Article

Isolation of Antimicrobial Substances from Hericium erinaceum

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Abstract

Mycelium of Hericium erinaceum isolate KU-1 was cultured in liquid medium (HL medium) and solid medium (Ko medium) at pH 4.0 in 28°C. 1.0% glucose or fructose was the most favorable carbon source, and 0.2% amonium acetate or NaNO3 was an exellent nitrogen source for mycelial growth as well as production of antimicrobial substances. The mixture of saw dust 70% with rice bran 30% (SR medium) was the substrate for formation of sporophores. The active substrates in extracts from mycelium, culture filtrate and fruiting body were separated by TLC. The solvent for TLC was EtOAc : Chloroform : MeOH (10:5:10). Phenol-like substances appeared at Rf 0.5~0.9, and fatty acid-like substances appeared at Rf 0.1~0.2. The purified materials from the extracts showed antimicrobial effects to Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Microsporum gypseum. The S. aureus was the most inhibited. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of purified white powder and the Hercenone derivatives against S. aureus were 5.65 μg/ml and 1.85 μg/ml, respectively.

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... Sixty antimicrobial compounds have been isolated from mushrooms. However, only the compounds from microscopic fungi have been present on the market as antibiotics until now (7,8). ...
... Thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed that methanol extracts of fruitbody and mycelium of H. erinaceus contained various acidic phenol-like and neutral fatty acid--like compounds such as hericenones and hericerins, respectively (8). Hericenones were effective against pathogenic microorganisms, while hericerins showed antibacterial activity at low concentrations against S. aureus, B. subtilis and E. coli. ...
... It was reported that preparations from its fruit bodies and mycelia are useful in treating gastric ulcers (Yang, 1986). Moreover, the fruit of H. erinaceus or its broth from liquid cultivation exhibit antitumor activity (Kim et al., 2000;Park et al., 2002). ...
Article
Agaricus blazei is an edible mushroom with medicinal properties. To obtain organic combinations of potential utility as a food dietary supplement, the accumulation and potential bioavailability of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) on mycelium grown in the presence of these metals were studied. At 400 ppm, the mycelium accumulated 449 and 163 times the basal content of Cu and Zn, respectively. When mycelia cultivated with nonmycotoxic concentrations of Cu or Zn (100 and 200 ppm) were subjected to sequential chemical extraction and simulated gastrointestinal digestion, close to 90% of the metals accumulated in the available nonresidual fraction, which was similar to or better than the values found in two commercial supplements. The solubility in the simulated digestive fluids was 30-34% and 18-33%, i.e., 60-98% and 9-11% of the recommended daily intake for Cu and Zn, respectively, with only 1 g of mycelium.
... Cases of multi-drug resistant bacteria have increased for the past years which can be attributed to the development and indiscriminate use of several antimicrobial medicines [18,19]. Consequently, there has been an increasing interest to discover the potential of mushrooms for their antibacterial property [20]. ...
Article
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Hericium mushrooms are edible fungi belonging to the Hericiaceae family with a long history of usage in traditional medicine in China. In the Philippines, however, information on its production, cultivation or nutraceutical properties is relatively unknown. In this study, four strains of Hericium spp. including H. americanum, H. erinaceus, H. coralloides and Hericium sp. were evaluated for their nutritional requirements using various commercially available culture media and their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 in two dilutions (60 ml and 80 ml sterile distilled water + 12-hour culture - bacterial suspension) on Mueller Hinton Agar. Highest mycelial growth response of H. americanum and H. coralloides was observed on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar while H. erinaceus and Hericium sp. grew best on Potato Dextrose Agar. The ability of H. americanum mycelia to inhibit bacterial growth at 12 and 24 hours after inoculation against E. coli was reported. Meanwhile, both H. americanum and H. erinaceus demonstrated antibacterial activity against S. aureus ATCC 25923 in both dilutions.
... In Japan it is called yamabushitake, and in China it is called houtou which means monkey head [24]. In recent years, H. erinaceum has attracted a great deal of attention of owing to its antimicrobial [25], antitumor [26] [27], immunomodulatory [28], antioxidant [29], and cytotoxic activities [27]. Furthermore, it promoties the synthesis of neurogrowth factor [30] [31] [32] [33]. ...
Article
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A lectin designated as Hericium erinaceum agglutinin (HEA) was isolated from dried fruiting bodies of the mushroom Hericium erinaceum with a chromatographic procedure which entailed DEAE-cellulose, CM-cellulose, Q-Sepharose, and FPLC Superdex 75. Its molecular mass was estimated to be 51 kDa and its N-terminal amino acid sequences was distinctly different from those of other isolated mushroom lectins. The hemagglutinating activity of HEA was inhibited at the minimum concentration of 12.5 mM by inulin. The lectin was stable at pH 1.9-12.1 and at temperatures up to 70 degrees C, but was inhibited by Hg(2+), Cu(2+), and Fe(3+) ions. The lectin exhibited potent mitogenic activity toward mouse splenocytes, and demonstrated antiproliferative activity toward hepatoma (HepG2) and breast cancer (MCF7) cells with an IC(50) of 56.1 microM and 76.5 microM, respectively. It manifested HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity with an IC(50) of 31.7 microM. The lectin exhibited potent mitogenic activity toward murine splenocytes but was devoid of antifungal activity.
... Various biological functions of H. erinaceus have been investigated in recent years which, related to antimicrobial effect (Kim et al., 2000), anti-tumor activities (Mizuno, 1996b;Mizuno, 2002), immunomodulatory effect (Liu et al., 2002), antioxidant properties (Mau et al., 2002), cytotoxic effects (Kuwahara et al., 1992), hypolipidemic effects and promotion of synthesis of nerve growth factor (NGF) (Kawagishi et al., 1994;Lee et al., 2000). The antimicrobial effect of H. erinaceus extracts and standard antibiotics was quantitatively assessed by the presence of clear zones indicating strong inhibition, and hazy (partial) inhibition zones. ...
Article
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Hot water soluble extract was prepared from Hericium erinaceus and its neuritogenic activity on PC12h cells was analyzed, which is a clone originating from a rat pheochromocytomon. The moisture content of freeze dried hot water extract was 12.08%. The extract was mainly composed of carbohydrate (51.24%) followed by crude protein (24.04%), crude fat (0.26%), dietary fiber (5.09), and ash (12.18%). Fatty acids, glucan and inorganic constituents were found as minor components. The neuritogenic activity of hot water extract was evaluated under microscopic observation of neurite outgrowth in PC12h cells and by measuring the neurite length of induvidual cell. The extract exhibited strong effect of neurite outgrowth in a dose-dependent manner from 0.01 mg/mL to 1 mg/mL, in which longer neurite outgrowth was observed as the treatment dose increased.
... Дослідження показали, що деякі з цих метаболітів мають антибактеріальну дію та протигрибкові властивості (Song et al., 2020), тоді як більш висока антимікробна активність екстрактів грибів спостерігалася щодо грампозитивних бактерій, включаючи стійкі до ліків штами, наприклад, метицилінрезистентного S. aureus (Alves et al., 2012а,b;Nikolovska-Nedelkoska et al., 2013). Показано антимікробний потенціал грибів H. erinaceus та ідентифіковані деякі біоактивні молекули з антимікробною активністю щодо патогенних мікроорганізмів S. aureus, Salmonella enteritidis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus та E. coli (Okamoto et al., 1993;Kim et al., 2000;Wong et al., 2009). ...
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В огляді представлені результати сучасних досліджень та перспективи застосування грибів роду Hericium в профілактичних та лікувальних цілях. Найбільш відомим представником цієї родини є H. erinaceum — цінний їстівний лікарський гриб, який здавна використовували в народній медицині та традиційній кухні країн Східної Азії, насамперед, Китаю. Сучасні відомості щодо лікувальних властивостей H.erinaceus свідчать про широкий біологічний спектр його дії. Загалом з плодових тіл, міцелію та культуральної рідини H.erinaceus виділено близько 70 біоактивних сполук, перспективних для запобігання або лікування хронічних, когнітивних та неврологічних захворювань людини. Особливу увагу приділено грибним полісахаридам і вторинним метаболітам, таким як гериценони, еринацини, цереброзиди, аміценон тощо. Повідомляється про імуномодулюючу, протипухлинну, гастропротекторну, нейропротекторну, нейротрофічну, цитопротекторну, антиоксидантну, антибактеріальну, гіпоглікемічну, гепатопротекторну дію екстрактів H. erinaceum. Нечисленні повідомлення стосуються утворення метаболітів іншими представниками роду Hericium. Наведено дані щодо виділення еринацинів із H. flagellum та нової групи сполук — коралоцинів із H. coralloides, що індукують нейротрофічний ростовий фактор та нейротрофічний фактор головного мозку.
... Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a gram-positive bacterium that currently causes illness worldwide. The mycelium extract of H. erinaceus exhibited a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) with an EC 50 value of 5.5 μl/ml against Staphyloccocus aureus (Kim et al. 2000). Furthermore, cyathane derivatives named erinacines J (50) and K (51) were tested for their effectiveness against MRSA. ...
Article
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DOI 10.1007/s11557-015-1105-4. Online Medicinal mushrooms have become a compelling topic because the bioactive compounds they contain promise a plethora of therapeutic properties. Hericium erinaceus commonly known as “Houtou” or “Shishigashira” in China and “Yamabushitake” in Japan, has commonly been prescribed in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), because its consumption has been shown to be beneficial to human health. The species is found throughout the northern hemisphere in Europe, Asia, and North America. Hericium erinaceus has been firmly established as an important medicinal mushroom and its numerous bioactive compounds have been developed into food supplements and alternative medicines. However, the correspondence of the active components that cause the observed effects is often not clear. The mushroom as well as the fermented mycelia have been reported to produce several classes of bioactive molecules, including polysaccharides, proteins, lectins, phenols, and terpenoids. Most interestingly, two classes of terpenoid compounds, hericenones and erinacines, from fruiting bodies and cultured mycelia, respectively, have been found to stimulate nerve growth factor (NGF) synthesis. In this review we examine the scientific literature to explore and highlight the scientific facts concerning medicinal properties of H. erinaceus. We provide up-to-date information on this mushroom, including its taxonomy and a summary of bioactive compounds that appear related to the therapeutic potential of H. erinaceus. See http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11557-015-1105-4
... This mushroom is called 'houtou' in China, respectively [1]. Recently, H. erinaceus has attracted great attention owing to its antimicrobial effect [2], anti-tumor activities [3], immunomodulatory effect [4], antioxidant properties [5], cytotoxic effect [6], and promotion of synthesis of neurogrowth factor [7,8]. The cultures of H. erinaceus or their extracts processed in tablets have been put into production on a large scale, mainly for curing gastric ulcer and chronic gastricism [9]. ...
Article
The present study was to evaluate the effects of certain nutrients and environmental parameters on growth and production of polysaccharide of Hericium erinaceus with tofu whey. The effect of different carbon and nitrogen sources, temperature, pH and incubation period on the production of polysaccharide in flask cultures by H. erinaceus was investigated. Glucose and potato extract were found to be the most suitable carbon and nitrogen source, respectively. Optimum production of polysaccharide required glucose in the cultivation medium with a concentration of 8.0 g/L. On the other hand, the highest production of polysaccharide was obtained in a cultivation medium containing 12.0 g/L of potato extract. Furthermore, the incubation temperature at 27°C, pH 5.5, rotation rate 180 and seven days of the incubation were found to be the optimum for maximum production of polysaccharide of H. erinaceus.
... The mushrooms and their medicinal properties, have long been recognised in China, Korea, and Japan, e.g., hypotensive and renal effects [10][11], immunomodulatory and antitumour activities of polysaccharide-protein complex (PSPC) from mycelial cultures, immunomodulatory and antitumour activities of lectins from edible mushrooms [12][13][14][15][16][17][18], isolation and characterization of a Type-I Ribosome-Inactivation protein from Volvariella volvacea [19], and medicinal effects of Ganoderma lucidum [20][21]. The responsible bioactive compounds belong to several chemical groups which are often polysaccharides or triterpenes [22][23]. One macrofungi species can have various bioactive compounds and pharmacological effects [5]. ...
Article
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The present study is aims to investigate the antibacterial activities of crude methanol extracts of 24 southern Western Ghats wild mushrooms. Crude methanol extracts from 24 mushrooms from southern Western Ghats, India were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Eggerthella lenta, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Enterococcus faecalis by agar well diffusion method. The study revealed that about 67% of the mushrooms inhibited growth of all the test bacteria, 29% was active against any of the two test bacteria and 4% were completely inactive. Amoxicillin used as standard reference. 15 mushroom species showed strong antibacterial activity against Eggerthella lenta higher than the standard antibiotic (Amoxicillin). 11 mushrooms showed strong antibacterial activity against Vibrio parahaemolyticus higher than the standard antibiotic (Amoxicillin). The best in vitro antibacterial activity was by Gymnopilus junonius (26.0 mm against Eggerthella lenta; 25.0 mm against Vibrio parahaemolyticus) followed by Tricholoma equestre (21.0 mm against Vibrio parahaemolyticus). Gymnopilus junonius, Tricholoma equestre and Trametes versicolor have higher antibacterial activity than that of standard antibiotic.
... Hericium erinaceum is a well-known edible and medicinal mushroom of the Hericium family in oriental countries. In previous studies, various biological functions of H. erinaceum have been investigated in relation to antimicrobial effects (Kim et al., 2000), anti-tumor activities (Mizuno, 1996(Mizuno, , 1999, immunomodulatory effects (Liu et al., 2002), antioxidant properties (Mau et al., 2002), cytotoxic effects (Kuwahara et al., 1992), hypolipidemic effects, and promotion of the synthesis of nerve growth factor (NGF) (Kawagishi et al., 1994;Lee et al., 2000). In spite of increasing usage and applications of H. erinaceum, most investigations have focused on its functional properties, while studies on the processing of H. erinaceum are limited. ...
... They found that bioactive erinacines and polysaccharides from Hericium erinaceus inhibited the growth of multiple Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria (Wong, Sabaratnam, Abdullah, Kuppusamy, & Naidu, 2009) 40 kDa, a carbohydrate content of 91.2% and a protein content of 8.8%, from the Hericium erinaceus liquid culture, which had hypolipidemic effects (Yang, Park, & Song, 2003). Polysaccharide is an important active component of Hericium erinaceus and it has been shown to have the efficacy in treating gastritis (Zhang et al., 2006) and anti-tumor (Kim, Mi, Kim, Nam, & Friedman, 2011), antibiotic (Kim, Pyun, Ko, & Park, 2000), antioxidative (Han, Ye, & Wang, 2013), antidiabetic (Liang, Guo, Fang, & Zhao, 2013), and other properties. ...
... Active compounds (hericenones, hericene, hericerine, erinacines, enzymes, etc.) isolated from members of the genus are useful in therapeutic treatments because they have negligible side effects in patients, unlike chemotherapeutic medication (Thongbai et al. 2015). These extracts also contain antibacterial and anti-aging properties (Kim et al. 2000(Kim et al. , 2012Wittstein et al. 2016;Xu et al. 2010) as well as the ability to prevent the Crohn's disease (Abdulla et al. 2008;Wong et al. 2013). Hericium compounds are being used in the prevention and treatment of diabetes and various types of cancers (Kim et al. 2011(Kim et al. , 2013Ma et al. 2012;Yang et al. 2003). ...
Article
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Tropical rainforests form the most species-rich biome on the earth. The Dja Biosphere Reserve (DBR) in Cameroon is a biodiverse tropical forest characterized in part by upland monodominant stands of the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) Gilbertiodendron dewevrei and ECM Uapaca spp. scattered along river banks. This mostly primary Guineo-Congolian evergreen forest harbors natural populations of large megafauna and numerous plant and fungal species. Studies have indicated that some ECM fungal groups of the large order Russulales are abundant in certain localities in the tropics, including the DBR. However, currently, other predominantly wood-decaying families of Russulales are poorly represented in Africa. For example, only three records of the saprotrophic genus Hericium (Russulales, Hericiaceae) are known from the African continent. Here, we describe a new species of Hericium recently collected from the DBR. Morphological characteristics and molecular phylogenetic analyses support placement of the Cameroonian collection in Hericium and its recognition as a new species within a larger H. coralloides species complex. The new species, H. bembedjaense, differs from H. coralloides in its smaller basidiospores (2.6-3.0 × 1.7-2.2 μm compared to 3.5-5.0 × 2.8-4.2 μm) and longer basidia (up to 27.0 μm compared to 15.0 μm). It differs from all other described Hericium species in the production of pleurocystidia. This is the first species of Hericiaceae known from sub-Saharan lowland tropical evergreen forests. This study highlights the need to increase fungal sampling in species-rich tropical forests such as those of the Congo Basin.
... Дослідження показали, що деякі з цих метаболітів мають антибактеріальну дію та протигрибкові властивості (Song et al., 2020), тоді як більш висока антимікробна активність екстрактів грибів спостерігалася щодо грампозитивних бактерій, включаючи стійкі до ліків штами, наприклад, метицилінрезистентного S. aureus (Alves et al., 2012а,b;Nikolovska-Nedelkoska et al., 2013). Показано антимікробний потенціал грибів H. erinaceus та ідентифіковані деякі біоактивні молекули з антимікробною активністю щодо патогенних мікроорганізмів S. aureus, Salmonella enteritidis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus та E. coli (Okamoto et al., 1993;Kim et al., 2000;Wong et al., 2009). ...
Book
Full-text available
Збірка праць присвячена 95-річчю з дня народження відомого українського вченого-біолога, директора Центрального республіканського ботанічного саду (нині Національний ботанічний сад імені М. М. Гришка НАН України), голови Ради ботанічних садів України та Молдови, засновника сучасної алелопатії та теоретичних основ фітодизайну, доктора біологічних наук, професора, академіка АН УРСР – Андрія Михайловича Гродзинського (1926–1988). Видання містить: спогади рідних та колег вченого, які відображають основні етапи життя, наукову, організаційну, громадську діяльність А.М. Гродзинського; розділи, присвячені деяким сучасним аспектам ботаніки та мікології, які включають алелопатію, екологію, таксономію, фізіологію та ін.
... Дослідження показали, що деякі з цих метаболітів мають антибактеріальну дію та протигрибкові властивості (Song et al., 2020), тоді як більш висока антимікробна активність екстрактів грибів спостерігалася щодо грампозитивних бактерій, включаючи стійкі до ліків штами, наприклад, метицилінрезистентного S. aureus (Alves et al., 2012а,b;Nikolovska-Nedelkoska et al., 2013). Показано антимікробний потенціал грибів H. erinaceus та ідентифіковані деякі біоактивні молекули з антимікробною активністю щодо патогенних мікроорганізмів S. aureus, Salmonella enteritidis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus та E. coli (Okamoto et al., 1993;Kim et al., 2000;Wong et al., 2009). ...
Book
The collection of papers is dedicated to the 95th anniversary of the famous Ukrainian biologist, director of the Central Republican Botanical Garden (now M.M. Grishko National Botanical Garden NAS of Ukraine), chairman of the Council of Botanical Gardens of Ukraine and Moldova, founder of modern allelopathy and theoretical foundations of phytodesign, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor, Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR - Andriy Mykhailovich Grodzinsky (1926–1988). The book contains: memories of relatives and colleagues of the scientist, which reflect the main stages of life, scientific, organizational, social activities of A.M. Grodzinsky; publications devoted to some modern aspects of botany and mycology, which include allelopathy, ecology, taxonomy, physiology etc.
... Дослідження показали, що деякі з цих метаболітів мають антибактеріальну дію та протигрибкові властивості (Song et al., 2020), тоді як більш висока антимікробна активність екстрактів грибів спостерігалася щодо грампозитивних бактерій, включаючи стійкі до ліків штами, наприклад, метицилінрезистентного S. aureus (Alves et al., 2012а,b;Nikolovska-Nedelkoska et al., 2013). Показано антимікробний потенціал грибів H. erinaceus та ідентифіковані деякі біоактивні молекули з антимікробною активністю щодо патогенних мікроорганізмів S. aureus, Salmonella enteritidis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus та E. coli (Okamoto et al., 1993;Kim et al., 2000;Wong et al., 2009). ...
Book
Full-text available
The collection of papers is dedicated to the 95th anniversary of the famous Ukrainian biologist, director of the Central Republican Botanical Garden (now M.M. Grishko National Botanical Garden NAS of Ukraine), chairman of the Council of Botanical Gardens of Ukraine and Moldova, founder of modern allelopathy and theoretical foundations of phytodesign, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor, Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR - Andriy Mykhailovich Grodzinsky (1926–1988). The book contains: memories of relatives and colleagues of the scientist, which reflect the main stages of life, scientific, organizational, social activities of A.M. Grodzinsky; publications devoted to some modern aspects of botany and mycology, which include allelopathy, ecology, taxonomy, physiology etc.
Article
Hericium erinaceus is a well known edible and medicinal mushroom used in East-Asia. Recently, H. erinaceus has attracted a lot of attention owing to its antitumor, immuno-modulatory, and cytotoxic effect. It has been postulated that the fruiting body of H. erinaceus contains a polysaccharide that is similar to β-D-glucan, which is known to have antitumor activity against Sarcoma 180. However, optimized liquid culture conditions for enhanced polysaccharide productivity have yet to be developed, which is a necessary step for industrial applications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the optimal liquid culture conditions for maximum polysaccharide production. In shake flask cultures, the optimal concentration of ascorbic acid was found to be 2.0 g/L, which prevented the broth from changing color from yellow to black. The optimal culture conditions were determined to be 23°C, 200 rpm, and a 10% inoculum size, at an uncontrolled initial pH. In addition, the modified medium contained 20 g/L glucose, 10 g/L yeast extract, and 2.0 g/L ascorbic acid. The maximum mycelial biomass and exo-polysaccharide (EPS) production in the modified medium containing uracil was 13.43 and 1.26 g/L, respectively. Keywords Hericium erinaceus -exo-polysaccharide-ascorbic acid-uracil-mycelial morphology
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The cytoprotective effect of Hericium erinaceus freeze-dried fruiting bodies was investigated against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Four groups of adult male Sprague Dawley rats were pretreated with distilled water (negative control), 250 mg kg-1 H. erinaceus, 500 mg kg -1 H. erinaceus, and omeprazole (positive control), respectively, before oral induction with absolute ethanol to generate gastric mucosal injury. Overall, rats pretreated with only distilled water suffered extensive hemorrhagic gastric mucosa lesions, whereas pretreatment with H. erinaceus or omeprazole reduced ulceration, with better cytoprotection observed in rats pretreated with omeprazole or 500 mg kg-1 H. erinaceus compared to rats pretreated with 250 mg kg-1 H. erinaceus. Histologically, marked damage was observed in the gastric mucosa, with submucosal edema and leucocyte infiltration in negative-control rats, whereas H. erinaceus-pretreated and positive-control rats had less gastric mucosal damage, decreased edema, and no submucosal leucocyte infiltration. In conclusion, H. erinaceus provided cytoprotection against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats.
Article
Hericium erinaceus, a temperate mushroom, is currently cultivated in Malaysia. As cultivation and processing conditions may affect the medicinal properties, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of locally grown H. erinaceus have been investigated. The fruitbodies that were fresh, oven-dried or freeze-dried were extracted with methanol. Their properties were compared to those exhibited by mycelium extract of the same mushroom. Various extracts of H. erinaceus inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria but not of the tested fungus. Mycelium extract contained the highest total phenolic content and the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The fresh fruitbody extract showed the most potent 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. However, oven-dried fruitbody extract was excellent in reducing the extent of P-carotene bleaching. The total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity in the oven-dried fruitbody extract was high compared to the freeze-dried or fresh fruitbody extract. This may be due to generation and accumulation of Maillard's reaction products (MRPs), which are known to have antioxidant properties. Thus, the consumption of H. erinaceus fruitbody grown in tropical conditions may have health promoting benefits. Furthermore, the production of H. erinaceus mycelium in submerged cultures may result in standardized antioxidant formulation for either human nutrition or therapy. Hence, it has been shown that the processing of fruitbody and not the cultivation conditions affects the selected bioactive properties of H. erinaceus.
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This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of topical application of aqueous extract of Hericium erinaceus fruiting bodies (HEFB) on the rate of wound healing enclosure and histology of the healed wound. Five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were experimentally wounded in the posterior neck area. A uniform wound area of 2.00 cm in diameter, using a circular stamp, was excised from the nape of the dorsal neck of all rats with the aid of a round seal. The animal groups were topically treated, respectively, with 0.2 mL each of sterilized distilled water (sdH2O); Intrasite gel; and 20, 30, and 40 mg/mL HEFB. Macroscopically, those rats whose wounds were dressed with HEFB and those in the Intrasite gel-treated group healed earlier than those treated with sdH2O. Histological analysis of healed wounds dressed with HEFB showed less scar width at wound enclosure and the healed wound contained fewer macrophages and more collagen with angiogenesis, compared to wounds dressed with sdH2O. In conclusion, wounds dressed with HEFB significantly enhanced the acceleration of wound healing enclosure in rats.
Article
The water-soluble crude polysaccharide HP, obtained from the fruiting body of Hericium erinaceus Pers by boiling-water extraction and ethanol precipitation, was fractionated by DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography, giving two polysaccharide fractions termed HPA and HPB. The polysaccharide of HPA consists of Glc, Gal and Fuc in the ratios 1:2.110:0.423, and HPB contains the monosaccharides Gal and Glc in molar ratios of 1:11.529. On the basis of methylation and GC-MS analysis, periodate oxidation-Smith degradation, and partial acid hydrolysis, the repeating units of HPA and HPB were established:HPAHPB
Article
Recently, a number of bioactive molecules, including antitumor agents, have been identified in various higher basidiomycetes mushrooms. Polysaccharides are the best known and most potent mushroom derived substances that display immuno-pharmacological properties. In this study, the water soluble crude polysaccharide HEB-P, which was obtained from the liquid culture broth of Hericium erinaceus by ethanol precipitation, was fractionated by DEAE cellulose and Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. This fractionation process resulted in two polysaccharide fractions that were termed HEB-NP Fr I and HEB-AP Fr I. Of the fractions, HEB-AP Fr I was able to upregulate the functional events mediated by activated macrophages, such as production of nitric oxide (NO) and expression of cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α). Its structural characteristics were investigated by a combination of chemical and instrumental analyses, including methylation, reductive cleavage, acetylation, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Results indicate that HEB-AP Fr I was a low molecular mass polysaccharide with a laminarin-like triple helix conformation of the β-1,3-branched-β-1,2-mannan.
Article
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Hericium erinaceus, a temperate mushroom, is currently cultivated in Malaysia. As cultivation and processing conditions may affect the medicinal properties, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of locally grown H. erinaceus have been investigated. The fruitbodies that were fresh, oven-dried or freeze-dried were extracted with methanol. Their properties were compared to those exhibited by mycelium extract of the same mushroom. Various extracts of H. erinaceus inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria but not of the tested fungus. Mycelium extract contained the highest total phenolic content and the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The fresh fruitbody extract showed the most potent 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. However, oven-dried fruitbody extract was excellent in reducing the extent of β-carotene bleaching. The total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity in the oven-dried fruitbody extract was high compared to the freeze-dried or fresh fruitbody extract. This may be due to generation and accumulation of Maillard’s reaction products (MRPs), which are known to have antioxidant properties. Thus, the consumption of H. erinaceus fruitbody grown in tropical conditions may have health promoting benefits. Furthermore, the production of H. erinaceus mycelium in submerged cultures may result in standardized antioxidant formulation for either human nutrition or therapy. Hence, it has been shown that the processing of fruitbody and not the cultivation conditions affects the selected bioactive properties of H. erinaceus.
Article
Most, if not all, Basidiomycetes mushrooms have biologically active polysaccharides showing potent antitumor activity with immunomodulating properties. These polysaccharides have various chemical compositions and belong primarily to the beta-glucan group. In this study, the crude water-soluble polysaccharide HEF-P, which was obtained from the fruiting body of Hericium erinaceus by hot water extraction and ethanol precipitation, was fractionated by DEAE-cellulose and Sepharose CL-6B column chromatographies. This process resulted in four polysaccharide fractions, named HEF-NP Fr I, HEF-NP Fr II, HEF-AP Fr I, and HEF-AP Fr II. Of these fractions, HEF-AP Fr II was able to upregulate the functional events mediated by activated macrophages, such as production of nitric oxide and expression of cytokines (IL-1beta and TNF-beta). The molecular mass of HEF-AP Fr II was estimated by gel filtration to be 13 kDa. Its structural characteristics were investigated by a combination of chemical and instrumental analyses, including methylation, reductive cleavage, acetylation, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results indicate that HEF-AP Fr II is a low-molecular-mass polysaccharide with a laminarin-like triple helix conformation of a beta-1,3-branched-beta-1,6-glucan.
Article
The hypolipidemic effect of an exo-biopolymer produced from a submerged mycelial culture of Hericium erinaceus was investigated in dietary-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Hypolipidemic effects were proportionally increased with the increasing concentration of the exo-biopolymer for oral administration. The exo-biopolymer, at the dose of 200 mg/kg body weight, substantially reduced the plasma total cholesterol (32.9%), LDL cholesterol (45.4%), triglyceride (34.3%), phospholipid (18.9%), atherogenic index (58.7%), and hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity (20.2%). It increased the plasma HDL cholesterol level (31.1%) as compared to the control group. The molecular mass of this exo-biopolymer measured by HPLC was under 40 kDa. Total sugar and protein contents were 91.2 and 8.8%, respectively. The sugar and amino acid compositions of the exo-biopolymer were analyzed in detail.
Article
The potential of using several agricultural by-products as supplements of sawdust substrate for the production of edible mushroom Hericium was evaluated using seven Hericium species. All the tested supplements (rice bran, wheat bran, barley bran, Chinese cabbage, egg shell, and soybean powder) were found to be suitable for the mycelial growth of all the tested species. In mycelial growth, soybean powder was the best supplement for Hericium americanum, Hericium coralloides, and Hericium erinaceum while barley bran was the best for Hericium alpestre, Hericium laciniatum, and Hericium erinaceus. For Hericium abietis, rice bran and Chinese cabbage was the best. The possibility of mushroom production on oak sawdust substrate with 20% rice bran supplement was demonstrated with H. coralloides, H. americanum, H. erinaceus, and H. erinaceum which showed 26-70% biological efficiency. Our results also showed that strain selection is important to improve biological efficiency and mushroom yield in Hericium cultivation.
Article
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Summary Hericium erinaceus, a temperate mushroom, is currently cultivated in Malaysia. As culti- vation and processing conditions may affect the medicinal properties, antimicrobial and an- tioxidant properties of locally grown H. erinaceus have been investigated. The fruitbodies that were fresh, oven-dried or freeze-dried were extracted with methanol. Their properties were compared to those exhibited by mycelium extract of the same mushroom. Various extracts of H. erinaceus inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria but not of the tested fun- gus. Mycelium extract contained the highest total phenolic content and the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The fresh fruitbody extract showed the most potent 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. However, oven-dried fruitbody extract was excellent in reducing the extent of b-carotene bleaching. The total phe- nolic content and total antioxidant activity in the oven-dried fruitbody extract was high compared to the freeze-dried or fresh fruitbody extract. This may be due to generation and accumulation of Maillard's reaction products (MRPs), which are known to have antioxidant properties. Thus, the consumption of H. erinaceus fruitbody grown in tropical conditions may have health promoting benefits. Furthermore, the production of H. erinaceus mycelium in submerged cultures may result in standardized antioxidant formulation for either human nutrition or therapy. Hence, it has been shown that the processing of fruitbody and not the cultivation conditions affects the selected bioactive properties of H. erinaceus.
Article
The ABTS+-radical-cation scavenging activity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and nitrite scavenging activity of the methanol extract from Hericium erinaceum and its subfractions were assessed. Among the methanol extract subfractions tested, the chloroform subfraction exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity in the most experiments, except for the ferric reducing/antioxidant power. The Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of the chloroform subfraction was 378.89 μmol/g of sample. This subfraction also scavenged 35.80% of DPPH radicals at 500 μg/mL. The highest ferric reducing/ antioxidant power was found in the n-hexane subfraction (174.82 μmol FeSO4·7H2O/g). The chloroform, n-hexane, and n-butanol subfractions had high total phenolic compound content, with ferulic acid equivalents of 35.18, 19.08, and 11.23 mg/g, respectively. Flavonoids were found mostly in the chloroform subfraction, and the 4 phenolic compounds were identified in the same fraction as 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, syringic acid, 4-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid by electrospray ionization (ESI) LC-MS/MS analysis.
Article
Our group has been conducting a search for compounds for dementia derived from medicinal mushrooms since 1991. A series of benzyl alcohol derivatives (named hericenones C to H), as well as a series of diterpenoid derivatives (named erinacines A to I) were isolated from the mushroom Hericium erinaceum. These compounds significantly induced the synthesis of nerve growth factor (NGF) in vitro and in vivo. In a recent study, dilinoleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (DLPE) was isolated from the mushroom and was found to protect against neuronal cell death caused by β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) toxicity, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and oxidative stress. Furthermore, the results of preliminary clinical trials showed that the mushroom was effective in patients with dementia in improving the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) score or retarding disease progression. Copyright 2008 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.
Article
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The mycelial growth rates in linear growth assays, yield, and mushroom productivity of Hericium erinaceus were evaluated in a substrate containing sunflower seed hulls as the main energy and nutritional component, with the addition of different levels of Mn(ll) and/or NH4+. The mycelial growth rate in substrates possessing different sunflower seed hull sizes with or without the addition of wheat bran showed that, irrespective of the presence of wheat bran, higher mycelial growth rate was observed with the larger sunflower seed hull size (as disposed of by the regional oil-seed factory without additional process). Adding growth-limiting mineral nutrients such as Mn(ll) (20 or 100 ppm) and/or NH4+ (200 or 500 ppm) increased the mycelial growth rate by 8%-16%. The first flush occurred at day 10 and the second at day 30, with a production cycle duration of 55 days starting from inoculation. No statistical differences were detected between accumulated biological efficiencies coming from different substrate formulations with the addition of wheat bran, barley straw, or poplar sawdust compared to the sunflower seed hull control, but a tendency for higher yield was observed for the substrate supplemented with 20 ppm Mn and 200 ppm NH4+. Sunflower seed hulls without supplementation constitute a very good basal substrate, so this substrate by itself constitutes a very good source of energy and nutrition for H. erinaceus growth and development.
Article
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Hericium erinaceus (HE) is a well-known edible and medicinal fungus widely grown in Asian countries. Polysaccharides from the Hericium erinaceus (HEP) are major biological macromolecules. It has been reported that HEP has multiple biological activities, such as antioxidant activity, immunomodulatory effects, anti-inflammatory effect, anti-chronic gastritis activity, and so on. In the current study, we investigated the biological property of HEP during gastrointestinal digestion. The results indicated that both simulated gastric and small intestinal digesta of HEP has better stimulation of probiotics growth than HEP alone, especially for Lactobacillus plantarum BG112. The prebiotic activity was the strongest when HEP was treated by simulated gastric juice for 2 h and by simulated small intestinal juice for 4 h. The molecular weight (Mw) of HEP decreased from 1.68 × 106 Da and 2.32 × 104 Da to 529.3 ± 7.2 Da, as digestion time increased. Meanwhile, the reducing sugar content was significantly increased from 0.610 ± 0.007 to 22.698 ± 0.752 mg/ml, suggesting that the decrease of Mw was likely due to the breakdown of glycosidic bonds. Considerable mannose and galactopyranose were released throughout the gastrointestinal digestion period, indicating that the gastrointestinal digestion resulted in production of free monosaccharides. After fermentation of L. plantarum BG112, the Mw of HEP was decreased and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) including acetic acid, isovaleric acid, lactic acid, and butyric acid were produced. We speculated that the release of free monosaccharides during gastrointestinal digestion and utilization of HEP, by the probiotics, contributed to the prebiotic activity of HEP’s gastric and intestinal digesta. These results unveiled some mechanisms on the close relationship between the structure and bioactivity of polysaccharides, during digestion.
Article
The enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE) of polysaccharides from the fruits of Hericium erinaceus was studied. In this study, response surface methodology and the Box-Behnken design based on single-factor and orthogonal experiments were applied to optimize the EAE conditions. The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: a pH of 5.71, a temperature of 52.03°C and a time of 33.79min. The optimal extraction conditions resulted in the highest H. erinaceus polysaccharides (HEP) yield, with a value 13.46±0.37%, which represented an increase of 67.72% compared to hot water extraction (HWE). The polysaccharides were characterized by FT-IR, SEM, CD, AFM, and GC. The results showed that HEP was composed of mannose, glucose, xylose, and galactose in a molar ratio of 15.16:5.55:4.21:1. The functional groups of the H. erinaceus polysaccharides extracted by HWE and EAE were fundamentally identical but had apparent conformational changes.
Article
Hericium erinaceus, a temperate mushroom, is currently cultivated in Malaysia. As cultivation and processing conditions may affect the medicinal properties, antimicrobial and an-tioxidant properties of locally grown H. erinaceus have been investigated. The fruitbodies that were fresh, oven-dried or freeze-dried were extracted with methanol. Their properties were compared to those exhibited by mycelium extract of the same mushroom. Various extracts of H. erinaceus inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria but not of the tested fungus. Mycelium extract contained the highest total phenolic content and the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The fresh fruitbody extract showed the most potent 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. However, oven-dried fruitbody extract was excellent in reducing the extent of b-carotene bleaching. The total phe-nolic content and total antioxidant activity in the oven-dried fruitbody extract was high compared to the freeze-dried or fresh fruitbody extract. This may be due to generation and accumulation of Maillard's reaction products (MRPs), which are known to have antioxidant properties. Thus, the consumption of H. erinaceus fruitbody grown in tropical conditions may have health promoting benefits. Furthermore, the production of H. erinaceus mycelium in submerged cultures may result in standardized antioxidant formulation for either human nutrition or therapy. Hence, it has been shown that the processing of fruitbody and not the cultivation conditions affects the selected bioactive properties of H. erinaceus.
Article
The cytoprotective effect of Hericium erinaceus freeze-dried fruiting bodies was investigated against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Four groups of adult male Sprague Dawley rats were pretreated with distilled water (negative control), 250 mg ktrt 1L erinaceus,500 mg kg=' H. erinaceus, and omeprazole (positive control), respectively, before oral induction with absolute ethanol to generate gastric mucosal injury. Overall, rats pretreated with only distilled water suffered extensive hemonhagic gastric mucosa lesions, wheleas pretreatrnent with /L erinaceus or omeprazole reduced ulceration, with better cytoprotection observed in rats pretreated with omeprazole or 500 mg kg-t 1L erinaceus compared to rats pretreated with 250 mg kg-t H. erinaceus. Histologically, mmked damage was observed in the gastric mucosa, with submucosal edema and leucocyte infiltration in negative-control rats, whereas H. erinaceuslretreated and positive-control rats had less gastric mu-cosal damage, decreased edema, and no submucosal leucocyte infiltration. ln conclusion, H. erinaceus provided cytoprotection against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats.
Article
Hericium erinaceus possesses multiple medicinal values. To date, however, there have been few studies of the systemic screening of H. erinaceus strains, and the neuroprotective effects of H. erinaceus prepared from homogenized, fresh fruiting bodies are not fully understood. In this study, 4 random primers were selected and used in random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to screen and evaluate the genetic diversity of 19 commercial strains of H. erinaceus from different localities in China. A total of 66 bands were obtained, and the percentage of polymorphic loci reached 80.30%. Five dendrograms were constructed based on RAPD by Jaccard cluster and within-group linkage analysis. Primer S20 as well as all 4 primers had great potential as specific primers for RAPD-PCR molecular identification and differentiation of H. erinaceus strains. Based on the results of submerged culture and fruiting body cultivation, strains HT-N, HT-J1, HT-C, and HT-M were identified as superior among the 19 H. erinaceus strains. Further study showed that the oral preparation of homogenized, fresh fruiting bodies of H. erinaceus could attenuate the Aβ25-35-triggered damage in PC12 cells by significantly increasing cell viability and by decreasing the release of lactate dehydrogenase. In conclusion, RAPD-PCR combined with liquid and solid cultures can be used well in the screening and identification of H. erinaceus strains, and products prepared from homogenized, fresh fruiting bodies of H. erinaceus had neuroprotective effects on PC12 cells.
Article
We studied the effect of the maturation stage on the chemical compositions and macrophage activation activity of polysaccharides from the culinary-medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus. Results showed that total polysaccharides increased, whereas protein content decreased with the maturation stage development of fruiting body. Nine polysaccharide fractions, 3 from each of the maturity stages IV (small fungal spine stage), V (mid-fungal spine stage) and VI (mature), were prepared using the gradient ethanol precipitation method. The polysaccharide fraction HP4A isolated from the maturating-stage (stage IV) fruiting body had a significant difference from the fractions HP5A (stage V) and HP6A (stage VI) in the molecular weight distribution and monosaccharide compositions. Immunostimulating tests revealed that the polysaccharide fraction HP6 isolated from the mature stage (stage VI) fruiting body presented higher macrophage activation activity. Our findings provided important information for the harvest and use of H. erinaceus with higher qualities and functional benefits.
Article
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In this article, optimization of extraction conditions of different parts from the life cycle of H.erinaceus was investigated based on Response Surface Method. Furthermore, antioxidant, antidiabetic, and antimicrobial effects of optimized extracts were studied. Results: Temperature, liquid / solid ratio, and solvent concentration significantly affected the phenolic content and antioxidant capacities of all samples. The young fruit body of H.erinaceus had higher antioxidant (43.11±2.74, 51.39±2.34, 62.84±1.59 µmol TE/g for DPPH, FRAP and ABTS, respectively) and antidiabetic effects (93.54±2.3 and 132.25±1.38 µg/mL for IC50 values of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, respectively) than mycelium. However, these effects partially decrease as the fruit body ages. Besides, the optimized extracts exhibited more antimicrobial effects on Gram-positive bacteria than Gram- egative bacteria. Conclusion: Both the fruit body and the mycelium of H.erinaceus have many bio-functional properties. However, these properties of the fruit body decrease significantly with the delay of the harvest time. The extraction process conditions we optimize in this study can be adapted to large-scale separation processes in the industry.
Article
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Functional foods have been used since the beginning of time and since then, it is known that consumption performed regularly, can produce a beneficial effect on health. There are even reports that mention that their use reduces the risk of acquiring various diseases. These effects have been linked to the presence of "secondary metabolites", which exert a wide range of biological activities. Thus, when they are taken regularly and in significant quantities, can have a significant physiological effect in the long term. Most of this research has been conducted using microorganisms as Spirulina however there are other genres that can also be used. In this review it will mention several genres and its compounds that can be use like nutraceuticals with therapeutic utility.
Article
In this study, an uncommon enzymatic-fingerprinting workflow, was proposed for characterization and discrimination of mushroom polysaccharides (MPs) by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-negative electrospray mass spectrometry (HILIC-ESI–MS). Firstly, the HILIC-ESI–MS was used to screen and identify the enzymatic digestion products of MPs using HILIC-Orbitrap based on full scan and MS/MS modes. Secondly, a targeted structural-fingerprinting of polysaccharides (SFP) was built in a multiple-ion monitoring (MIM) mode using the same HILIC separation with a triple quadrupole MS. Thirdly, a case study of polysaccharides in Hericium erinaceus fruiting bodies (HEP) was performed to obtain the expected SFP based on dextranase digestion that allows for visual discrimination of polysaccharides from other five edible mushrooms attributed to Agrocybe cylindracea, Arimillaria mellea, Flammulina velutipes, Pleurotus eryngii, and Lentinula edodes. Furthermore, a major structural backbone of HEP was unveiled by occurrence of ⁶Hex¹→ ⁶(Hex)¹n → ⁶Hex (n≥8) along with multiple possible substitutions including of terminal GalA, Fuc, acetyl, → ⁴Hex¹ →, and → ³Hex¹ →. Finally, the similarity analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) were performed to visualize various MPs. As a result, the enzymatic-fingerprinting workflow presents an effective example for quality evaluation of fungi polysaccharides using a SFP strategy.
Article
HPB-3, a heteropolysaccharide, with a mean molecular weight of 1.5 × 10⁴ Da, was obtained from the maturating-stage IV, V and VI fruiting body of Hericium erinaceus, exhibited higher macrophages stimulation activities, was able to upregulate the functional events mediated by activated macrophages, such as production of nitric oxide (NO). Monosaccharide composition analysis showed that HPB-3 comprised l-fucose, d-galactose and d-glucose in the ratio of 5.2:23.9:1. Its chemical structure was characterized by sugar and methylation analysis, along with ¹H and ¹³C NMR spectroscopy, including ¹H–¹H COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HMQC and HMBC experiments. The results indicated that HPB-3 contained a-(1/6)-linked galactopyranosyl backbone, partially with a side chain composed of α-l-fucopyranose at the O-2 position. The predicted primary structure of the polysaccharide was established as below: • Download high-res image (111KB) • Download full-size image
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties in the fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceus pers, an edible and medicinal mushroom. The hot water extract was prepared from Hericium erinaceus fruiting bodies and analyzed for ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) radical scavenging, reducing power, hydroxyl radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation and β-carotene bleaching inhibition assays. In addition, total phenol and flavonoid levels were determined. The extract exhibited good scavenging activity in a concentration-dependent manner in all the tested assays. The EC 50 values of hot water extract on ABTS radical, reducing power, hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation and β-carotene bleaching assay were found to be 1.34, 1.70, 3.58, 5.12 and 2.62 mg/ml, respectively. Thus, the experimental results indicated that Hericium erinaceus mushrooms could potentially be utilized in food additives and also for the protective drug formulation.
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Fődi A: Gyógyhatású gombák : A süngomba (Hericium erinaceus) gyógyhatásáról. In: Magyar Gombász, 2018. vol. 16. (13th official volume) No. 45. pp. 9–10. [Medicinal Mushrooms : Healing properties of Lion’s Mane mushroom (Hericium erinaceus), in Hungarian] Magyar Gombász ISSN 1788-4136
Book
Biologically active compounds isolated from microorganisms continue to be vital to the development of new drugs and agricultural chemicals. This book was prepared by current and past members of the laboratory of Dr. Satoshi Omura of the Kitasato Institute in Japan. Dr. Omura and his colleagues have discovered and studied a number of important antibiotics, and in their work they have pioneered new methods for screening microbes for interesting and important compounds. This book presents strategies and methods for identifying novel molecules with several types of biological activity. In addition, the book discusses the identification of microbial compounds of agrochemical importance, presents information on chemical screening methods, and concludes with chapters on microbial strain selection, fermentation technology, and genetic engineering of antibiotic-producing microorganisms. This book will be of great interest to scientists working in the very active and competitive fields of antibiotic and agrochemical discovery.
Article
A novel diterpenoid, erinacine D, was isolated from the cultured mycelia of Hericium erinaceum. The structure of the compound was determined by interpretation of the spectral data and chemical reaction. This compound showed stimulating activity of nerve growth factor (NGF)-synthesis.
Article
Some kinds of fungi have long been used for a medicine in the Orient. The 162 species (82 genera) of the medicinal fungi were listed here for the reference.
Article
Novel cytotoxic phenols, hericenone A () and B () were isolated from the mushroom . These structures were determined by interpretation of spectral data and chemical analyses.
Article
The structures of novel diterpenoids, erinacines A, B, and C, isolated from the cultured mycelia of Hericium erinaceum were determined by interpretation of the spectral data, and chemical and enzymatic reactions. These compounds showed potent stimulating activity of nerve growth factor (NGF)-synthesis.
Article
Novel compounds, hericenones C (3), D (4) and (5) were isolated from the mushroom Hericium erinaceum. These structures were determined by interpretation of the spectral data, and chemical and enzymatic reactions. These compounds have stimulating activity of the synthesis of nerve growth factor (NGF).
Article
The structures of erinacines E, F and G from mycelia of Hericium erinaceum were determined by spectroscopic and/or X-ray analysis. Erinacines E and F exhibited potent stimulating activity against NGF synthesis by astroglial cells.
Article
The naturally occurring (–)-enantiomer of a fatty acid isolated from the mushroom (Hericium erinaceum) was synthesized from (R)-(–)-benzyl glycidyl ether in 8 steps. A comparison of the specific rotation of the synthetic sample with that of the natural compound established the absolute configuration of the latter.
Article
Three crystalline antibiotics which we named striatins A, B, and C were isolated from the mycelium of the basidiomycete Cyathus striatus strain No. 12. The striatins are highly active against fungi imperfecti and a variety of Gram-positive bacteria, as well as against some Gram-negative bacteria. The molecular formulas as determined by mass spectrometry are C27H36O7 for striatin A, C27H36O8 for striatin B, and C25H34O7 for striatin C.
Article
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain XL16-5B exhibited a fungicidal response to treatment with ketoconazole. Cell death became apparent during prolonged treatment over 72 h following an initial period over 24 h where viable cells were found and limited cell division occurred. Sterol analysis showed some differences between XL16-5B and the strain XY729-5a, which had a fungistatic response to ketoconazole. In particular, the level of ergosterol was higher in XL16-5B and remained high during treatment.
Article
A number of substances that directly or indirectly affect the cell walls of fungi have been identified. Those that actively interfere with the synthesis or degradation of polysaccharide components share the property of being produced by soil microbes as secondary metabolites. Compounds specifically interfering with chitin or beta-glucan synthesis have proven effective in studies of preclinical models of mycoses, though they appear to have a restricted spectrum of coverage. Semisynthetic derivatives of some of the natural products have offered improvements in activity, toxicology, or pharmacokinetic behavior. Compounds which act on the cell wall indirectly or by a secondary mechanism of action, such as the azoles, act against diverse fungi but are usually fungistatic in nature. Overall, these compounds are attractive candidates for further development.
Article
A method for estimating inhibition of pollen tube growth was developed. Pollen is placed in straight lines on an agar surface where it responds uniformly and predictably to aqueous solutions of germination-inhibiting substances located in wells at the ends of the lines. A scale of ratings, roughly corresponding to serial, doubled concentrations of inhibiting substances, was devised. Water-soluble organic solvents are relatively noninhibitory, salts are variable, and metabolic inhibitors have strong inhibitory effects. Pollens differ in their susceptibility to inhibition and in their response to particular substances.
Pest control materi als, fungicides, herbi cides, insecticies and rodenticides; trade names, compani es, uses, and acti ve ingredients
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A paper-disk plate method for the quntitative evaluation of fungicides and bacteriocides
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