservation Objects that would actually orient
management decisions in ANP.
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However, when analyzing the actual knowledge-action circuit that was taking place in ANP, this
apparent collapse can be understood differently. While not through the idealized mechanisms, i.e.,
while not generating products for the management plan, the described exercises for co-production of
knowledge did have an important impact on the governance of ANP and, therefore, on its
conservation. Specifically, these activities contributed to creating and strengthening long-term
relationships between stakeholders, to building of trust, to power re-distribution and to social learning,
at multiple scales and levels. All these variables have been considered vital for establishing a resilient
social-ecological network [20,32,42].
For instance, Indigenous participants in the LWGR were later elected as political leaders of their
communities, leaders with which a more fluid relationship with the Park’s staff was possible;
accompanying local research projects and doing consultation of COs permitted park’s staff to know
better the territory and local natural resource uses and allowed Indigenous people to understand the
practical problem of State conservation.
5. Discussion: Enduring Idealizations and the Actual Contribution of Co-Production of Knowledge
We support notions of inclusive park management as improving on earlier command-and-control
approaches, in particular in settings such as our case study, notably where a natural park also is the
home of human communities. However, the purpose of this paper has been to show how also these
inclusive‖ notions retain some of the old idealizations on how PAs actually work. In this section, we
will discuss these idealizations further.
We have described above (see Section 3.1) the efforts made in ANP for including knowledge from
various sources for conservation decision-making. Although these initiatives had important
consequences for governance, as indicated in Section 4, it can be said that they failed in terms of the
objective of generating relevant knowledge for explicitly informing decision-making.
This apparent failure can be explained in terms of two idealizations on how PAs actually work that,
as we shall argue, are shared by both conventional and more inclusive PA management models. The
first one has to do with an underestimation of the political and historical scenario in which any kind of
production of knowledge takes place. The second one is related to an understanding of informed
decision-making‖ as a rational process, based on a diagnosis, oriented by clearly stated objectives and
implemented through strategies.
5.1. The Role of the Sociopolitical Context
One of the implicit simplifications shared by a number of both conventional expert-driven and more
inclusive/democratic models for informed management (which we believe is made visible by this
case-study) is their lack of emphasis on the political and historical context in which the production and
use of knowledge takes place. Regularly, co-production of knowledge is portrayed as an explicit
dialogue around questions, methods or values, as in scenario planning [43,44] or in extended peer
reviews proposed by post normal science [9]. Problems related to co-production of knowledge for
environmental management are approached, focusing on epistemological or methodological issues,
such as scale mismatches between knowledge sources [20]; the selection of conceptual frameworks for
transdisciplinarity [15] or differing documenting methods for traditional and formal knowledge [18].
Sustainability 2012, 4 3272
In this case-study, however, the political and historical context of the documented processes played
a central role, hindering and rendering irrelevant the use of scientific knowledge, both as an instrument
for the legitimization of powerful stakeholders’ decisions and as an input for a dialogue between
understandings of nature. Multiple prejudices and differences in practical problems among involved
stakeholders hinder an open dialogue around technical issues or even values. According to the Gini
Index, Colombia is the fifth most unequal country in the region [45]. Only 0.5% of the total population
has access to higher education [46]. Researchers in National Parks are thus part of a very small
minority of the Colombian population. Less than half of National Park’s staff at the national level
belong to this minority, most of which work in urban offices. In each NP, only the chief and a
―supporting professional‖ have a university degree. Most staff belong to ethnic minorities of the
regions where the Parks are located; less than 15% of the population of these groups have even
completed primary education in Colombia [47]. In the empirical parts of this paper, one may see traces
of this context, for instance, in the way that park management above all becomes a task of building
relationships based in trust and at least a partially common understanding about the knowledge and
action required in the protection of the area.
The interaction between local communities and ―white‖ people (staff and researchers) is also loaded
with tensions related to, among other issues, a historically unequal relationship between colonizers and
colonized peoples [48,49]. In the Amazon, this relationship has been based on the exchange of
commodities, in which Indigenous people’s ability to negotiate has been crucial for their survival [50].
Also, the present political conflictive framework of access to traditional knowledge plays an important
role in mutual prejudices [50]. In more general terms, the relationship between white and Indigenous
people is conditioned by claims related to economic and territorial rights of Indigenous people, which
tend to politicize any dialogue [19].
Public response to science depends more on the perception that relevant actors or institutions have
of each other, on their mutual trust, than on the understanding of information [51]. Therefore, the
shortcomings (in terms of knowledge production on the science-society interface) in the dialogue
between local staff, Indigenous people and scientific experts described here is understandable in a
context of mutual prejudices and lack of trust, as illustrated mainly in Sections 3.1 and 3.2. However,
the argument goes both ways: indeed, in a context in which trust is a critical but fragile resource, it is also
reasonable and desirable that occasions for social interaction develop into opportunities to build trust.
Another dimension of knowledge production that tends to be ignored in both conventional and more
democratic models of PA management, which emerged in this case study, is the implicit politics of
scientific knowledge.
On the one hand, scientific knowledge on ANP biodiversity that was available for Park staff was
geographically, temporally and thematically biased. This bias responded to the accessibility of places
and to the interests and financing of researchers. Such a bias is not exclusive to ANP; knowledge on
biodiversity is correlated worldwide, among other factors of political origin, to economic development
indexes [52] or to personal and institutional interests [53,54], rather than to its natural distribution. In
other words, academia describes a thin ―slice‖ of biodiversity, the slice that allows researchers to
increase their ―credibility capital‖ [55], to have a place in the biodiversity globalocentric network [56].
What this case-study suggests is that this slice does not coincide with what PA managers would need
to comply with management guidelines, such as the identification of Conservation Objects.
Sustainability 2012, 4 3273
On the other hand, the CO concept itself often clashed with both management and Indigenous
priorities, which integrate social and natural attributes and are dynamic in space and time, as illustrated
in section 3.3. These features of social-ecological systems have been pointed out by non-equilibrium
ecology, and it has been argued that they need to be assumed by PA management [2]. It has also been
argued that the affinity of non-equilibrium ecology notions with Indigenous perspectives allows a more
fluid communication between these knowledge systems [57,58]. Therefore, the clash between the CO
concept and management needs could be attributed to the former’s lack of consideration of non-equilibrium
ecology insights. However, according to this case-study, priorities that were actually used for the
governance of ANP were components of the system that were also valued by local communities. We
would argue, along with other authors [19,59,60], that even if co-production of knowledge was to be
carried out around non-equilibrium ecology concepts, it would still fail if it did not recognize the wider
political context in which knowledge is immersed, a context that is fundamental for the meaningful,
pertinent construction of knowledge. As mentioned earlier, Integral Conservation Priorities were
proposed by Amazonian Parks staff as alternatives to COs that do take into account local values and
political context. A different set of priorities has been emerging from the implementation of these
alternative guidelines in some Amazonian National Parks.
5.2. Informed Decision-Making?
This study contributes to making visible another idealization shared by both conventional and
inclusive PA management ideals: informed decision-making‖ is understood from both perspectives as
a process that is (a) critically based on ecological knowledge (either produced by experts or through
collaborative research); and (b) oriented by clearly stated objectives (either imposed by the State or
jointly identified) and implemented through organized strategies (either led by the State or
collaborative arrangements).
While conventional management ideals depended heavily on expert knowledge for the generation of
this information [61], in the face of complexity, it is argued that ecological information and
knowledge, still fundamental, is distributed among different stakeholders at different scales [3]. Here,
however, management did not seem to be an information-intensive endeavor; most of the knowledge
that was mobilized by local decision-makers could better be defined as social learning, as characterized
by Pahl-Wostl, et al. [62]. Learning was related to the functioning of the institutional network around
the ANP, especially on the relationships between levels and scales and the ways to mobilize them. This
case-study suggests, along with Pahl-Wostl et al., that The problem that we face when we deal with
sustainability lies not so much in our lack of understanding of the functioning of ecological systems,
but in our lack of understanding of the governance and cultural systems and how they are structured
and managed and interact with ecological systems.[62].
Regarding the idea of how natural resources management takes place, there has been a change from
top-down, command and control visions towards collaborative, adaptive arrangements. These are
proposed as ways to deal with social illegitimacy of centralized management and with the multi-level
and uncertain nature of social-ecological systems. Usually, implicitly or explicitly, this kind of
arrangement is expected to go through stages that include the sharing of power by the state, the (joint)
Sustainability 2012, 4 3274
definition of objectives, the (collective) production of knowledge and the (cooperative)
implementation of strategies, e.g., [16].
In this study, management actions apparently did not respond to a process of open and orderly
deliberation around collectively built knowledge. Rather, they responded to the need to build, maintain
or mobilize multi-scale social networks as a response to long-term social-ecological dynamics or
crises. As said before, the vision proposed by Delgado and Strand [42] of environmental governance as
a complex dance, in which actors adjust their movements to the rhythmic or unexpected movements of
other actors, to the social space and to unexpected events, and in which serendipity and spontaneity
play an important role, is similar to the situation described in this article.
If PA management is enacted through mobilizing complex social-ecological networks, in a scenario
where social and political circumstances play a central role, it should not be surprising that what
matters at the end of the day about co-production of knowledge is its ability to increase governance
and to deal with political tensions, rather than as a device for generating ―better knowledge‖.
6. Conclusions
In accordance with international academic and regulatory trends, Colombian protected area
management guidelines have adopted inclusive principles. Particularly, there has been a call for the
collective production of knowledge for informing decision-making. It has been argued that
co-produced knowledge is better suited to understand and deal with multi-scale, unpredictable
social-ecological systems. In Amacayacu National Park (ANP), in the Southern Colombian Amazon,
co-production of knowledge for informing management has been promoted for over 15 years in
various scenarios, involving Indigenous peoples, academic researchers and park staff.
These inclusive processes have had important consequences for ANP governance. However, these
consequences do not result from the functioning of the idealized knowledge-action circuit, in which
knowledge products are expected to inform rational decision-making. Such a circuit is not operating in
ANP. The absence of such a circuit can be explained in terms of the political load of knowledge
production (both collective and scientific knowledge), and in terms of the actual management of ANP,
which is better understood as the continuous building, strengthening and mobilizing of social networks
by park staff to enroll the other actors in the park.
The impact of co-production of knowledge on ANP governance can be explained by a closer look at
the functioning of the Park. Management in ANP consisted mainly in a combination of actions at
different temporal and spatial scales aimed at the generation, maintenance or re-orientation of multi-level
social-ecological networks. In this context, processes for the co-production of knowledge was of key
importance for governance, in as far as they contributed to creating and strengthening long-term
relationships between stakeholders, to trust building, to power re-distribution and to social learning.
We wish to thank Tropenbos and the Unit of National Parks of Colombia for supporting and
encouraging the field work of this research. Also, critical comments by members of staff of both
institutions were key for developing the arguments presented here. The first author received financial
support from the WWF Russell E. Train Education for Nature Program and from the Centre for the
Sustainability 2012, 4 3275
Study of the Sciences and the Humanities at the University of Bergen (Norway). The Alexander von
Humboldt Institute supported the writing of this manuscript.
Conflict of Interest
While performing part of the research presented in this paper, Paula Ungar worked as assistant to
the general director in Tropenbos and as a supporting professional of the Technical Sub-direction of
National Parks. Roger Strand reports of no conflicts of interests.
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© 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article
distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license
... Awareness (Cummins and McKenna, 2010;Galafassi et al., 2017;Colavito et al., 2019) Shared understanding, joint definition (Kuldna et al., 2015;Siew et al., 2016) Social learning (Ungar and Strand, 2012;Xavier et al., 2018;White et al., 2019) Start discourse, discussion, questioning (Kemp and Rotmans, 2009;Frantzeskaki and Kabisch, 2015) Support to participants during process (Mitchell et al., 2017) Trust (Frantzeskaki and Kabisch, 2015;Clark et al., 2016;Murti et al., 2020) ...
... Satisfaction, motivation (Hegger and Dieperink, 2015;) Scientific or professional merit (Cummins and McKenna, 2010;Ugolini et al., 2015) Sense of ownership, pride (Leith et al., 2016;Vargas-Nguyen et al., 2020) Willingness to use (Kocher et al., 2012) Other benefits (Ungar and Strand, 2012;Rubenstein et al., 2016;Taylor et al., 2016) ...
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As anthropogenic pressures on the environment grow, science-policy interaction is increasingly needed to support evidence-informed decision-making. However, there are many barriers to knowledge exchange (KE) at the science-policy interface, including difficulties evaluating its outcomes. The aims of this study are to synthesize the literature to elucidate the a) intended and b) claimed outcomes of KE processes at the interface of environmental science and policy, as well as the c) evidence used to evaluate them and d) methods used for collecting evaluation data. Results from systematically identifying and analyzing 397 articles show that co-production, knowledge brokerage, boundary organizations, and social connections were the most common strategies for KE. KE processes commonly aimed, claimed and referred to evidence regarding the usability of knowledge (e.g. credibility, salience, legitimacy) and social outcomes (e.g. networking, awareness, learning, trust-building). They also aimed for deeper policy/economic/societal impacts and actual use of scientific knowledge within decision-making. These additional goals, however, were seldom claimed to have been achieved, although products (e.g. maps/tools) and process attributes (e.g. equity, power-relations, transparency) were commonly used for evidencing impact. Hence, this study found that success from KE at the interface of environmental science and policy comes in diverse forms and showed a divergence between what studies aim for (ambitious) and what they evidence or claim as an achievement (more modest). This may represent failures of KE processes to reach intended goals, shortcomings in evaluation literature/approaches, or mismatches between timescales of evaluation and impact. Overall, this suggests a need to better align goals with evaluation measures to plan, facilitate, and appreciate the diverse impacts of KE processes.
... Those days are past. Many stakeholders, such as community associations, indigenous federations, producer cooperatives, and labor unions, have mobilized to increase their influence in the governance of natural resources, which has led to demands for specific information [71][72][73]. Such demands have led to increased stakeholder participation in research, often in a PAR mode of defining research foci and accompanying the process to applications of findings [71,74,75]. ...
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Research that features participation and action orientation, such as participatory action research (PAR), is especially valuable in contexts where there is rapid change, high social inequality, and great uncertainty about the future, which drives stakeholder demands for information to support their goals. The Amazon offers such a context, for it is a region where diverse stakeholders engage in contestation over environmental governance to address issues such as climate change to achieve conservation and sustainable development. Stakeholder mobilization has changed the terms by which research is conducted, from the definition of priority topics to the application of findings. Due to stakeholder mobilization, more and more research in the Amazon is now necessarily participatory, for stakeholders routinely issue demands about how the research will be conducted and for what purpose. In this paper, we provide an overview of several experiences of implementing methods such as PAR by different teams or networks, focusing on the complementary contributions of outside researchers and local stakeholders. The heart of the paper reports on three broad types of experiences focusing on conservation and development in the Amazon: (1) participatory data collection for co-production of knowledge for environmental governance, (2) inclusive environmental monitoring systems, and (3) innovative models of knowledge exchange to facilitate collective action. Within each type, we report multiple experiences with distinct approaches to participation and action in research. These experiences constitute models that can be replicated in other places for broader impact to support conservation and development.
... Supporting Ungar and Strand's (2012) assertions about the impact of different cultural perspectives on the definition of plan targets (assets/building blocks), these need to include cultural and livelihood elements, not simply biophysical ones. The use of an ecosystem services approach (as currently outlined in the Open Standards) is insufficient to incorporate significant cultural differences. ...
... Aunque la gobernanza de los sistemas de AP requiere de complementariedad y corresponsabilidad entre los actores involucrados, la realidad de Colombia exige sortear obstáculos como una tradición de manejo centralizado y público de las AP, un Estado paternalista, falta de recursos humanos y económicos, entre otros (Ramírez, 2016). A pesar de esto, existen análisis de gobernanza compartida en AP en el país que también resaltan aspectos positivos en cuanto a empoderamiento, tejido social y respeto intercultural (Durán, 2009;Premauer y Berkes, 2015;Ungar y Strand, 2012;Matallana et al., 2019). Este artículo busca evidenciar los retos y oportunidades en el tránsito hacia una la gobernanza compartida de la conservación que requiere los SIMAP y mostrar la importancia de la transición como un proceso necesariamente gradual. ...
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Los Sistemas Municipales o Locales de Áreas Protegidas –SIMAP– son estrategias de conservación que aportan a la planeación ambiental territorial y a la conservación del patrimonio natural. Buscan integrar el ordenamiento ambiental del territorio con su gobernanza y trazan un tránsito a una gobernanza compartida entre actores públicos, comunitarios y privados. Objetivos. Analizar los retos y oportunidades de la transición a la gobernanza compartida del SIMAP. Materiales y Métodos. El artículo es producto de la reflexión colectiva y análisis con base en herramientas de estudios de caso, sobre tres experiencias de diseño e implementación de SIMAP en Antioquia. Resultados. Al examinar las transiciones a los SIMAP sobresalieron tres temas: a). Proactividad y apropiación, los actores públicos cumplen un papel clave por sus competencias ambientales y territoriales y, para asumirlo, requieren de normativas favorables y capacidad institucional; los comunitarios, requieren de fortalecimiento y acompañamiento en liderazgos y gestión; y los privados, de sensibilización e incentivos. b). Dolientes, los liderazgos de dolientes locales y regionales son indicadores de apropiación social del SIMAP, además son cruciales para mantener la continuidad de los procesos de coordinación y socialización. Se deben acompañar, fortalecer y fomentar. c). Interacciones multinivel comprenden sinergias positivas entre municipios para procesos de conservación regional y los retos entre niveles territoriales se deben a diferencias en discursos, prioridades y normativas. Conclusiones. Más que un insumo para el ordenamiento territorial, las experiencias SIMAP analizadas son una estrategia de conservación municipal que requiere fomentar corresponsabilidad propia y gobernanza compartida y atender a retos encontrados en la proactividad, liderazgo, e interacciones entre niveles territoriales de los actores involucrados.
... Comme l'affirment Ungar et Strand (2012) à propos de l'impact de différentes perspectives culturelles sur la définition des objectifs du plan (actifs/éléments de base), ceux-ci doivent inclure des éléments culturels et relatifs aux moyens de subsistance, et non pas simplement des éléments biophysiques. L'utilisation d'une approche fondée sur les services écosystémiques (telle qu'elle est actuellement décrite dans les Normes ouvertes) est insuffisante pour intégrer des différences culturelles significatives. ...
... La perspectiva de este artículo es diferente porque estudia la contribución de los parques naturales a la consolidación del poder estatal, con independencia de si estos aportan (o no) a la conservación ambiental. El texto se fundamenta en estudios recientes de corte antropológico, según los cuales, los parques contribuyen a expandir el dominio estatal (Cifuentes 2012;Leal 2017;Ojeda 2012;Pérez 2012;Piedrahíta 2016;Ungar y Strand 2012). A partir de esta idea, el artículo explica la forma como los parques naturales logran este propósito. ...
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Objetivo/contexto: Los parques naturales suelen ser presentados como la estrategia estatal por excelencia para garantizar la conservación ambiental de un área específica. Sin embargo, los escasos estudios de antropología del Estado y de ciencia política sobre este tema sostienen que, además de la protección ambiental, los parques contribuyen a la consolidación del dominio estatal. El texto explica la forma en que los parques naturales logran este último propósito, a partir del estudio de la declaratoria y de los primeros años del Parque Alto Fragua Indi Wasi (Caquetá, Colombia). Metodología: La información para este estudio de caso provino de documentos oficiales y archivos históricos, así como de al menos veinte entrevistas en profundidad con funcionarios estatales y líderes sociales. Conclusiones: El artículo plantea, primero, que los parques naturales sirven para afianzar el dominio estatal porque hacen más legible a la población y al territorio del área que quiere ser conservada; segundo, que existen seis tipos de legibilidad estatal (convergente, denegada, consentida, impuesta, frenada e indiferente), según el momento histórico y los actores sociales que se relacionan con el Estado; y, tercero, que la legibilidad estatal en el Parque Alto Fragua Indi Wasi aumentó como resultado de un proceso político caracterizado por la convergencia de intereses estatales y sociales. Originalidad: El artículo aporta herramientas conceptuales y empíricas que permiten mostrar cómo los parques naturales contribuyen a la consolidación del dominio estatal y complejizan las relaciones entre Estado y sociedad. En términos generales, esta investigación es una invitación a estudiar desde la ciencia política los problemas relacionados con el ordenamiento ambiental y territorial del Estado.
... His work bridges the critical geography on social construction of space (Marston 2000) to build scalar political theory by considering the 'point of interaction between inherited scalar structures and emergent social and political projects and micro-policies' (MacKinnon, 2011, p. 33). Extended ethnographic case studies, such as the one presented here, are able to examine the interactions among drivers of change, multiple actors, and institutional change (Ungar & Strand, 2012;Zulu, 2009). One of the most robust frames for future research being used by these authors for future comparative studies is legal pluralism, which focuses on how each actor chooses among layers of customary and formal law in a dynamic process of adaptation to larger forces (von Benda-Beckmann & Keebet, 2006). ...
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In Latin America and the Global South, policy-makers are adopting community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) principles for local governments. The idealized emphasis on ‘local’ collaborative approaches is known to neglect human geographic contexts and issues of capacity, power, and human drivers of change at larger scales. However, critiques lack empirical evidence of policy implementation decisions. How do local government and community actors choose to use decentralized environmental governance policies in relation to a threatened cultural and natural landscape across their jurisdictions? This question is explored in an ethnographic case of a high Andean wetland region in southern Ecuador by focusing on the context and micro-politics of two seemingly contradictory local government decisions: proposals to nationalize a local community protected area and to work with other local governments to construct a road across the wetlands that could threaten protected area status. When different sectors are devolved to different local actors without strong sub-state institutions for conflict management, decentralization may create incentives for conflict rather than conservation. Governance design depends on understanding how and why diverse local actors engage in boundary-spanning regional strategies, calling for additional contributions from political geographers.
... [55] highlighted the critical role of TMTs' attitude and their broad awareness of their firms' sustainability orientation. A TMT's awareness of societal and environmental issues will be higher when that TMT has strong social networks [53,56] and constantly interacts with important internal actors, e.g., various employee and management groups, and external actors, e.g., clients [57] or shareholder [58]. Internal and external social networks contain rich sources of information about the worlds inside and outside of the organization, respectively. ...
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Top management teams’ (TMTs’) behavioral integration has received extensive attention from strategic management scholars in recent years. To learn more about the consequences of this phenomenon at the team level, we explore the relationship between TMTs’ behavioral integration with their innovativeness and sustainability orientation. To accomplish this, we surveyed 40 TMTs in Iranian small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) at two points in time. We ran a hierarchical multiple regression in order to test the hypotheses of the study. Building a theoretical model based on the Upper-Echelons framework, we found that the extent to which a TMT is behaviorally integrated is positively and significantly related to TMT innovativeness. Furthermore, our result reveals that a highly behaviorally integrated TMT is more likely to engage in sustainability-oriented actions. Hence, behaviorally integrated TMTs offer its team members an increased chance of being innovative and generating new ideas as compared to less behaviorally integrated TMTs. Finally, our results indicate that the generation of novel ideas is higher in teams with younger members, and that highly educated TMTs generate more innovative ideas in the workplace.
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The empirical evidence in the papers in this special issue identifies pervasive and difficult cross-scale and cross-level interactions in managing the environment. The complexity of these interactions and the fact that both scholarship and management have only recently begun to address this complexity have provided the impetus for us to present one synthesis of scale and cross-scale dynamics. In doing so, we draw from multiple cases, multiple disciplines, and multiple perspectives. In this synthesis paper, and in the accompanying cases, we hypothesize that the dynamics of cross-scale and cross-level interactions are affected by the interplay between institutions at multiple levels and scales. We suggest that the advent of co-management structures and conscious boundary management that includes knowledge co-production, mediation, translation, and negotiation across scale-related boundaries may facilitate solutions to complex problems that decision makers have historically been unable to solve.
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Natural resources management in general, and water resources management in particular, are currently undergoing a major paradigm shift. Management practices have largely been developed and implemented by experts using technical means based on designing systems that can be predicted and controlled. In recent years, stakeholder involvement has gained increasing importance. Collaborative governance is considered to be more appropriate for integrated and adaptive management regimes needed to cope with the complexity of social-ecological systems. The paper presents a concept for social learning and collaborative governance developed in the European project HarmoniCOP (Harmonizing COllaborative Planning). The concept is rooted in the more interpretive strands of the social sciences emphasizing the context dependence of knowledge. The role of frames and boundary management in processes of learning at different levels and time scales is investigated. The foundation of social learning as investigated in the HarmoniCOP project is multiparty collaboration processes that are perceived to be the nuclei of learning processes. Such processes take place in networks or “communities of practice” and are influenced by the governance structure in which they are embedded. Requirements for social learning include institutional settings that guarantee some degree of stability and certainty without being rigid and inflexible. Our analyses, which are based on conceptual considerations and empirical insights, suggest that the development of such institutional settings involves continued processes of social learning. In these processes, stakeholders at different scales are connected in flexible networks that allow them to develop the capacity and trust they need to collaborate in a wide range of formal and informal relationships ranging from formal legal structures and contracts to informal, voluntary agreements.
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This paper proposes a framework for rethinking the conservation and appropriation of biological diversity from the perspective of social movements. It argues that biodiversity, although with concrete biophysical referents, is a discourse of recent origin. This discourse fosters a complex network of diverse actors, from international organizations and NGOs to local communities and social movements. Four views of biodiversity produced by this network (centered on global resource management, national sovereignity, biodemocracy, and cultural autonomy, respectively) are discussed in the first part of the paper. The second part focuses on the cultural autonomy perspective developed by social movements. It examines in detail the rise and development of the social movement of black communities in the Pacific rainforest region of Colombia. This movement, it is argued, articulates through their practice an entire political ecology of sustainability and conservation. The main elements of this political ecology are discussed and presented as a viable alternative to dominant frameworks. Key words: political ecology, social movements, rainforest, biodiversity, afrocolombians, global networks.
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I juxtapose a story of Aboriginal landowners demonstrating their firing strategies with a story of environmental scientists elaborating their regimes of burning. The firings are profoundly different, and maintaining those differences is crucial for both Aborigines and scientists. Yet it is also important for both these groups to develop links between the forms of firing. I argue for understanding both firing regimes as expressions of collective memory which embed evaluative witness. This sameness enables modest yet sufficient connection. Acknowledging this translating form of 'sameness' would have scientists and Aborigines engaging an alternative form of generalizing, promoting a transformative moment in both knowledge traditions. This alternative form of generalizing embeds a politics different from the politics embedded in orthodox scientific and Yolngu forms of generalizing. I claim the tension made in articulating these alternative forms of generalizing as a 'postcolonial moment'.
Conference Paper
The management paradigm fails when confronted with complex problems where there are no clearly defined objectives and a plethora Of Mutually contradictory approaches, each of which is plausible in a particular frame of reference. The notion of the disinterested expert cannot withstand scrutiny, and putative experts must earn public trust. Scientists must be prepared to share their advisory and decision-making roles with a variety of interested parties and participate with them on an equal footing.
Complex systems are shaped by cross-scale interactions, nonlinear feedbacks, and uncertainty, among other factors. Transdisciplinary approaches that combine participatory and conventional methods and democratize knowledge to enable diverse inputs, including those from local, informal experts, are essential tools in understanding such systems. The metaphor of a "bridge" to overcome the divide between different disciplines and knowledge systems is often used to advocate for more inclusive approaches. However, there is a shortage of information and consensus on the process, methodologies, and techniques that are appropriate to achieve this. This paper compares two case studies from Peru and South Africa in which community-level assessments were conducted as part of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, and explores the different conceptual models used to deal with scale and complexity, the methods adopted to deal with epistemology, and the different means of dealing with uncertainty in each assessment. The paper highlights the conceptual and practical challenges encountered by each assessment and discusses some of the conceptual and practical trade-offs involved in the selection of particular approaches. We argue that a boat navigating between unknown shores may be a more appropriate metaphor than a bridge, whose starting and end points are fixed and known. Copyright © 2005 by the author(s). Published here under license by the Resilience Alliance.
Advocates of Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) have promoted its use in scientific research, impact assessment, and ecological understanding. While several examples illustrate the utility of applying TEK in these contexts, wider application of TEK-derived information remains elusive. In part, this is due to continued inertia in favor of established scientific practices and the need to describe TEK in Western scientific terms. In part, it is also due to the difficulty of accessing TEK, which is rarely written down and must in most cases be documented as a project on its own prior to its incorporation into another scientific undertaking. This formidable practical obstacle is exacerbated by the need to use social science methods to gather biological data, so that TEK research and application becomes a multidisciplinary undertaking. By examining case studies involving bowhead whales, beluga whales, and herring, this paper describes some of the benefits of using TEK in scientific and management contexts. It also reviews some of the methods that are available to do so, including semi-directive interviews, questionnaires, facilitated workshops, and collaborative field projects.